isolation of rabies virus from bats in bolivia.rabies virus was isolated from apparently normal blood-sucking (desmodus rotundus) and insectivorous (artibeus planirostris) bats caught in bolivia. the virus was identified by immunofluorescence, biological and sero-neutralisation tests.1978664008
seasonal reproduction of vampire bats and its relation to seasonality of bovine rabies.studies of pregnancy and lactation in vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) in northern argentina over a 4 yr period showed an inverse relationship between prevalence of pregnancy and lactation, the consequence of birth and onset of lactation, which was correlated with the wet season. the seasonal influx of young susceptibles into the vampire population in the wet season coincided with the well known increase in vampire transmitted rabies in that season.19921602584
cross protection of mice against different rabies virus an attempt to identify "atypical" strains which could account for vaccination failures, 10 street, one intermediate (dr19) and 4 fixed rabies virus isolates from men, cattle, dogs, cats, mongoose and vampire bats in five countries (argentina, brazil, chile, cuba, and france) were studied by cross-protection tests in mice. for the purpose of this study, any virus that killed more than 20% of the vaccinated mice challenged with that virus was considered "atypical". when the suckling mouse brain ...19852409716
spinturnicid mites (gamasida: spinturnicidae) associated with bats in central brazil.the results of a survey of spinturnicid mites (gamasida: spinturnicidae) infesting bats near brasília, d.f., brazil, are presented. one hundred twenty-five bats were collected, representing three families and 15 species. seven species of spinturnicid mites (genus periglischrus) were collected from nine species of bats (family phyllostomidae). each of the following six species of periglischrus was associated with a single species of bat: periglischrus acutisternus machado-allison and p. torrealba ...19892795621
analysis of cold and warm receptor activity in vampire bats and mice.the response characteristics of facial thermoreceptors of the common vampire bat and of the mouse have been quantitatively studied. cold receptors were identified in bat and mouse; warm receptors were only established in the bat. cold and warm receptor populations of the two species share most of their properties with facial thermoreceptor populations of various mammalian species investigated so far. the temporal pattern of activity of cold receptors of the mouse corresponded to that observed in ...19883174381
[characteristics of a rabies virus strain isolated from the brain of desmodus rotundus]. 19724262443
vampire bat control in the americas; a review and proposed program for action. 19744421502
control of bovine rabies through vampire bat control. 19744436917
letter: disappearance of trypanosoma evansi from a vampire bat colony in western colombia. 19744818671
vampire-bat transmitted rabies virus from surinam. comparison of properties with european street virus and fixed virus. 19704908047
epidemic strain of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from a vampire bat captured in oaxaca, mexico, 1970.a vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, captured in oaxaca, mexico, in august 1970, was found to be infected with the epidemic strain of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus at the same time that an equine epizootic was occurring there.19725008598
vampire bat control by systemic treatment of livestock with an anticoagulant.the blood of beef cattle given single doses (1 milligram per kilogram of body weight) of diphenadione (2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione) became toxic to vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) and remained toxic for 3 days without harming the cattle. cattle at three ranches in mexico treated with single intraruminal injections of diphenadione experienced a reduction in vampire bat bites of 93 percent. bioassays of milk and liver from cattle treated orally with diphenadione in the laboratory indicated th ...19725068491
[structural aspects of mossy fibers. comparative study: cavia cobaya and desmodus rotundus. golgi's method and electron microscopy]. 19705525395
movement and population studies of the vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) in mexico. 19715545561
quantitative data on the inferior olivary nucleus in man, cat and vampire bat. 19685657523
plasminogen activator in saliva of the vampire bat desmodus rotundus. 19665967844
[on the isolation in brazilof rabies virus from the lung, heart and various other tissues of hematophagous vampire bats belonging to the species desmodus rotundus]. 19666011926
fine structure of the vomeronasal neuroepithelium of bats: a comparative study.the vomeronasal neuroepithelium of the vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, and the frugivorous bats, carollia perspicillata and artibeus jamaicensis, was examined at the light-microscopic and ultrastructural levels. the neuroepithelium of these species is basically similar in morphology to that of other mammals. however, hitherto unknown differences were noted in regard to the configuration of the apical poles of cells, in the occurrence of solitary cilia, dislocated sensory cells, brush cells, cell ...19827102243
[aeromonas hydrophila as a normal intestinal bacterium of the vampire bat (desmodus rotundus)]. 19807053178
a plaque-purified rabies virus (strains v-319) derived from a vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) in mexico: vaccine potential.a plaque-purified experimental rabies vaccine was developed from an isolate (strain v-319) made from a naturally infected vampire bat (desmodus rotundus). two different vaccines were prepared; one was live virus and the second was an inactivated rabies virus preparation. the live virus vaccine, as well as a betapropiolactone-inactivated vaccine, gave complete protection to challenge inoculation after 1 year. in contrast, greater than 80% of the non-vaccinated experimental control cattle died of ...19846467947
