female reproductive patterns in nonhibernating bats.the major reproductive events in the oestrous cycles of nonhibernating mega- and microchiropteran species are reviewed. however, special attention is given to the reproductive biology of the temperate north american species, tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (molossidae), the mexican free-tailed bat, which expresses dextral uterine and ovarian dominance. only the larger right ovary is capable of producing an ovulatory follicle and the left has long been considered atrophic. in order to elucidate th ...1979572874
effects of dde on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis): lethal brain female free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at bracken cave, texas, and shipped to the patuxent wildlife research center. treated mealworms (tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm dde were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. after 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. the objective was to elevate brain levels of dde to lethality and measure the ...1977599587
[histoplasma capsulatum: isolation from bats in cuba].a mycologic-serologic study of 169 bats of species artibeus jamaicensis parvipos, brachyphyllanana, eptesicus fuscus dutertreus, tadarida brasiliensis muscula and mormoops blainvillei which were catched in a cave of havana province is presented. histoplasma capsulatum were isolated from the lungs, liver and spleen, in four out of the five species studied. all species were serologically negative.1976802802
ectoparasitic mites (acari) of sympatric brazilian free-tailed bats and big brown bats in species of mites were recovered from 133 brazilian free-tailed bats, tadarida brasiliensis, and 94 big brown bats, eptesicus fuscus, from february through november 1990 in colonies that shared roosting space in east-central alabama. the macronyssid chiroptonyssus robustipes (ewing) was the most common mite on t. brasiliensis (964 mites, 87% of bats infested) and on e. fuscus (109 mites, 29% of bats infested). however, c. rubustipes normally is a specific parasite of t. brasiliensis. the ma ...19921625301
evidence for prenatal transfer of rabies virus in the mexican free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana).fetuses were collected from four mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) and a fetal bat cell (fbc) line was established and tested for its ability to support the replication of the era vaccine strain of rabies virus. cytopathic effects were detected in era virus-inoculated as well as uninoculated fbc's. immunofluorescent antibody testing of uninoculated fbc's provided no evidence for the presence of rabies virus. however, mice inoculated intracranially with supernatant fluid f ...19892668566
prevalence of rabies specific antibodies in the mexican free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) at lava cave, new female and juvenile mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) were collected bimonthly at lava cave, new mexico from may through september. the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of active rabies infection as well as to determine individual immune status in these hosts. all bats were bled and examined for rabies antibody (total antibody versus igm) utilizing a modified serum neutralization test. the brains were removed and examined by the fluorescent rabies ...19892681843
eimeria from bats of the world. ii. a new species in tadarida femorosacca from sonora, mexico.between 1979 and 1980, 104 bats representing 13 species in 4 families were collected in california and new mexico, u.s.a., and baja california and sonora, mexico, and were examined for coccidia; only 3 (3%) had oocysts in their feces. bats examined and their infection rates were: molossidae: 0 of 12 tadarida brasiliensis, 1 of 18 (6%) t. femorosacca; natalidae: 0 of 1 natalus stramineus; phyllostomatidae: 0 of 1 choeronycteris mexicana, 0 of 2 leptonycteris sanborni, 0 of 1 macrotus californicus ...19883357122
experimental infection of north american insectivorous bats (tadarida brasiliensis) with histoplasma capsulatum. 19665941177
experimental infection of bats (tadarida brasiliensis) with blastomyces dermatitidis. 19676025762
effects of dde and pcb (aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned female little brown bats (myotis lucifugus): lethal brain female little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in north east, cecil county, md. mealworms (tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm dde, 12 at 150 ppm dde, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb; aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm pcb. seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. the objective was to elevate brain levels of dde and pcb to lethality and measure these concentrations. ...19816790723
contribution of bats to the maintenance of histoplasma capsulatum in a cave microfocus.bracken cave, a large natural cavern located 25 miles northeast of san antonio, texas, serves as nursery roost for millions of mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis). ten days after spending several hours in the cave in early may 1979, three graduate students presented with signs and symptoms compatible with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. a study was initiated to determine the presence and location of histoplasma capsulatum in the cave and its inhabitants. the fungus was cultured dire ...19827081547
anatomy and projection patterns of the superior olivary complex in the mexican free-tailed bat, tadarida brasiliensis mexicana.the superior olivary complex (soc) is the first station in the ascending auditory pathway that receives binaural projections. two of the principal nuclei, the lateral superior olive (lso) and the medial superior olive (mso), are major sources of ascending projections to the inferior colliculus. whereas almost all mammals have an lso, it has traditionally been thought that only animals that hear low frequencies have an mso. recent reports, however, suggest that the medial part of the soc in bats ...19948034792
cross-placental transfer of organochlorine pesticides in mexican free-tailed bats from oklahoma and new mexico.a total of 41 pregnant mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) were collected from carlsbad caverns, new mexico, and vickery cave, oklahoma, in may and june 1990 and may 1991 for organochlorine pesticide analyses. residues of p,p'-dde were detected by gas chromatography in 40 embryos at levels highly correlated with brain concentrations (r = 0.496) but were not correlated mother's body tissues (r = 0.060). embryonic levels also did not correlate with either embryonic fat content (r = 0. ...19948060168
