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lunarperiodic variation of the phase-angle difference in nocturnal animals under natural zeitgeber-conditions near the equator.several months' studies under natural illumination conditions in the vicinity of the equator show that night monkeys (aotus trivirgatus), and leaf-nosed bats (artibeus lituratus) exhibit species-specific lunarperiodic changes of the phase position of their activity rhythm to the zeitgeber rhythm (figures 1-3). these changes are closely to nightly illumination conditions. in aotus the phase-angle differences (p.a.ds) of the onset and end of the activity phase, and in artibeus the p.a.ds of the mi ...1976829232
vitamin b12 metabolism in the fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus). the induction of vitamin b12 deficiency and its effect on folate levels.1. vitamin b12 metabolism was studied in bats of the species rousettus aegyptiacus, which live on an all-fruit diet in the wild. 2. there was a wide range in values for the serum vitamin b12 concentration of newly captured bats, but bats captured in the early spring had significantly higher mean serum vitamin b12 levels than bats captured in the early autumn. 3. there was an exponential decrease in serum vitamin b12 concentration with time in captivity for bats fed on a vitamin b12-deficient, al ...19751201264
the primary structure of a mouse-eared bat (myotis velifer, chiroptera) hemoglobin.the hemoglobin of the mouse-eared bat myotis velifer consists of one component. we present the primary structures of the alpha- and beta-globin chains which have been separated by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose cm-52. the sequences have been determined by edman-degradation with the film technic or the gas phase method, using the native chains and the tryptic peptides, as well as the c-terminal prolyl-peptides obtained by acid hydrolysis of the asp-pro-bonds. compared to the correspond ...19863828074
protein profile of the myelin membrane of the fruit bat rousettus aegyptiacus.integral membrane protein composition of the myelin membrane from normal and vitamin b12-deficient fruit bats has been compared with that of the rat. purified myelin from the fruit bat shows only one basic protein which co-migrates with the large basic protein of the rat, and thus presents a pattern similar to that of the guinea pig. no gross differences were seen in the protein patterns from normal and vitamin b12-deficient animals. bats between 4-10 days and 10-20 days post partum were also in ...19836661904
effect of the zeitgeber pattern on the resynchronization behaviour of dark-active mammals.the activity of 12 egyptian fruit bats, rousettus aegyptiacus, was synchronized by 24-h illumination cycles varying in light/dark (l/d) ratios, and the effect of these ratios on the resynchronization following phase shifts of the zeitgeber signal (+8 h and -8 h) was observed. the resynchronization time in l/d:16/8 was the same as that in l/d:12/12, but that in l/d:8/16 was significantly increased. after an advance-shift, some of the bats (2 of 6 in l/d:16/8 and 6 of 12 in l/d:8/16) resynchronize ...19827141748
detection of the 9-kda vitamin d-dependent calbindin gene in a fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) fibroblast cell line.1. a fibroblast cell line was established from skin and lung tissue of the fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus). 2. genomic dna, isolated from the fibroblast cells, was restriction digested and probed for the 9-kda calbindin gene with a 180 base-pair fragment of mouse calbindin-d9k cdna. genomic dna from rats and humans was similarly probed. 3. hybridization and thus homology was observed between the mouse probe and dna from the rat and the fruit bat, but not the human. 4. the results are discussed ...19938482081
diurnal and seasonal changes in blood composition of the free-living egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).we studied the blood profile of the free-living fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) during the beginning of the activity period (around various feeding trees) and upon return to the day roost during 1994-1995. results of the present study suggest that during winter and early spring bats are characterized by a poor physical and physiological state as reflected in the blood profile, revealing elevated urea and uric acid concentrations. it was found that at the end of the resting phase, r. aegyptiacu ...199910466219
characterisation of a recently isolated lyssavirus in frugivorous zoo bats.in july 1997 a lyssavirus was isolated in denmark from a colony of egyptian flying foxes (rousettus aegyptiacus) originating from a dutch zoo. sequencing of a 400 nucleotides coding region of the nucleoprotein and of a major part of the g-protein ectodomain encoding region of the newly isolated virus, revealed a very high similarity with european bat lyssavirus subtype 1a (ebl-1a). for characterisation of the recently isolated lyssavirus in frugivorous zoo bats, 16 frugivorous bats (rousettus ae ...200011043951
vaccination of egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) with monovalent inactivated rabies vaccine.twenty-six captive, adult egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rvna) using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test before and after vaccination. the bats were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: group a (n = 10) bats each received one 0.1-ml dose of monovalent inactivated rabies vaccine, group b (n = 10) bats each received two 0.1-ml doses of vaccine given 30 days apart, and group c (n = 6) bats remained un ...200415193074
