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immune adherence and complement-fixation tests for human hepatitis a. diagnostic and epidemiologic investigations.the reliable propagation of cr326 strain of human hepatitis a virus in saguinus mystax marmosets has permitted the development of specific serum neutralization, complement-fixation (cf), and immune adherence (ia) assays for hepatitis a antigen and antibody. the cf and ia assays were made possible by the use of livers of cr326-infected marmosets as a source of hepatitis a antigen. all assays were shown to be specific for hepatitis a. cases of hepatitis b did not show development of hepatitis a an ...1975173600
infectivity studies of hepatitis a and b in non-human primates.we have induced hepatitis a in marmosets of the subspecies saguinus mystax following primary inoculation with human serum containing the ms-1 strain of hepatitis a virus (hav) and in 3 further marmoset subpassages using infective marmoset serum from each preceding passage. in each passage acquisition of serum antibody against 17 nm virus-like particles recovered from acute illness stools of human volunteers who developed hepatitis following inoculation with the ms-1 strain of hav, as well as fro ...1975173599
development and utilization of complement-fixation and immune adherence tests for human hepatitis a virus and antibody.the reliable propagation of cr326 strain of human hepatitis a virus in saguinus mystax marmosets has permitted the development of specific serum neutralization, complement-fixation (cf), and immune adherence (ia) assays for hepatitis a antigen and antibody. the cf and ia assay were made possible by the use of livers of cr326-infected marmosets as a source of hepatitis a antigen. all assays were shown to be specific for hepatitis a. patients with hepatitis b did not show development of hepatitis ...197553013
spontaneous zinc deficiency in marmosets, saguinus mystax.moustached marmosets, saguinus mystax, developed alopecia, skin lesions and general debilitation approximately 6 months after being brought into our laboratory. these lesions resembled the signs of zinc deficiency in pigs, rats and squirrel monkeys. the marmosets were fed a commercial monkey diet containing 150 parts per million zinc and about 100 g of apples and oranges per week. the addition of 40 parts per million zinc to the drinking water brought about improvement in hair coat and skin cond ...1979117220
infectious hepatitis (hepatitis a) research in nonhuman primates.a satisfactory animal model has been found for laboratory studies of human hepatitis a-namely, the white-moustached marmoset (saguinus mystax). with this species it has been possible to perform serum-neutralization tests and to develop immune-adherence and complement-fixation tests demonstrating antigen and antibody to the virus. the recent work in marmosets has also led to determination of the agent's characteristics: it most closely resembles the enteroviruses of the picornavirus family. these ...1977198051
experimental infection of marmosets with hepatitis a virus.saguinus mystax marmosets were experimentally infected with two strains of human hepatitis a virus. one of these strains of hav was successfully subpassaged in this species of marmosets. in another experiment, the 1.32 and 1.41 g/cm3 buoyant density species of hav derived from an infected chimpanzee stool were shown to be infectious in three species of marmosets. the value of the marmoset as an experimental model for hepatitis a infection was demonstrated by these studies.1978205859
localization of hepatitis a antigen in marmoset organs during acute infection with hepatitis a virus.twelve marmosets (saguinus mystax) were inoculated intravenously (iv) with hepatitis a virus (hav). one died early (day 12); seven were sacrificed at the time of elevation in level of alanine aminotransferase (serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase), and four without elevation were not sacrificed but seroconverted. in the seven marmosets sacrificed during the acute stage of illness, hepatitis a antigen (ha ag) was detected in the liver by immunofluorescence in all cases, by immune electron microsco ...1978212488
mortality causes of the moustached tamarin (saguinus mystax) in captivity.from january 1987 to november 1990, 125 adult saguinus mystax died at the crcp. enteritis/colitis (26%), hypoglycemia/cachexia (19%), and parasitic enteritis (13%) were the most common causes of death. less common were purulent peritonitis (9%), lobular pneumonia (8%), and hemorrhagic gastroenterocolitis (6%). these results confirm the high frequency of gastroenteric lesions reported in callitrichidae in captivity.19921602458
[the modelling of hepatitis a and of enterally transmitted non-a, non-b hepatitis (hepatitis e) in saguinus mystax tamarins].a comparative study of hepatitis infection caused by human hepatitis a virus (ms-1 strain), simian hepatitis a virus (agm-27 strain), and enterically transmitted non-a, non-b hepatitis virus (tashkent-1435 strain) was carried out. susceptibility of tamarins to the agm-27 and tashkent-1435 as well as to ms-1 strain was demonstrated. all the strains induced an acute infection characterized by serum alanine aminotransferase (alt) elevation, virus excretion and antibody response. certain differences ...19901967121
tetrapeltalonema (t.) mystaxi sp. n. (nematoda: filarioidea) from brazilian moustached marmosets, saguinus m. mystax.tetrapetalonema (t.) mystaxi sp. n. is described from the subscapular connective tissues of saguinus mystax. the parasite is placed in the subgenus tetrapetalonema and most closely resembles tetrapetalonema atelensis, from which it can be differentiated by its long esophagus, size and shape of the spicules, and the size and arrangement of nuclei in the tail of the microfilaria.1978417161
