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nonhuman primates: laboratory animals of choice for neurophysiologic studies of sleep.a systematic study was made of several nonhuman primates to learn more about their relative usefulness for studies of sleep. species studied included the guinea baboon (papio papio), kenya or yellow baboon (p cynocephalus), olive baboon (p anubis), sacred baboon (p hamadryas), vervet monkey (cercopithecus aethiops), rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta), bonnet monkey (m radiata), crab-eating monkey (m fascicularis), patas monkey (erythrocebus patas), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), mongoose lemur (lemur ...1977201798
some aspects of the organization of the lateral geniculate nucleus in galago senegalensis revealed by using horseradish peroxidase to label relay neurons.following injection of horseradish peroxidase into area 17 of the prosimian galago senegalensis, columns of labeled neurons are seen in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus extending through all cell layers. individual counts of the number of labeled and unlabeled neurons reveal that from 91 to 98% of all neurons within these densely labeled columns are labeled. these results indicate that most of the neurons within the lgn of the bushbaby project to striate cortex. average diameter measurement ...1979226217
bordetella bronchiseptica infection in the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis). 1977404465
cerebellar corticonuclear fibers of the dorsal culminate lobule (anterior lobe--lobule v) in a prosimian primate, galago senegalensis.the organization of corticonuclear fibers from lobule v of the anterior lobe of the lesser bushbaby, galago senegalensis, was studied utilizing the fink and heimer ('67) method. corticonuclear fibers of lobule v are ipsilateral, topographically arranged in their trajectory into the deep cerebellar nuclei and organized into six identifiable zones. no evidence is seen to support the contention that these fibers may project diffusely into the cerebellar nuclei, either in a rostro-caudal or medio-la ...1979457935
activity of nocturnal primates: influences of twilight zeitgebers and weather.the time of onset of activity of bush babies (galago senegalensis), slow lorises (nycticebus coucang), and an owl monkey (aotus trivirgatus) living in outdoor enclosures usually fell in certain illuminance ranges of dusk and kept pace with seasonal progressions of sunset time. influences of cloud cover were variable, but excessive heat and cold were inhibitory. accurate endogenous timekeeping and reliance on the most stable zeitgeber apparently maintain activities in synchrony with the rhythmica ...1976813298
twilight zeitgebers, weather, and activity of nocturnal primates.bush babies (galago senegalensis), slow lorises (nycticebus coucang), and an owl monkey (aotus trivirgatus) in outdoor enclosures usually began activity in certain illuminance ranges of dusk and accommodated to seasonal changes in sunset time. influences of cloud cover were variable, but marked heat and cold were inhibitory. accurate endogenous timekeeping and a reliance on the most stable zeitgeber apparently maintain activities in synchrony with the rhythmically changing environment.1976821830
pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals.pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the netherlands. the following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, senegal-galago, demidoff's-galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.19751079994
molecular phylogeny of the superorder archonta.the superorder archonta has been hypothesized to include primates, tree shrews, bats, and flying lemurs as descendants of a common ancestor. more recently, a diphyletic origin for bats has been proposed. to evaluate these hypotheses, the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene was determined from a bushbaby (galago senegalensis), flying lemur (cynocephalus variegatus), tree shrew (tupaia glis), spear-nosed bat (phyllostomus hastatus), rousette bat (rousettus l ...19911658802
angiology of the brain of the baboon papio ursinus, the vervet monkey cercopithecus pygerithrus, and the bushbaby galago senegalensis.the investigation was undertaken to compare the blood supply and venous drainage of the brain of the baboon p. ursinus, the vervet monkey c. pygerithrus, and the bushbaby g. senegalensis with that of man, because these animals are extensively used as research models. the blood supply of the three primates was found to be similar in each case. like man they have a complete circulus arteriosus; but they have a single anterior cerebral artery, whereas man has paired anterior cerebral arteries. the ...19902321560
afferent connections of the substantia innominata/basal nucleus of meynert in carnivores and primates.afferent connections to the substantia innominata/nucleus basalis complex of monkeys and cats were traced by using the method of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (hrp). altogether ten injections of hrp were performed in four monkeys (saimiri sciureus, callithrix jacchus, galago senegalensis) and in four cats, with either vertical or oblique needle approaches. the entire brains excluding the olfactory bulbs and the cerebellum were then screened for labeled neurons. in both monkey an ...19863093564
the visuotopic organization of the superior colliculus of the owl monkey (aotus trivirgatus) and the bush baby (galago senegalensis). 19734202853
observations on the fine structure of spermatozoa of the bush baby (galago senegalensis), the african green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops) and man. 19674966398
studies of the spinal cord of galago senegalensis, compared to that in man. 19685657526
observations on the carotid rete in the lesser bush baby (galago senegalensis senegalensis). 19655867172