the cochlea of tadarida brasiliensis: specialized functional organization in a generalized bat.tadarida brasiliensis mexicana employs a broad-band sonar system at frequencies between 80 and 20 khz and is characterized by non-specialized hearing capabilities. the cochlear frequency map was determined with extracellular horseradish peroxidase tracing in relation to quantitative morphological data obtained with light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. these data reveal distinct species characteristic specializations clearly separate from the patterns observed in other bats with ...19958647719
molecular epidemiology of enzootic rabies in california.molecular characterization of rabies virus has been used to trace spillover transmission from reservoir species to non-reservoir animals and humans (molecular epidemiology), and to monitor emergence of specific strains of the virus into new species and geographic areas (molecular surveillance).199910614858
bat rabies in urban centers in hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. these isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in chile. the phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reser ...200010813604
bat ectoparasites from the trans-pecos region of texas, including notes from big bend national park.ectoparasites of 13 species of molossid, mormoopid, and vespertilionid bats from the trans-pecos region of texas were studied, as follows: antrozous pallidus (leconte), corynorhinus townsendii (cooper), eptesicus fuscus (palisot de beauvois), lasiurus cinereus (palisot de beauvois), mormoops megalophylla (peters), myotis thysanodes g. s. miller, myotis velifer (j. a. allen), myotis volans (h. allen), myotis yumanensis (h. allen), nyctinomops femorosaccus (merriam), nyctinomops macrotis (gray), p ...200111372965
first case of human rabies in chile caused by an insectivorous bat virus variant.the first human rabies case in chile since 1972 occurred in march 1996 in a patient without history of known exposure. antigenic and genetic characterization of the rabies isolate indicated that its reservoir was the insectivorous bat tadarida brasiliensis. this is the first human rabies case caused by an insectivorous bat rabies virus variant reported in latin america.200211749754
antigenic diversity and distribution of rabies virus in mexico.rabies remains a public health problem in the americas because of the great diversity of wild reservoirs that maintain the virus in nature. here we report the antigenic characterization of 254 rabies viruses isolated from 148 nonreservoir and 106 reservoir hosts collected in 27 states of mexico. nine out of 11 antigenic variants previously reported in the united states were detected in mexico by using the limited panel of monoclonal antibodies donated by the centers for disease control and preve ...200211880422
antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. the panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the americas. samples were isolated in the diagnostic laboratory of the pasteur institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in brazil. in addition to the fixed virus samples cvs-31/96-ip, preserved in mouse brain, and pv-bhk/97, preserved in cell c ...200212048546
human rabies--california, 2002.on march 31, 2002, a man aged 28 years residing in glenn county, california, died from rabies encephalitis caused by a rabies virus variant associated with the mexican free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis) (figure). this report summarizes the investigation by the glenn county health department (gchd) and the california department of health services (cdhs). persons who observe abnormal behavior in any wildlife species should contact animal control or animal rescue agencies immediately and shoul ...200212233911
genetic and antigenic typing of rabies virus in chile. brief report.forty-one isolates of rabies virus from insectivorous bats and one from a domestic cat in chile, were characterized using eight anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) and by nucleotide sequence analysis. thirty-two isolates were identified as antigenic variant 4 associated with tadarida brasiliensis bats, twenty-eight were genetically associated with variant tadarida brasiliensis and four with lasiurus sp. bats. one isolate was identified as antigenic variant 3 associated with desmodu ...200212417953
trends in national surveillance for rabies among bats in the united states (1993-2000).to describe surveillance trends and epidemiologic features of rabies in bats in the united states, focusing on 3 bat species primarily associated with variants of the rabies virus that affect humans.200312619845
acarine infracommunities associated with the mexican free-tailed bat, tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (chiroptera: molossidae) in arid regions of mexico.the mexican free-tailed bat, tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, is one of the most widely distributed bats, and its range includes the whole mexican territory. ectoparasites of this bat have been the subject of isolated reports, but no studies of its community ecology have been conducted. the acarine infracommunities associated with this bat were analyzed, comparing bat populations from three arid regions of mexico: an abandoned factory in nombre de dios, durango; a cave in santiago, nuevo león; an ...200314765683
antigenic and molecular characterization of rabies virus in argentina.the nucleoprotein genes of 54 human, domestic and wild animals rabies isolates obtained in argentina between 1995 and 2002 were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and partial gene sequence analysis. the antigenic and genetic diversities of rabies virus in samples from bat and bat-related cases were studied, leading to the identification of five distinct genetic variants. rabies viruses isolated from vampire bat related cases were very similar to each other, showing 98.9% overall similarit ...200415763144
experimental and natural infection of north american bats with west nile virus.big brown (eptesicus fuscus) and mexican free-tailed (tadarida brasiliensis) bats were inoculated with the new york 99 strain of west nile virus to assess their potential to serve as amplifying hosts and determine the clinical effect of infection. groups of three or four bats were bled at daily intervals between 1 and 6 days after inoculation to determine the pattern of viremia. beginning 2 days after inoculation, virus was isolated each day from one or more e. fuscus bats, in titers ranging fro ...200516103624