[enterobacteria of bats (chiroptera) (author's transl)].the aerobic gram-negative faecal flora of 38 bats consisting of 10 species and genera respectively, of microchiroptera, and of 4 species and genera respectively, of megachiroptera was studied (table 1 and 3). there were no specific differences between insectivora and frugivora: e. coli 15-24%, citrobacter 8-10%, enterobacter-klebsiella-group 40-43% and proteus-group 28-30% (table 2). the overwhelming majority of the isolated bacteria were lactose-positive (table 3), corresponding to the membersh ...19807424248
adult phyllostomid (bat) enamel by scanning electron microscopy--with a note on dermopteran enamel.this study assesses the enamel of five phyllostomids of differing feeding habits; only one example of the microchiropteran super-family phyllostomoidae having previously been studied by sem. a dermopteran was also examined to ascertain whether the enamel might reveal insectivore, chiropteran or primate characteristics. the five phyllostomids were found to display the additional crystallite discontinuity feature (minor boundary plane or seam) which is a major characteristic of all the bats we hav ...19883368766
vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.a short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the americas is given. based on information from the animal health yearbook--a cooperative publication of the food and agriculture organization (fao), the world health organization (who), and the international office of epizootics (oie)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. an important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (bolivia, brazil, guatemala, mexico, nicaragua, ...19883206085
biology, ecology, and control of the vampire bat.the importance of the vampire bat as a vector of rabies and its taxonomy, anatomic characteristics, distribution, feeding habits, behavior, and habitat are described. also described are studies of methods of reducing vampire bat populations. anticoagulants such as diphenadione and warfarin were shown to be effective in reducing vampire bat populations. these substances were used in different ways: application of the compound to the skin of captured vampires and then the release of the animals to ...19883060955
thrombolytic agents in development.the quest continues for thrombolytic agents with a higher thrombolytic potency, specific thrombolytic activity and/or a better fibrin selectivity. several lines of research towards improvement of thrombolytic agents are being explored, including the construction of mutants and variants of plasminogen activators (pas), chimaeric pas, conjugates of pas with monoclonal antibodies, and pas from animal or bacterial origin. some of these new thrombolytic agents have shown promise in animal models of v ...19957588087
human depredation by vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) following a hog cholera campaign.hog cholera control efforts in belize in 1975 included the slaughter of village pigs, a primary food source for the vampire bat (desmodus rotundus). the bats then fed on secondary food sources, including humans. in 1 village, 22% of the families interviewed were exposed to attacks: 17 children and 2 adults were bit. human depredation was not continuous as desmodus located other hosts.19892929856
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator is quiescent in human plasma in the absence of fibrin unlike human tissue plasminogen activator.the vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) is a potent pa that exhibits remarkable selectivity toward fibrin-bound plasminogen (gardell et al, j biol chem 256: 3568, 1989). herein, we describe the activity of recombinant dna-derived bat-pa (rbat-pa) in a human plasma milieu. rbat-pa and recombinant human single-chain tissue plasminogen activator (rt-pa) are similarly efficacious at lysing plasma clots. in stark contrast to rt-pa, the addition of 250 nmol/l rbat-pa to plasma in the a ...19902124935
the plasminogen activator family from the salivary gland of the vampire bat desmodus rotundus: cloning and expression.complementary dnas coding for four desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activators (dspas) were isolated and characterized. the predicted amino acid sequences display structural features also found in tissue-type plasminogen activator. the largest forms (dspa alpha 1 and -alpha 2) contain a signal peptide, a finger (f), an epidermal growth factor (egf), a kringle, and a serine protease domain, whereas dspa beta and -gamma lack the f and f-egf domains, respectively. additional differences betwe ...19911937019
effective thrombolysis without marked plasminemia after bolus intravenous administration of vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator in rabbits.the use of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) in thrombolytic therapy is frequently associated with significant fibrinogenolysis. in contrast, recombinant vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) displays strict fibrin specificity, an attribute that could be desirable in a fibrinolytic agent.19911905593
fibrinolytic agents: mechanisms of activity and pharmacology.fibrinolytic (thrombolytic) agents activate the fibrinolytic system by conversion of the inactive proenzyme, plasminogen into the active enzyme plasmin, that degrades fibrin. agents available for clinical use are: the physiologic tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-pa)--either in a single chain (scu-pa, prourokinase) or a two-chain (tcu-pa, urokinase) form, and the bacterial activator plasminogen streptokinase or its anisoylated complex with plasm ...19958578491
high-level secretion of the four salivary plasminogen activators from the vampire bat desmodus rotundus by stably transfected baby hamster kidney cells.the cdnas coding for the four desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activators (dspas) were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector, pmpsv/cmv, which carries the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus promoter and the cytomegalovirus enhancer. these constructs were transfected, together with plasmids harbouring geneticin (g418)-resistance and puromycin-resistance genes, into baby hamster kidney cells. through the selective pressure of both antibiotics, cell clones constitutively overexpressing ...19921634121
genetic characterization of rabies field isolates from venezuela.twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein and by patterns of nucleotide substitution in the nucleoprotein gene. three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs. unique substitutions permit ...19968735118
