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marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies.a comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, saguinus fuscicollis and saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. in vivo challenges with escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (lps) and salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in s. fuscicollis; indeed, with lps antigen, multiple inoculations of s.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, ...1978100417
corynebacterium equi in the cottontop marmoset (saguinus oedipus): a case report.a wild-caught cottontop marmoset died after a short illness characterized by loss of appetite, loss of weight and general unthriftiness. necropsy revealed a large thoracic abscess from which corynebacterium equi was recovered.1979117222
tetrapetalonema (t.) panamensis (mccoy, 1936) comb. n. (filarioidea: onchocercidae) in colombian primates, with a description of the adults.microfilaria panamensis mccoy, 1936 was identified in the blood of cebus apella, c. capucinus, c. albifrous, and saguinus oedipus from various regions in colombia. adult worms, recovered from the subcutaneous connective tissues of c. apella and s. oedipus, were identified with this microfilaria and are described as tetrapetalonema (t.) panamensis (mccoy, 1936) comb. n. this nematode is smaller configuration of the female tail and in the appearance of the spicules, and t. barbascalensis which dif ...1979120436
the chemotactic, phagocytic, and microbial killing abilities of primate polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pml).functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes including chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbial killing were investigated in baboons (papio cynocephalus), cebus monkeys (cebus apella), and marmosets (saguinus oedipus). cells from a group of normal adult human volunteers were also studied for comparison. polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the three nonhuman primate species were comparable to each other and to humans in chemotactic activity using endotoxin activated serum. in addition, the ability of b ...1979121031
lymphoma in cotton-top marmosets after inoculation with epstein-barr virus: tumor incidence, histologic spectrum antibody responses, demonstration of viral dna, and characterization of viruses.6 of 20 cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) inoculated with epstein-barr virus (ebv) developed diffuse malignant lymphoma resembling reticulum cell or immunoblastic sarcoma of man. hyperplastic lymphoreticular lesions were induced in three additional animals; in two instances the hyperplastic lesions regressed. inapparent infection with development of antibody occured in eight animals. in two animals there was no evidence of ebv infection. one animal died in the first week after inoculation o ...1977192829
studies with the baboon endogenous virus and its pseudotype of murine sarcoma virus in marmosets.three marmoset species (saguinus oedipus oedipus, s. fuscicollis, callithrix jacchus) failed to show evidence of infection or disease following inoculation of baboon endogenous type-c virus (baev). cells infected with a kirsten murine sarcoma-baev pseudotype (msv[baev]) produced a progressive fibrosarcoma in s. o. oedipus and tumors in s. fuscicollis and c. jacchus which regressed. tumor formation is believed to be due to growth of inoculated, virus-infected cells and not transformation of marmo ...1978205851
overview of viral oncology studies in saguinus and callithrix species.marmoset monkeys are highly susceptible to tumor induction by type c sarcoma viruses and primate lymphotropic herpeviruses. six experimental models were reviewed, three sarcoma models induced by rous, feline or simian sarcoma viruses and three models of lymphoproliferative disease induced by herpevirus saimiri, h. ateles or epstein-barr virus. relative susceptibility of cotton-topped (saguinus oedipus oedipus), white-lipped (s. nigricollis, s. fuscicollis subspecies) and commone (callithrix jacc ...1978205860
further characterization of a herpesvirus-positive orang-utan cell line and comparative aspects of in vitro transformation with lymphotropic old world primate herpesviruses.an orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) suspension line, cp81, was shown to lack myeloid markers of lysozyme activity an d phagocytosis but to be positive for lymphocytic n-alkaline phosphatase activity, and to release a b-cell-tropic herpesvirus. this herpesvirus, termed herpesvirus pongo, had 30--40% dna homology with ebv and was present at 2-3 genome copies per cp-81 cell. gibbon lymphocytes transformed by h. pongo, epstein-barr virus (ebv), and h. papio (of baboon, papio hamadryas, origin) were found ...1978208990
seroconversion against epstein-barr virus in two nonhuman primate species infected by the oropharyngeal route.transforming epstein-barr virus (ebv) was inoculated into eight squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) by spraying of viral concentrates into the nose and throat. virus was inoculated into three marmosets (two saguinus oedipus and one calithrix jacchus jacchus) by direct injection into nasopharyngeal tissue. two of these squirrel monkeys seroconverted after repeated inoculation as determined by the presence of ebv-specific antibodies to early antigen and viral capsid antigen. one squirrel monkey ha ...1978213505
isolation of a cytomegalovirus from salivary glands of white-lipped marmosets (saguinus fuscicollis).minced salivary glands from seven white-lipped marmosets (saguinus fuscicollis and saguinus nigricollis) and one cotton-topped marmoset (saguinus oedipus) were cocultivated with marmoset cell cultures. a viral agent, designated ssg, was isolated from two saguinus fuscicollis. slowly progressing foci of rounded, vacuolated, refractile cells were first observed at 40-43 days incubation. electron microscopy revealed intranuclear herpesvirus nucleocapsids and intracytoplasmic and extracellular envel ...1979220464
fatal herpesvirus tamarinus infection in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus).fatal herpesvirus tamarinus infection was observed in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus) imported from south america via the united states on august 26, 1976. in addition to the lesions hitherto reported in herpesvirus tamarinus infection, severe degenerative and necrotic changes of ganglion cells were recognized with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the plexus of the digestive tract and the sympathetic nerves and their ganglions in the abdominal cavity. inflammatory or regressive change ...1979230986
[spontaneous infection of marmoset-monkeys (sanguinus oedipus) with a trypanosoma cruzi-like-strain, springer 1975. isolation and identification (author's transl)].a trypanosoma cruzi-like strain was isolated from marmoset monkeys originating from columbia. the frequency of affected monkeys was up to 32.7%. the parasite density was 10-40 trypomastigote forms per mililiter. monkeys, rats, mice and other small rodentia were found to be susceptible. clinical symptoms or histopathological findings could not be acertained with these trypanosomes even after a 2 1/2 year observation period. the strain behaved as an apathogen in experimental animals. the parasitae ...1977416623
