isolation of rabies virus from bats in bolivia.rabies virus was isolated from apparently normal blood-sucking (desmodus rotundus) and insectivorous (artibeus planirostris) bats caught in bolivia. the virus was identified by immunofluorescence, biological and sero-neutralisation tests.1978664008
spinturnicid mites (gamasida: spinturnicidae) associated with bats in central brazil.the results of a survey of spinturnicid mites (gamasida: spinturnicidae) infesting bats near brasília, d.f., brazil, are presented. one hundred twenty-five bats were collected, representing three families and 15 species. seven species of spinturnicid mites (genus periglischrus) were collected from nine species of bats (family phyllostomidae). each of the following six species of periglischrus was associated with a single species of bat: periglischrus acutisternus machado-allison and p. torrealba ...19892795621
human depredation by vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) following a hog cholera campaign.hog cholera control efforts in belize in 1975 included the slaughter of village pigs, a primary food source for the vampire bat (desmodus rotundus). the bats then fed on secondary food sources, including humans. in 1 village, 22% of the families interviewed were exposed to attacks: 17 children and 2 adults were bit. human depredation was not continuous as desmodus located other hosts.19892929856
anti-brucella agglutinins in bats and "callithrix" monkeys.anti-brucella agglutinins were found in 5 of 53 (9.4%) vampire bats desmodus rotundus, captured in the state of bahia, brasil. two specimens of diphylla ecaudata were negative. fifty specimens of the small monkey, callithrix penicillata, were also negative.1976815569
serological evidence of infection of tacaribe virus and arboviruses in trinidadian bats.sera from 39 species of bats collected in trinidad between 1972 and 1974 were tested against some or all of 18 arboviruses in hemagglutination inhibition (hi) and/or suckling mouse neutralization (n) tests. a few sera were hi-positive with mucambo, eastern equine encephalitis (eee), oriboca, restan, manzanilla, guama, bimiti, and catu. no sera were hi-positive with mayaro, caraparu or maguari. many ser inhibited one or more of the group b hemagglutinins: ilheus, st. louis encephalitis (sle), den ...1978204207
letter: disappearance of trypanosoma evansi from a vampire bat colony in western colombia. 19744818671
vampire-bat transmitted rabies virus from surinam. comparison of properties with european street virus and fixed virus. 19704908047
[characteristics of a rabies virus strain isolated from the brain of desmodus rotundus]. 19724262443
analysis of cold and warm receptor activity in vampire bats and mice.the response characteristics of facial thermoreceptors of the common vampire bat and of the mouse have been quantitatively studied. cold receptors were identified in bat and mouse; warm receptors were only established in the bat. cold and warm receptor populations of the two species share most of their properties with facial thermoreceptor populations of various mammalian species investigated so far. the temporal pattern of activity of cold receptors of the mouse corresponded to that observed in ...19883174381
biology, ecology, and control of the vampire bat.the importance of the vampire bat as a vector of rabies and its taxonomy, anatomic characteristics, distribution, feeding habits, behavior, and habitat are described. also described are studies of methods of reducing vampire bat populations. anticoagulants such as diphenadione and warfarin were shown to be effective in reducing vampire bat populations. these substances were used in different ways: application of the compound to the skin of captured vampires and then the release of the animals to ...19883060955
seasonal reproduction of vampire bats and its relation to seasonality of bovine rabies.studies of pregnancy and lactation in vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) in northern argentina over a 4 yr period showed an inverse relationship between prevalence of pregnancy and lactation, the consequence of birth and onset of lactation, which was correlated with the wet season. the seasonal influx of young susceptibles into the vampire population in the wet season coincided with the well known increase in vampire transmitted rabies in that season.19921602584
[on the isolation in brazilof rabies virus from the lung, heart and various other tissues of hematophagous vampire bats belonging to the species desmodus rotundus]. 19666011926
plasminogen activators from the saliva of desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat): unique fibrin specificity.the saliva of d. rotundus contains at least four plasminogen activators (pas) which all require fibrin as a cofactor. d. rotundus salivary pas (dspas) exhibit a sequential array of structural motifs such as "finger" (f), "egf" (e), "kringle" (k) and "protease" (p) which was elucidated by cdna cloning and sequencing. the respective domain organizations are: fekp (dspa alpha 1 and dspa alpha 2), ekp (dspa beta) and kp (dspa gamma). in all four forms the plasmin-sensitive site of tpa is obliterated ...19921309059
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator promotes robust lysis of plasma clots in a plasma milieu without causing fluid phase plasminogen activation.vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (batpa), human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa) or streptokinase (sk) were incubated in human citrated plasma containing a plasma clot that was radiolabelled with iodine-125 fibrin(ogen). complete clot dissolution by batpa (30 nm) was associated with slight activation of "fluid phase" plasminogen; the plasma levels of functional fibrinogen and alpha 2-antiplasmin decreased by only 8 and 19%, respectively. addition of sk (3,600 iu/ml) to the clot- ...19921412162
vampire bat control in the americas; a review and proposed program for action. 19744421502
electrical response of bat retina to spectral stimulation: comparison of four microhiropteran species.electrical responses of the retinas of 4 species of microchiropteran bats stimulated by spectrally restricted light flashes were found to diverge systematically from the rhodopsin absorption spectrum. the divergence was progressively greater across the 4 species. the results appeared explainable by assuming a second photoreceptor class and photopigment which was present in progressively greater numbers in the retinas of eptesicus fuscus, desmodus rotundus, artibeus jamaicensis and carollia persp ...1979488274