a pasteurella-like bacterium associated with pneumonia in captive megachiropterans.a novel pasteurella-like organism was recovered postmortem from lung tissue of two captive wahlberg's epauleted fruit bats (epomophorus wahlbergi), with severe, unilateral pneumonia. the bats had been recently shipped and died shortly after release from a 30-day quarantine. one presented with clinical signs of anorexia and lethargy before death; the other died without prior clinical symptoms. the same pasteurella-like organism was recovered antemortem from subcutaneous abscesses in two captive l ...200415193080
genetic characterization of the first chiropteran papillomavirus, isolated from a basosquamous carcinoma in an egyptian fruit bat: the rousettus aegyptiacus papillomavirus type 1.the complete genomic dna of a novel papillomavirus (pv) was isolated from a basosquamous carcinoma on the wing of an egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus). initial short sequences of the e1 and l1 genes of this virus were retrieved by pcr with degenerate papillomavirus-specific primers, and the entire r. aegyptiacus papillomavirus type 1 (rapv-1) dna was then amplified by long template pcr, cloned and sequenced with a transposon insertion method. the rapv-1 genome counts 7970 basepairs and ...200616854536
papillomavirus-associated basosquamous carcinoma in an egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).a 5-yr-old female egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) had a small raised pigmented mass removed from the lateral canthus of the left eye. six additional variably sized, raised, smooth to cauliflower-like skin masses were observed randomly distributed throughout the left wing membranes. four masses were removed and diagnosed microscopically as basosquamous carcinomas and papillomas. additional masses, removed 6 mo and 1 yr later, showed bony invasion and squamous differentiation. immunohis ...200617312801
estimating the mean abundance and feeding rate of a temporal ectoparasite in the wild: afrocimex constrictus (heteroptera: cimicidae).the feeding frequency of blood-feeding invertebrates in the wild is largely unknown but is an important predictor for the potential of disease transmission and for estimating the effects blood feeding may have on the host population. we present a method to estimate the mean feeding frequency per individual parasite from the frequency distribution of fed and unfed individuals in the wild. we used three populations of the cimicid species, afrocimex constrictus, that parasitises the fruit bat rouse ...200717362962
lagos bat virus in kenya.during lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in kenya. one isolate of lagos bat virus (lbv) was obtained from a dead eidolon helvum fruit bat. the virus was most similar phylogenetically to lbv isolates from senegal (1985) and from france (imported from togo or egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. this genome conservancy across space and time suggests that lbv is well ada ...200818305130
ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus).ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [etoh] increases as fruit ripens. at low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. we hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. we predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration ...200818320157
induction and sequencing of rousette bat interferon alpha and beta genes.bats are considered to be natural reservoirs for several viruses of clinical importance, including rabies virus, nipah virus, and hendra virus. type i interferons (ifns) is an important part of the immune system in the defense against viral infection. to investigate the function of type i ifns upon viral infection in bats, the nucleic acid, and amino acid sequences of egyptian rousette (rousettus aegyptiacus) ifn-alpha and -beta were characterized. sequence data indicated that bat ifn-alpha cons ...200818436311
sarcomatoid carcinoma in the lung of an egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).a sarcomatoid carcinoma was diagnosed in the lung of a 10-year-old captive egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus). both carcinomatous and sarcomatous cytologic phenotypes were identified histologically. cells of both types stained positive for pancytokeratin and s-100. stromal cells stained positively for muscle actin. no staining for vimentin was noted in either neoplastic or normal internal control tissues. to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a pulmonary sarcomatoid carc ...200919139522
yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a closed colony of egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus).an outbreak of yersinia pseudotuberculosis (yptb) occurred in a closed colony of egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) and resulted in the death of seven bats over a 6-week period. an initial survey of the remaining bats revealed visceral abscessation characteristic of pseudotuberculosis in five of the 12 bats examined (41.7%), inciting depopulation of the colony. at necropsy, 70% of the 115 bats in the colony exhibited gross evidence suggestive of yptb infection, including mesenteric lymp ...200919368235