thrombolytic properties of desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) salivary plasminogen activator in experimental pulmonary embolism in rats.rdspa alpha 1 (recombinant desmodus salivary plasminogen activator alpha 1) is a recombinant protein corresponding to a natural plasminogen activator from the vampire bat desmodus rotundus. the thrombolytic properties of rdspa alpha 1 and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) were compared in a rat model of pulmonary embolism. whole blood clots, produced in vitro and labeled with 125i-fibrinogen, were embolized into the lungs of anesthetized rats. thrombolysis was calculated from the differen ...19921536947
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator exhibits a strict and fastidious requirement for polymeric fibrin as its cofactor, unlike human tissue-type plasminogen activator. a kinetic analysis.the vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (batpa) is virtually inactive toward glu-plasminogen in the absence of a fibrin-like cofactor, unlike human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa) (the kcat/km values were 4 and 470 m-1 s-1, respectively). in the presence of fibrin ii, tpa and batpa activated glu-plasminogen with comparable catalytic efficiencies (158,000 and 174,000 m-1 s-1, respectively). batpa's cofactor requirement was partially satisfied by polymeric fibrin i (54,000 m-1 s-1), ...19921387641
potential force of infection of human rabies transmitted by vampire bats in the amazonian region of brazil.human rabies transmitted by bats has acquired greater epidemiologic relevance in various latin american countries, just when cases transmitted by dogs have decreased. concern has been heightened by reports of increased rates of bats biting humans in villages in the amazonian region of brazil. the aim of the present work was to estimate the potential force of infection (per capita rate at which susceptible individuals acquire infection) of human rabies transmitted by the common vampire bat if the ...19969025698
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator promotes rapid and sustained reperfusion without concomitant systemic plasminogen activation in a canine model of arterial thrombosis.the efficacy of recombinant vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) as a thrombolytic agent was compared with that of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) in a canine model of arterial thrombosis. an occlusive thrombus was formed in the femoral artery by insertion of a thrombogenic copper coil; femoral arterial blood flow was monitored with a doppler flow meter. bat-pa and t-pa, when administered by 5-minute intravenous infusion (14 nmol/kg), reperfused seven out of eight a ...19921371932
outbreak of human rabies in the peruvian jungle.transmission of rabies to man by vampire bats has been known for 60 years but there have been few reports of the features of rabies transmitted in this way. these aspects of the disease were investigated during an outbreak in peru in early 1990. between jan 1 and april 30, 1990, 29 (5%) of 636 residents of the two rural communities in the amazon jungle in peru acquired an illness characterised by hydrophobia, fever, and headache and died shortly thereafter. a census in one of the two towns revea ...19921346669
plasminogen activators from the saliva of desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat): unique fibrin specificity.the saliva of d. rotundus contains at least four plasminogen activators (pas) which all require fibrin as a cofactor. d. rotundus salivary pas (dspas) exhibit a sequential array of structural motifs such as "finger" (f), "egf" (e), "kringle" (k) and "protease" (p) which was elucidated by cdna cloning and sequencing. the respective domain organizations are: fekp (dspa alpha 1 and dspa alpha 2), ekp (dspa beta) and kp (dspa gamma). in all four forms the plasmin-sensitive site of tpa is obliterated ...19921309059
observations on the epizootiology of vampire bat rabies.vampire bat populations were opportunely sampled before, during, and at varying intervals after outbreaks of bovine rabies. the captured bats were examined for rabies neutralizing antibody and virus. in all, sera from 1,024 vampire bats were tested for antibody, and tissues from these bats plus 83 others were tested for virus. neutralizing antibody only rarely appeared in vampire serum samples taken before bovine rabies outbreaks, and only low percentages of samples positive for rabies antibody ...19751212534
anti-brucella agglutinins in bats and "callithrix" monkeys.anti-brucella agglutinins were found in 5 of 53 (9.4%) vampire bats desmodus rotundus, captured in the state of bahia, brasil. two specimens of diphylla ecaudata were negative. fifty specimens of the small monkey, callithrix penicillata, were also negative.1976815569
electrical response of bat retina to spectral stimulation: comparison of four microhiropteran species.electrical responses of the retinas of 4 species of microchiropteran bats stimulated by spectrally restricted light flashes were found to diverge systematically from the rhodopsin absorption spectrum. the divergence was progressively greater across the 4 species. the results appeared explainable by assuming a second photoreceptor class and photopigment which was present in progressively greater numbers in the retinas of eptesicus fuscus, desmodus rotundus, artibeus jamaicensis and carollia persp ...1979488274
serological evidence of infection of tacaribe virus and arboviruses in trinidadian bats.sera from 39 species of bats collected in trinidad between 1972 and 1974 were tested against some or all of 18 arboviruses in hemagglutination inhibition (hi) and/or suckling mouse neutralization (n) tests. a few sera were hi-positive with mucambo, eastern equine encephalitis (eee), oriboca, restan, manzanilla, guama, bimiti, and catu. no sera were hi-positive with mayaro, caraparu or maguari. many ser inhibited one or more of the group b hemagglutinins: ilheus, st. louis encephalitis (sle), den ...1978204207
iron balance in the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus.1. total body iron in the common vampire bat was 80 +/- 67 mg fe/kg body wt (mean +/- sd). 2. mean (+/- sd) iron absorption as measured by the double isotope method was 0.068 +/- 0.0032% fe. a typical adult bat ingests 6.1 mg fe/day (morton & wimsatt, 1980) of which approximately 4.2 microgram fe is absorbed. 3. body iron turnover (bit) was estimated from the decrease in specific radioactivity of the blood over more than a year. the mean (+/- sd) of the half-life of iron turnover was 379 +/- 101 ...19826128125