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator exhibits a strict and fastidious requirement for polymeric fibrin as its cofactor, unlike human tissue-type plasminogen activator. a kinetic analysis.the vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (batpa) is virtually inactive toward glu-plasminogen in the absence of a fibrin-like cofactor, unlike human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa) (the kcat/km values were 4 and 470 m-1 s-1, respectively). in the presence of fibrin ii, tpa and batpa activated glu-plasminogen with comparable catalytic efficiencies (158,000 and 174,000 m-1 s-1, respectively). batpa's cofactor requirement was partially satisfied by polymeric fibrin i (54,000 m-1 s-1), ...19921387641
adult phyllostomid (bat) enamel by scanning electron microscopy--with a note on dermopteran enamel.this study assesses the enamel of five phyllostomids of differing feeding habits; only one example of the microchiropteran super-family phyllostomoidae having previously been studied by sem. a dermopteran was also examined to ascertain whether the enamel might reveal insectivore, chiropteran or primate characteristics. the five phyllostomids were found to display the additional crystallite discontinuity feature (minor boundary plane or seam) which is a major characteristic of all the bats we hav ...19883368766
vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.a short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the americas is given. based on information from the animal health yearbook--a cooperative publication of the food and agriculture organization (fao), the world health organization (who), and the international office of epizootics (oie)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. an important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (bolivia, brazil, guatemala, mexico, nicaragua, ...19883206085
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator is quiescent in human plasma in the absence of fibrin unlike human tissue plasminogen activator.the vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) is a potent pa that exhibits remarkable selectivity toward fibrin-bound plasminogen (gardell et al, j biol chem 256: 3568, 1989). herein, we describe the activity of recombinant dna-derived bat-pa (rbat-pa) in a human plasma milieu. rbat-pa and recombinant human single-chain tissue plasminogen activator (rt-pa) are similarly efficacious at lysing plasma clots. in stark contrast to rt-pa, the addition of 250 nmol/l rbat-pa to plasma in the a ...19902124935
the plasminogen activator family from the salivary gland of the vampire bat desmodus rotundus: cloning and expression.complementary dnas coding for four desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activators (dspas) were isolated and characterized. the predicted amino acid sequences display structural features also found in tissue-type plasminogen activator. the largest forms (dspa alpha 1 and -alpha 2) contain a signal peptide, a finger (f), an epidermal growth factor (egf), a kringle, and a serine protease domain, whereas dspa beta and -gamma lack the f and f-egf domains, respectively. additional differences betwe ...19911937019
effective thrombolysis without marked plasminemia after bolus intravenous administration of vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator in rabbits.the use of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) in thrombolytic therapy is frequently associated with significant fibrinogenolysis. in contrast, recombinant vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) displays strict fibrin specificity, an attribute that could be desirable in a fibrinolytic agent.19911905593
high-level secretion of the four salivary plasminogen activators from the vampire bat desmodus rotundus by stably transfected baby hamster kidney cells.the cdnas coding for the four desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activators (dspas) were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector, pmpsv/cmv, which carries the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus promoter and the cytomegalovirus enhancer. these constructs were transfected, together with plasmids harbouring geneticin (g418)-resistance and puromycin-resistance genes, into baby hamster kidney cells. through the selective pressure of both antibiotics, cell clones constitutively overexpressing ...19921634121
cross protection of mice against different rabies virus an attempt to identify "atypical" strains which could account for vaccination failures, 10 street, one intermediate (dr19) and 4 fixed rabies virus isolates from men, cattle, dogs, cats, mongoose and vampire bats in five countries (argentina, brazil, chile, cuba, and france) were studied by cross-protection tests in mice. for the purpose of this study, any virus that killed more than 20% of the vaccinated mice challenged with that virus was considered "atypical". when the suckling mouse brain ...19852409716
plasminogen activator in saliva of the vampire bat desmodus rotundus. 19665967844
outbreak of human rabies in the peruvian jungle.transmission of rabies to man by vampire bats has been known for 60 years but there have been few reports of the features of rabies transmitted in this way. these aspects of the disease were investigated during an outbreak in peru in early 1990. between jan 1 and april 30, 1990, 29 (5%) of 636 residents of the two rural communities in the amazon jungle in peru acquired an illness characterised by hydrophobia, fever, and headache and died shortly thereafter. a census in one of the two towns revea ...19921346669
[bacteriological study of the intestinal flora of bats (desmodus rotundus) (author's transl)].stools of 100 bats trapped in the town of anhembi, state os são paulo, brazil, were examined bacteriologically. hemolityc and non hemolytic strains of escherichia coli were found most frequently (29.5%) followed by proteus group (27%) and staphylococcus (20%). from nine samples of stools the authors isolated salmonella typhimurium.19751236052