spontaneous colonic adenocarcinoma in marmosets.we find that colonic adenocarcinoma, which is an extremely rare neoplasm of all animals except man and carcinogen-treated rodents, occurs spontaneously in some marmosets. the cotton-topped saguinus oedipus oedipus is particularly prone to develop it, but we have found it also at necropsy in callimico goeldii (goeldi's marmoset). numerous metastases to regional lymph nodes develop. the cancers arise de novo in the mucosa and early invade the submucosa and lymphatic apparatus and paracolonic lymph ...1978417316
efferent connections of the orbitofrontal cortex in the marmoset (saguinus oedipus).unilateral partial ablations were made in the orbitofrontal cortex of 4 adult marmosets (saguinus oedipus) and fiber degeneration was traced using the nauta-gygax and fink-heimer selective silver impregnation techniques. corticocortical projections were found to the ipsilateral convexity and medial aspect of the frontal lobe and to the homologous orbitofrontal areas of the contralateral hemisphere. fiber degeneration was followed through the uncinate fascicle to the temporal and insular cortices ...1975803392
a killed vaccine derived from the oncogenic herpesvirus ateles.a killed herpesvirus vaccine was prepared by inactivation of the oncogenic herpesvirus ateles (hva) with heat and formaldehyde. the vaccine proved safe in 9 marmosets (saguinus oedipus) during a period of 461 days. the vaccinated marmosets developed high titers of serum antibodies against hva and were resistant to 316 lethal dose 50 (ld50) cell-free hva; the nonvaccinated control monkeys died of malignant lymphoma. the 5 challenged monkeys are clinically well and have now been under observation ...1975808642
protective immunization against epstein-barr virus-induced disease in cottontop tamarins using the virus envelope glycoprotein gp340 produced from a bovine papillomavirus expression vector.inoculation with epstein-barr virus (ebv) induces malignant lymphomas in the cottontop tamarin (saguinus oedipus oedipus). this provides an experimental animal model for assessing the efficacy of candidate ebv vaccines which are intended to reduce the incidence of human tumours associated with ebv infection. previous work has shown that experimental vaccines based on the major virus envelope glycoprotein gp340 prepared from the membranes of ebv-infected cells are effective in protecting cottonto ...19921311367
responses of isolated japanese monkey tracheal muscle to allergic mediators.the responsiveness of isolated japanese monkey (macaca fuscata) tracheal muscle to antigen, carbachol, histamine, leukotriene c4 (ltc4), u-46619 and substance p (sp) was compared to that of isolated human trachea. weak but persistent contraction was observed after the addition of antigen to isolated japanese monkey tracheal muscle passively sensitized with monkey serum containing ige antibody against japanese cedar (cryptomeria japonica) antigen. unlike monkey tracheal muscle, a fair amount of c ...19921378043
expression of vascular adhesion molecules in inflammatory bowel disease.the expression of the vascular adhesion molecules elam-1 (endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1) and vcam-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) was evaluated in colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls by immunocytochemistry. vcam-1 was found to be constitutively expressed in lymphoid aggregates in normal colonic mucosa and was not significantly enhanced or altered in distribution in mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease regardless of the ac ...19921379955
in vitro characteristics of yersinia pseudotuberculosis of nonhuman primate origin.six strains of serotypes 1 or 2 of y. pseudotuberculosis were isolated from dead squirrel monkeys, a cotton-top tamarin and a marmoset hybrid. all strains harboured a 71.6 kb plasmid, all were totally oxacillin-resistant and partially resistant to cephalosporins. biochemically, serotypes 1 and 2 differed from each other in their beta-galactosidase production in a nonfermenter system, whereas the lack of rhamnose, maltose, salicin and trehalose fermentation seemed to be attributable to technical ...19921486229
cpg methylation of viral dna in ebv-associated tumours.in ebv-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls) a small number of "latent" proteins are expressed. these are the ebv nuclear antigens, ebnas 1-6, and a latent membrane protein, lmp. we have investigated the expression of these proteins in a variety of ebv-associated tumours and cell lines. whereas transplant and b-cell lymphomas from cotton-top tamarins appear to express the full range of antigens found in lcls, we and others have found that in burkitt's lymphomas (bl) and a nasopharyngeal ...19902161800
analysis of t lymphocyte subsets in tamarins with colitis and colon cancer.the cotton-top tamarin, saguinus oedipus, serves as an animal model for the study of human colon cancer. this new world monkey has a high incidence of colitis and colon cancer that develops spontaneously. evidence suggests that these diseases may be the result of a virally induced immunodeficiency. we have shown that t4+/t8+ cell ratios are significantly altered in tamarins with acute colitis and colon cancers. the t4+/t8+ ratios were 1.50 +/- 0.09, 0.70 +/- 0.05, and 0.48 +/- 0.05 for negative ...19892493193
focal ulcerative ileocolitis with terminal thrombocytopenic purpura in juvenile cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).a newly recognized syndrome characterized by an acute focal ulcerative ileocolitis, anemia and thrombocytopenic purpura in five juvenile cotton-top tamarins is described. the presentation and morphology of this syndrome is distinct from any other reported gastrointestinal disease reported in tamarins. traditional etiologies such as viruses, ingested toxins, campylobacter, salmonella and yersinia and clostridium difficile are not considered likely etiologic agents. nontraditional etiologies such ...19892496272
gene mapping of an epstein-barr virus isolate obtained from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma.gene mapping of an epstein-barr virus (ebv) isolate derived from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), designated npc-ebv, has been performed. this isolate was rescued from an npc epithelial hybrid cell line (npc-kt), and used to transform cotton-top tamarin lymphocytes which, along with the epithelial npc-kt cells, were used in the mapping studies. using the bamhi and ecori restriction enzymes, we found that the npc-ebv isolate did not contain the deletions observed in the genomes of the prototype ...19892542179
the transforming prototype of epstein-barr virus (b95-8) is also a lytic virus.the b95-8 isolate of the epstein-barr virus (ebv) has been described as a non-lytic transforming virus. we have performed experiments in order to determine if the b95-8 ebv is capable of super-infecting and replicating in ebv-genome-positive non-producer lymphoblastoid cells. using concentrates of b95-8 ebv, prepared from 6 different b95-8 cell lines treated with 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa), we demonstrated that virus concentrates could transform human or cotton-top tamarin b-lymp ...19892545637