enterically-transmitted non-a, non-b hepatitis.more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis occurring in some developing countries appears to be unrelated to infection by hav or hbv and accumulating evidence suggests that a high proportion of this non-a, non-b hepatitis (nanb) is enterically transmitted. epidemics or outbreaks of enterically-transmitted nanb (et-nanb) have been documented in the soviet union, nepal, burma, pakistan, india, borneo, somalia, sudan, ivory coast, algeria, and mexico. these outbreaks primarily affect young to middle-ag ...19902116213
nonhuman primate models for non-a, non-b hepatitis.the three epidemiological forms of human non-a, non-b hepatitis have been studied by experimentally infecting non-human primates. the chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) has been widely studied as a model for the epidemiological forms referred to as "blood-transmitted" and "coagulation-factor-transmitted" non-a, non-b hepatitis. transmission of the "enteric" epidemiological form of non-a, non-b hepatitis to chimpanzees has been reported by one laboratory but remains to be confirmed. two marmoset (tamar ...19892559798
body weights in mixed species troops of saguinus mystax mystax and saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons in amazonian peru.an investigation of body weights of members of mixed species troops of saguinus mystax mystax and saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons was conducted at the rio blanco research station in northeastern peru. a total of 107 adult and subadult tamarin monkeys were trapped, measured, and released. data collected indicate that mean body weights for adult male and female moustached tamarins are 564 gm and 626 gm, respectively, whereas for adult saddle-back tamarins these values are 412 gm and 411 gm. subadu ...19863101505
[a trial of a cultured inactivated vaccine against hepatitis a on saguinus mystax tamarins].an experimental batch of inactivated hepatitis a vaccine was prepared using hepatitis a virus (hav), has-15 strain, adapted to cell culture and purified by ultracentrifugation. the vaccine was tested in tamarins immunized intramuscularly three times one month apart. three tamarins received a vaccine preparation containing 10 ng of immunogen each, three--100 ng each, and three animals were used as controls. the efficacy was judged by the anti-hav antibody response in the vaccinated animals and de ...19902256314
enterically transmitted non-a, non-b hepatitis: serial passage of disease in cynomolgus macaques and tamarins and recovery of disease-associated 27- to 34-nm viruslike particles.an experimental model of enterically transmitted non-a, non-b hepatitis (et-nanbh) was established in tamarins (saguinus mystax mystax) and cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis). first-passage animals were inoculated with two different stool suspensions obtained from human patients with well-defined et-nanbh that originated from burma and pakistan, where epidemics of et-nanbh occur. both inocula contained 27- ato 34-nm-diameter viruslike particles (vlps) that were specifically aggregated by ...19873114746
pathogenetic aspects of hepatitis a virus infection in enterally inoculated marmosets.experimental hepatitis a virus (hav) infection was studied in marmosets after enteral (intragastric) inoculation with special reference to the primary sites of hav replication and immunopathology of the disease. the experiment was carried out using 28 saguinus mystax negative for antibody to hav (anti-hav) and with statistically uniform baseline values of serum isocitrate dehydrogenase (sicd) activity. each animal was infected with 1 ml of a 15% w/v stool suspension that was derived from marmose ...19816271006
hepatitis a virus in the liver and intestine of marmosets after oral inoculation.a total of 12 seronegative marmosets (saguinus mystax) were inoculated orally with hepatitis a virus (hav) and sacrificed at 3- to 4-day intervals. tissues from the livers, intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleens were obtained for immunofluorescence studies, and bile and intestinal contents were obtained for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies. two marmosets sacrificed on days 34 and 41 after inoculation developed antibody to hav and demonstrated hav in their livers but not in any ...19806247287
urogenital challenge of primate species with mycoplasma genitalium and characteristics of infection induced in chimpanzees.eighteen male and eight female primates, representing five subhuman species, were inoculated urogenitally with mycoplasma genitalium, a microorganism recovered from men with nongonococcal urethritis. male rhesus (macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (macaca fascicularis) monkeys apparently were resistant. female squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) and female tamarins (saguinus mystax) exhibited low-level, genital-tract infections. male chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) developed an obvious genital-tract i ...19863701116
fatal measles infection in marmosets pathogenesis and prophylaxis.moustached marmosets (saguinus mystax) were infected intranasally with either of two low-passaged, wildlike strains of measles virus, strain edmonston or strain jm. the infection resulted in 25 and 100% mortality, respectively, 12 to 14 days after infection. clinical signs, gross pathological findings, and histology lacked the characteristic features of measles in other primates. a deficient immune response and widespread gastroenterocolitis appeared to be the main causes for the fatal outcome. ...19806769812
susceptibility of tamarins (saguinus) to measles virus.tamarins (saguinus mystax and saguinus labiatus) were experimentally infected with two strains of measles virus. one of the strains (jm) spread readily among the animals with a high fatality rate. the second strain (edmonston) appeared to be less pathogenic and less transmissible than strain jm. aerosol was considered the most probable mode of infection.19806775133