experimental rabies infection and oral vaccination in vampire bats (desmodus rotundus).a rabies virus variant isolated from a vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) and characterized by genome sequencing was used for the standardization of an experimental infection in this species. the parenteral administration of 10(6) micld50 of this variant was capable of inducing death from rabies in 89% of animals. the mean duration of post-challenge survival was 12 days. none of the experimental rabid vampire bats showed aggressive behaviour. a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine ...19989682368
fibrin-specificity of a plasminogen activator affects the efficiency of fibrinolysis and responsiveness to ultrasound: comparison of nine plasminogen activators in a number of cases, thrombolytic therapy fails to re-open occluded blood vessels, possibly due to the occurrence of thrombi resistant to lysis. we investigated in vitro how the lysis of hardly lysable model thrombi depends on the choice of the plasminogen activator (pa) and is accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation. lysis of compacted crosslinked human plasma clots was measured after addition of nine different pas to the surrounding plasma and the effect of 3 mhz ultrasound on the speed of lysi ...199910235448
[bacteriological study of the intestinal flora of bats (desmodus rotundus) (author's transl)].stools of 100 bats trapped in the town of anhembi, state os são paulo, brazil, were examined bacteriologically. hemolityc and non hemolytic strains of escherichia coli were found most frequently (29.5%) followed by proteus group (27%) and staphylococcus (20%). from nine samples of stools the authors isolated salmonella typhimurium.19751236052
[isolation of rabies virus from brain, salivary and interscapular glands, heart, lungs and testis of the bat desmodus rotundus, in the state of são paulo (author's transl)].rabies virus was isolated from the brain, salivary and interscapular (brown fat) glands, heart, lungs and testis of naturally infected vampire bat desmodus rotundus found paralyzed in the day at barueri, são paulo state. the rabies virus isolations were made by intracerebral inoculation in 4-5 days and 30 days old mice. the virus strain was identified as rabies virus by the sellers and faraco (mann) techniques, the fluorescent antibody test and intracerebral inoculation of mice. the isolation of ...19751236047
distribution of iron in the gastrointestinal tract of the common vampire bat: evidence for macrophage-linked iron clearance.iron in the tissues of the digestive tract of the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) has been studied using histochemical, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic methods. this animal is an obligate sanguivore and has a daily intake of dietary iron 800 times that of man. the amount and distribution of tissue iron is not affected by either a single blood meal or starvation but does reflect the degree of siderosis of each animal's liver and spleen. by 7 days after the injection of a trace a ...19807212303
bat rabies in urban centers in hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. these isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in chile. the phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reser ...200010813604
third-generation thrombolytic drugs.several third-generation thrombolytic agents have been developed. they are either conjugates of plasminogen activators with monoclonal antibodies against fibrin, platelets, or thrombomodulin; mutants, variants, and hybrids of alteplase and prourokinase (amediplase); or new molecules of animal (vampire bat) or bacterial (staphylococcus aureus) origin. these variations may lengthen the drug's half-life, increase resistance to plasma protease inhibitors, or cause more selective binding to fibrin. c ...200010936478
virus isolation from saliva and salivary glands of cattle naturally infected with paralytic rabies.the infectivity of saliva, salivary and mammary glands, muscle, lung, kidney and liver of 87 cattle infected with paralytic rabies (positive viral isolation from brains) was studied. fifty percent dilutions of saliva and tissue samples were inoculated intracerebrally into 10- to 15-day-old mice. viral isolation in mice was confirmed by direct rabies fluorescent-antibody test and the antigenic variant of the isolates characterized by monoclonal antibodies. rabies virus was isolated from 4.6% of s ...200111182465
bat lyssavirus infections.bats, which represent approximately 24% of all known mammalian species, frequently act as vectors of lyssaviruses. in particular, insectivorous bats play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies and some rabies-like viruses, while the haematophagous vampire bats are the major wildlife vector for rabies in latin america. in contrast, the role of fruit bats (flying foxes) in the epidemiology of the recently discovered australian bat lyssavirus is only just emerging. information on the patho ...200011189715
genetic characterization and geographic distribution of rabies virus isolates in brazil: identification of two reservoirs, dogs and vampire bats.we analyzed 50 rabies virus samples isolated in brazil from 12 dogs, 11 cats, 5 vampire bats, 15 cattle, 2 horses, 1 pig, 1 sheep, and 3 humans to investigate the molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses. we sequenced 203 nucleotides on the nucleoprotein gene by direct sequencing of the pcr-amplified products. all the isolates belonged to the genotype 1 and homology of the 203 nucleotides was at least 83.7% among isolates. the main reservoirs were estimated based on the homology of nucleotide se ...200111384221
survey of bat populations from mexico and paraguay for rabies.a mammalian survey was conducted in mexico (october 1994-january 1996) and in paraguay (august 1996-march 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. the surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. one male lasiurus ega, collected in paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). nucleotide sequence from a 300 ...200111504233