isolation of genetically diverse marburg viruses from egyptian fruit bats.in july and september 2007, miners working in kitaka cave, uganda, were diagnosed with marburg hemorrhagic fever. the likely source of infection in the cave was egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of marburg virus rna in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. the virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. the bat colony was estimated to be ove ...200919649327
large serological survey showing cocirculation of ebola and marburg viruses in gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in rousettus aegyptiacus.ebola and marburg viruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans. recently, bats of multiple species have been identified as possible natural hosts of zaire ebolavirus (zebov) in gabon and republic of congo, and also of marburgvirus (marv) in gabon and democratic republic of congo.200919785757
functional analysis of rousettus aegyptiacus "signal transducer and activator of transcription 1" (stat1).bats are now known as the source of several diseases in humans, but few studies regarding immune responses and factors associated with bats have so far been reported. in this study, we focused on stat1, one of the critical components in interferon (ifn)-signaling and antiviral activity, which is often targeted by viral proteins to reduce antiviral activity and increase viral replication. we found that rousettus aegyptiacus stat1 (bat stat1) is phosphorylatable and translocates to the nucleus whe ...201020067804
bartonella spp. in bats, kenya.we report the presence and diversity of bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across kenya. bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 eidolon helvum, 22 rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 coleura afra, 7 triaenops persicus, 1 hipposideros commersoni, and 49 miniopterus spp. bats. sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of bartonella strains. phylogenetically, isolates clustered in spec ...201021122216
conservation of central nervous system glutaryl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase in fruit-eating bats with glutaric aciduria and deficient hepatic glutaryl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase.the adult fruit-eating bat, rousettus aegypticus, excretes massive amounts of glutaric acid in the urine (20-70 mumol/mg creatinine) comparable to those of humans affected with the inherited metabolic disorder, glutaric aciduria type i. glutaric acid was quantified by sequential liquid partition chromatography and gas chromatography. oral loading with the amino acid precursors of glutaric acid, l-lysine and l-tryptophan, resulted in significant increases in glutaric acid excretion above the base ...19883182847
restraining cage and method for bleeding fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus). 1995502468
genomic analysis of codon usage shows influence of mutation pressure, natural selection, and host features on marburg virus evolution.the marburg virus (marv) has a negative-sense single-stranded rna genome, belongs to the family filoviridae, and is responsible for several outbreaks of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. codon usage patterns of viruses reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable viruses to shape their survival rates and fitness toward the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. to understand the evolution of marv at the codon level, we report a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon u ...201526306510
no evidence for the involvement of the argasid tick ornithodoros faini in the enzootic maintenance of marburgvirus within egyptian rousette bats rousettus aegyptiacus.the cave-dwelling egyptian rousette bat (erb; rousettus aegyptiacus) was recently identified as a natural reservoir host of marburgviruses. however, the mechanisms of transmission for the enzootic maintenance of marburgviruses within erbs are unclear. previous ecological investigations of large erb colonies inhabiting python cave and kitaka mine, uganda revealed that argasid ticks (ornithodoros faini) are hematophagous ectoparasites of erbs. yet, their potential role as transmission vectors for ...201626944044
isolation of a novel fusogenic orthoreovirus from eucampsipoda africana bat flies in south africa.we report on the isolation of a novel fusogenic orthoreovirus from bat flies (eucampsipoda africana) associated with egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) collected in south africa. complete sequences of the ten dsrna genome segments of the virus, tentatively named mahlapitsi virus (mahlv), were determined. phylogenetic analysis places this virus into a distinct clade with baboon orthoreovirus, bush viper reovirus and the bat-associated broome virus. all genome segments of mahlv contain a ...201627011199
identification of a novel bat papillomavirus by metagenomics.the discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. high-throughput sequencing (hts) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. in this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96), pigs (n = 9), cattles (n = 9), stray dogs (n = 11), stray cats (n = 11) and ...201222937142
marburg virus infection detected in a common african bat.marburg and ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (hf) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. here, we report ...200717712412