development of plasmodium vivax in saguinus mystax and s. fuscicolis monkeys. 19826816915
spontaneous occurrence of angiostrongylus costaricensis in marmosets (saguinus mystax).two marmosets imported from iquitos, peru, were found to be infected with angiostrongylus costaricensis. both animals had large solitary granulomas involving the wall and adjacent mesentery of the small intestine. histopathologic examination showed the adult nematodes in the lumina of the mesenteric arteries that coursed through these granulomas. the inflammatory reaction was associated with numerous degenerating eggs and larvae. this is the first report of this parasite in nonhuman primates and ...19826808242
a hepatitis a virus deletion mutant which lacks the first pyrimidine-rich tract of the 5' nontranslated rna remains virulent in primates after direct intrahepatic nucleic acid transfection.cell culture-adapted variants of hepatitis a virus (hav) in which the first pyrimidine-rich tract (py1; nucleotides 99 to 138) of the 5' nontranslated region has been deleted (delta 96-137 or delta 96-139) replicate as well as parental virus in cultured cells (d.r. shaffer, e.a. brown, and s.m. lemon, j. virol. 68:5568-5578, 1994). to determine whether viruses with such large deletion mutations are able to replicate and to produce acute hepatitis in primates, we reconstructed the delta 96-137 de ...19957666566
[maintenance and breeding of saguinus mystax monkeys in the colony of a virological institution]. 19826818771
infection of marmosets with parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3.infection of wild marmosets (saguinus mystax) with strains of parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 resulted in acute respiratory infection. virus replication in the upper respiratory tract was of a degree similar to that seen in children acutely infected with parainfluenza viruses. serum antibody developed with both virus types; however, local secretory antibody was not detectable. the infection was transmissible to susceptible animals up to 3 days inoculation of the primary animal.19826290387
[human angiostrongyliasis caused by angiostrongylus costaricensis].angiostrongylus costaricensis was discovered by morera and céspedes in 1971, in a man suffering from an abdominal syndrome. upon surgery, worms were observed in the cranial mesenteric artery. these worms were assigned to the metastrongylid strongyles and to the genus angiostrongylus, which was already known, in man medicine, by the species a. cantonensis, the causative agent of an eosinophilic meningitis. morera's parasite was named angiostrongylus costaricensis from the place where it was descr ...19948076197
[experimental models of hepatitis a in macaques using viral strains isolated from man and monkeys].experimental hepatitis a (ha) models were obtained in macaca monkeys (15 m. fascicularis and 4 m. mulatta) by means of the strains of hepatitis a virus (hav) isolated from the feces of a patient (hav-h) and of spontaneously infected m. mulatta (hav-mm) and green monkeys cercopithecus aethiops (hav-ca). irrespective of the strains used all seronegative macaca monkeys developed ha after intravenous-oral inoculation with the following patterns: elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase level, ...19948087252
colitis in a female tamarin (saguinus mystax).an adult wild-caught female tamarin (saguinus mystax) housed in a biomedical research facility was found moribund and extremely dehydrated, with severe diarrhea. she initially responded to supportive therapy but died 3 days later. necropsy findings included hyperemia of the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, acanthocephalid parasites (prosthenorchis elegans) embedded in the mucosa of the terminal ileum and cecum, and free filarid nematodes (dipetalonema sp.) in the abdominal cavity. cam ...200011487241
spontaneous terminal ileitis resembling crohn disease in captive tamarins.five tamarins (four saguinus mystax and one s. labiatus) died with wasting syndrome characterized by chronic diarrhea at the center for reproduction and conservation of non-human primates in iquitos, peru. at necropsy, the terminal ileum of all affected tamarins was found to be markedly thickened. histologically, the terminal ileal mucosa was completely ulcerated, and effaced by debris and mononuclear inflammatory cells. the submucosa and serosa were thickened by fibroplasia, mononuclear cell in ...200212190855
leaders of progressions in wild mixed-species troops of saddleback (saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached tamarins (s. mystax), with emphasis on color vision and sex.leadership of travel progression is an important aspect of group living. it is widely believed that trichromacy evolved to facilitate the detection and selection of fruit in the dappled light of a forest. further, it has been proposed that in new world primate species, which typically contain a range of color vision phenotypes, at least one female in a group will be trichromatic (i.e., having three types of visual pigment, in contrast to the two types of pigment found in dichromatic individuals) ...200314669267
the effect of colour vision status on the detection and selection of fruits by tamarins (saguinus spp.).the evolution of trichromatic colour vision by the majority of anthropoid primates has been linked to the efficient detection and selection of food, particularly ripe fruits among leaves in dappled light. modelling of visual signals has shown that trichromats should be more efficient than dichromats at distinguishing both fruits from leaves and ripe from unripe fruits. this prediction is tested in a controlled captive setting using stimuli recreated from those actually encountered by wild tamari ...200312909697