corneal epithelial response of the primate eye to gas permeable corneal contact lenses: a preliminary report.the comparative corneal epithelial effects of rigid gas permeable and soft contact lenses are reported in the present preliminary study using two bush baby monkeys (galago senegalensis). both types of lenses produced early cell death among the surface squamous cells while internally the epithelium and its nerve fibers remained normal. sporadically small abnormal groups of cells involving two to three of the surface layers were observed in both the hard and soft lens wearing corneas. it was concl ...19846536428
analysis of the estrous cycle of the laboratory-housed senegal galago (galago senegalensis senegalensis): natural and induced cycles.the natural estrous cycle of captive senegal galagos was analyzed from daily records of 11 cycling females for 18 months, and induction of vaginal estrus and ovulation by gonadotropins and estrogen were examined in 9 females. no seasonal trend in cycling was indicated, as at least 5 of the 11 cycling females exhibited vaginal estrus during each month. cycle lengths and duration of estrus were consistent for each female but varied significantly among females. individuals' average cycle lengths ra ...19827200050
new species of neotrombicula (acari: trombiculidae) from african primates (galagidae and cercopithecidae).neotrombicula kenyaensis goff and neotrombicula centrafricana goff are described as new from specimens collected from the primates galago senegalensis e. geoffroy (fam. galagidae) in kenya and allenopithecus nigroviridis (pocock) (fam. cercopithecidae) in central africa, respectively.19957869336
bushbaby growth hormone is much more similar to nonprimate growth hormones than to rhesus monkey and human growth hormones.unlike other mammals, old world primates have five growth hormone-like genes that are highly divergent at the amino acid level from the single growth hormone genes found in nonprimates. additionally, there is a change in the interaction of growth hormone with its receptor in humans such that human growth hormone functions in nonprimates, whereas nonprimate growth hormone is ineffective in humans. a southern blotting analysis of the genome of a prosimian, galago senegalensis, revealed a single gr ...200111141192
a regional reconnaissance on yellow fever in the sudan; with special reference to primate hosts.neutralization-tests with yellow fever virus performed on 666 human sera collected in the southern sudan imply that yellow fever is still endemic south of the 10th parallel, in the south-west border of the nuba mountains, and in the plains west of the nuba mountains as far north as el muglad. similar tests on bloods from 110 primates revealed a high rate of immunity among both baboons (papio sp.) (94%) and grivet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) (77%), and a very low rate (1 in 56) among galagos ...195514379007
the dorsal third tier area in galago senegalensis. 2004509243
the middle temporal visual area(mt)in the bushbaby, galago senegalensis. 20144197774
unexpected conservation of the x-linked color vision gene in nocturnal prosimians: evidence from two bush babies.bush babies have had a long history of nocturnal life and it would be interesting to know whether their color vision genes have become degenerate. therefore, we used pcr techniques to sequence the x-linked pigment gene of two of these nocturnal prosimians: galago senegalensis and otolemur garnettii. southern hybridization of genomic dna of g. senegalensis showed a single x-linked pigment gene. interestingly, the deduced pigment sequences of the two bush babies are identical. by comparing the x-l ...19979419238
cholinergic axonal dystrophy and mitochondrial pathology in prosimian primates.progressive cholinergic axonal dystrophy, cholinergic denervation, and generalized gliosis begin in the prosimian primate species otolemur at 10% of maximum life span. in these same animals, extensive cerebral beta-amyloidosis follows relatively more abruptly at 50% of maximum life span. in contrast, even at maximum life span, the prosimian primate species galago senegalensis moholi, microcebus murinus, and eulemur fulvus collaris and insectivore species t. belangeri are either spared or much le ...19968912903
the origin of the primate mhc-drb genes and allelic lineages as deduced from the study of prosimians.mhc class ii genes of the drb family were partially sequenced from 10 individuals representing six species of prosimians: galago senegalensis, g. moholi, otolemur garnetti, loris tardigradus, petterus (lemur) fulvus, and lemur catta. altogether, 41 different genes were discerned, all distinct from genes identified previously. comparative analysis of the sequences has led to the following conclusions. first, the drb loci present in human populations diverged from one another before the divergence ...19948157963
organization of the extraocular and preganglionic motoneurons supplying the orbit in the lesser galago.the retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was used to establish the organization of the extraocular muscle motoneuron pools in a prosimian, galago senegalensis, for comparison with the organization in monkeys and non-primates. medical rectus motoneurons were distributed in three subgroups in the ipsilateral oculomotor nucleus, a pattern similar to that of the monkey. furthermore, the other component of the near response system, the preganglionic parasympatheti ...19937692768
interhemispheric connections of visual cortex in the owl monkey, aotus trivirgatus, and the bushbaby, galago senegalensis.anatomical techniques have been used to map within visual cortex th pattern of degenerating axonal terminals produced by surgical section of the splenium of the corpus callosum in the owl monkey, aotus trivirgatus, and the bushbaby, galago senegalensis. previous studies in other species have shown that callosal inputs terminate preferentially in regions where the vertical meridian of the visual field is represented. such a correspondence can serve as a useful aid for locating the boundaries of v ...19807440796