mammal and flea relationships in the great basin desert: from h. j. egoscue's association among 58 flea species parasitizing 40 mammal species in the great basin desert of the western united states was investigated. increased flea species richness was correlated with larger geographic ranges and stable locomotion of hosts. hosts from habitats of moderately low productivity (sage and grass) and of peromyscus maniculatus size, 10-33 g, had the highest flea species richness. larger hosts had fewer flea species, but fleas were more prevalent. increased host spec ...200616729681
rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar.the sonar systems of bats and dolphins are in many ways superior to man-made sonar and radar systems, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the signal-processing strategies underlying these capabilities. a major feature determining the efficiency of sonar systems is the sensitivity to noise and jamming signals. previous studies indicated that echolocating bats may adjust their signal structure to avoid jamming ('jamming avoidance response'; jar). however, these studies relied ...200717254989
organochlorine pesticide residues in guano of brazilian free-tailed bats, tadarida brasiliensis saint-hilaire, from east texas. 200717476450
[rabies virus in naturally infected bats in the state of são paulo, southeastern brazil].to identify the species of bats involved in maintaining the rabies cycle; to investigate the distribution of the rabies virus in the tissues and organs of bats and the time taken for mortality among inoculated mice.200717515992
molecular epidemiology of rabies in colombia 1994-2005 based on partial nucleoprotein gene hundred and twenty-four rabies viruses (rabv) were isolated from humans and eight species of mammals in colombia during 1994-2005. to determine the genetic and reservoir-associated diversity cdna fragments encoding 88 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of the nucleoprotein were sequenced and used in phylogenetic analyses. eight genetic lineages (gl) were characterized. gl1, gl2 and gl3 consisted of dog-associated antigenic variant (av) 1 rabv, isolated in the centre-east, north and southwe ...200717643540
the proximal airway of the bat tadarida brasiliensis: a minimum entropy production design.the bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system whose geometry and dimensions of branched structures are important factors in determining the efficiency of respiration. small and flying endothermic animals have high-energy requirements, requiring morphological and physiological adaptations to reduce energy loss. here we show that tadarida brasiliensis, a nocturnal small bat whose energy requirements are exacerbated by this small size and by their ...200818074143
distribution of 2-[i]iodomelatonin binding in the brain of mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis).the neurohormone melatonin is an important signal for both time of day and time of year in many seasonally breeding animals. high densities of melatonin receptors have been found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence, and the pituitary gland in almost all mammals investigated so far, and lower densities of melatonin receptors have also been localized to other brain regions varying in a species-specific fashion. because species-specific differences in receptor distributions have been co ...200919223684
[antigen profile of rabies virus isolated from different species of non-hematophagous bats in the region of presidente prudente, state of são paulo].using the monoclonal antibody technique, the clinical and molecular virology laboratory of the institute of biomedical sciences of the university of são paulo typed 18 rabies virus samples from non-hematophagous bats of several species from the region of presidente prudente, sp, brazil. among these samples, 15 (82.3%) were defined as variant 3 (compatible with samples isolated from desmodus rotundus bats) and three (16.7%) as variant 4 (compatible with samples isolated from tadarida brasiliensis ...200919287929
ecology of rabies virus exposure in colonies of brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) at natural and man-made roosts in texas.previous studies have investigated rabies virus (rabv) epizootiology in brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) in natural cave roosts. however, little is known about geographic variation in rabv exposure, or if the use of man-made roosts by this species affects enzootic rabv infection dynamics within colonies. we sampled rabies viral neutralizing antibodies in bats at three bridge and three cave roosts at multiple time points during the reproductive season to investigate temporal and ...201019492942
imported human rabies--california, 2008.compared with rabies in developing countries, human rabies is rare in the united states, but animal rabies is common. in the united states, most human rabies cases are associated with rabid bats, whereas in developing countries, dogs are the most common reservoir and vector species. in march 2008, a case of imported human rabies in a recently arrived, undocumented mexican immigrant was laboratory confirmed by public health officials in california. the rabies virus isolated from the patient was a ...200919590490
new rabies virus variant found during an epizootic in white-nosed coatis from the yucatan february 2008, three white-nosed coatis (nasua narica) were found dead in a recreational park in cancun, mexico. the diagnosis of rabies virus (rabv) infection was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence test. the phylogenetic analysis performed with the complete rabv nucleoprotein gene positioned this isolate close to a sequence of a human rabies case reported during 2008 from oaxaca, mexico, sharing 93% similarity. in turn, these two variants are related to another variant found in rabid tad ...201020392303
biological activity of the mite sancassania sp. (acari: acaridae) from bat guano associated with the pathogenic fungus histoplasma capsulatum.mites and the mammal pathogenic fungus histoplasma capsulatum are the major components of bat guano microbiota. interactions between mites and h. capsulatum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. acarid mites, mainly sancassania sp., were the most abundant microarthropod in the sampled guano of the mexican bat tadarida brasiliensis mexicana and, based on its morphology, sancassania sp. was similar to the cosmopolitan species sancassania sphaerogaster. the mycophagous and vectoring activitie ...201020428669
[rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].this study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the brazilian free-tailed bat, tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotei ...200920462155
response to vaccination with a commercial inactivated rabies vaccine in a captive colony of brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis).a captive colony of brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) was vaccinated with a commercial monovalent inactivated rabies virus (rabv) vaccine (rabvac 1). baseline rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (vna) and the response to vaccination were measured in 50 bats. rabies vna was detected in the plasma of 64% (27/42) of bats that had been vaccinated 1 yr prior, but only 19% (8/42) had levels considered adequate. rabies vna was detected in the plasma of 63% (5/8) of bats with no record ...201020722268
bat mortality: pesticide poisoning and migratory stress.organochlorine residues in the fat of young mexican free-tailed bats, tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. these chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. the data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in populations of this bat.1976959845
thermoregulation during flight: body temperature and sensible heat transfer in free-ranging brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis).bat wings are important for thermoregulation, but their role in heat balance during flight is largely unknown. more than 80% of the energy consumed during flight generates heat as a by-product, and thus it is expected that bat wings should dissipate large amounts of heat to prevent hyperthermia. we measured rectal (t(r)) and surface (t(s)) temperatures of brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) as they emerged from and returned to their daytime roosts and calculated sensible heat tran ...201021034204
variation in physiological stress between bridge- and cave-roosting brazilian free-tailed bats.since the late 1980s, brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) have increasingly used bridges as roosts in the southern united states. we examined differences in blood cortisol levels, body condition, and parasite load, as measures of physiological stress in bats roosting in bridges and bats roosting in caves. we collected data during three periods, coinciding with female phases of reproduction. for all measures, bats were captured during the nightly emergence from the roost and immedi ...201021175827
erythropoiesis in the yolk sac of the bat tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala.the process of erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis in the yolk sac of the bat (tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala) has been studied through the use of both light and electron microscopy. stem cells arise from the leading edge of the migrating splanchnic mesoderm and transform into primitive erythroblasts. differentiation involves either contact or association with the endodermal cells, since all erythropoietic activity occurs on the endodermal side of the expanding vascular bed, and many of the cel ...19761034449
thermal windows on brazilian free-tailed bats facilitate thermoregulation during prolonged flight.the brazilian free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis) experiences challenging thermal conditions while roosting in hot caves, flying during warm daylight conditions, and foraging at cool high altitudes. using thermal infrared cameras, we identified hot spots along the flanks of free-ranging brazilian free-tailed bats, ventral to the extended wings. these hot spots are absent in syntopic cave myotis (myotis velifer), a species that forages over relatively short distances, and does not engage in l ...201020811514
rabies diagnosis and serology in bats from the state of são paulo, brazil.bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world.201121468481
brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis: molossidae, chiroptera) at high altitude: links to migratory insect populations.existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. we report a total of 50.2 h of ultrasonic recordings made using radio microphonic bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium balloons and from kites. the data include a total of 22 353 echolocative calls from ground-level to 1118 m above ground level (agl). these calls are attributed to brazilian free-tailed bats based on acous ...200821669777
histological assessment of cellular immune response to the phytohemagglutinin skin test in brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis).bats are known reservoirs for numerous emerging infectious diseases, occupy unique ecological niches, and occur globally except for antarctica. given their impact on human and agricultural health, it is critical to understand the mechanisms underlying immunocompetence in this reservoir host. to date, few studies have examined immune function in the order chiroptera, particularly among natural colonies of bats. the phytohemagglutinin (pha) skin test has been widely used to measure delayed-type ce ...201020549214
Naturally Acquired Rabies Virus Infections in Wild-Caught Bats.Abstract The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-c ...201121923271
a mechanism for antiphonal echolocation by free-tailed bats.bats are highly social and spend much of their lives echolocating in the presence of other bats. to reduce the effects of acoustic interferences from other bats' echolocation calls, we hypothesized that bats might shift the timing of their pulse emissions to minimize temporal overlap with another bat's echolocation pulses. to test this hypothesis we investigated whether free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) echolocating in the lab would shift the timing of their own pulse emissions in respons ...201020419063
chemically-mediated roostmate recognition and roost selection by brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis).the brazilian free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis) is an exceptionally social and gregarious species of chiropteran known to roost in assemblages that can number in the millions. chemical recognition of roostmates within these assemblages has not been extensively studied despite the fact that an ability to chemically recognize individuals could play an important role in forming and stabilizing complex suites of social interactions.200919901986