validation of a first-generation epstein-barr virus vaccine preparation suitable for human use.the efficacy of a new vaccine preparation against epstein-barr (eb) virus was investigated in cotton-top tamarins. the vaccine consists of fast protein liquid chromatography-purified eb virus membrane antigen glycoprotein of 340 kd (ma gp340) mixed with a synthetic muramyl dipeptide adjuvant emulsified in squalane containing a pluronic polymer; it is suitable for both scaled-up batch production and eventual administration to man. vaccinated tamarins rapidly developed elisa detectable high titre ...19892555448
growth of b95-8 cells and expression of epstein-barr virus lytic phase in serum-free medium.epstein-barr virus (ebv)-transformed tamarin (saguinus oedipus) cells (b95-8) were selected for growth in medium with reduced serum and then transferred to serum-free medium which consisted of rpmi 1640 supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenium. serum-free cells in continuous passage for 1 year had a morphology, growth rate, and culture density which approached those of b95-8 cells grown with serum. the cells expressed virus-induced antigens, including the ebv-associated dna polymeras ...19872824833
maintenance of growth transformation with epstein-barr virus is mediated by secretion of autocrine growth factors in two serum-free b-cell lines.the characteristics of two tamarin (saguinus oedipus) b-cell lines (sfbit and sfbt) growth-transformed by epstein-barr virus (ebv) that proliferate continuously in serum-free medium are described. sfbit was established by selecting cells for growth in rpmi 1640 supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (j. e. shaw, r. g. petit, and k. leung, j. virol. 61:4033-4037, 1987). sfbt, a subline of sfbit cells reported here for the first time, required transferrin as the only protein suppleme ...19882841494
demonstration in vitro of cell mediated immunity to epstein-barr virus in cotton-top tamarins.in the course of developing an effective epstein-barr (eb) virus vaccine, the immune responses in cotton-top tamarins to a tumourigenic dose of eb virus were studied. cell mediated responses were measured using a tissue culture 'growth inhibition' assay where peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested for their ability to inhibit the outgrowth of autologous eb virus transformed lymphoblastoid cells. this system has previously been recognized as a very sensitive assay for detecting cell-mediated re ...19882846217
characterization of spontaneous colitis in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and its response to sulfasalazine.chronic colitis in the cotton-top tamarin (ctt) has been characterized by obtaining distal colonic biopsy specimens, hematocrits, serum albumins, and stools for bacteriologic and parasitic examination in nondebilitated living ctts. the species specificity of the histologic features of colitis observed in the ctt was assessed by obtaining distal colonic biopsy specimens from 10 animals of other primate species for histologic examination. histologic evidence of active colitis was found in 50% of a ...19852856876
the florey lecture, 1986. vaccine prevention of virus-induced human cancers.carcinogenic viruses have been discovered in numerous animal species over the last 80 years but their role in human cancer has only recently become an important issue. with eb virus involved with endemic burkitt's lymphoma and undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, hepatitis b virus with primary liver cancer, papilloma viruses with carcinoma of the cervix, and t-cell leukaemia virus with adult t leukaemia, 20-25% of all human cancer appears to have a virus component in its causation. by anal ...19872884667
individual tumors of multifocal eb virus-induced malignant lymphomas in tamarins arise from different b-cell clones.cotton-top tamarins were inoculated with sufficient epstein-barr virus to induce multiple tumors in each animal within 14 to 21 days. the tumors consisted of large-cell lymphomas that contained multiple copies of the epstein-barr virus genome and generated epstein-barr virus-carrying cell lines showing no detectable consistent chromosomal abnormality. hybridization of tumor dna with immunoglobulin gene probes revealed that each lymphoma was oligo- or monoclonal in origin and that individual tumo ...19852986287
in vitro growth characteristics of simian t-lymphotropic virus type iii.the type c retrovirus simian t-lymphotropic virus type iii (stlv-iii) has been isolated recently from immunodeficient macaque monkeys at the new england regional primate research center. the present studies were done to define the in vitro growth characteristics of this agent. stlv-iii replicates efficiently in interleukin 2-dependent t-cell cultures of macaque peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl), less efficiently in such cultures of human and gibbon pbl, and inefficiently in baboon pbl. no repli ...19852996002
protection of cottontop tamarins against epstein-barr virus-induced malignant lymphoma by a prototype subunit vaccine.epstein-barr (eb) virus is one of the five herpesviruses of man. strong links between this agent and the chain of events causing two human cancers, endemic burkitt's lymphoma and undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, have long been evident (reviewed in ref. 1). because of this, and because of the very high incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in certain large populations, it was suggested in 1976 that a vaccine should be developed against eb virus to prevent infection and thereby reduce tu ...19852999604
glucocorticoid receptors in epstein-barr virus-transformed lymphocytes from patients with glucocorticoid resistance and a glucocorticoid-resistant new world primate species.members of a previously reported family with glucocorticoid resistance and several new world primates have high plasma cortisol concentrations without any signs of glucocorticoid excess. the glucocorticoid receptor in circulating leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from these patients and the animals is characterized by a decreased affinity for dexamethasone. on the other hand, the cell content of receptor is similar to that of corresponding tissues of normal humans. detailed biochemical-bi ...19863009520
specific immune serum to the epstein-barr virus dna polymerase.epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna polymerase was released from phorbol ester-treated tamarin (saguinus oedipus) cells (b95-8) and prepared for use as an antigen by sequential column chromatography with deae-sephadex a-25, deae-cellulose, phosphocellulose, and single-stranded dna cellulose. proteins from single-stranded dna cellulose with dna polymerase activity in 100 mm ammonium sulfate were mixed with complete freund adjuvant and injected intradermally into rats and rabbits. immune sera that were s ...19873041054