distribution of acetylcholinesterase in the geniculo striate system of galago senegalensis and aotus trivirgatus: evidence for the origin of the reaction product in the lateral geniculate body.this inquiry began with the discovery that just two layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (gl) of galago contain large amounts of acetylcholinesterase (ache). these two layers (layers 3 and 6) are similar in cell size and nissl-staining characteristics and project to the same layer in the striate cortex. to find out whether the pattern of staining is unique in the galago, we examined the distribution of ache in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the owl monkey, aotus trivirgatus. in this speci ...19807204639
cortical and subcortical projections of the middle temporal area (mt) and adjacent cortex in galagos.projections of the middle temporal visual area, mt, and of visual cortex adjoining mt were investigated with autoradiographic methods in the prosimian primate, galago senegalensis. ipsilateral cortical targets of mt included area 17, area 18, cortex caudal to mt, cortex ventral to mt, and parietal-occipital cortex dorsal to mt. this pattern of projections suggests that extrastriate cortex contains a number of visual subdivisions in addition to mt. contralateral projections were to mt and parieta ...19827174890
organization of cortical afferents to the prefrontal cortex in the bush baby (galago senegalensis).cortical afferents to the prefrontal cortex were studied in 10 bush babies (galago senegalensis) by means of somatopetal transport of horseradish peroxidase. the lateral injections invariably labeled neurons in the temporal cortex and in most cases also in the insular and parietal regions. in some of these brains the cingulate and retrosplenial areas contained labeled perikarya. injections into the medial cortex, on the other hand, consistently labeled cell bodies in the cingulate cortex, but no ...19827104669
thalamic projections to layer i of striate cortex shown by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase.the diffusion of horseradish peroxidase was restricted to layers i and ii of the striate cortex in tupaia glis and galago senegalensis. in the lateral geniculate body of tupaia labeled cells were found only in layer 3; some labeled cells were also found in the lateral nucleus. in galago labeled cells were found only in layers 4 and 5 of the lateral geniculate body; a band of cells was also found in the pulvinar nucleus. these results support the distinction between two overlapping thalamic syste ...1979760205
glutamic acid decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons and horseradish peroxidase-labeled projection neurons in the ventral posterior nucleus of the cat and galago senegalensis.immunocytochemical methods were used to identify neurons in the ventral posterior nucleus of the cat and galago senegalensis that contain glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad), the synthetic enzyme for the inhibitory neurotransmitter, gaba. in both species gad-immunoreactive neurons make up about 30% of the total neurons in the ventral posterior nucleus and form a distinct class of small cells. after cortical injections of horseradish peroxidase (hrp), gad-immunoreactive cells are not labeled with h ...19836886749
the prefrontal cortex of a prosimian (galago senegalensis) is reached by efferent neurons originating in the nucleus basalis of meynert.efferent projections from the basal forebrain to the prefrontal cortex of the lesser bush baby (galago senegalensis) were traced with the retrograde horseradish peroxidase technique. different areas of the prefrontal cortex of six bush babies were injected with small amounts of horseradish peroxidase. the entire basal forebrain was then screened for labeled neurons. following all six injections, many retrogradely labeled neurons could be detected in the nucleus basalis of meynert. these results ...19846722602
somatosensory thalamus of a prosimian primate (galago senegalensis). ii. an hrp and golgi study of the ventral posterolateral nucleus (vpl).the topographic arrangement and cytoarchitecture of cells in the ventral posterolateral nucleus (vpl) of a prosimian primate (galago senegalensis) were studied using horseradish peroxidase (hrp) and golgi impregnation techniques. following cortical implants of hrp, reactive neurons in vpl are organized into medially concave lamellae which extend through the dorsoventral and rostrocaudal dimensions of the nucleus. after implant in forelimb and hindlimb areas of motor-sensory cortex, labeled cells ...19806156187
the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the diencephalon of the opossum and rabbit.we have examined the distribution of neurons and terminals immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) in the thalamus and adjacent structures of the opossum (didelphis virginiana) and the rabbit and have compared this distribution with the distributions we described previously for the cat and bushbaby (galago senegalensis). the significance of these experiments depends, first, on the fact that gad is the synthetic enzyme for gaba, and therefore that gad immunoreactivity is a marker for ...19846090511
the primates in darfur, republic of sudan.the paper describes the distribution, group size and relative abundance of erythrocebus patas and papio doguera in darfur province, sudan. less detailed information is given on cercopithecus aethiops and galago senegalensis. detailed observations were carried out in the field and by low-level aerial survey during 1972--1978 and have been supplemented by references to the literature where appropriate.1979116947