[isolation of rabies virus from brain, salivary and interscapular glands, heart, lungs and testis of the bat desmodus rotundus, in the state of são paulo (author's transl)].rabies virus was isolated from the brain, salivary and interscapular (brown fat) glands, heart, lungs and testis of naturally infected vampire bat desmodus rotundus found paralyzed in the day at barueri, são paulo state. the rabies virus isolations were made by intracerebral inoculation in 4-5 days and 30 days old mice. the virus strain was identified as rabies virus by the sellers and faraco (mann) techniques, the fluorescent antibody test and intracerebral inoculation of mice. the isolation of ...19751236047
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator promotes rapid and sustained reperfusion without concomitant systemic plasminogen activation in a canine model of arterial thrombosis.the efficacy of recombinant vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) as a thrombolytic agent was compared with that of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) in a canine model of arterial thrombosis. an occlusive thrombus was formed in the femoral artery by insertion of a thrombogenic copper coil; femoral arterial blood flow was monitored with a doppler flow meter. bat-pa and t-pa, when administered by 5-minute intravenous infusion (14 nmol/kg), reperfused seven out of eight a ...19921371932
quantitative data on the inferior olivary nucleus in man, cat and vampire bat. 19685657523
control of bovine rabies through vampire bat control. 19744436917
distribution of iron in the gastrointestinal tract of the common vampire bat: evidence for macrophage-linked iron clearance.iron in the tissues of the digestive tract of the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) has been studied using histochemical, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic methods. this animal is an obligate sanguivore and has a daily intake of dietary iron 800 times that of man. the amount and distribution of tissue iron is not affected by either a single blood meal or starvation but does reflect the degree of siderosis of each animal's liver and spleen. by 7 days after the injection of a trace a ...19807212303
observations on the epizootiology of vampire bat rabies.vampire bat populations were opportunely sampled before, during, and at varying intervals after outbreaks of bovine rabies. the captured bats were examined for rabies neutralizing antibody and virus. in all, sera from 1,024 vampire bats were tested for antibody, and tissues from these bats plus 83 others were tested for virus. neutralizing antibody only rarely appeared in vampire serum samples taken before bovine rabies outbreaks, and only low percentages of samples positive for rabies antibody ...19751212534
presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies in wild carnivores following an outbreak of bovine an outbreak of bovine rabies in argentina, a study was made of vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) and wild carnivores. rabies antibody rates of high prevalence were found in the bats, foxes (dusicyon gymnocercus) and skunks (conepatus chinga). the outbreak was part of an extensive continuing epizootic of vampire transmitted bovine rabies which may have also involved other vectors in the area of this study. consumption of dead and dying bats by the carnivores is the suggested means of passage of ...19751142554
movement and population studies of the vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) in mexico. 19715545561
[enterobacteria of bats (chiroptera) (author's transl)].the aerobic gram-negative faecal flora of 38 bats consisting of 10 species and genera respectively, of microchiroptera, and of 4 species and genera respectively, of megachiroptera was studied (table 1 and 3). there were no specific differences between insectivora and frugivora: e. coli 15-24%, citrobacter 8-10%, enterobacter-klebsiella-group 40-43% and proteus-group 28-30% (table 2). the overwhelming majority of the isolated bacteria were lactose-positive (table 3), corresponding to the membersh ...19807424248
[structural aspects of mossy fibers. comparative study: cavia cobaya and desmodus rotundus. golgi's method and electron microscopy]. 19705525395
a plaque-purified rabies virus (strains v-319) derived from a vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) in mexico: vaccine potential.a plaque-purified experimental rabies vaccine was developed from an isolate (strain v-319) made from a naturally infected vampire bat (desmodus rotundus). two different vaccines were prepared; one was live virus and the second was an inactivated rabies virus preparation. the live virus vaccine, as well as a betapropiolactone-inactivated vaccine, gave complete protection to challenge inoculation after 1 year. in contrast, greater than 80% of the non-vaccinated experimental control cattle died of ...19846467947
thrombolytic properties of desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) salivary plasminogen activator in experimental pulmonary embolism in rats.rdspa alpha 1 (recombinant desmodus salivary plasminogen activator alpha 1) is a recombinant protein corresponding to a natural plasminogen activator from the vampire bat desmodus rotundus. the thrombolytic properties of rdspa alpha 1 and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) were compared in a rat model of pulmonary embolism. whole blood clots, produced in vitro and labeled with 125i-fibrinogen, were embolized into the lungs of anesthetized rats. thrombolysis was calculated from the differen ...19921536947
fine structure of the vomeronasal neuroepithelium of bats: a comparative study.the vomeronasal neuroepithelium of the vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, and the frugivorous bats, carollia perspicillata and artibeus jamaicensis, was examined at the light-microscopic and ultrastructural levels. the neuroepithelium of these species is basically similar in morphology to that of other mammals. however, hitherto unknown differences were noted in regard to the configuration of the apical poles of cells, in the occurrence of solitary cilia, dislocated sensory cells, brush cells, cell ...19827102243
epidemic strain of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from a vampire bat captured in oaxaca, mexico, 1970.a vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, captured in oaxaca, mexico, in august 1970, was found to be infected with the epidemic strain of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus at the same time that an equine epizootic was occurring there.19725008598