characterization of colonic cellular glycoconjugates in colitis and cancer-prone tamarins versus colitis and cancer-resistant primates.differences in colonic secretory glycoconjugates (ie, mucin) between normal and ulcerative colitis-prone patients have been noted. similar differences may occur in a corresponding primate model, the cotton-top tamarin (ctt), saguinus oedipus, a new world monkey which suffers from spontaneous chronic colitis and colon cancer. lectin reagents were used to characterize and compare colonic cell surface, cytoplasmic, and secretory glycoconjugates of 9 clinically healthy cotton-top tamarins, 7 colitis ...19883132857
differences in cellular glycoconjugates of quiescent, inflamed, and neoplastic colonic epithelium in colitis and cancer-prone tamarins.in the preceding paper the authors demonstrated that the lectin staining patterns of normal colonic epithelium obtained from colitis and carcinoma-prone cotton top tamarins (ctts), saguinus oedipus, a new world primate, differs from colitis- and carcinoma-resistant primate species. in this study they determined the usefulness of cytochemical features in inflamed epithelium as indicators for malignant change. they compared the lectin staining pattern in inflamed mucosa and adjacent mucosa with co ...19883132858
maintenance of cotton-top tamarins fed an experimental pelleted diet versus a highly diverse sweetened diet.the future study of colon disease in captive callitrichid colonies may require manipulation of diets. the limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements for these species and the varied diets and supplementations fed to these animals in various colonies suggest the importance of testing the palatability and acceptability of diets for these primates. individually housed cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) were given either the regular oak ridge associated universities (orau) diet (monkey ch ...19883143029
color discrimination by the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus oedipus) and its relation to fruit coloration.old world monkeys and apes have been reported to differ from new world monkeys in their abilities to discriminate colors across the visible spectrum. old world monkeys and apes (macaca, pan, pongo) discriminate colors quite accurately, while some new world monkeys studied (saimiri, cebus) have shown lower sensitivity to and poorer discrimination of long wavelength light. this study examined the color discrimination ability of another new world primate, the cotton-top tamarin, saguinus oedipus oe ...19873136059
colonic mucin composition in primates. selective alterations associated with spontaneous colitis in the cotton-top tamarin.heterogeneity of colonic mucin glycoprotein was examined in rectal mucosal biopsy specimens from a variety of primate species (saguinus oedipus, n = 18; macaca mulatta, n = 2; macaca fascicularis, n = 2; aotus trivirgatus, n = 2; saimiri sciureus, n = 2; and callithrix jacchus, n = 2). after initial separation of radiolabeled mucin and nonmucin glycoproteins solubilized from mucosal biopsy specimens, at least five labeled mucin components were found in monkey rectal mucosa in contrast to the six ...19853917260
colon cancer cells in peripheral blood of cancerous tamarins.diagnosing colon cancer in its early stages would lower the mortality rate. the cotton-top tamarin, saguinus oedipus, serves as a model for the study of human colon cancer. this new world monkey has a high incidence of colitis and colon cancer. the mouse anti-human monoclonal antibody br55.2, with specificity for human colon adenocarcinoma, was biotinylated. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from animals with colon cancer were fluorescently stained with the biotinylated br55.2. these res ...19883135964
monkey dander asthma.we recently cared for two patients who experienced acute asthma with exposure to dander of the cotton top tamarin, a species of new world monkey. both patients had serologic evidence for an ige antibody to monkey dander as determined by rast and a positive immediate skin test response to an extract prepared from monkey dander. furthermore, by rast we were able to determine that cotton top tamarin urine and newborn cotton top tamarin dander had antigens that reacted with ige in the serum of the a ...19853968337
development of early behaviors in neonatal squirrel monkeys and cotton-top tamarins. 19744207181
tetrapetalonema marmosete in cotton-topped marmosets, saguinus oedipus, from the region of san marcos, columbia. 19704247975
the ultrastructure of herpesvirus saimiri-induced lymphoma in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus). 19724337972
pathologic features of herpesvirus ateles lymphoma in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus). 19724630607
[lymphocyte heterogeneity of the t system: characterization of an allotypic antiserum recognizing a sub-species antigenic determinant in non-human primates].to determine the membrane properties in t-lymphocyte population from saguinus primates or lymphoblastoid cell lines of the same origin, an allotypic antiserum was prepared inoculating two saguinus illigeri with 3.5 x 10(10) viable 70n2 cells obtained in-vitro, from a lymphoma induced by inoculation of herpesvirus saimiri in a saguinus oedipus. the 70n2 cells carried the virus genome in an episomal way; it did not produce infectious virus and it formed spontaneous rosettes (99%) with sheep erythr ...19826086023
glycoconjugates in the colons of new world monkeys with spontaneous colitis. association between inflammation and neoplasia.a spontaneously occurring experimental model of chronic colitis has been described in three closely related species of new world monkeys. one species, saguinus oedipus oedipus, has the additional feature of developing adenocarcinoma of the colon in this setting. pathological and lectin histochemistry studies were undertaken in 50 such colonic specimens to determine if pathological or histochemical features were associated with the concomitant development of cancer. chronic inflammation was found ...19873102306
high motivation toward food increases food-sharing in cotton-top tamarins.in order to explore whether or not adult motivation influences transfer of food to infants in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 experiments were carried out with 3 large captive family groups. examination of (a) natural changes in food motivation during feeding, and (b) elevated motivation toward food by giving highly preferred items, showed that the adult monkeys shared food more when their own level of motivation was high. this suggests that food-transfer is not merely a conseq ...19863093299
technique for hand-rearing and reintroducing rejected cotton-top tamarin infants.during a one year period, seven rejected cotton-top tamarin infants were hand-reared. a hand-rearing program was developed which included the use of heated surrogates, a non-human primate infant formula, special nipples, and a systematic reintroduction into a family group. this regimen was quite successful. the hand-rearing process yielded a success rate of 75.0%, while the reintroduction process had a success rate of 80.0% for reintroduction into a family group and 100.0% survival rate.19863088320