genetic diversity of histoplasma capsulatum isolated from infected bats randomly captured in mexico, brazil, and argentina, using the polymorphism of (ga)(n) microsatellite and its flanking regions.the genetic diversity of 47 histoplasma capsulatum isolates from infected bats captured in mexico, brazil, and argentina was studied, using sequence polymorphism of a 240-nucleotides (nt) fragment, which includes the (ga)(n) length microsatellite and its flanking regions within the hsp60 gene. three human clinical strains were used as geographic references. based on phylogenetic analyses of 240-nt fragments achieved, the relationships among h. capsulatum isolates were resolved using neighbour-jo ...201122289776
ultrastructural differentiation of the endodermal cells of the yolk sac of the bat, tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala. 20144101087
ecological approaches in veterinary epidemiology: mapping the risk of bat-borne rabies using vegetation indices and night-time light satellite imagery.rabies remains a disease of significant public health concern. in the americas, bats are an important source of rabies for pets, livestock, and humans. for effective rabies control and prevention, identifying potential areas for disease occurrence is critical to guide future research, inform public health policies, and design interventions. to anticipate zoonotic infectious diseases distribution at coarse scale, veterinary epidemiology needs to advance via exploring current geographic ecology to ...201526338730
versatility and stereotypy of free-tailed bat mammals, complex songs are uncommon and few studies have examined song composition or the order of elements in songs, particularly with respect to regional and individual variation. in this study we examine how syllables and phrases are ordered and combined, ie "syntax", of the song of tadarida brasiliensis, the brazilian free-tailed bat. specifically, we test whether phrase and song composition differ among individuals and between two regions, we determine variability across renditions withi ...200919707550
context-dependent effects of noise on echolocation pulse characteristics in free-tailed bats.background noise evokes a similar suite of adaptations in the acoustic structure of communication calls across a diverse range of vertebrates. echolocating bats may have evolved specialized vocal strategies for echolocating in noise, but also seem to exhibit generic vertebrate responses such as the ubiquitous lombard response. we wondered how bats balance generic and echolocation-specific vocal responses to noise. to address this question, we first characterized the vocal responses of flying fre ...200919672604
the long lifespan of two bat species is correlated with resistance to protein oxidation and enhanced protein homeostasis.altered structure, and hence function, of cellular macromolecules caused by oxidation can contribute to loss of physiological function with age. here, we tested whether the lifespan of bats, which generally live far longer than predicted by their size, could be explained by reduced protein damage relative to short-lived mice. we show significantly lower protein oxidation (carbonylation) in mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) relative to mice, and a trend for lower oxidation in sampl ...200919244163
roosting ecology and variation in adaptive and innate immune system function in the brazilian free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis).bats have recently been implicated as reservoirs of important emerging diseases. however, few studies have examined immune responses in bats, and even fewer have evaluated these responses in an ecological context. we examined aspects of both innate and adaptive immune response in adult female brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) at four maternity roosts (two natural caves and two human-made bridges) in south-central texas. immune measurements included in vitro bactericidal ability ...200919002470
brazilian free-tailed bats as insect pest regulators in transgenic and conventional cotton crops.during the past 12000 years agricultural systems have transitioned from natural habitats to conventional agricultural regions and recently to large areas of genetically engineered (ge) croplands. this ge revolution occurred for cotton in a span of slightly more than a decade during which a switch occurred in major cotton production areas from growing 100% conventional cotton to an environment in which 95% transgenics are grown. ecological interactions between ge targeted insects and other insect ...200818536245
bat coronavirus in brazil related to appalachian ridge and porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses. 201525811911
assessment of rabies exposure risk in a group of u.s. air force basic trainees - texas, january january 2014, members of the joint base san antonio (jbsa)-lackland, texas, preventive medicine and public health teams evaluated a u.s. air force basic training squadron for potential exposure in sleeping bays to rabies virus carried by mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis). exposure to bats while asleep or otherwise unaware is an important risk factor for rabies in the united states. over the past several decades, most indigenous human rabies infections in the united states have ...201425166925
ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in chile.rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. in america, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. the bat species tadarida brasiliensis and lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants agv4 and agv6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in chile. however, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. this contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the e ...201324349592
epidemiology of rabies in bats in texas (2001-2010).to obtain epidemiological information on rabies in bats in texas.201324094260
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2012.summary-during 2012, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human rabies case to the cdc, representing a 2.1% increase from the 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human cases reported in 2011. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,953 raccoons (31.7%), 1,680 bats (27.3%), 1,539 skunks (25.0%), 340 foxes (5.5%), 257 cats (4.2%), 115 cattle (1.9%), and 84 dogs (1.4%). compared with 2011, there wa ...201324004227