common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the amazon region of brazil.many people in amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. the objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. a cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the amazonian region of brazil (160 inhabitants). bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least o ...200111784915
experimental rabies in the vampire bat.vampire bats were inoculated intramuscularly and subcutaneously with varying doses of rabies virus to simulate bites by rabid animals in nature. daily saliva samples were then taken from these animals to determine whether they excreted virus and for how long. vampire bats appear to react to rabies virus as do other animals, with variable incubation periods, some excretion of virus in the saliva, but no prolonged excretion "carrier state."19807369444
antigenic diversity and distribution of rabies virus in mexico.rabies remains a public health problem in the americas because of the great diversity of wild reservoirs that maintain the virus in nature. here we report the antigenic characterization of 254 rabies viruses isolated from 148 nonreservoir and 106 reservoir hosts collected in 27 states of mexico. nine out of 11 antigenic variants previously reported in the united states were detected in mexico by using the limited panel of monoclonal antibodies donated by the centers for disease control and preve ...200211880422
vampire bat plasminogen activator dspa-alpha-1 (desmoteplase): a thrombolytic drug optimized by natural selection.plasminogen activators are enzymes found in all vertebrate species investigated so far. their physiological function is the generation of localized proteolysis in the context of tissue remodeling, wound healing and neuronal plasticity. the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) is a new world species that feeds exclusively on blood. its saliva contains highly potent plasminogen activators, specialized in rapid lysis of fresh blood clots. biochemical and pharmacological evidence indicates that th ...200111910176
antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. the panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the americas. samples were isolated in the diagnostic laboratory of the pasteur institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in brazil. in addition to the fixed virus samples cvs-31/96-ip, preserved in mouse brain, and pv-bhk/97, preserved in cell c ...200212048546
acari ectoparasites of bats from minas gerais, brazil.ectoparasites were recovered from brazilian bats captured from april to november 1997 at or near parque estadual do rio doce, state of minas gerais, southeastern brazil. sixty bats were collected, representing three families and 13 species. five acari families were recorded: myobiidae, trombiculidae, labidocarpidae, macronyssidae, and spinturnicidae. the macronyssid radfordiella desmodi radovsky (71 specimens) and the spinturnicid periglichrus iheringi oudemans (45 specimens) were the most abund ...200212061455
vaccination of vampire bats using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) were vaccinated by intramuscular, scarification, oral, or aerosol routes (n = 8 in each group) using a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus. sera were obtained before and 30 days after vaccination. all animals were then challenged intramuscularly with a lethal dose of rabies virus. neutralizing antirabies antibodies were measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (rffit). seroconversion was observed with each of the routes employed, but s ...200212243138
genetic and antigenic typing of rabies virus in chile. brief report.forty-one isolates of rabies virus from insectivorous bats and one from a domestic cat in chile, were characterized using eight anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) and by nucleotide sequence analysis. thirty-two isolates were identified as antigenic variant 4 associated with tadarida brasiliensis bats, twenty-eight were genetically associated with variant tadarida brasiliensis and four with lasiurus sp. bats. one isolate was identified as antigenic variant 3 associated with desmodu ...200212417953
development of thrombolytic therapy for stroke: a perspective.thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase, activase trade mark, rtpa; genentech inc) has proven beneficial for acute stroke management, even though only 1 - 2% of stroke patients in the us are treated with the drug [1]. part of the reason for the under utilisation of alteplase may be the narrow therapeutic window and frequent occurrence of serious side effects, such as increased haemorrhage incidence [2,3]. it is because of these shortcomings, that recent efforts have attempted t ...200212437508
outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern brazil.outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of latin america, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. in the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) are described from bahia state, northeastern brazil, in 1991 and 1992. the first was recorded in aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this ...200212621664
discrimination between dog-related and vampire bat-related rabies viruses in brazil by strain-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.there is a geographical overlap between the two main rabies epidemiological cycles maintained by dogs and vampire bats in latin america. the geographical and temporal coincidence of rabies outbreaks of respective origins is not unusual in rural areas of latin america. these circumstances make it difficult to discriminate the intraspecies and interspecies transmission pathways of rabies.200312637081
human rabies: a reemerging disease in costa rica?two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in september 2001 in costa rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector.200312781014
rabies in cattle. v. immunization of cattle in brazil against exposure to street virus of vampire bat origin. 195513263234