vampire bat control by systemic treatment of livestock with an anticoagulant.the blood of beef cattle given single doses (1 milligram per kilogram of body weight) of diphenadione (2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione) became toxic to vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) and remained toxic for 3 days without harming the cattle. cattle at three ranches in mexico treated with single intraruminal injections of diphenadione experienced a reduction in vampire bat bites of 93 percent. bioassays of milk and liver from cattle treated orally with diphenadione in the laboratory indicated th ...19725068491
iron balance in the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus.1. total body iron in the common vampire bat was 80 +/- 67 mg fe/kg body wt (mean +/- sd). 2. mean (+/- sd) iron absorption as measured by the double isotope method was 0.068 +/- 0.0032% fe. a typical adult bat ingests 6.1 mg fe/day (morton & wimsatt, 1980) of which approximately 4.2 microgram fe is absorbed. 3. body iron turnover (bit) was estimated from the decrease in specific radioactivity of the blood over more than a year. the mean (+/- sd) of the half-life of iron turnover was 379 +/- 101 ...19826128125
an outbreak of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle in northeastern outbreak of bovine rabies occurred on a ranch when cattle were bitten by vampire bats. microscopic lesions showed a nonsuppurative encephalitis with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigen in the brain, and monoclonal antibodies identified a serotype 1 (vampire strain) of the rabies virus.19979056070
experimental rabies in the vampire bat.vampire bats were inoculated intramuscularly and subcutaneously with varying doses of rabies virus to simulate bites by rabid animals in nature. daily saliva samples were then taken from these animals to determine whether they excreted virus and for how long. vampire bats appear to react to rabies virus as do other animals, with variable incubation periods, some excretion of virus in the saliva, but no prolonged excretion "carrier state."19807369444
adaptation, attenuation and plaque purification of a rabiesvirus isolate (v319) from a vampire bat (desmodus rotundus).five rabiesvirus isolates, four of vampire bat origin and one from the brain of a rabid cow, were studied with respect to their adaptability to tissue culture. only two strains (v319 and mazatan strains) adapted readily. one (mazatan) failed to yield high titers in vitro after isolation, plaque purification and further passage; however, the v319 strain routinely yielded titers of 10(9) pfu/ml. in limited pathogenicity tests in cattle and dogs, the v319 strain was found not to be excreted in the ...19807428375
thrombolytic agents in development.the quest continues for thrombolytic agents with a higher thrombolytic potency, specific thrombolytic activity and/or a better fibrin selectivity. several lines of research towards improvement of thrombolytic agents are being explored, including the construction of mutants and variants of plasminogen activators (pas), chimaeric pas, conjugates of pas with monoclonal antibodies, and pas from animal or bacterial origin. some of these new thrombolytic agents have shown promise in animal models of v ...19957588087
comparison of the bleeding potential of vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator versus tissue plasminogen activator in an experimental rabbit model.vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) has significantly greater fibrin specificity than any of the fibrinolytic agents currently in clinical use. this study tests the hypothesis that avoiding fibrinogen depletion may protect against the hemorrhage induced by plasminogen activator treatment.19957867196
generation of monoclonal antibodies against autologous proteins in gene-inactivated mice.induction of an immune response is strongly dependent on the phylogenetic distance between antigen and recipient. in general, antibodies will not be raised against self-antigens nor against highly conserved domains. in the present study we describe the production and characterization of murine monoclonal "auto-antibodies" against murine tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) raised in "knock-out" mice, homozygously deficient of the functional gene. 203 stable hybridomas were obtained producing ...19957536737
histochemical and myosin composition of vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) pectoralis muscle targets a unique locomotory niche.the vampire bat pectoralis muscle contains at least four fiber types distributed in a nonhomogeneous pattern. one of these fiber types, here termed iie, can be elucidated only by adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) histochemistry combined with reactions against antifast and antislow myosin antibodies. the histochemical and immunohistochemical observations indicate a well-developed specialization of function within specific regions of the muscle. in parallel, analyses of native myosin isoforms and ...19938230235
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator evokes minimal bleeding relative to tissue-type plasminogen activator as assessed by a rabbit cuticle bleeding time model.cuticle bleeding time (cbt) measurements in anesthetized rabbits were performed to assess the potential bleeding risks which may accompany the administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa) or vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (batpa). the dose of batpa or tpa used in this study, 42 nmol/kg, was previously shown to be efficacious using a rabbit femoral artery thrombosis model (gardell et al, circulation 84:244, 1991). cbt was determined by severing the apex of the nail cuticl ...19957545321
genetic characterization of rabies field isolates from venezuela.twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein and by patterns of nucleotide substitution in the nucleoprotein gene. three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs. unique substitutions permit ...19968735118
coronary thrombolysis with desmodus salivary plasminogen activator in dogs. fast and persistent recanalization by intravenous bolus administration.dspa (desmodus salivary plasminogen activator) is a new thrombolytic agent corresponding to a natural plasminogen activator discovered in the saliva of the vampire bat desmodus rotundus. compared with tissue plasminogen activator (tpa), dspa, produced in a recombinant cell line, is more fibrin cofactor dependent than tpa.19948026028
[aeromonas hydrophila as a normal intestinal bacterium of the vampire bat (desmodus rotundus)]. 19807053178