human rabies--south carolina, 2011.on december 3, 2011, a south carolina woman visited a local emergency department (ed) with an overnight history of shortness of breath, diaphoresis, chills, and intermittent paresthesia. the patient was transferred to a referral hospital, where she became comatose and developed multiorgan failure. the patient did not report a history of an animal bite. however, family members subsequently revealed that bats had been observed in the patient's home during the previous summer. family members also r ...201323945770
susceptibility and pathogenesis of little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) to heterologous and homologous rabies viruses.rabies virus (rabv) maintenance in bats is not well understood. big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (myotis lucifugus), and mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the united states. these colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. however, the silver-haired bat (lasionycteris noctivagans) rabv is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the united states and cana ...201323741002
antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from uruguay.after 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in october 2007. the outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. from october 2007 to july 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the national veterinary diagnostic laboratory for rabies testing. a total of 12 ...201323318595
high diversity of rabies viruses associated with insectivorous bats in argentina: presence of several independent enzootics.rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. rabies virus (rabv) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. it is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of rabv in argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive argentinean territory.201222590657
cat infected by a variant of bat rabies virus in a 29-year disease-free urban area of southern brazil.after 29 years, rabies was detected in a cat in curitiba, southern brazil.201222535002
typing of the rabies virus in chile, chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. this study aimed to determine the rabies virus (rabv) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. a total of 612 rabv isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (n-mabs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. typing of the isolates revealed six dif ...201222458941
low rates of hydrogen peroxide production by isolated heart mitochondria associate with long maximum lifespan in vertebrate inverse correlation between free radical production by isolated mitochondria and longevity in homeotherms has been reported, but previous comparative studies ignored possible confounding effects of body mass and phylogeny. we investigated this correlation by comparing rates of hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) production by heart mitochondria isolated from groups or pairs of species selected to have very different maximum lifespans but similar body masses (small mammals, medium-sized mammals, bird ...200717596208
generation and characterization of eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat) kidney cell lines immortalized using the myotis polyomavirus large is speculated that bats are important reservoir hosts for numerous viruses, with 27 viral families reportedly detected in bats. majority of these viruses have not been isolated and there is little information regarding their biology in bats. establishing a well-characterized bat cell line supporting the replication of bat-borne viruses would facilitate the analysis of virus-host interactions in an in vitro model. currently, few bat cell lines have been developed and only tb1-lu, derived from ...201627639955
tadaridanema delicatus (schwartz, 1927) n. gen., n. comb. (trichostrongylina: molineidae) parasite of molossidae bats.on the basis of the revision of the type material of anoplostrongylus delicatus schwartz, 1927, and new specimens collected from tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (saussure, 1860) in 4 arid localities from mexico, we describe a new genus (tadaridanema n. gen.), to which a. delicatus is transferred (as tadaridanema delicatus (schwartz, 1927) n. gen., n. comb.). this new genus differs from all other genera included in anoplostrongylinae by having ray 2 larger than ray 3. in addition, t. delicatus can ...200617152947
histochemistry of flight muscles in the jamaican fruit bat, artibeus jamaicensis: implications for motor control.two fast-twitch fiber types are histochemically identified in the primary flight muscles of artibeus jamaicensis. these are classified as type iia and iib according to an acid-preincubation staining protocol for myosin atpase. all fibers in the bat flight muscles exhibit relatively intense staining properties for nadh-tr, suggesting a high oxidative capacity. the glycolytic potential of all fibers is rather low, as assessed by stains for alpha-gpd. this two-type histochemical profile appears to ...19882458476
acoustic detection and classification of microchiroptera using machine learning: lessons learned from automatic speech recognition.current automatic acoustic detection and classification of microchiroptera utilize global features of individual calls (i.e., duration, bandwidth, frequency extrema), an approach that stems from expert knowledge of call sonograms. this approach parallels the acoustic phonetic paradigm of human automatic speech recognition (asr), which relied on expert knowledge to account for variations in canonical linguistic units. asr research eventually shifted from acoustic phonetics to machine learning, pr ...200616583922
large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. to examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern california, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed ...201424823689
functional and structural optimization of the respiratory system of the bat tadarida brasiliensis (chiroptera, molossidae): does airway geometry matter?we studied structure and function of the respiratory system in the bat tadarida brasiliensis and compared it with those of two species of rodents, abrothrix andinus and a. olivaceus. tadarida brasiliensis had lower resting oxygen consumption, but higher maximum oxygen consumption and aerobic scope, than the rodents. the blood-gas barrier of the bat was thinner and its relative lung size was larger; however, alveolar surface density was similar among the three species. in consequence, t. brasilie ...200516215224