laminar organization of geniculocortical projections in galago senegalensis and aotus trivirgatus.the projections of the lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex were traced by anterograde and retrograde transport of wga-hrp in two primates, galago and aotus. the goal was to determine the laminar organization of the terminals of individual layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. the results show that in both species the magnocellular layers project to cortical layer iv alpha, the parvicellular layers project to iv beta, and the intercalated geniculate layers (which term includes layers ...19852418082
a morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby galago senegalensis.the lung of the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are ...19902272898
organization of cytochrome oxidase staining in the visual cortex of nocturnal primates (galago crassicaudatus and galago senegalensis): i. adult patterns.the distribution and differential staining patterns of cytochrome oxidase (co) activity in visual cortical areas have provided useful anatomical markers for the modular organization of area 17 (striate cortex) and area 18 in primates. in macaque and squirrel monkeys, previous studies have shown that the majority of cells that lie in areas of high co activity are color selective, are nonoriented, and project to adjacent zones of high co activity in area 17 and to stripes of high co activity in ar ...19902158503
parallel thalamic activation of the first and second somatosensory areas in prosimian primates and tree shrews.in tupaia belangeri and galago senegalensis, microelectrode recordings immediately after ablation of the representation of the forelimb in the midportion of the first somatosensory area, s-i, revealed that all parts of the second somatosensory area, s-ii, remained highly responsive to cutaneous stimuli. in this way, prosimian primates, close relatives of simian primates, and tree shrews differ markedly from monkeys in which s-ii is deactivated by comparable ablations, and resemble such mammals a ...19911753020
origins of anthropoid intelligence. iii. role of prefrontal system in delayed-alternation and spatial-reversal learning in a prosimian (galago senegalensis).a species of prosimian (bush baby, galago senegalensis) was tested on delayed-alternation and spatial-reversal learning before and after ablation of prefrontal cortex. the results show that normal performance on the two behavioral tasks depend on different subdivisions of the md-prefrontal system. delayed alternation is disrupted by prefrontal lesions which cause degeneration in the lateral division of md while spatial-reversal learning is disrupted by lesions causing degeneration of the medial ...1976825189
cerebellar corticonuclear and corticovestibular fibers of the anterior lobe vermis in a prosimian primate (galago senegalensis).efferent projections of the anterior vermis were studied in a prosimian primate (galago senegalensis). cerebellar corticoncuclear and corticovestibular fibers of the anterior lobe vermis are, in toto, ipsilateral. two additional main points emerge. first, evidence is given which suggests that the cortical ara defined as vermis converges, in a rostral direction (from lobules v to i + ii), as the hemispheres of these lobules become latero-medially fore-shortened. the anterior vermis is a cortical ...1976824330
behavioral study of the visual cortex of galago senegalensis.an ablation study of the visual cortex of galago senegalensis was undertaken in the hope of finding clues about the evolution of primate visual cortex. removal of area 17 resulted in a profound sensory loss manifested by, first, the failure to discriminate between simple patterns; second, a deficit in localizing objects; third, a deficiency in tracking moving objects; and fourth, symptoms attributable to a deficiency in depth perception, such as misreaching and inaccurate jumping. thus, the effe ...1975811692
dorsal root afferents to clarke's column from hindlimb cord levels in tupaia and galago.the projection of hindlimb dorsal root afferents to clarke's column has been studied in the tree shrew (tupaia glis) and lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis). in the bushbaby, fibers from k12, l1 and l3 projected ipsilaterally to clark's nucleus from levels l3 to t3, l2 to t4 and l3 to t5 respectively. in tupaia, afferents from t11, l1, and l3 terminated ipsilaterally within the nucleus from segments l2 to t4, l3 to t6, and l3 to t8. fibers from t12, l1, and l3 in galago and t11 in tupaia termi ...1975805631
hepatic drug metabolism in bushbabies (galago crassicaudatus and galago senegalensis) and tree shrews (tupaia glis). 1979113012
the cytoarchitecture and some efferent projections of the centromedian-parafascicular complex in the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis).the morphology of neurons in the centromedian (cm) and parafascicular (pf) nuclei in the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis) is described in coronal and horizontal brain sections using golgi-, horseradish peroxidase (hrp)-, and nissl-staining procedures. the cm contains two types of cells referred to as principal neurons and golgi type ii (like) neurons. cell bodies of principal neurons are relatively large in cross-sectional area (mean = 130.42 micron2), round to spindle in shape, support sho ...19846203940
sexual dimorphism in primate neonatal body mass.data were collected on neonatal body mass for 109 primate species. for 23 species with sample sizes of nine or more for each sex, dimorphism (male/female ratio) in neonatal body mass ranged from 0.94 in galago senegalensis and aotus trivirgatus to 1.19 in pongo pygmaeus. dimorphism in neonatal body mass was positively correlated both with adult body mass and with dimorphism in adult body mass, but the apparent relationship with adult mass was eliminated after controlling for the relationship wit ...19989503093
ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta and chorionic vesicles of the lesser bush baby (galago senegalensis).the ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta of the lesser bush baby (galago senegalensis) has been studied. the placenta was shown to be of the diffuse, epitheliochorial and adeciduate type. the trophoblasts of the chorionic villi, other than those lining the chorionic vesicles, were characterized by the presence of many lipid droplets. in the later stage of gestation, the fetal capillaries indented the trophoblastic epithelium reducing the distance between fetal and maternal circulations ...200616174532
the development of small primate models for aging research.nonhuman primate (nhp) aging research has traditionally relied mainly on the rhesus macaque. but the long lifespan, low reproductive rate, and relatively large body size of macaques and related old world monkeys make them less than ideal models for aging research. manifold advantages would attend the use of smaller, more rapidly developing, shorter-lived nhp species in aging studies, not the least of which are lower cost and the ability to do shorter research projects. arbitrarily defining "smal ...201121411860
pterygodermatites nycticebi (nematoda: rictulariidae): accidental detection of encapsulated third-stage larvae in the tissue of a white-fronted marmoset.twin, white-fronted marmosets (callithrix geoffroyi) born and raised in a zoo in japan died at 7 mo of age. several encapsulated nematode larvae were detected in the intestinal wall, as well as a few in the mesenteric lymph nodes of 1 of the twins. in the other marmoset, no encapsulated nematode larva was detected in the organs, but many adult pterygodermatites nycticebi were found in the intestinal lumen. in the past 5 yr, 5 primates kept in the same zoo, i.e., 1 squirrel monkey (saimiri sciure ...200314740905
the inferior olive of a prosimian primate, galago senegalensis. ii. olivocerebellar projections to the vestibulocerebellum.olivocerebellar projections to the vestibulocerebellum of galago senegalensis, a prosimian primate, were studied by using a horseradish peroxidase (hrp) method. following implants of hrp into the flocculus, labeled cells are found in subgroup d of contralateral medial accessory olive (mao), while labeled somata are present throughout subgroups c and d after injections of hrp into the nodulus and adjacent parts of the uvula. labeled cells are also located throughout the dorsomedial cell column (d ...19836194188
afferents from limbic system-related regions to the frontal cortex in the bush baby (galago senegalensis).afferents from limbic system-related structures (aside from the cingulate and retrosplenial cortex) to medial and lateral regions of the bush baby's frontal cortex were investigated by means of the somatopetal transport of horseradish peroxidase. the frontopolar region received afferents from the subicular cortex, the lateral nucleus of the amygdala, from hypothalamic nuclei, the ventral tegmental area and other brain stem nuclei. injections of horseradish peroxidase into other frontal regions u ...19836667368
secondary vestibulocerebellar projections to flocculonodular lobe in a prosimian primate, galago senegalensis.the organization of vestibulocerebellar projections to the flocculonodular and adjacent cortices were studied in galago using horseradish peroxidase (hrp). implants of hrp pellets or injections (0.14-0.95 microliter) were placed in floccular, parafloccular, nodular, and uvular cortices. following survival times of 18-25 hours animals were killed via transcardiac perfusion of heparinized saline followed by a buffered solution of paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. tissues were processed using da ...19817287921
projections from the superior colliculus and the neocortex to the pulvinar nucleus in galago.we have studied the projections from the superior colliculus and the neocortex to the pulvinar nucleus in galago senegalensis by using the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (hrp). injections of various parts of the pulvinar complex, both the inferior and superior divisions, both the tectorecipient zone and the nontectorecipient zone as defined by glendenning et. al. ('75), produce labeled cells in the lower tier of stratum griseum superficiale. the distribution of labeled cells in t ...19817287920
infant survival and litter size in primigravid and multigravid galagos.eighteen years of birth records for three species of galago at the duke university primate center were examined to determine the effect of gravidity status on neonatal mortality and litter size. multiparous galago senegalensis moholi and g crassicaudatus, but not g garnettii, had significantly higher infant survival rates. gravidity status had no effect on the percentage of multiple births for any of the three species of galago.19863701836
subclassification of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus of the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis): a quantitative golgi study using principal components analysis.the morphology of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (stn) of the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis) is described in coronal brain sections processed by golgi- and nissl-staining techniques. quantitative and statistical methods are used to evaluate (1) soma size and shape, (2) dendritic field size, shape, and branch frequency, (3) the number of dendritic and somatic spines per neuron, and (4) neuron location within the stn. principal components analysis of these variables suggests that three ...19854044919