chromosomes and cell surface markers of marmoset lymphocytes and epstein-barr virus-transformed marmoset cell lines.the g-banded karyotypes of both normal lymphocytes and epstein-barr virus (ebv)-transformed lymphocytes of cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus) were examined. the marmoset lymphocytes and ebv-transformed lymphoblastoid cells had normal diploid chromosomes (2n = 46) with no specific cytogenic change associated with transformation in vitro. ebv-transformed marmoset lymphocytes expressed the cell surface markers of b lymphocytes and eb viral antigens.19816268289
fatal herpesvirus tamarinus infection in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus). 19816275150
gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates: a review and report of eleven new cases.reported gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates are reviewed, and the clinical and pathologic features of 11 new cases are described. the 11 monkeys had a total of 12 malignant gastrointestinal neoplasms; one had two primary carcinomas, one in the colon and one in the duodenum. ten of the 12 tumors were adenocarcinomas: two in the duodenum, one in the jejunum, four in the distal ileum or region of the ileocecal valve and three in the large intestine. the remaining two lesions were a his ...19826293146
comparative immunogenicity studies on epstein-barr virus membrane antigen (ma) gp340 with novel adjuvants in mice, rabbits, and cotton-top tamarins.the effectiveness of immunisation of mice, rabbits, and cotton-top tamarins with small amounts of eb virus ma glycoprotein gp340 , incorporated into artificial liposomes, has been compared using various routes of injection with or without additional adjuvants. liposomes containing gp340 gave specific high titre antibodies after i.p. or i.v. administration, and the addition of lipid a to the liposomes resulted in a significant enhancement of the response. antibodies generated by the above procedu ...19846327902
primary structures of adult hemoglobins of silvery marmoset, callithrix argentatus, and cotton-headed tamarin, saguinus oedipus.tryptic peptides of the alpha and beta chains from silvery marmoset (callithrix argentatus) and cotton-headed tamarin (saguinus oedipus) hemoglobins were isolated and sequenced, respectively, by conventional methods. the ordering of the peptides in each chain was deduced from the homology of their sequences with those of human adult hemoglobin. the primary structures thus deduced are compared with those of other primate hemoglobins, and the rate of evolution in new world monkey hemoglobins is di ...19846427202
nononcogenic deletion mutants of herpesvirus saimiri are defective for in vitro immortalization.herpesvirus saimiri l-dna sequences between 0.0 and 4.0 map units (4.5 kilobase pairs) are required for oncogenicity; these sequences are not required for replication of the virus. to investigate the basis for the lack of oncogenicity of mutants with deletions in this region and to study the function of this region, we developed a reliable system for in vitro immortalization by herpesvirus saimiri. in contrast to peripheral blood lymphocytes from cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and owl mo ...19863003401
a primate species with limited major histocompatibility complex class i polymorphism.extensive polymorphism at the major histo-compatibility complex (mhc) is thought to confer immune protection on populations. a new world primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), has a high prevalence of ulcerative colitis and adenocarcinoma of the colon and dies after infection with several human viruses. lymphocytes from all animals tested expressed on common mhc class i allelic product. another mhc class i allelic product was expressed by 39 of 41 tested animals. four other allelic ...19882902637
a marmoset t lymphoma which functions as a human amplifier t cell.a long-term in vitro grown t cell line derived from a cotton-topped marmoset (saguinus oedipus) infected with herpesvirus saimiri was fond to share surface antigens with human amplifier t cells and to augment the capacity of human b cells to secrete immunoglobulin. this is the first demonstration of t/b collaboration across such a large phylogenetic barrier and might have interesting implications for understanding the nature of molecular interactions mediating cell/cell cooperation.19816801144
presence of antibody to human herpesvirus 6 in monkeys.a serological survey of monkeys was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibody to human herpesvirus 6 (hhv-6). two-hundred and fifteen sera from 10 species of monkeys were examined by an immunofluorescent antibody (if) assay. the antibody was found in monkeys from eight of the 10 species examined, but was not detected in silvered lutongs or cotton-top tamarins. the prevalence of antibody was highest in squirrel monkeys. sera with high antibody titres were examined further by western blot ...19892558155
inoculation of new world primates with the human immunodeficiency virus.the susceptibility of common marmosets and cotton-top tamarins to infection by hiv-2 in vivo was tested. one year and 19 months, respectively, post-inoculation, sera taken from three of four animals from each species are reactive for hiv-2 antibodies and hiv-specific nucleotide sequences were demonstrated in short-term cultures of pbl from two cotton-top tamarins. the animals remain in good health.19892503618
nursing does affect the duration of the post-partum to ovulation interval in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).reports on callitrichid monkeys have not revealed a significant effect of nursing on interbirth intervals or on post-partum to ovulation intervals. we examined 25 post-partum intervals in cotton-top tamarin females to determine whether nursing infants would affect the length of the post-partum to ovulation interval. urinary lh/cg and oestrone conjugates were measured in urine samples collected in the 6 weeks after birth. the post-partum to ovulation interval is the number of days between parturi ...19902174459
evolution of the mhc class i genes of a new world primate from ancestral homologues of human non-classical genes.the products of the classical human major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i genes (hla-a, -b, -c) are highly polymorphic molecules that bind peptides and present them to t lymphocytes. the non-polymorphic, non-classical mhc class i gene products (hla-e, -f, -g) are not restricting elements for the majority of t lymphocytes. the evolutionary relationship of the non-classical and classical mhc class i genes is unclear. here we present the cloning and sequencing of the mhc class i genes of a ...19902114550
genetically distinct cell populations in naturally occurring bone marrow-chimeric primates express similar mhc class i gene products.the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) is a naturally occurring "a" + "b"----"a" bone marrow-chimeric species. these primates usually are born as dizygotic twins and, due to placental vascular anastomoses, develop sharing each others' bone marrow elements. strikingly, almost 50% of the pbl of a member of a twin pair are derived from the hematopoietic stem cells of its cotwin. to clarify the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of tolerance in these stable chimeras, mhc gene products have bee ...19902110210