metabolic responses induced by fasting in the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus.this study explored the effects of fasting on body fuel mobilization in the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) fed a high-protein diet (bovine blood). an uncommon fragility during food deprivation has been reported for this species to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. the immediate biochemical responses to fasting, however, have not been established. thus, blood glucose, plasma ffa, glycogen, protein, and fat concentrations in the liver and muscles were determine ...200313680131
haematophagous bats in brazil, their role in rabies transmission, impact on public health, livestock industry and alternatives to an indiscriminate reduction of bat population.haematophagous bats exist only in latin america, from méxico to the northern provinces of argentina. they are represented by three species, desmodus rotundus, diphylla ecaudata and diaemus youngii. while two species feed only on blood of wild birds, one species, d. rotundus, causes losses feeding on livestock and could be a vector for rabies virus. the cases in which humans were bitten by the bat have increased in brazil. bats became a target of control activities by farming communities and loca ...200314720182
genetic and phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein of rabies virus isolated from several species in brazil.genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the region containing the glycoprotein (g) gene, which is related to pathogenicity and antigenicity, and the g-l intergenic region were carried out in 14 brazilian rabies virus isolates. the isolates were classified as dog-related rabies virus (drrv) or vampire bat-related rabies virus (vrrv), by nucleoprotein (n) analysis. the nucleotide and amino acid (aa) homologies of the area containing the g protein gene and g-l intergenic region were generally lower th ...200415297743
preservation of rabies virus rna from brain tissue using glycerine.the challenge virus standard (cvs) strain and a wild isolate from a mexican child who died of hematophagous bat (desmodus rotundus)-transmitted rabies were injected intracerebrally into balb/c mice. brains obtained from infected mice were immersed in 80%, 50%, and 40% glycerine/phosphate-buffered saline (pbs). rna was extracted from brains on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 21, and 60, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rt-pcr-rflp) tests were performe ...200315307422
a comparative study of amyloid-beta (1-42) as a cofactor for plasminogen activation by vampire bat plasminogen activator and recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator.the activity of both human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) and the pa from the saliva of the vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, (dspa) is critically dependent on the presence of a cofactor. the most efficient cofactor for both pas is fibrin, but fibrinogen and amyloid beta peptides also have cofactor activities for human t-pa. compared to t-pa, dspa has a more stringent requirement for fibrin as a cofactor. the present study was undertaken to compare cofactor activities of amyloid beta 1-4 ...200415351852
genetic characterization of rabies viruses isolated from frugivorous bat (artibeus spp.) in latin america, rabies cases related to frugivorous bats have been reported since 1930's. recently, two viruses isolated from artibeus lituratus were proved to be vampire bat variants by monoclonal antibodies panels [2], but their genetic information is not well known. in this report, four rabies viruses were isolated from frugivorous bats (artibeus spp.) in brazil and their nucleoprotein gene sequences were determined. these isolates were found to be genotype 1 of lyssavirus and showed the ma ...200415528863
vampire bats yield potent clot buster for ischemic stroke.while tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa) is currently the standard "clot-busting" drug used to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke, another new option for treatment is now under clinical study. desmodus rotundus plasminogen activator (dspa), an enzyme found in the saliva of vampire bats, may offer another therapeutic option instead of tpa, a current therapy for stroke. animal research indicates that tpa may mediate neuronal death as well as increase systemic plasminogen consumption an ...200415529064
p-selectin-targeting of the fibrin selective thrombolytic desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator alpha1.during thrombosis, p-selectin is expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells and platelets. we hypothesized that targeting a plasminogen activator (pa) to p-selectin would enhance local thrombolysis and reduce bleeding risk. previously, a urokinase (upa)/anti-p-selectin antibody (husz51) fusion protein was shown to increase fibrinolysis in a hamster pulmonary embolism model. to explore the therapeutic potential of this targeting strategy, we fused the fibrin-selective desmodus rotund ...200415543321
detection and characterization of rabies virus in southern brazil by pcr amplification and sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene.due to the medical and socio-economical importance of both human and animal rabies infection, several studies have suggested the use of molecular techniques such as rt-pcr and dna sequencing for diagnosis and phylogenetic studies of the rabies virus. considering the conservancy of the nucleoprotein (n) gene of the virus, we herein describe a rt-pcr assay for rabies diagnosis and characterization. a total of 75 samples obtained from a variety of animal species in the state of santa catarina (sc), ...200415614435
production of desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator alpha1 (dspaalpha1) in tobacco is hampered by proteolysis.the high fibrin specificity of desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator alpha1 (dspaalpha1 or desmoteplase (inn)) makes it a promising candidate for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. in the current study we explored the use of transgenic tobacco plants and by-2 suspension cells as alternative production platforms for this drug. four different n-terminal signal peptides, from plants and animals, were used to translocate the recombinant dspaalpha1 protein to the endomembrane system. ...200515685597