on the question of the ventral intermediate nucleus in primate thalamus. a study of the lesser bushbaby, galago senegalensis.cytoarchitectural and hodological evidence is given which supports the contention that the large-celled, intermediate zone between ventral posterior lateral (vpl) and ventral lateral (vl) nuclei is an independent thalamic nucleus, designated as the ventral intermediate nucleus (vim), in the thalamic ventral tier of galago senegalensis. observation of nissl-stained sections indicates that vim contains cells which are larger than those in vl and more scattered in appearance than those in vpl. fink ...19817326571
the inferior olive of a prosimian primate galago senegalensis. i. conformation and spino-olivary projections.spino-olivary projections to inferior olive (io) in a prosimian primate, galago senegalensis, were studied by using a modification of the fink and heimer ('67) technique. prior to examining the arrangement of spinal axons within io, its conformation was determined from a series of cresyl violet acetate sections. galago io is composed of typical medial accessory (mao), dorsal accessory (dao), and principal (po) olivary nuclei. the mao is divisible into subgroups a, b, c, d, a ventrolateral outgro ...19836194187
progestagen-concentrating cells in the brain, uterus, vagina and mammary glands of the galago (galago senegalensis).progestagen-concentrating cells were localized in the oestrogen-primed ovariectomized galago by radioautography after injection of [3h]promegestone (r5020). in the brain, radioactivity was concentrated in the nuclei of neurones in the preoptic region and in the mediobasal hypothalamus. labelled cells were also observed in the anterior pituitary. in the uterus (uterine horns and cervix), the muscle and stromal cells showed greater labelling than did the glandular and luminal epithelia. labelled c ...19836682445
interhemispheric striate projections in the prosimian primate, galago senegalensis.previous studies have shown interhemispheric visual connections in primates to be limited to extrastriate cortex. using the retrograde transport technique of horseradish peroxidase, we show that in the prosimian primate galago senegalensis both striate and extrastriate cortex contribute a substantial projection to the contralateral hemisphere. thus, the lack of an interhemispheric projection from area 17 is not a characteristic of primates and may be peculiar to only a few primate species.19807437900
layer i of striate cortex of tupaia glis and galago senegalensis: projections from thalamus and claustrum revealed by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase.we have examined the origin of the subcortical projections to the superficial layers of the striate cortex in tupaia glis and galago senegalensis by using the retrograde transport of hrp. crystals of hrp were laid directly on the moist pial surface of the cortex which had been gently pricked with a small glass pipette. the diffusion of hrp was limited to layers i and ii by restricting the length of time that the hrp was in contact with the surface. following the application of hrp to the striate ...1979110851
the three-dimensional structure of trabecular bone in the femoral head of strepsirrhine primates.it has been hypothesized for over a hundred years that trabecular bone plays an important structural role in the musculoskeletal system of animals and that it responds dynamically to applied loads through growth. the objectives of this study are to quantify the three-dimensional structure of femoral head trabecular bone in a sample of extant strepsirrhines and to relate patterns of interspecific variation to locomotor behavioral differences. the bone volume fraction (bv/tv) and fabric anisotropy ...200212098207
ancestral loss of short wave-sensitive cone visual pigment in lorisiform prosimians, contrasting with its strict conservation in other prosimians.mammals are basically dichromatic in color vision, possessing middle to long wave-sensitive (m/lws) and the short wave-sensitive (sws) cone opsins in the retina, whereas some nocturnal mammals lack functional sws opsins. prosimians, primitive primates consisting of three extant groups (lorisiformes, lemuriformes, and tarsiiformes), include many nocturnal species. among nocturnal prosimians, a species of lorisiforms, the greater galago (otolemur crassicaudatus), is known to lack a functional sws ...200415045486
morphology and morphometrics of three oxyurids parasitic in primates with a description of lemuricola microcebi n. sp.classical and morphometric analyses were conducted on several samples of oxyurid nematodes parasitic in strepsirrhine primates: cheirogaleus major, galago senegalensis, and microcebus murinus. a diagnosis of lemuricola contagiosus chabaud & petter, 1959 from c. major is given using syntypes, from which a lectotype is selected. the rest of the specimens were compared to l. contagiosus. from measurements taken from each sex, an initial principal component analysis (pca) was performed on log-transf ...19958847168
comparative histochemical study of prosimian primate hindlimb muscles. ii. populations of fiber types.the populations of fiber types in hindlimb muscles of the tree shrew (tupaia glis), lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis), and the slow loris (nycticebus coucang) were described and an attempt was made to correlate populations of fiber types and locomotor patterns. muscle fibers were assigned to one of the following groups: fast-twitch glycolytic (fg), fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (fog), and slow-twitch oxidase (so). histochemical techniques for the demonstration of alkaline- and acid-stable ...19816791489
comparative histochemical study of prosimian primate hindlimb muscles. i. muscle fiber types.the profiles of fiber types in hindlimb muscles from the tree shrew (tupaia glis), lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis), and the slow loris (nycticebus coucang) were determined using histochemical techniques. fibers were classified as fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (fog), fast-twitch glycolytic (fg), slow-twitch oxidative (so), or fast-twitch oxidative (fo), according to reactions for alkaline-stable atpase, acid-stable atpase, alpha-glucan phosphorylase, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleo ...19816455915