c4 gene polymorphism in primates: evolution, generation, and chido and rodgers antigenicity.eleven new c4d genomic primate sequences of the fourth complement factor (c4) have been obtained. seven of them belong to five species not yet explored for this gene: pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee), cercopithecus aethiops (green monkey), macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), and saguinus oedipus (cotton top tamarin). the new world monkeys (tamarins, four individuals) sequenced for c4 have a single c4d sequence only, which shows a b isotypic specificity and a rodgers ...19947525470
distribution of human endogenous retrovirus herv-k genomes in humans and different primates.the distribution of the human endogenous retrovirus (herv)-k genome was investigated by southern-blot analyses using a herv-k-env dna probe. with the exception of one dna-sample, obtained from a chinese individual in whom an amplification of herv-k was detected, southern-blot analyses yielded identical hybridization patterns with dna from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 37 normal healthy blood donors, with dna from six tumor cell lines, or with 23 dna samples prepared from various carcinoma tiss ...19957635468
food-sharing in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).food-sharing behaviour was observed in 9 captive families of cotton-top tamarins (range 4-14 individuals per group), during meals of fresh fruit. food was transferred to infants by their parents and older sibs in response to begging, and was also offered to them without prior solicitation. older, mature, reproductively suppressed individuals shared more than young immature monkeys. infants in larger families received more food than those in smaller ones, though individuals in smaller families sh ...19902108914
molecular cloning of cdna that encode mhc class i molecules from a new world primate (saguinus oedipus). natural selection acts at positions that may affect peptide presentation to t cells.to investigate the evolutionary pressures that drive the generation of polymorphism in primate mhc class i molecules, three cdna that encode mhc class i alleles from a new world monkey, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), were cloned and sequenced. these tamarin mhc class i alleles contained amino acid substitutions not found in any of the previously sequenced human mhc class i alleles. moreover, the majority of these unique amino acid substitutions was located in the ag recognition site ...19902104912
distribution of neuropeptide y in the prosencephalon of man and cotton-head tamarin (saguinus oedipus): colocalization with somatostatin in neurons of striatum and amygdala.the presence, chromatographic properties and localization of neuropeptide y was demonstrated in postmortem human brain areas of neurologically and neuropsychiatrically normative controls using immunocytochemistry and high performance liquid chromatography combined with radioimmunoassay. npy-immunoreactivity was found in many regions of the prosencephalon. numerous perikarya and fibers were present in the neocortex, basal ganglia and limbic-hypothalamic areas. a moderate number of neurons and fib ...19901970228
genetic variation of the glucocorticoid receptor from a steroid-resistant primate.the neotropical cotton-top marmoset (saguinus oedipus) is a new world primate known to have markedly increased total and free plasma cortisol concentrations when compared with old world primates including man. the relative end-organ 'resistance' to glucocorticoids found in various new world primates has been attributed to a glucocorticoid receptor (gr) with diminished affinity for glucocorticoids. it has been demonstrated that the marmoset gr has approximately tenfold lower binding affinity for ...19911930628
pachyonychia congenita-like disorder in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).a spontaneous genodermatosis in 13 cotton-top tamarins is described as a retrospective study. the disease appeared as alopecia, pigmentary disturbances, and claw dystrophy similar but not identical to human pachyonychia congenita. the disease in the tamarins seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, becoming clinically apparent around adolescence. in certain families the neonatal mortality rate was also above average, reaching 100%.19911803010
mr 40,000 human colonic epithelial protein expression in colonic mucosa and presence of circulating anti-mr 40,000 antibodies in cotton top tamarins with spontaneous colitis.saguinus oedipus, callithrix jacchus, and saguinus fuscicollis are three species of new world monkeys which develop a form of colitis that is similar to human ulcerative colitis. only s oedipus, however, develop colon cancer. we examined intestinal tissues from these animals for the presence of an antigen cross reacting to the mr 40,000 human colonic epithelial protein that acts as an autoantigen in ulcerative colitis. using an anti-mr 40,000 monoclonal antibody (7e12h12, igm isotype), by an imm ...19921740277
inflammatory mediators in cotton-top tamarins (ctt) with acute and chronic colitis.spontaneous colitis in ctt's presents cytological characteristics similar to chronic ulcerative colitis in humans, e.g. inflammatory cell infiltrate and crypt abscesses. to better characterize ctt colitis as a potential model for human inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), inflammatory mediators identified in colonic tissue of human ibd patients and/or experimental colitis models were assayed. inflammatory mediator changes in plasma and colon from tamarins with acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 10) co ...19911665291
postural effects on manual reaching laterality in squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) made unimanual food reaches from either a horizontal, quadrupedal posture or a vertical, clinging posture. no population-level handedness occurred in either species. however, in both species, directional lateral preferences weakly expressed for reaching from the stable quadrupedal posture were intensified in the vertical cling posture. this phenomenon, which we designate as soft handedness, may have been an evolutiona ...19938112050
experimental colitis in animal models.colitis may be induced in animals by oral administration of sulfated polysaccharides (carrageenan, amylopectin sulfate, dextran sulfate), chemical irritation by rectal instillation of diluted acetic acid, delayed hypersensitivity reaction after sensitization to dncb or after one single administration of tnbs, and arthus reaction induced by intravenous injection of immune complexes after chemical irritation of the colon, and by chemoattractant peptides such as fmlp. it appears that all models of ...19921641579
aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis in a cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), and retrospective study of infections in seven primate species. 19938231095