zeitgeber-schedule dependent resynchronization of circadian rhythms in nocturnal mammals (primates and chiroptera).changing the l:d time ratio of an entraining light-dark regime leads to characteristic alterations of the resynchronization behaviour of the circadian activity rhythms in night monkeys (aotus trivirgatus) and african fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) after 8 h advance and delay shifts of the ld-zeitgeber. reduced speed of re-entrainment and occurrence of antidromic resynchronization point to a lower zeitgeber strength of 24-h ld-cycles with a prolonged d-phase.19817297663
[primary structure of the hemoglobins from the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus, chiroptera)].the hemoglobin of the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) has only one component. the alpha and beta chains were separated by chromatography on cm-52 cellulose. the complete primary structures of both chains were established by automatic edman degradation of the chains and the tryptic peptides. the alignment was done by homology with alpha and beta chains of adult human hemoglobin. a comparison of these two hemoglobins shows an exchange of 14 amino acid residues in the alpha chains and of ...19827141404
the primary structure of the hemoglobin from the bat macrotus californicus (chiroptera).the complete primary structure of the hemoglobin from the bat macrotus californicus (chiroptera) is presented. this hemoglobin consists of only one component. the alpha- and beta-chains were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. the sequences of both chains were established by automatic edman degradation of the chains and the tryptic peptides, as well as of the c-terminal peptide obtained by acidic hydrolysis of the asp-pro bond in the beta-chains using the film- and ...19873593539
kasokero virus: a new human pathogen from bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) in uganda.two virus strains were isolated by mouse inoculation from blood of rousettus aegyptiacus fruit-eating bats collected from kasokero cave in uganda. shortly after these strains were introduced in the laboratory, four additional strains were recovered from laboratory workers who had developed mild to severe illnesses presumably as a result of laboratory infection. serological studies established that these six isolates are strains of the same virus. serological tests showed also that this virus is ...19863082234
animal models for glutaryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency.in vitro studies suggest that excitotoxic cell damage is an underlying mechanism for the acute striatal damage in glutaryl-coa dehydrogenase (gcdh) deficiency. it is believed to result from an imbalance of glutamatergic and gabaergic neurotransmission induced by the accumulating organic acids 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-oh-ga) and to a lesser extent glutaric acid (ga). stereotaxic administration of 3-oh-ga and ga into the rat striatum have confirmed these results, but may not truly represent the e ...200415505386
the 9-kda calbindin gene of rousettus aegyptiacus: its identification and isolation from a genomic library.a genomic library of the fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) was constructed in lambda phage gt11. the titre of the library was determined to be 2 x 10(5) pfu/ml. the genomic library was amplified and the titre of the amplified library increased 300-fold to 7 x 10(7) pfu/ml. the library was screened by in situ hybridization techniques using a fragment of the mouse 9-kda calbindin cdna as a probe. screening of 10(5) plaques yielded a positive clone. three additional rounds of screening were perform ...19948205389
tissue folates in fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) with nitrous oxide-induced vitamin b12 deficiency and neurological impairment.1. long-term exposure of the fruit bat rousettus aegyptiacus to nitrous oxide, which inactivates methylcobalamin, leads to neurological impairment and ataxia. 2. in n2o-exposed animals, liver concentrations of total folates and methyl folates decreased to less than one-fifth that of control animals. pediococcus cerevisiae-active folates were also reduced. 3. in brain, there were no changes in total or methyl folates, but p. cerevisiae-active folates were lower in n2o-exposed animals. 4. suppleme ...19873120768
bats are rare reservoirs of staphylococcus aureus complex in gabon.the colonization of afro-tropical wildlife with staphylococcus aureus and the derived clade staphylococcus schweitzeri remains largely unknown. a reservoir in bats could be of importance since bats and humans share overlapping habitats. in addition, bats are food sources in some african regions and can be the cause of zoonotic diseases. here, we present a cross-sectional survey employing pharyngeal swabs of captured and released bats (n=133) in a forest area of gabon. we detected low colonizatio ...201727894991
outbreak of yersiniosis in egyptian rousette bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) caused by yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 4b.this report describes an outbreak of yersiniosis in egyptian rousette bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) caused by yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 4b. twelve of 61 bats died between november and december 2008 or in may 2009. the bats often displayed multiple yellow-white nodules in the spleen and liver. microscopically, these consisted of focal necrosis accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration and colonies of gram-negative bacilli. the bacterial colonies were identified immunohistochemically ...201322980777
Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni) is the likely reservoir of Shimoni bat virus.In this study we attempted to identify whether Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni) is the reservoir of Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV), which was isolated from a bat of this species in 2009. An alternative explanation is that the isolation of SHIBV from H. commersoni was a result of spill-over infection from other species, particularly from the Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), which frequently sympatrically roost with H. commersoni and are known as the reservoir of the phy ...201121867415
cell lines from the egyptian fruit bat are permissive for modified vaccinia ankara.bats are reservoir hosts for a spectrum of infectious diseases. some pathogens (such as hendra, nipah and marburg viruses) appear to use mainly fruit bats as reservoir. we describe designed immortalization of primary fetal cells from the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) to facilitate isolation and characterization of pathogens associated with these mammals. three cell lines with different properties were recovered and successful immortalization was confirmed by continuous cultivation f ...200919540275
disseminated microsporidiosis due to encephalitozoon hellem in an egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).disseminated microsporidiosis was diagnosed in an adult female egyptian fruit bat that died unexpectedly in a zoo. gross findings, which were minimal, included poor body condition, bilateral renomegaly, and mottling of the liver. histopathological lesions, which were particularly pronounced in the urogenital tract and liver, consisted primarily of inflammation associated with intracytoplasmic microsporidian spores. polymerase chain reaction -based methods were used to establish the identity of t ...200616709419
presence of european bat lyssavirus rnas in apparently healthy rousettus aegyptiacus bats.apparently healthy rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a dutch colony naturally infected with european bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (ebl1a). these bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an ebl1a infection in the colony. ebl1a genomic and antigenomic rnas of the nucleoprotein gene were detected by nested reverse transcriptase pcr in 75% of the examined rousettus aegyptiacus bats. the ebl1a rnas of the nucleoprotein gene were detected mainly in brain tissue ...200211892688
between-host phylogenetic distance and feeding efficiency in hematophagous ectoparasites: rodent fleas and a bat host.we hypothesized that a parasite exploits most effectively its principal host, less effectively a host that is phylogenetically close to its principal host, and least effectively a host that is phylogenetically distant from its principal host. we tested this hypothesis by quantifying the feeding efficiency of two flea species (parapulex chephrenis and xenopsylla ramesis) on two rodents, acomys cahirinus, the specific host of p. chephrenis, and meriones crassus, a preferred host of x. ramesis, and ...200717297629
 1. several months' measurements of activity under natural illumination conditions near the equator (colombia) show that changes in night illumination over the lunar cycle influence the activity of nocturnal mammals in various ways. 2. night monkeys (aotus trivirgatus) largely limit their activity to dusk and dawn during the new moon period. during the full-moon period they are very active throughout the night (fig. 5). in the case of the neotropical phyllostomatid batartibeus lituratus, moonligh ...197428308624
is marburg virus enzootic in gabon?marburg virus (marv) nucleic acid was detected in rousettus aegyptiacus bats in 2005 and 2006 in the midwest and southeast of gabon. in this study we used marv-specific real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and marv-specific nested rt-pcr assay to screen 1257 bats caught during july 2009, december 2009, and june 2010 in 3 caves situated in northern gabon. nine specimens tested positive by the real-time assay, with cycle threshold values ranging from 35 to 39, of whic ...201121987754
the possible roles of ethanol in the relationship between plants and frugivores: first experiments with egyptian fruit bats.in this paper we discuss how yeast, fungi ubiquitously present in sugar-rich fruit, can influence the interaction between frugivores and fleshy-fruited plants via ethanol. we suggest that plants, the seeds of which are mostly dispersed by vertebrates, exploit the ethanol from alcoholic fermentation by yeast in their seed dispersal strategy. moderate consumption of ethanol, i.e., at concentrations close to those in naturally ripening fruit, by frugivores may have beneficial short- and long-term e ...200421676712
establishment of fruit bat cells (rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model system for the investigation of filoviral infection.the fruit bat species rousettus aegyptiacus was identified as a potential reservoir for the highly pathogenic filovirus marburg virus. to establish a basis for a molecular understanding of the biology of filoviruses in the reservoir host, we have adapted a set of molecular tools for investigation of filovirus replication in a recently developed cell line, r06e, derived from the species rousettus aegyptiacus.201020808767