visual acuity in the cathemeral strepsirrhine eulemur macaco flavifrons.studies of visual acuity in primates have shown that diurnal haplorhines have higher acuity (30-75 cycles per degree (c/deg)) than most other mammals. however, relatively little is known about visual acuity in non-haplorhine primates, and published estimates are only available for four strepsirrhine genera (microcebus, otolemur, galago, and lemur). we present here the first measurements of visual acuity in a cathemeral strepsirrhine species, the blue-eyed black lemur (eulemur macaco flavifrons). ...200919180555
environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.environmental enrichment (ee) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. this study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, dasypus novemcinctus; senegal bush babies, galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at paignton zoo environmental ...201621387395
the projection of the superior colliculus upon the lateral geniculate body in tupaia glis and galago senegalensis. 19807388626
brief communication: effect of size biases in the coefficient of variation on assessing intraspecific variability in the prosimian skeleton.this study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (eulemur fulvus, hapalemur griseus, lemur catta, varecia variegata, galago senegalensis, otolemur crassicaudatus, nycticebus coucang, and tarsius syrichta). measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (cvs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess ...201323900852
chromosomal evolution in "lemurs". vi. chromosomal banding studies of galago senegalensis, galago alleni, galago demidovii and euoticus elegantulus.the karyotype of four galagidae (galago senegalensis, g. demidovii, g. alleni and euoticus elegantulus) are studied and compared with the aid of various banding techniques. many common chromosome segments were found, and it was possible to reconstruct a hypothetical ancestral karyotype for the family. it was also possible to show the relation between the chromosomes of galagidae with those of two lorisidae. the general scheme of chromosomal evolution of the lorisiforms can be proposed, resulting ...19827076058
the prefrontal cortex of a prosimian (galago senegalensis) defined as the cortical projection area of the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus. 19807432621
fine structure of the retinal epithelium in the bushbaby (galago senegalensis). 19806771957
the laminar organisation of the lateral geniculate body in galago senegalensis: a pair of layers identified by acetylcholinesterase activity. 1979466428
the karyotype of galago alleni waterhouse 1837 (2n =40), compared with that of galago senegalensis geoffroy 1796 (2n =38) (primates, prosimii, galagidae). 19725040325
connections of striate cortex in the prosimian, galago senegalensis.efferent and afferent connections of primary visual cortex, area 17, were determined in a prosimian, galago senegalensis, by autoradiographic methods after injections of 3h-proline or 3h-hrp. the cortical connections of area 17 with areas 18 and mt were homotopic and reciprocal. projections from area 17 terminated largely in layer iv and somewhat in layer iii of both areas 18 and mt. most of the cells projecting to area 17 were located in layer v of area 18 and layer vi of mt. subcortical projec ...1978690275
the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis) and the chacma baboon (papio ursinus) as laboratory research animals.the 2 species are evaluated as far as adaptibility, economics, reproductive performance and behaviour are concerned. an important limitation is availability which makes conservation and breeding programmes imperative.1978106112
cells of origin of several efferent pathways from the superior colliculus in galago senegalensis. 197877177
connections of the striate cortex in galago senegalensis. 1978638768
vocal activity of lesser galagos (galago spp.) at zoos.almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. this is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. the aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. this knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. we pe ...201626741794
variations in vocal patterns of senegal and south african lesser bushbabies and their implications for taxonomic relationships.vocalizations of senegal and south african lesser bushbabies were compared with respect to their acoustic properties analysed from spectrograms and oscillograms. homologous calls could be identified within comparable functional categories. considerable similarities were revealed in most of the noisy vocalizations associated with aggressive, defensive or anxiety and alarm behaviour. striking divergences were detected, however, in almost all of the tonal or harmonic call types given in association ...19883254855
epaxial muscle fiber architecture favors enhanced excursion and power in the leaper galago senegalensis.galago senegalensis is a habitual arboreal leaper that engages in rapid spinal extension during push-off. large muscle excursions and high contraction velocities are important components of leaping, and experimental studies indicate that during leaping by g. senegalensis, peak power is facilitated by elastic storage of energy. to date, however, little is known about the functional relationship between epaxial muscle fiber architecture and locomotion in leaping primates. here, fiber architecture ...201526184388