an outbreak of vampire bat bite in a brazilian outbreak of 26 cases of vampire bat bite in one month in the rural area of honorópolis, a brazilian village, is reported. all patients were bitten during the night, when they were asleep, and most bites were on their toes. no complication attributed to the bite was reported. the patients were given prophylactic antirabies serum and rabies vaccine. control of the outbreak was achieved by visiting bat roosting sites, smearing captured vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) with a paste of 2% warfarin ...19938256101
limited fibrin specificity of tissue-type plasminogen activator and its potential link to bleeding.plasminogen activators initiate the fibrinolytic process by converting plasminogen to plasmin. though plasminogen activators are effective in the treatment of thrombotic disorders, bleeding complications are associated with their use. the development of plasminogen activators with greater fibrin specificity was expected to reduce the incidence of bleeding complications; however, this has not occurred. in our rabbit model (a) bleeding from standardized ear incisions induced by tissue-type plasmin ...19958770837
a review of the economics of the prevention and control of rabies. part 2: rabies in dogs, livestock and wildlife.although rabies in domestic and wild animals represents a significant threat to public health and can cause economic losses among livestock, there are very few studies that examine the economics of rabies in animals. the literature that does exist can be characterised as poorly documented estimates of costs, with insufficient information to allow replication of the analyses. most papers have numerous 'violations' of the standard recommended procedures for assessing burden of disease and the cost ...199810344914
procedures for reproducible detection of rabies virus antigen mrna and genome in situ in formalin-fixed tissues.procedures allowing the reproducible in situ detection of rabies virus antigen and rnas (both genome and message) in formalin-fixed tissue are described. these procedures can be used on sequential tissue sections and thereby permit comparison of results from tests detecting both antigen and rna in the same tissue. this antigen-detecting procedure has also been used to identify both the phylogenetically distant rabies viruses from silver-haired bat and vampire bat and the rabies-related viruses m ...19979274812
laboratory investigation of human deaths from vampire bat rabies in the spring of 1996, multiple cases of an acute febrile illness resulting in several deaths in remote locations in peru were reported to the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc). the clinical syndromes for these cases included dysphagia and encephalitis. because bat bites were a common occurrence in the affected areas, the initial clinical diagnosis was rabies. however, rabies was discounted primarily because of reported patient recovery. samples of brain tissue from two of the fat ...199910466985
outbreak of vampire bat biting in a venezuelan outbreak of 154 cases of vampire bat biting in a four-month period in the gold mine of payapal, a venezuelan village, is reported. all patients were bitten during the night and the most bites were on their toes. no complication attributed to the bite was reported. diagnoses of rabies virus made by means of immunofluorescence were negative. a possible reason for this outbreak may been the development of mining areas, with the inhabitants providing an alternative food source for the bats.19969269099
bat rabies in urban centers in hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. these isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in chile. the phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reser ...200010813604
third-generation thrombolytic drugs.several third-generation thrombolytic agents have been developed. they are either conjugates of plasminogen activators with monoclonal antibodies against fibrin, platelets, or thrombomodulin; mutants, variants, and hybrids of alteplase and prourokinase (amediplase); or new molecules of animal (vampire bat) or bacterial (staphylococcus aureus) origin. these variations may lengthen the drug's half-life, increase resistance to plasma protease inhibitors, or cause more selective binding to fibrin. c ...200010936478
bat lyssavirus infections.bats, which represent approximately 24% of all known mammalian species, frequently act as vectors of lyssaviruses. in particular, insectivorous bats play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies and some rabies-like viruses, while the haematophagous vampire bats are the major wildlife vector for rabies in latin america. in contrast, the role of fruit bats (flying foxes) in the epidemiology of the recently discovered australian bat lyssavirus is only just emerging. information on the patho ...200011189715
antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. the panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the americas. samples were isolated in the diagnostic laboratory of the pasteur institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in brazil. in addition to the fixed virus samples cvs-31/96-ip, preserved in mouse brain, and pv-bhk/97, preserved in cell c ...200212048546
catalytic domain structure of vampire bat plasminogen activator: a molecular paradigm for proteolysis without activation cleavage.the saliva of the blood-eating vampire bat desmodus rotundus contains plasminogen activators (pas) that maintain the fluidity of the prey's blood by activating plasminogen and dissolving developing fibrin clots. d. rotundus salivary pas (dspas) are composed of evolutionarily conserved domains reminiscent of human tissue-type pa (tpa), but their catalytic domain lacks a plasmin-sensitive "activation cleavage site". despite this, all dspas are intrinsically active and enormously stimulated in the ...19979354616
monoclonal antibody characterization of rabies virus strains isolated in the river plate this study, 91 strains isolated in the river plate basin, south america, were examined from the epidemiological standpoint and with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the nucleocapsid of rabies virus. such strains reacted to mabs in accordance with nine different patterns (antigenic variants). rabies virus was isolated from 49 cattle, 21 dogs, 11 non-haematophagous bats, four vampire bats, two foxes, two horses, one buffalo, and one human. five of the variants had not been described previously. ...19979394612