major-histocompatibility-complex drb genes of a new-world monkey, the cottontop tamarin (saguinus oedipus).the drb region of the human and great-ape major histocompatibility complex displays not only gene but also haplotype polymorphism. the number of genes in the human drb region can vary from one to four, and even greater variability exists among the drb haplotypes of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. accumulating evidence indicates that, like gene polymorphism, part of the haplotype polymorphism predates speciation. in an effort to determine when the gene haplotype polymorphisms emerged in th ...19921584011
cholesterol metabolism in new world primates: comparative studies in two tamarin species (saguinus oedipus and saguinus fuscicollis) and the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus).1. cholesterol metabolism has been characterized in three species of new world primates, the cotton-top tamarin, the saddle-back tamarin, and the squirrel monkey. 2. when fed a diet containing cholesterol, the three species exhibited differing responses of plasma cholesterol levels. 3. dietary cholesterol absorption was determined and plasma cholesterol die-away kinetics were analyzed in terms of a two-pool model. 4. the results of the analyses of cholesterol turnover are consistent with the obs ...19938299347
fecal bile acids and neutral sterols in the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).1. the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), a small new world primate susceptible to spontaneous development of colon cancer, was studied for its fecal neutral sterol and bile salt composition. 2. standardization procedures to establish the effect of exposure of the stool to room temperature air for various time-periods showed no significant effects on the neutral sterol and bile salt composition of the samples. 3. microbial degradation of cholesterol and bile acids to secondary metabolites sh ...19938365117
ulcerative colitis-linked antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in the cotton-top tamarin model of colitis.the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (anca) in serum has recently been shown to be a good disease marker for ulcerative colitis. an animal model of colitis expressing serum anca would allow prospective studies of the relationship between anca expression and development of colitis. the cotton-top tamarin model of spontaneous colitis was investigated for presence of anca to evaluate its potential as a model for the study of the immune response in human ulcerative colitis. results ...19921568559
mhc-drb genes of platyrrhine primates.the two infraorders of anthropoid primates, platyrrhini (new world monkeys) and catarrhini (old world monkeys and the hominoids) are estimated to have diverged from a common ancestor 37 million years ago. the major histocompatibility complex class ii drb gene and haplotype polymorphism of the catarrhini has been characterized in several recent studies. the present study was undertaken to obtain information on the drb polymorphism of the platyrrhini. fifty-five complete exon 2 drb sequences were ...19938505064
the evolution of major histocompatibility class i genes in primates.mhc class i genes evolve by recombination, largely within loci, and selection (presumably pathogen-driven) maintains these new alleles in the population. although chimpanzees and humans share an a locus allelic lineage, the b locus molecules of the chimpanzee were less similar to human b locus molecules. the a and b locus molecules in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys were even less similar to their human counterparts, with little conservation of allelic lineages between macaques and humans. in cont ...19958519421
corpus callosum in sexually dimorphic and nondimorphic primates.the midsagittal area and other morphological measures were taken on the corpus callosum of four different species of primate: macaca mulatta, m. fascicularis, callithrix jacchus, and saguinus oedipus. the first two species are strongly dimorphic, whereas the new world forms show little dimorphism with regard to overall body size, canines, and brain weight. neither total corpus callosal area (totalcc), or other parts of the corpus callosum (cc) showed any significant sexual dimorphism in any of t ...19921562061
systematics of the saguinus oedipus group of the bare-face tamarins: evidence from facial morphology.the systematics of the saguinus oedipus group within the bare-face tamarins remains open to question. hershkovitz (living new world monkeys (platyrrhini), vol.1. chicago: university of chicago press, 1977) places the cotton-top and rufus-naped tamarins as subspecies of saguinus oedipus (s. o. oedipus and s. o. geoffroyi, respectively). in contrast, several other authors have argued that these two taxa should be considered separate species (s. oedipus and s. geoffroyi). phylogenetic relationships ...19921530063
comments on comparative pathology of colonic neoplasia in cotton-top marmoset (saguinus oedipus oedipus). 19853933930
allelic diversity at the primate mhc-g locus: exon 3 bears stop codons in all cercopithecinae sequences.twenty-seven major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-g exon 2, exon 3, and exon 2 and 3 allelic sequences were obtained together with 12 different intron 2 sequences. homo sapiens, pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus, macaca fascicularis, macaca mulatta, and cercopithecus aethiops individuals were studied. polymorphism does not follow the classical pattern of three hypervariable regions per domain and is found in all species studied; exon 3 (equivalent to the alpha 2 pr ...19968606053
the isolation and characterization of the human helper inducer t cell subset.monoclonal antibody anti-4b4 was produced by fusing ns1 myeloma with spleen cells of a mouse immunized with saguinus oedipus lymphocyte. this anti-4b4 antibody defines a 135-kd cell surface protein that is widely distributed throughout the hematopoietic system. more importantly, anti-4b4 is reactive with functionally unique human t cell subsets. anti-4b4 antibody was reactive with approximately 41% of unfractionated t cells, 41% of t4+ inducer cells, and approximately 43% of t8+ cytotoxic/suppre ...19853157750
rapid resolution of chronic colitis in the cotton-top tamarin with an antibody to a gut-homing integrin alpha 4 beta 7.integrins play diverse roles in cellular actions and signalling in the immune system. in the context of mucosal immune responses, the integrin alpha 4 beta 7 has received particular attention because of its intimate involvement in lymphocyte recruitment to normal gastrointestinal mucosa and associated lymphoid tissue. the aim of this study was to determine the functional relevance of alpha 4 beta 7 in the pathogenesis of colonic inflammatory disease using the colitic cotton-top tamarin, an anima ...19968898653
glomerulonephritis associated with arteritis in marmosets infected with hepatitis a virus.seven of 8 marmosets (saguinus oedipus and saguinus labiatus) injected i.v. with different inocula of hepatitis a virus isolated from patients in the acute phase of disease developed proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with arteritis. the glomerulonephritis was characterized by immunofluorescent and electron-dense deposits and hypercellularity. although no antigenic component of the glomerular immune complex was detected, this glomerulonephritis and arteritis may be diagnosed morphologic ...19816452891