dentition of moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax mystax) from padre isla, peru, part 1: quantitative variation.analyses of dental variation in geographically restricted, wild populations of primates are extremely rare; however, such data form the best source for models of likely degrees of variation within and between fossil species. data from dental casts of a geographically restricted population of moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax mystax) from padre isla, peru, document high levels of dental variability, as measured by coefficients of variation, in a nonsexually dimorphic species, despite its isola ...200616402367
spontaneous colitis cystica profunda in captive tamarins.of the 232 tamarins (133 saguinus mystax and 99 saguinus labiatus) that died at the center for reproduction and conservation of nonhuman primates in iquitos, peru from january 1987 to december 1990, 23 monkeys (9.9%) were diagnosed as having chronic colitis. typically, the cecal and colonic mucosa was greyish and small yellowish cysts, measuring 1-4 mm, were found randomly distributed bulging the mucosa. microscopically, colitis cystica profunda was diagnosed additionally in six more animals, gi ...19947869360
spatio-genetic population structure in mustached tamarins, saguinus mystax.dispersal and philopatry influence gene flow and thus the spatio-genetic structure within and between populations. in callitrichids the flexible social and mating system corresponds with a variable migration pattern where both sexes might be philopatric or might disperse. we investigated the relationship between the spatio-genetic structure and migration patterns in a population of mustached tamarins, saguinus mystax. using the rapidly evolving hypervariable region i (hvi) of the mitochondrial c ...200717274012
prey foraging of red titi monkeys, callicebus cupreus, in comparison to sympatric tamarins, saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis.we compared the prey capture strategies of red titi monkeys, callicebus cupreus, with those of sympatric mustached, saguinus mystax, and saddleback tamarins, saguinus fuscicollis, to examine whether animal prey is important in niche differentiation between these neotropical primates. we collected data on strata and substrate use during foraging, on prey searching and capturing, and on prey type of two c. cupreus groups and one group each of s. mystax and s. fuscicollis during a 5-month field stu ...200817787001
demographic parameters and events in wild moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax).this paper examines demographic events in the context of population structure and genetic relationships in groups of wild moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax). we used a combination of long-term behavioral observations and genetic data from a total of eight groups from a population in northeastern peruvian amazonia. the mean group size was 6.0 (range = 4-9), including 2.5 adult males and 1.8 adult females. within-group relatedness was generally high (r = 0.3), and most nonbreeding individuals w ...200415580582
utilization of chimeras between human (hm-175) and simian (agm-27) strains of hepatitis a virus to study the molecular basis of virulence.chimeras between human (hm-175) and simian (agm-27) strains of hepatitis a virus (hav) were constructed to evaluate the effect of the 2c gene of agm-27 on hav replication in cell culture and virulence in tamarins (saguinus mystax) and chimpanzees (pan troglodytes). kinetic studies and radioimmunofocus assays demonstrated that replacement of the 2c gene of hav/7, a cell culture-adapted strain of hm-175, with that of agm-27 drastically reduced the ability of the virus to replicate in cultured cell ...19989696843
pathology of captive moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax).the pathology of 33 moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax) previously used in hepatitis a and gb virus studies is reported. chronic lesions in colon, heart, and kidney were common in the monkeys and appeared not to be due to the experimental exposures. colitis cystica profunda (ccp), a disease that affects humans and is characterized by the presence of mucin-filled epithelial downgrowths and cysts in the colonic submucosa, was found in 24 of the 33 (72.7%) tamarins. interstitial myocardial fibros ...200818524178
reproductive failure, possible maternal infanticide, and cannibalism in wild moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax.maternal infanticide in wild non-human primates has only been reported twice. in this paper, we report a possible new case of infanticide and cannibalism within a series of four successive reproductive failures in wild moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax. necropsy and genetic analyses of the corpses enabled us to rule out any pathology, and to determine paternity. the mother was seen biting and then eating the head of its own infant during a period when another female was pregnant and gave birt ...201121328068
functions of intermittent locomotion in mustached tamarins (saguinus mystax).many animals interrupt their moving with brief pauses, which appear to serve several different functions. we examined the function of such intermittent locomotion in wild living mustached tamarins (saguinus mystax), small arboreal new world primates that form mixed-species groups with saddleback tamarins (saguinus fuscicollis). we investigated how different environmental and social factors affect pausing during locomotion and used these data to infer the function of this behavior. as measures of ...201020949115
the influence of human settlements on the parasite community in two species of peruvian tamarin.although there is a growing recognition that the transfer of diseases between humans and non-human primates can be of great significance for conservation biology, there have been only a few studies focusing on parasites. in this study, saddleback (saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached tamarin (saguinus mystax) from the rainforest of the peruvian lowlands were used as models to determine helminth parasite associations between canopy-dwelling primate species and a nearby human settlement. the human ...201020025821