discrimination between epidemiological cycles of rabies in mexico.the design of efficient rabies control programs within a geographic area requires an appropriate knowledge of the local epidemiological cycles. in latin america, there is a geographical overlap of the two main epidemiological cycles: (a) the terrestrial cycle, where the dog is the main terrestrial vector and the principal cause of human transmission; and (b) the aerial cycle, in which the vampire bat desmodus rotundus is representative in mexico. this bat is the major sylvatic rabies vector tran ...199910372450
fibrinolytic agents: mechanisms of activity and pharmacology.fibrinolytic (thrombolytic) agents activate the fibrinolytic system by conversion of the inactive proenzyme, plasminogen into the active enzyme plasmin, that degrades fibrin. agents available for clinical use are: the physiologic tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-pa)--either in a single chain (scu-pa, prourokinase) or a two-chain (tcu-pa, urokinase) form, and the bacterial activator plasminogen streptokinase or its anisoylated complex with plasm ...19958578491
tissue-type plasminogen activator: variants and crystal/solution structures demarcate structural determinants of function.nmr and crystal structure of many components of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) are now available: the finger-egf pair and the kringle-2 domain structures have been solved, as have the proteolytic domains of vampire bat pa and human t-pa in two- and single-chain forms. these structures confirm the trypsin-like arrangement of the proteolytic domain of t-pa and show how surface loops near the catalytic centre contribute to the narrow specificity of t-pa. together with mutational experimen ...19979434908
o-linked l-fucose is present in desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator.dspaalpha1 (desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator), a plasminogen activator from the saliva of the vampire bat desmodus rotundus, is an effective thrombolytic agent. an unusual type of posttranslational modification, in which l-fucose is o-glycosidically linked to threonine 61 in the epidermal growth factor domain was found for natural dspaalpha1 and its recombinant form isolated from chinese hamster ovary cells. in the present study a combination of carbohydrate and amino acid compos ...19968631761
the antigen-specific cell-mediated immune response in mice is suppressed by infection with pathogenic lyssaviruses.responsiveness of t cells (rtc) was studied in balb/c mice intramuscularly infected with various lyssaviruses. after infection by this peripheral route, two types of viruses could be classified according to their effects: 1) pathogenic viruses, including fixed rabies pasteur virus (serogenotype 1) and wild viruses belonging to serogenotype 1 (from a rabid fox in france and from a cow infected by a vampire bat in brazil) or to serogenotype 5 (european bat lyssavirus 1); and 2) non-pathogenic viru ...19968880998
genetic characterization and geographic distribution of rabies virus isolates in brazil: identification of two reservoirs, dogs and vampire bats.we analyzed 50 rabies virus samples isolated in brazil from 12 dogs, 11 cats, 5 vampire bats, 15 cattle, 2 horses, 1 pig, 1 sheep, and 3 humans to investigate the molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses. we sequenced 203 nucleotides on the nucleoprotein gene by direct sequencing of the pcr-amplified products. all the isolates belonged to the genotype 1 and homology of the 203 nucleotides was at least 83.7% among isolates. the main reservoirs were estimated based on the homology of nucleotide se ...200111384221
detection and characterization of rabies virus in southern brazil by pcr amplification and sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene.due to the medical and socio-economical importance of both human and animal rabies infection, several studies have suggested the use of molecular techniques such as rt-pcr and dna sequencing for diagnosis and phylogenetic studies of the rabies virus. considering the conservancy of the nucleoprotein (n) gene of the virus, we herein describe a rt-pcr assay for rabies diagnosis and characterization. a total of 75 samples obtained from a variety of animal species in the state of santa catarina (sc), ...200415614435
[ecological and epidemiologic aspects of the attacks by vampire bats and paralytic rabies in argentina and analysis of the proposals carried out for their control].the authors describe the ecology of attacks by vampire bats and the epidemiology of rabies (paralytic rabies) transmitted by these bats in argentina, based on data obtained from an epidemiological vigilance programme conducted between 1984 and 1993. it was found that rabies spread rapidly among vampire bats, causing high mortality (over 50%); subsequently, the population recovered slowly due to the low reproductive rate. this explains the features of paralytic rabies, such as high mortality amon ...19969376648
potential force of infection of human rabies transmitted by vampire bats in the amazonian region of brazil.human rabies transmitted by bats has acquired greater epidemiologic relevance in various latin american countries, just when cases transmitted by dogs have decreased. concern has been heightened by reports of increased rates of bats biting humans in villages in the amazonian region of brazil. the aim of the present work was to estimate the potential force of infection (per capita rate at which susceptible individuals acquire infection) of human rabies transmitted by the common vampire bat if the ...19969025698
acari ectoparasites of bats from minas gerais, brazil.ectoparasites were recovered from brazilian bats captured from april to november 1997 at or near parque estadual do rio doce, state of minas gerais, southeastern brazil. sixty bats were collected, representing three families and 13 species. five acari families were recorded: myobiidae, trombiculidae, labidocarpidae, macronyssidae, and spinturnicidae. the macronyssid radfordiella desmodi radovsky (71 specimens) and the spinturnicid periglichrus iheringi oudemans (45 specimens) were the most abund ...200212061455