geographical distribution of genetic polymorphism of the pathogen histoplasma capsulatum isolated from infected bats, captured in a central zone of mexico.fourteen histoplasma capsulatum isolates recovered from infected bats captured in mexican caves and two human h. capsulatum reference strains were analyzed using random amplification of polymorphic dna pcr-based and partial dna sequences of four genes. cluster analysis of random amplification of polymorphic dna-patterns revealed differences for two h. capsulatum isolates of one migratory bat tadarida brasiliensis. three groups were identified by distance and maximum-parsimony analyses of arf, h- ...200516061361
genetic variation and migration in the mexican free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana).incomplete lineage sorting can genetically link populations long after they have diverged, and will exert a more powerful influence on larger populations. the effects of this stochastic process can easily be confounded with those of gene flow, potentially leading to inaccurate estimates of dispersal capabilities or erroneous designation of evolutionarily significant units (esus). we have used phylogenetic, population genetic, and coalescent methods to examine genetic structuring in large populat ...200515910338
animal vocal sequences: not the markov chains we thought they were.many animals produce vocal sequences that appear complex. most researchers assume that these sequences are well characterized as markov chains (i.e. that the probability of a particular vocal element can be calculated from the history of only a finite number of preceding elements). however, this assumption has never been explicitly tested. furthermore, it is unclear how language could evolve in a single step from a markovian origin, as is frequently assumed, as no intermediate forms have been fo ...201425143037
ddt and the decline of free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) at carlsbad cavern, new mexico.ddt is believed to have caused the population of brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) at carlsbad cavern to decline severely after 1936. nevertheless, previous data supporting this hypothesis are limited to a single study from 1974, which indicated that 20% of young free-tails from the cavern may have died of dde poisoning during their first southward migration. in this study i compared organochlorine residues among samples of free-tails collected in carlsbad cavern in 193 ...200111525497
patterns of bat distribution and foraging activity in a highly urbanized temperate environment.understanding how to manage biodiversity in urban areas will become increasingly important as density of humans residing in urban centers increases and urban areas expand. while considerable research has documented the shifts in biodiversity along urbanization gradients, much less work has focused on how characteristics of dense urban centers, effectively novel environments, influence behavior and biodiversity. urban bats in san francisco provide an opportunity to document changes in behavior an ...201628030640
ectoparasites of brazilian free-tailed bats with emphasis on anatomical site preferences for chiroptonyssus robustipes (acari: macronyssidae).seven species of arthropods were recovered from 45 brazilian free-tailed bats, tadarida brasiliensis (i. geoffrey), captured from may 1994 to may 1995 from a roost in jenkins county, ga. six species of mites were found infesting the bats, representing 5 families: macronyssidae, cheyletidae, sarcoptidae, rosensteiniidae, and uropodidae. the macronyssid mite chiroptonyssus robustipes (ewing) and the hemipteran bat bug, cimex adjunctus (barber), were collected from the host and the roost. c. robust ...199910467777
ultrastructure of the binary parotid glands in the free-tailed bat, tadarida thersites. i. principal parotid gland.many species of bats have two sets of submandibular glands, principal and accessory. the accessory gland may resemble the principal one but more often shows wide morphological divergence. the free-tailed bat, tadarida thersites, is very unusual in that it has two sets of parotid glands rather than binary submandibular glands. we studied the ultrastructure of the principal parotid gland to establish a baseline for comparison with the accessory parotid.19989605227
high plasma cholesterol, but low triglycerides and plaque-free arteries, in mexican free-tailed bats.female mammals typically become hyperphagic from mid- to late pregnancy and during lactation. mexican free-tailed bats, tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, double their nightly food intake from late pregnancy to peak lactation and consume an insect diet that is exceptionally high in fat. during late pregnancy and throughout lactation, fasting plasma levels of cholesterol in this insectivorous bat are high (215 +/- 8 mg/dl) and are nearly 10-fold higher than in three species of old world frugivorous ...19968945941
organochlorine pesticide accumulation and genotoxicity in mexican free-tailed bats from oklahoma and new mexico.the summer population of mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) at carlsbad caverns, new mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million in 1936 to 200,000 in 1974; thereafter, it increased to approximately 700,000 in 1991. this decline has been attributed primarily to organochlorine (oc) pesticide contamination and habitat disturbance. similar declines have been observed in other populations of this species. this study examined the potential genotoxic effects of oc pesticide contaminat ...19968593080
temporal auditory summation in the echolocating bat, tadarida brasiliensis.auditory thresholds improve with increasing signal duration within the maximum integration time of the auditory system, a phenomenon called temporal summation. the temporal summation function is a basic characteristic of particular relevance for bat sonar, as it determines the ability to detect targets with short echolocation calls. temporal summation was studied in 6 mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) in a forced two-choice behavioural test. masked auditory thresholds for 40-khz t ...19947928724
brevity is prevalent in bat short-range communication.animal communication follows many coding schemes. less is known about the coding strategy for signal length and rates of use in animal vocal communication. a generalized brevity (negative relation between signal length and frequency of use) is innovatively explored but remains controversial in animal vocal communication. we tested brevity for short-range social and distress sounds from four echolocating bats: adult black-bearded tomb bat taphozous melanopogon, mexican free-tailed bat tadarida br ...201323377576