effects of support size and orientation on symmetric gaits in free-ranging tamarins of amazonian peru: implications for the functional significance of primate gait sequence patterns.the adoption of a specific gait sequence pattern during symmetrical locomotion has been proposed to have been a key advantage for the exploitation of the fine branch niche in early primates. diverse aspects of primate locomotion have been extensively studied in technically equipped laboratory settings, but evolutionary conclusions derived from these investigations have rarely been verified in wild primates. bridging the gap from the lab to the field, we conducted an actual performance determinat ...201020060568
spontaneous pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in captive "moustached tamarins" (saguinus mystax; primates: callitrichidae).pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare human disease characterized by accumulation of surfactant in alveoli without generating an inflammatory response. lung lesions resembling pulmonary alveolar proteinosis were observed in 7 adult tamarins (5 males and 2 females). gross lesions were characterized by areas of discoloration, slight bulging over the lung parenchyma, and occasional consolidation. histologic examination of tamarin lung samples revealed intra-alveolar accumulation of amorphous, am ...201121734058
intracardiac thrombosis and aortic dissecting aneurysms in mustached tamarins (saguinus mystax) with cardiomyopathy.spontaneous intracardiac thrombosis is rarely reported in animals, particularly nonhuman primates. the finding of 2 cases of intracardiac thrombi in mustached tamarins (saguinus mystax) that died as a consequence of congestive heart failure prompted us to do a retrospective study to determine the frequency of this condition. clinical records, necropsy reports, and tissues from 60 mustached tamarins that died or were euthanized between 1996 and 2009 were reviewed. of the 60 monkeys whose cases we ...201121535930
sperm parameters and testicular volumes in saguinus mystax.adult male saguinus mystax tamarins were evaluated for sperm parameters and testicular volumes. sperm concentrations average 195.5 x 10(6)/cc with 41.7% motile sperm. semen specimens were classified as normal, relative to sperm morphology, when 95% or more of the sperm in the specimen had normal morphology; 76% of the animals evaluated had normal semen specimens using this criterion. testicular volumes averaged 726.9 mm3. a total of 50 infants were sired by 16 of these males during the period co ...20143932655
boa constrictor attack and successful group defence in moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax. 200612207064
diseases of wild-caught moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax) in captivity. 20113135675
spontaneous pathology of the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and tamarins (saguinus oedipus, saguinus mystax).marmosets and tamarins are increasingly used in research, but their pathology remains poorly defined compared with old world primates.200919522731
the equivocal relationship between territoriality and scent marking in wild saddleback tamarins (saguinus fuscicollis).researchers have often assumed that scent marking serves a territorial function in callitrichines, although some controversy exists. to fulfill such a function, scent marks should 1) prevent intrusions, 2) ensure access to feeding resources, 3) enable avoidance of intergroup encounters, or 4) play an important role in the aggressive encounters between groups. we studied 13 saddleback tamarins (saguinus fuscicollis) belonging to 3 free-ranging groups, which formed mixed-species troops with mousta ...201121892237
vigilance of mustached tamarins in single-species and mixed-species groups-the influence of group composition.species that participate in mixed-species groups (msg) may have complementary roles in antipredator strategies. we studied vigilance in mustached tamarins (saguinus mystax), small arboreal primates that form stable mixed-species groups with saddleback tamarins (saguinus fuscicollis), in order to examine how the direction of vigilance changes with different species group compositions and whether the division of labor between the two species can be confirmed. we did so by comparing quantitative an ...201020119489
seed dispersal by sympatric tamarins, saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis: diversity and characteristics of plant species.in a comparative study of saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis, we examined the spectrum of plant species whose seeds are dispersed by these two tamarin species. we characterize these plants in terms of life form, fruit colour, pulp consistency and seed dimensions. the tamarins disperse a much broader spectrum of plant species than previously reported (88 of the total of 155 species exploited for fruit). while the distribution over plant life form, fruit colour and pulp consistency is identi ...201012606849
crested eagle (morphnus guianensis) predation on infant tamarins (saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis, callitrichinae). 200611805427
interspecific variation of scent-marking behaviour in wild tamarins, saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis.the scent-marking behaviour of sympatric moustached, saguinus mystax, and saddle-back tamarins, saguinus fuscicollis, was compared in order to explore interspecific differences and potential sources of variation. the author examined basic patterns of scent marking (types, intensity, complexity), substrate use (type, orientation, height), and social patterning of scent marking in three groups of s. mystax and one group of s. fuscicollis at the estación biológica quebrada blanco, peruvian amazonia ...200611805422