vaccination of vampire bats using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) were vaccinated by intramuscular, scarification, oral, or aerosol routes (n = 8 in each group) using a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus. sera were obtained before and 30 days after vaccination. all animals were then challenged intramuscularly with a lethal dose of rabies virus. neutralizing antirabies antibodies were measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (rffit). seroconversion was observed with each of the routes employed, but s ...200212243138
an active zymogen: unravelling the mystery of tissue-type plasminogen contrast to almost all other proteinases, human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa) is also proteolytically active in its zymogen or single-chain form. the closely related plasminogen activator isolated from vampire bat saliva (vpa) acts exclusively in the single-chain form, lacking the requisite cleavage site for proteolytic activation. recent structural studies on the proteolytic domains of vpa and human tpa in two- and single-chain forms reveal the mechanism of this anomalous activity. ...19989524060
experimental rabies infection and oral vaccination in vampire bats (desmodus rotundus).a rabies virus variant isolated from a vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) and characterized by genome sequencing was used for the standardization of an experimental infection in this species. the parenteral administration of 10(6) micld50 of this variant was capable of inducing death from rabies in 89% of animals. the mean duration of post-challenge survival was 12 days. none of the experimental rabid vampire bats showed aggressive behaviour. a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine ...19989682368
discrimination between dog-related and vampire bat-related rabies viruses in brazil by strain-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.there is a geographical overlap between the two main rabies epidemiological cycles maintained by dogs and vampire bats in latin america. the geographical and temporal coincidence of rabies outbreaks of respective origins is not unusual in rural areas of latin america. these circumstances make it difficult to discriminate the intraspecies and interspecies transmission pathways of rabies.200312637081
vampire bat plasminogen activator dspa-alpha-1 (desmoteplase): a thrombolytic drug optimized by natural selection.plasminogen activators are enzymes found in all vertebrate species investigated so far. their physiological function is the generation of localized proteolysis in the context of tissue remodeling, wound healing and neuronal plasticity. the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) is a new world species that feeds exclusively on blood. its saliva contains highly potent plasminogen activators, specialized in rapid lysis of fresh blood clots. biochemical and pharmacological evidence indicates that th ...200111910176
genetic and antigenic typing of rabies virus in chile. brief report.forty-one isolates of rabies virus from insectivorous bats and one from a domestic cat in chile, were characterized using eight anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) and by nucleotide sequence analysis. thirty-two isolates were identified as antigenic variant 4 associated with tadarida brasiliensis bats, twenty-eight were genetically associated with variant tadarida brasiliensis and four with lasiurus sp. bats. one isolate was identified as antigenic variant 3 associated with desmodu ...200212417953
rabies in cattle. v. immunization of cattle in brazil against exposure to street virus of vampire bat origin. 195513263234
metabolic responses induced by fasting in the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus.this study explored the effects of fasting on body fuel mobilization in the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) fed a high-protein diet (bovine blood). an uncommon fragility during food deprivation has been reported for this species to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. the immediate biochemical responses to fasting, however, have not been established. thus, blood glucose, plasma ffa, glycogen, protein, and fat concentrations in the liver and muscles were determine ...200313680131
survey of bat populations from mexico and paraguay for rabies.a mammalian survey was conducted in mexico (october 1994-january 1996) and in paraguay (august 1996-march 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. the surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. one male lasiurus ega, collected in paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). nucleotide sequence from a 300 ...200111504233
use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the stability of rabies virus genome in brains kept at room tropical and subtropical climates, the shipment of animal brains for rabies diagnosis may be a problem because brain specimens sometimes arrive decomposed at the diagnostic laboratory. in this situation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) may serve as a potential solution because of its high sensitivity. however, little is known about the stability of rabies viral rna in decomposed brain tissue. to determine the stability of rabies virus genomic rna in brain samples, 72 ...200616566265
human rabies: a reemerging disease in costa rica?two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in september 2001 in costa rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector.200312781014
virus isolation from saliva and salivary glands of cattle naturally infected with paralytic rabies.the infectivity of saliva, salivary and mammary glands, muscle, lung, kidney and liver of 87 cattle infected with paralytic rabies (positive viral isolation from brains) was studied. fifty percent dilutions of saliva and tissue samples were inoculated intracerebrally into 10- to 15-day-old mice. viral isolation in mice was confirmed by direct rabies fluorescent-antibody test and the antigenic variant of the isolates characterized by monoclonal antibodies. rabies virus was isolated from 4.6% of s ...200111182465
development of thrombolytic therapy for stroke: a perspective.thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase, activase trade mark, rtpa; genentech inc) has proven beneficial for acute stroke management, even though only 1 - 2% of stroke patients in the us are treated with the drug [1]. part of the reason for the under utilisation of alteplase may be the narrow therapeutic window and frequent occurrence of serious side effects, such as increased haemorrhage incidence [2,3]. it is because of these shortcomings, that recent efforts have attempted t ...200212437508