preservation of cross-modal transfer of a rate discrimination in the bushbaby (galago senegalensis) with lesions of posterior neocortex.the effect of lesions of posterior neocortex was assessed, using a test method that permits the demonstration of cross-modal transfer in intact bushbabies. eight bushbabies were trained to discriminate light flashes of 18/sec and 3/sec in a go-no-go shock-avoidance task. on completion of training, four bushbabies received lesions of posterior neocortex by aspiration. after 6 wk both lesion and intact animals were returned to training in the visual discrimination. on the day following criterion p ...1976821977
gonadoblastoma in the ovaries of a lesser galago (galago senegalensis braccatus).an enlarged right ovary was removed from a 14-year-old lesser galago (galago senegalensis braccatus). cytological preparations consisted of a heterogeneous population of neoplastic cells admixed with extracellular hyaline structures and cell-free nuclei. microscopically, the ovary was replaced with gonadoblastoma and was composed of nests of germinal cells, including large oocyte-like cells, and sex cord-stromal cells arranged in palisading patterns around the germinal cells, the periphery of th ...201522520808
revision of the genus galagocheles fain (acari: cheyletidae), parasites of galagos (primates: galagonidae).galagocheles fain, 1979 (acari: cheyletidae), comprising permanent parasites of african prosimian primates (galagonidae), is revised. an amended diagnosis of the genus based on characters of adults and immatures is given. the type-species, g. lemuricola (lawrence, 1948), from otolemur garnetti (ogilby) (type-host) and o. crassicaudatus geoffroy, is redescribed, and g. lawrencei n. sp. is described from galago senegalensis geoffroy (type-host) and g. moholi smith. the new species differs from g. ...200616758296
mechanical significance of femoral head trabecular bone structure in loris and galago evaluated using micromechanical finite element models.work on the interspecific and intraspecific variation of trabecular bone in the proximal femur of primates demonstrates important architectural variation between animals with different locomotor behaviors. this variation is thought to be related to the processes of bone adaptation whereby bone structure is optimized to the mechanical environment. micromechanical finite element models were created for the proximal femur of the leaping galago senegalensis and the climbing and quadrupedal loris tar ...200515386240
sex differences in the behavior and the social interactions of immature galago senegalensis braccatus.there is little detailed documentation of immature behavior, especially mother-offspring interactions, for nocturnal prosimians, and few studies have examined sex differences in mother-offspring interactions. this study compares the behavior of captive-born galago senegalensis braccatus, the senegal galago, from 1 to 20 weeks of age for 3-5 females and 4-6 males. the subjects lived in social groups, on a reversed light cycle. three 10-min focal samples were taken each week, for each subject, dur ...200614605474
a comparison of the femoral head and neck trabecular architecture of galago and perodicticus using micro-computed tomography (microct).innovations in micro-computed tomography (microct) in the medical field have resulted in the development of techniques that allow the precise quantification of bone density and fabric related parameters of trabecular bone. for the purpose of this study, the technique was applied to a small sample of perodicticus potto and galago senegalensis femora to see if differences in loading environment elicit the predicted effects on trabecular structure. while the overall bone volume was approximately th ...200212098212
cranial morphology of aegyptopithecus and tarsius and the question of the tarsier-anthropoidean clade.new crania of the oligocene anthropoidean aegyptopithecus provide a test of the hypothesized tarsier-anthropoidean clade. three cranial characters shared by tarsius and some modern anthropoideans (apical interorbital septum, postorbital septum, "perbullar" carotid pathway) were examined. 1) an apical interorbital septum is absent in aegyptopithecus. a septum does occur in galago senegalensis (lorisidae) and microcebus murinus (cheirogaleidae), so the presence of a septum is not strong evidence f ...19892502021
hand preferences and whole (galago senegalensis).the hand preferences in prey capture and whole-body turning biases after prey capture were assessed in 10 lesser bushbabies (galago senegalensis) in 8 conditions designed to manipulate posture, visibility of prey and angle of reaching. each subject received 60 trials in each test condition for a total of 480 trials. seven subjects had a left-hand preference in food reaching, three right and none were ambipreferent. eight subjects had a left whole-body turning bias, one right and one had no bias. ...19892758314
properties of immobilized hind-limb muscles of the galago senegalensis. 1975233983
patterns of activity in three nocturnal prosimian species, galago senegalensis moholi, g. crassicaudatus umbrosus, and microcebus murinus murinus, under semi-natural conditions. 19744415003
corticospinal fibers in a prosimian primate (galago senegalensis). 19734763620
the morphology of clarke's column in the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis). 19734129815
follicular development and ovulation in macaca fascicularis, saimiri sciureus and galago senegalensis. 19734266063
pseudotumor of the orbit in a prosimian primate (lesser bushbaby; galago senegalensis). 19734791999
overloaded skeletal muscles of a nonhuman primate (galago senegalensis). 19724404704
the hemogram of the colonized lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis). 19714993830
reproduction in the lesser bushbaby (galago senegalensis moholi) under semi-natural conditions. 19714993822
[invagination of the colon with prolapse through the anus in a galago senegalensis]. 19705537712
septic abortion in the senegal bush baby (galago senegalensis senegalensis). 19705530759
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