population growth of mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) predates human agricultural activity.human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agricul ...201121457563
isolation of histoplasma capsulatum from bats in the urban area of são paulo state, brazil.summarythe presence of bats in caves, attics, ceilings, and roofs is important epidemiologically as they can increase the chance of human acquisition of pathogens, including histoplasma capsulatum. brazilian urban areas contain many species of bats, especially insectivorous bats, that are attracted by a wide range of readily available food and shelter. from august 2003 to december 2008, we analysed 2427 bats in the sã£o paulo state region. homogenates of the livers and spleens of the bats were p ...201021205438
analyzing nexrad doppler radar images to assess nightly dispersal patterns and population trends in brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis).operators of early weather-surveillance radars often observed echoes on their displays that did not behave like weather pattern, including expanding ring-like shapes they called angels. these echoes were caused by high-flying insects, migrating birds, and large colonies of bats emerging from roosts to feed. modern weather-surveillance radar stations in the united states (next-generation radar or nexrad) provide detailed images that clearly show evening bat emergences from large colonies. these i ...200821669770
pneumocystis sp. in bats evaluated by qpcr.molecular techniques have revealed a high prevalence of pneumocystis colonization in wild mammals. accurate quantification of pneumocystis sp. is essential for the correct interpretation of many research experiments investigating this organism. the objectives of this study were to detect the presence of pneumocystis sp. in bats by qpcr, and to distinguish colonization from infection. probes and primers for real time pcr (qpcr) were designed based on the gene of major surface glycoprotein (msg) o ...201323380373
primary structure and functional properties of the hemoglobin from the free-tailed bat tadarida brasiliensis (chiroptera). small effect of carbon dioxide on oxygen affinity.the hemoglobin of the free-tailed bat tadarida brasiliensis (microchiroptera) comprises two components (hb i and hb ii) in nearly equal amounts. both hemoglobins have identical beta-chains, whereas the alpha-chains differ in having glycine (hb i) or aspartic acid (hb ii) in position 115 (gh3). the components could be isolated by deae-sephacel chromatography and separated into the globin chains by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose cm-52. the sequences have been determined by edman degrada ...19873113446
Cloning, expression and antiviral activity of IFN? from the Australian fruit bat, Pteropus alecto.Bats are natural reservoir hosts to a variety of viruses, many of which cause morbidity and mortality in other mammals. Currently there is a paucity of information regarding the nature of the immune response to viral infections in bats, partly due to a lack of appropriate bat specific reagents. IFN? plays a key role in controlling viral replication and coordinating a response for long term control of viral infection. Here we describe the cloning and expression of IFN? from the Australian flying ...201122093696
An Hcp100 gene fragment reveals Histoplasma capsulatum presence in lungs of Tadarida brasiliensis migratory bats.SUMMARYHistoplasma capsulatum was sampled in lungs from 87 migratory Tadarida brasiliensis bats captured in Mexico (n=66) and Argentina (n=21). The fungus was screened by nested-PCR using a sensitive and specific Hcp100 gene fragment. This molecular marker was detected in 81·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73·4-89·7] of all bats, representing 71 amplified bat lung DNA samples. Data showed a T. brasiliensis infection rate of 78·8% (95% CI 68·9-88·7) in bats captured in Mexico and of 90·4% (95% C ...201122152724
the importance of molecular analyses for understanding the genetic diversity of histoplasma capsulatum: an overview.advances in the classification of the human pathogen histoplasma capsulatum (h. capsulatum) (ascomycete) are sustained by the results of several genetic analyses that support the high diversity of this dimorphic fungus. the present mini-review highlights the great genetic plasticity of h. capsulatum. important records with different molecular tools, mainly single- or multi-locus sequence analyses developed with this fungus, are discussed. recent phylogenetic data with a multi-locus sequence anal ...201424252830
infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the brazilian free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis).bats (order chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. with the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia ankara (mva) and raccoon poxvirus (rcn) as potential vaccine vectors in the brazilian free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. a ...201627650872
a novel anelloviridae species detected in tadarida brasiliensis bats: first sequence of a chiropteran anellovirus.using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel torque teno virus from brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) (tt-tbv). the tt-tbv genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any anelloviridae genera.201425359906
growth and development of two species of bats in a shared maternity roost.skeletogenesis was studied in two species of bats, myotis austroriparius (southeastern brown bat) and tadarida brasiliensis (brazilian free-tailed bat), occupying a maternity roost in central florida. these bats often use distinct maternity roost environments, so this provided an opportunity to examine differential patterns of long bone growth while fetuses and newborn developed under similar environmental conditions. some differences in the timing of onset of osteogenesis were revealed in the b ...200818160800
changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in tadarida brasiliensis, the brazilian free-tailed date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (piv) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. in this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. tadarida brasiliensis, the brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. we compare the aerodynamics of t. brasiliensis with those of othe ...201222258554
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