genetic and phylogenetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from wildlife and livestock in paraiba, brazil.thirty-four rabies virus (rv) isolates from foxes (8), insectivore bats (9), cattle (14), sheep (1), a goat (1) and a donkey (1) from paraiba state, northeastern brazil, were genetically characterized. sequences of 890 nts of nucleoprotein (n) genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those of other brazilian isolates characterized earlier. phylogenetic analysis revealed three genetical lineages of rv co-existing in this region. each lineage was found to be associated with particul ...200616599183
fibrin-specificity of a plasminogen activator affects the efficiency of fibrinolysis and responsiveness to ultrasound: comparison of nine plasminogen activators in a number of cases, thrombolytic therapy fails to re-open occluded blood vessels, possibly due to the occurrence of thrombi resistant to lysis. we investigated in vitro how the lysis of hardly lysable model thrombi depends on the choice of the plasminogen activator (pa) and is accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation. lysis of compacted crosslinked human plasma clots was measured after addition of nine different pas to the surrounding plasma and the effect of 3 mhz ultrasound on the speed of lysi ...199910235448
haematophagous bats in brazil, their role in rabies transmission, impact on public health, livestock industry and alternatives to an indiscriminate reduction of bat population.haematophagous bats exist only in latin america, from méxico to the northern provinces of argentina. they are represented by three species, desmodus rotundus, diphylla ecaudata and diaemus youngii. while two species feed only on blood of wild birds, one species, d. rotundus, causes losses feeding on livestock and could be a vector for rabies virus. the cases in which humans were bitten by the bat have increased in brazil. bats became a target of control activities by farming communities and loca ...200314720182
studies on antigenic and genomic properties of brazilian rabies virus isolates.despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. this work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any relationship with the different hosts for the virus in nature. for that, 79 brazilian rabies viruses isolated from different host species and from distinct regions within brazil were submitted to antigenic cha ...200515863275
geographical distribution of vampire bat-related cattle rabies in brazil.seventy-seven rabies virus (rv) isolates originating from brazilian cattle were genetically characterized. partial nucleoprotein gene sequences of these isolates were phylogenetically and geographically analyzed. cattle isolates, which clustered with the vampire bat-related rv group, were further subdivided into nine genetic subgroups. these subgroups were distributed widely in lowland regions, with some subgroups separated from each other by mountain ranges. in addition, separation of the group ...200617085890
comparative karyology of brazilian vampire bats desmodus rotundus and diphylla ecaudata (phyllostomidae, chiroptera): banding patterns, base-specific fluorochromes and fish of ribosomal genes.this paper provides new data on chromosomes of brazilian vampire bats desmodus rotundus and diphylla ecaudata. these species were analyzed by gtg, cbg- and cb-dapi banding, agno3/cma3 sequential staining, base-specific fluorochrome dyes and in situ hybridization with 18s rdna probe. c-banding (cbg) revealed constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions in all autosomes and the x and y chromosomes appeared entirely heterochromatic in both species. cb-dapi revealed a coincident bandi ...200111833280
antigenic diversity and distribution of rabies virus in mexico.rabies remains a public health problem in the americas because of the great diversity of wild reservoirs that maintain the virus in nature. here we report the antigenic characterization of 254 rabies viruses isolated from 148 nonreservoir and 106 reservoir hosts collected in 27 states of mexico. nine out of 11 antigenic variants previously reported in the united states were detected in mexico by using the limited panel of monoclonal antibodies donated by the centers for disease control and preve ...200211880422
first record of desmodus rotundus in urban area from the city of olinda, pernambuco, northeastern brazil: a case report.the objective of this report is to describe the first record of desmodus rotundus in urban area from the city of olinda, pernambuco state, northeastern brazil, and to draw attention to the possible risk of rabies transmission in this place. after the complaint of a dog owner who observed three bats attacking his dog, images registering attacks of d. rotundus were captured with a video camera. from 09:00 p.m. on 13 february 2004 to 04:00 a.m. of the next day, a high frequency of haematophagic act ...200515880224
outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern brazil.outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of latin america, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. in the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) are described from bahia state, northeastern brazil, in 1991 and 1992. the first was recorded in aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this ...200212621664
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase) inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced potentiation of excitotoxic contrast to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa), vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase [dspa]) does not promote excitotoxic injury when injected directly into the brain. we have compared the excitotoxic effects of intravenously delivered tpa and dspa and determined whether dspa can antagonize the neurotoxic and calcium enhancing effects of tpa.200515879331
indirect oral immunization of captive vampires, desmodus rotundus.a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (v-rg) vaccine was tested in hematophagous bats (desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. the vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of v-rg vaccine through paste to one bat could indirectly protect other bats from the same group. eight groups ...200515896405
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