vertebrate predation by sympatric tamarins, saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis.vertebrate predation was examined in sympatric moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax) and saddle-back tamarins (saguinus fuscicollis) in the amazon rainforest of northeastern peru. both species prey on frogs and lizards, and very rarely on nestling birds. as a result of divergent foraging strategies, s. mystax primarily exploited frogs at higher strata of the forest, while s. fuscicollis predominantly preyed on reptiles in the lower strata and on the ground. this difference may strengthen the nic ...200010830798
anti-predation benefits in a mixed-species group of amazonian tamarins.because of their small body size, tamarins are potentially vulnerable to a wide range of predator species. this paper examines the general patterns of predator avoidance of the avila-pires saddle-back tamarin (saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi) and the red-cap moustached tamarin (saguinus mystax pileatus) in the upper urucu river, amazonas, brazil. one highly stable mixed-species group of these species suffered an average of 1 attack by carnivorous raptors every 8.8 days of activity. although non ...19938188122
associations of tamarins (saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis) and double-toothed kites (harpagus bidentatus) in peruvian amazonia. 19921473781
interspecific social grooming in a mixed troop of tamarins, saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis (platyrrhini: callitrichidae), in an outdoor enclosure. 19883149254
effect of resting patterns of tamarins (saguinus fuscicollis and saguinus mystax) on the spatial distribution of seeds and seedling recruitment.the spatial distributions of dispersed seeds have important evolutionary consequences for plants. repeated defecations in sites frequently used by seed dispersers can result in high seed concentrations. we observed the resting behavior of a mixed-species group of tamarins in peru and recorded the occurrence of seed dispersal (over 8 mo) and seed fate (over 11-22 mo) to determine whether the location and use of resting sites influenced the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds and seedlings. th ...201121423318
dna fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. however, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a neotropical a ...201222514748
grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax).grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. this study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. in this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also hel ...200717330867
paternity and kinship patterns in polyandrous moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax).we studied patterns of genetic relatedness and paternity in moustached tamarins, small neotropical primates living in groups of 1-4 adult males and 1-4 adult females. generally only one female per group breeds, mating with more than one male. twin birth are the norm. in order to examine the genetic consequences of this mating pattern, dna was extracted from fecal samples collected from two principal and six neighboring groups. dna was characterized at twelve microsatellite loci (average: seven a ...200515624210
proximate mechanisms of reproductive monopolization in male moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax).in moustached tamarin (saguinus mystax) groups, the single breeding female mates polyandrously with most or all nonrelated adult males. nonetheless, paternity is monopolized in many groups by a single male. no evidence for male endocrine suppression has been found in this species. the proximate mechanisms of monopolization thus remain poorly understood. the aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of agonistic interactions and mate-guarding on the monopolization of paternity in m ...200415356857
spatial patterns of scent marking in wild moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax: no evidence for a territorial function.i investigated whether scent marking has a territorial function in wild moustached tamarins. i examined the spatial distribution of scent marking within the home ranges of four groups of this neotropical primate and tested predictions from gorman & mills' (1984, journal of zoology,202, 535-547) model for border and 'hinterland' marking. although home ranges were economically defensible, no evidence was found for increased marking along the territorial boundary or in areas of home range overlap, ...200011124870
a possible case of myiasis in a wild moustached tamarin, saguinus mystax (callitrichinae, cebidae) 19989926984
cardiac hypertrophy in a tamarin (saguinus mystax). 199616457525
primary renal hemangiosarcoma in a moustached tamarin.a wild-caught adult female saguinus mystax died after 54 months in captivity. at necropsy, a small reddish zone in the renal cortex of one kidney was shown histologically to be a hemangiosarcoma.20068169946
the apparent reversal of a wasting syndrome by nutritional intervention in saguinus mystax.one hundred eighty sexually mature saguinus mystax were imported from peru in six lots over a period of 1 year. within 1 year after arrival, the mortality was 60% and the majority of the tamarins showed signs similar to "wasting marmoset syndrome" (wms). in an effort to improve the survival rate, an open formula diet replaced the commercial closed formula diet that had been fed since arrival of the tamarins. the open formula diet contained 26.2% crude protein, 12.3% ether extract, 43.3% nitrogen ...19883137391
genetic markers in the blood of three species of tamarins (saguinus mystax, s. labiatus and s. oedipus).alkaline phosphatase (alp), esterase-i (es-i), esterase-ii (es-ii), carbonic anhydrase (ca), cell esterase (ces), esterase-d (es-d), isocitrate dehydrogenase (icd), malate dehydrogenase (mdh), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (pgd), tetrazolium oxidase (to), ceruloplasmin (cp), haptoglobin (hp) and hemoglobin (hb) in 58-75 samples of three species of tamarins (saguinus mystax, s. labiatus and s. oedipus) were detected by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. two types (es-i 1 and es-i ...19863100316