antigenic and molecular characterization of rabies virus in argentina.the nucleoprotein genes of 54 human, domestic and wild animals rabies isolates obtained in argentina between 1995 and 2002 were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and partial gene sequence analysis. the antigenic and genetic diversities of rabies virus in samples from bat and bat-related cases were studied, leading to the identification of five distinct genetic variants. rabies viruses isolated from vampire bat related cases were very similar to each other, showing 98.9% overall similarit ...200415763144
studies on antigenic and genomic properties of brazilian rabies virus isolates.despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. this work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any relationship with the different hosts for the virus in nature. for that, 79 brazilian rabies viruses isolated from different host species and from distinct regions within brazil were submitted to antigenic cha ...200515863275
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase) inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced potentiation of excitotoxic contrast to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa), vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase [dspa]) does not promote excitotoxic injury when injected directly into the brain. we have compared the excitotoxic effects of intravenously delivered tpa and dspa and determined whether dspa can antagonize the neurotoxic and calcium enhancing effects of tpa.200515879331
first record of desmodus rotundus in urban area from the city of olinda, pernambuco, northeastern brazil: a case report.the objective of this report is to describe the first record of desmodus rotundus in urban area from the city of olinda, pernambuco state, northeastern brazil, and to draw attention to the possible risk of rabies transmission in this place. after the complaint of a dog owner who observed three bats attacking his dog, images registering attacks of d. rotundus were captured with a video camera. from 09:00 p.m. on 13 february 2004 to 04:00 a.m. of the next day, a high frequency of haematophagic act ...200515880224
indirect oral immunization of captive vampires, desmodus rotundus.a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (v-rg) vaccine was tested in hematophagous bats (desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. the vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of v-rg vaccine through paste to one bat could indirectly protect other bats from the same group. eight groups ...200515896405
experimental rabies infection in haematophagous bats desmodus order to determine the susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response of desmodus rotundus to rabies virus, bats were inoculated with a virus isolated from a naturally infected haematophagous bat. bats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. dilutions of rabies virus containing 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 micld50 (lethal dose 50% for mice inoculated by the intracerebral route) were administrated in the pectoral muscle. the presence of rabies virus was detected in brain an ...200515962559
salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) micld50) of vampire rabies virus variant cass88. saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by pcr. rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that s ...200515966107
rapid discrimination of rabies viruses isolated from various host species in brazil by multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.rabies is carried mainly by mammalian carnivores and vampire bats in latin america. however, rabies virus (rv) has been isolated in recent years from not only vampire bats in rural areas but also from several non-vampire bat species in urban areas, respectively. therefore, rapid molecular screening is necessary for efficient epidemiology of these rvs. in this study, we investigated the usefulness of multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for determining the origins of ...200516036175
molecular epidemiological analysis of bat rabies viruses in brazil.a molecular epidemiological analysis was performed in 19 rabies viruses (rvs) isolated from haematophagous, frugivorous and insectivorous bats, in sao paulo, brazil. the authors carried out rt-pcr for amplification of the rv nucleoprotein (n) gene, and determined 1,335 nucleotide sequences of n gene by direct sequencing method. phylogenetic analysis, which was based on the n gene of brazilian rv isolates identified presently and previously, revealed that rvs isolated from bats were genetically d ...200516082111
detection of multiple strains of rabies virus rna using primers designed to target mexican vampire bat variants.a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), that uses primers specifically designed to amplify a portion of the n gene of vampire bat strains of rabies that circulate in mexico, but also recognizing most of the rabies variants circulating in endemic areas, was established. this standardized pcr assay was able to detect viral rna in tenfold serial dilutions up to a 10(7) dilution using stock virus at an original titre of 10(7.5) ld50. the assay was highly specific for rabies virus ...200516181515
the molecular epidemiology of rabies associated with chiropteran hosts in mexico.while large-scale dog vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced urban rabies throughout mexico, reports of sylvatic rabies, including cases of spill-over of bat strains into livestock and humans, are increasing. to improve knowledge of these epidemiological trends, 64 mexican rabies virus isolates from various host species, have been characterized. phylogenetic analysis at the viral p locus identified distinct viral strains associated with terrestrial reservoirs (dog, skunk and fox/bobcat ...200616303200
generation of monoclonal antibodies against autologous proteins in gene-inactivated mice.induction of an immune response is strongly dependent on the phylogenetic distance between antigen and recipient. in general, antibodies will not be raised against self-antigens nor against highly conserved domains. in the present study we describe the production and characterization of murine monoclonal "auto-antibodies" against murine tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-pa) raised in "knock-out" mice, homozygously deficient of the functional gene. 203 stable hybridomas were obtained producing ...19957536737
vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator evokes minimal bleeding relative to tissue-type plasminogen activator as assessed by a rabbit cuticle bleeding time model.cuticle bleeding time (cbt) measurements in anesthetized rabbits were performed to assess the potential bleeding risks which may accompany the administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpa) or vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (batpa). the dose of batpa or tpa used in this study, 42 nmol/kg, was previously shown to be efficacious using a rabbit femoral artery thrombosis model (gardell et al, circulation 84:244, 1991). cbt was determined by severing the apex of the nail cuticl ...19957545321
comparison of the bleeding potential of vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator versus tissue plasminogen activator in an experimental rabbit model.vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-pa) has significantly greater fibrin specificity than any of the fibrinolytic agents currently in clinical use. this study tests the hypothesis that avoiding fibrinogen depletion may protect against the hemorrhage induced by plasminogen activator treatment.19957867196
coronary thrombolysis with desmodus salivary plasminogen activator in dogs. fast and persistent recanalization by intravenous bolus administration.dspa (desmodus salivary plasminogen activator) is a new thrombolytic agent corresponding to a natural plasminogen activator discovered in the saliva of the vampire bat desmodus rotundus. compared with tissue plasminogen activator (tpa), dspa, produced in a recombinant cell line, is more fibrin cofactor dependent than tpa.19948026028
histochemical and myosin composition of vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) pectoralis muscle targets a unique locomotory niche.the vampire bat pectoralis muscle contains at least four fiber types distributed in a nonhomogeneous pattern. one of these fiber types, here termed iie, can be elucidated only by adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) histochemistry combined with reactions against antifast and antislow myosin antibodies. the histochemical and immunohistochemical observations indicate a well-developed specialization of function within specific regions of the muscle. in parallel, analyses of native myosin isoforms and ...19938230235
an outbreak of vampire bat bite in a brazilian outbreak of 26 cases of vampire bat bite in one month in the rural area of honorópolis, a brazilian village, is reported. all patients were bitten during the night, when they were asleep, and most bites were on their toes. no complication attributed to the bite was reported. the patients were given prophylactic antirabies serum and rabies vaccine. control of the outbreak was achieved by visiting bat roosting sites, smearing captured vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) with a paste of 2% warfarin ...19938256101
the antigen-specific cell-mediated immune response in mice is suppressed by infection with pathogenic lyssaviruses.responsiveness of t cells (rtc) was studied in balb/c mice intramuscularly infected with various lyssaviruses. after infection by this peripheral route, two types of viruses could be classified according to their effects: 1) pathogenic viruses, including fixed rabies pasteur virus (serogenotype 1) and wild viruses belonging to serogenotype 1 (from a rabid fox in france and from a cow infected by a vampire bat in brazil) or to serogenotype 5 (european bat lyssavirus 1); and 2) non-pathogenic viru ...19968880998
an outbreak of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle in northeastern outbreak of bovine rabies occurred on a ranch when cattle were bitten by vampire bats. microscopic lesions showed a nonsuppurative encephalitis with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigen in the brain, and monoclonal antibodies identified a serotype 1 (vampire strain) of the rabies virus.19979056070
outbreak of vampire bat biting in a venezuelan outbreak of 154 cases of vampire bat biting in a four-month period in the gold mine of payapal, a venezuelan village, is reported. all patients were bitten during the night and the most bites were on their toes. no complication attributed to the bite was reported. diagnoses of rabies virus made by means of immunofluorescence were negative. a possible reason for this outbreak may been the development of mining areas, with the inhabitants providing an alternative food source for the bats.19969269099
procedures for reproducible detection of rabies virus antigen mrna and genome in situ in formalin-fixed tissues.procedures allowing the reproducible in situ detection of rabies virus antigen and rnas (both genome and message) in formalin-fixed tissue are described. these procedures can be used on sequential tissue sections and thereby permit comparison of results from tests detecting both antigen and rna in the same tissue. this antigen-detecting procedure has also been used to identify both the phylogenetically distant rabies viruses from silver-haired bat and vampire bat and the rabies-related viruses m ...19979274812
catalytic domain structure of vampire bat plasminogen activator: a molecular paradigm for proteolysis without activation cleavage.the saliva of the blood-eating vampire bat desmodus rotundus contains plasminogen activators (pas) that maintain the fluidity of the prey's blood by activating plasminogen and dissolving developing fibrin clots. d. rotundus salivary pas (dspas) are composed of evolutionarily conserved domains reminiscent of human tissue-type pa (tpa), but their catalytic domain lacks a plasmin-sensitive "activation cleavage site". despite this, all dspas are intrinsically active and enormously stimulated in the ...19979354616
presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies in wild carnivores following an outbreak of bovine an outbreak of bovine rabies in argentina, a study was made of vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) and wild carnivores. rabies antibody rates of high prevalence were found in the bats, foxes (dusicyon gymnocercus) and skunks (conepatus chinga). the outbreak was part of an extensive continuing epizootic of vampire transmitted bovine rabies which may have also involved other vectors in the area of this study. consumption of dead and dying bats by the carnivores is the suggested means of passage of ...19751142554
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