bilateral giant myelolipoma in the adrenal of a cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).a rare case of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas in a female cotton-top tamarin is reported. large bilateral masses in the adrenal glands were composed of mature adipose cells containing varying amounts of hematopoietic cells of the myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic series. the gross and histologic features of this case closely resemble human "giant" adrenal myelolipomas.19968906611
cytokines in the cotton top tamarin model of human ulcerative colitis.the cotton top tamarin is a unique model of human ulcerative colitis. this disease is clinically and histologically similar. it is also complicated in some cases by colon cancer. the cotton top tamarin provides an appropriate animal model for assessing new treatments in inflammatory bowel disease.19968899100
immunisation of common marmosets with vaccinia virus expressing epstein-barr virus (ebv) gp340 and challenge with ebv.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is the cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with a variety of life-threatening diseases in humans. therefore the development of an effective vaccine is an important objective. many of the initial studies of vaccine efficacy analyse the ability of vaccine preparations to prevent the induction of lymphomas in cottontop tamarins by the b95-8 strain of ebv. we used a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing gp340, vma1, tested previously in the cotton-top tamarin ...19968923292
fecal short-chain fatty acids associated with inflammation in cotton-top tamarin model for idiopathic colitis.this study measured fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids (scfas) relative to the severity of colitis in the cotton-top tamarin model of colitis and colon cancer. severity of colitis was classified as mild, moderate, or severe by subjective scoring of colonic mucosal biopsies and quantification of inflammatory cell infiltrates in the lamina propria. scfas were determined by gas chromatography of scfas extracted from fresh feces. tamarins with moderate or severe colitis had significantly reduce ...19968769289
gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates: a review and report of eleven new cases.reported gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates are reviewed, and the clinical and pathologic features of 11 new cases are described. the 11 monkeys had a total of 12 malignant gastrointestinal neoplasms; one had two primary carcinomas, one in the colon and one in the duodenum. ten of the 12 tumors were adenocarcinomas: two in the duodenum, one in the jejunum, four in the distal ileum or region of the ileocecal valve and three in the large intestine. the remaining two lesions were a his ...19826153001
an analysis of the association of gastroenteric lesions with chronic wasting syndrome of marmosets.retrospective pathology data from necropsies of 162 marmosets, saguinus oedipus, were studied to determine the nature of chronic wasting syndrome, a poorly defined entity associated with a high mortality rate in many marmoset colonies. paraffin sections of the gastroenteric organs of 116 of these marmosets were re-examined in detail; lesions were identified, quantitated, and analyzed with a method of multiple chi-square testing for possible associations between findings. five distinct disease en ...19826153004
high polymorphism of mhc-e locus in non-human primates: alleles with identical exon 2 and 3 are found in two different species.thirteen mhc-e new sequences were found in eight individuals belonging to the cercopithecinae family, i.e.: macaca mulatta, macaca fascicularis and cercopithecus aethiops when studying e locus polymorphism. no changes were found in the invariant residues which are required for the correct conformation of the peptide presenting region which are conserved in classical mhc class i molecules from fish and reptiles to humans; however, polymorphism of mhc-e alleles is not limited to the three typical ...19979062972
morphological observations of the replication of herpesvirus tamarinus in rl-33 cells.the replication in rl-33 cells (rabbit lung cell line) of herpesvirus tamarinus isolated from cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus) was investigated by electron microscopy. in the early stages of infection, ring-shaped and granular structures, and fibrillar materials were recognized in the nucleus. immature particles were often found in such nuclei. the envelope of the virus was formed by budding through intracytoplasmic membranes, the inner nuclear membrane or the membrane of intracytoplas ...19806254473
ecological distinctions between sympatric species of saguinus and sciurus.tamarins are small new world monkeys that have been described as "squirrellike." squirrels, along with bats and birds, are the taxa most likely to utilize resources similar to those used by primates in the tropical forest canopy. in this paper we compare differences in ecology, diet, locomotion, and habitat utilization between sympatric populations of tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and tree squirrels (sciurus granatensis) in panama. data presented indicate that although there is some degree of reso ...19846439048
an analysis of the association of gastroenteric lesions with chronic wasting syndrome of marmosets.retrospective pathology data from necropsies of 162 marmosets, saguinus oedipus, were studied to determine the nature of chronic wasting syndrome, a poorly defined entity associated with a high mortality rate in many marmoset colonies. paraffin sections of the gastroenteric organs of 116 of these marmosets were re-examined in detail; lesions were identified, quantitated, and analyzed with a method of multiple chi-square testing for possible associations between findings. five distinct disease en ...19826815872
immunodominance of a single ctl epitope in a primate species with limited mhc class i polymorphism.mhc class i molecules play a crucial role in immunity to viral infections by presenting viral peptides to cytotoxic t lymphocytes. one of the hallmarks of mhc class i genes in outbred populations is their extraordinary polymorphism, yet the significance of this diversity is poorly understood. certain species with reduced mhc class i diversity, such as the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), are more susceptible to fatal viral infections. to explore the relationship between this primate's limi ...19979233634
diversity among the primate eosinophil-derived neurotoxin genes: a specific c-terminal sequence is necessary for enhanced ribonuclease activity.the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (hedn) is a secretory effector protein from eosinophilic leukocytes that is a member of the ribonuclease a (rnase a) family of ribonucleases. edn is a rapidly evolving protein, accumulating non-silent mutations at a rate exceeding those of most other functional coding sequences studied in primates. although all primate edns retain the structural and functional residues known to be prerequisites for ribonuclease activity, we have shown previously that recom ...19979254715
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