genetic variations in albumin and transferrin as species markers in plasma of callithricidae.albumin (alb) and transferrin (tf) polymorphism in plasma of callithricidae was investigated by means of starch gel electrophoresis. in 52 blood samples of three species (saguinus mystax, s. oedipus and s. labiatus), four alb phenotypes (alb 1, alb 2, alb 3 and alb 2-3) and two tf phenotypes (tf 1 and tf 2) were observed. no alb variant was found in s. oedipus and s. mystax.19846432560
reproduction of wild-caught tamarins (saguinus mystax mystax) under laboratory conditions.the reproductive performance of tamarins (saguinus mystax mystax) under laboratory conditions was evaluated. fifteen of 20 male-female pairs were fertile and produced 30 live births during an observation period of 3.5 years. twenty-six breeders (65%) and 12 offspring (40%) more than 3 years old were alive at the termination of the reporting period.19836438335
vigilance in a cooperatively breeding primate.collective vigilance is considered a major advantage of group living in animals. we investigated vigilance behavior in wild mustached tamarins (saguinus mystax), small, arboreal, cooperatively breeding new world primates that form stable mixed-species groups with saddleback tamarins (saguinus fuscicollis). we aimed 1) to investigate whether vigilance patterns change according to individual activity and 2) to examine whether there is a social component of vigilance in their cooperative and nonagg ...201020174438
long-term consistency in spatial patterns of primate seed dispersal.seed dispersal is a key ecological process in tropical forests, with effects on various levels ranging from plant reproductive success to the carbon storage potential of tropical rainforests. on a local and landscape scale, spatial patterns of seed dispersal create the template for the recruitment process and thus influence the population dynamics of plant species. the strength of this influence will depend on the long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal. we examined the long- ...201728261455
mucinous cystadenoma in the lung of a captive-born moustached tamarin (saguinus mystax).a 2-year-old, captive-born, male moustached tamarin was subjected to necropsy examination after a fatal head trauma. a solitary, circumscribed, subpleural mass (0.6 cm diameter) was found in the right caudal lung lobe. the mass was diagnosed as a mucinous cystadenoma. histochemical and immunohistochemical tests were performed to further characterize the tumour. surfactant proteins a, b, c and d were not found in the neoplastic cells, suggesting that the tumour arose from a non-surfactant-produci ...201723356933
role of spatial memory in primate foraging patterns: saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis.from field data collected in the amazon basin of northeastern peru, i present evidence that moustached (saguinus mystax) and saddle-back (saguinus fuscicollis) tamarins maintain detailed knowledge of the distribution and location of many tree species in their home range. during the wet season months of october through december 1984, fruits and exudates from 20 tree species and over 150 individual trees accounted for 75% of plant feeding time. these trees exhibited a patchy distribution; mean nea ...198931964003
the impact of cropping on wild populations of saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis in peru.a transect census technique was used to estimate the population densities of saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis at two sites in peru. cropping of these two species had occurred five years before the census at one site and two years before at the other. the populations of s. mystax at both sites had recovered completely from cropping, and the relationship between s. mystax and s. fuscicollis had not been altered at one site and had been reversed in favor of s. mystax at the other.198432131566
population recovery in the moustached tamarin (saguinus mystax): management strategies and mechanisms of recovery.in 1978, 66% of the individuals of saguinus mystax and 9.5% of saguinus fuscicollis were cropped from a population at the yarapa river, peru. the effects of cropping on the remaining tamarin population were evaluated by conducting censuses in 1981 and 1982 and by trapping and release of saguinus mystax in 1981. three hundred kilometers of trail were covered in the censuses, and all the groups within the 1.9-km2 study area were located. within three years after cropping, the population of s. myst ...198432111107
estimating seed dispersal distance: a comparison of methods using animal movement and plant genetic data on two primate-dispersed neotropical plant species.seed dispersal distance (sdd) critically influences the survival of seedlings, spatial patterns of genetic diversity within plant populations, and gene flow among plant populations. in animal-dispersed species, foraging behavior and movement patterns determine sdd. direct observations of seed dispersal events by animals in natural plant populations are mostly constrained by the high mobility and low visibility of seed dispersers. therefore, diverse alternative methods are used to estimate seed d ...201931462995
small neotropical primates promote the natural regeneration of anthropogenically disturbed areas.increasingly large proportions of tropical forests are anthropogenically disturbed. where natural regeneration is possible at all, it requires the input of plant seeds through seed dispersal from the forest matrix. zoochorous seed dispersal - the major seed dispersal mode for woody plants in tropical forests - is particularly important for natural regeneration. in this study, covering a period of more than 20 years, we show that small new world primates, the tamarins saguinus mystax and leontoce ...201931346187
salivary gland neoplasms in non-human primates: a case series and brief literature review.salivary gland neoplasms are rare in non-human primates.201930941779
seasonal variation and an "outbreak" of frog predation by tamarins.we report temporal variation and an "outbreak" of frog predation by moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax, in north-eastern peruvian amazonia. frog predation rates were generally very low, but strongly increased in october 2015. other high rates, identified by outlier analyses, were also observed in september-november of other years. over all study years, predation rates in this 3-month period were significantly higher than those in the remainder of the year, suggesting a seasonal pattern of frog ...201830238424
acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta with sudden paraplegia in a captive mustached tamarin (saguinus mystax).a wild-caught, research-naïve, adult male mustached tamarin (saguinus mystax) experienced sudden onset of bilateral hindlimb paresis. physical examination established the presence of paralysis and the lack of femoral pulses and deep pain in both legs. there were no signs of external trauma and, due to a poor prognosis, euthanasia was elected. necropsy findings included pleural effusion, partial pulmonary atelectasis and congestion, dilatatory cardiomyopathy, a renal hemorrhagic infarct, and a th ...201728935009
social behavior of wild moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax, at the estación biológica quebrada blanco, peruvian amazonia.the social behavior in two small, polyandrous groups of moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax, was studied at the estación biológica quebrada blanco in northeastern peru. allogrooming was the most obvious type of social interaction. grooming relations were characterized by a strong asymmetry. in both groups, one adult male contributed about 70% of all allogrooming given (in terms of time spent grooming) and allocated his allogrooming evenly to all other group members. grooming relations between t ...199631914710
social and seasonal influences on reproductive biology in male moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax).in several primate taxa there is evidence that the social and physical environment can exert a significant effect on reproductive behavior and biology. in this paper we examine social and physiological factors influencing group composition and reproduction in free-ranging moustached tamarin monkeys (saguinus mystax mystax). this species is characterized by cooperative care of the young and a breeding system that includes both polyandrous and polygyandrous matings. body measurements collected on ...199631914709
demographic and reproductive patterns in moustached tamarin monkeys (saguinus mystax): implications for reconstructing platyrrhine mating systems.in this paper we address a series of questions concerning reproductive opportunities, kinship, dispersal, and mating patterns in free-ranging moustached tamarin monkeys (saguinus mystax). between 1980 and 1990 information on group size, composition, and migration patterns was collected on marked groups of moustached tamarins inhabiting padre isla, an island in the amazon basin of northeastern peru. in 1990, 86% of 114 animals residing in 16 social groups were trapped, examined, and released. mea ...199331941184
troop-specific responses to long calls of isolated tamarins (saguinus mystax).recently captured moustached tamarins (saguinus mystax) were briefly separated from other members of their troop. most separated animals emitted long calls that were, in general, similar in acoustic structure to those of sympatric tamarin species while retaining species distinctiveness. individual differences also appeared in call structure. the long calls of a separated animal were responded to almost entirely by members of the animal's own troop rather than by other troops, and reciprocal call ...198531986809
the ecology of seed dispersal in two species of callitrichid primates (saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis).data collected during a 12-month field investigation of mixed species troops of saguinus mystax and saguinus fuscicollis in the amazon basin of north-eastern peru indicate that callitrichid primates play an important role in tropical forest seed dispersal. moustached and saddle-back tamarins were observed to ingest seeds from a variety of tree and liana species and pass them unharmed. these seeds tended to be large and heavy, and passed through the tamarin digestive tract in one to three hours. ...198631979489
interspecific relations in a mixed-species troop of moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax, and saddle-back tamarins, saguinus fuscicollis (platyrrhini:callitrichidae), at the río blanco, peruvian amazonia.this study examined the social interactions between moustached tamarins, saguinus mystax, and saddle-back tamarins, saguinus fuscicollis, living in a mixed-species troop at the río blanco, peruvian amazonia, between july 1985 and july 1986. mixed-species troops were common among the s. mystax and s. fuscicollis populations in the río blanco study area; 72% of all sightings of s. mystax and 82% of all sightings of s. fuscicollis were in mixed-speices troops (study group excluded from analysis). i ...199031963983
mechanisms promoting stability in mixed saguinus mystax and s. fuscicollis troops.mixed-species troops composed of two species of tamarin monkeys, and rarely other ceboids, occur throughout much of western amazonia and are notable for their long-term stability. this study identified several variables that appeared to promote mixed-species troop cohesion and yet maintained spatial segregation between species. three variables enhanced in terspecific spatial segregation: differences in support use, vertical stratification, and interindividual spacing. in contrast, early morning ...199031963978
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