wireless recording of the calls of rousettus aegyptiacus and their reproduction using electrostatic transducers.bats are capable of imaging their surroundings in great detail using echolocation. to apply similar methods to human engineering systems requires the capability to measure and recreate the signals used, and to understand the processing applied to returning echoes. in this work, the emitted and reflected echolocation signals of rousettus aegyptiacus are recorded while the bat is in flight, using a wireless sensor mounted on the bat. the sensor is designed to replicate the acoustic gain control wh ...201020458135
gastrointestinal leiomyosarcoma in an egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).a 10-year-old female egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) was evaluated for weakness and lethargy. despite clinical improvement after supportive therapy, the bat was found dead the following day. gross necropsy identified a mass associated with the duodenal wall and right renal cortex. microscopically, the duodenal and gastric tunica muscularis and serosa and the right renal cortex were effaced by interlacing bundles of neoplastic spindle cells that were diffusely and strongly positive for ...201020453229
the microstructure of lingual papillae in the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) as observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.the microstructure of lingual papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue of adult egyptian fruit bats was examined by light microscopy (lm) and scanning electron microscopy (sem). this elongated tongue with a rounded apex is approximately 3 cm long -- including the 1.7cm length of the anterior free part of the tongue -- which facilitates considerable freedom of movement. the surface of the tongue has four types of lingual papillae: two types of mechanical papillae -- filiform and conical papil ...200919789409
experimental inoculation of egyptian rousette bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) with viruses of the ebolavirus and marburgvirus genera.the egyptian rousette bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) is a natural reservoir for marburgviruses and a consistent source of virus spillover to humans. cumulative evidence suggests various bat species may also transmit ebolaviruses. we investigated the susceptibility of egyptian rousettes to each of the five known ebolaviruses (sudan, ebola, bundibugyo, taï forest, and reston), and compared findings with marburg virus. in a pilot study, groups of four juvenile bats were inoculated with one of the ebol ...201526120867
the influence of ambient temperature and the energy and protein content of food on nitrogenous excretion in the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).the diets of frugivorous and nectarivorous vertebrates contain much water and generally have high energy but low protein contents. therefore, we tested the prediction that to save energy under conditions of high energy demands and high water intake, frugivorous egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) will increase both the absolute quantity and the proportion of ammonia in their urine. we also examined whether such changes occur when protein intake is low and water intake is high. we did thr ...200616927242
ethanol and methanol as possible odor cues for egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus).frugivorous bats from the old and new world use odor cues to locate and assess fruit condition. we hypothesized that egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) use as odor cues those volatile compounds that increase in emission rate as fruit ripens. we examined whether the smell of fermentation products may indicate the degree of ripeness to fruit bats. we analyzed volatile compounds in the headspace (the gas space above a fruit in a closed container) of dates (phoenix dactylifera) and rusty fi ...200616770719
molecular detection of histoplasma capsulatum in the lung of a free-ranging common noctule (nyctalus noctula) from france using the hcp100 gene.histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that is widely distributed in the tropical or subtropical areas of the world and infects several mammalian hosts, mainly bats. infective propagules grow in bat and bird droppings. a specific molecular marker, a highly sensitive fragment of a co-activator protein-coding gene (hcp100), was used to detect h. capsulatum in lung samples of wild and captive bats from france using a nested polymerase chain reaction. to determine whether bats in france are po ...201323505698
analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including ebola virus, sars-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. these viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. to determine whether the utilizatio ...201525706132
interaction of hemoglobin with chloride and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. a comparative approach.the equilibrium oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobins from reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus), musk ox (ovibos muschatos) and a bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) have been investigated with special reference to the effect of heterotrophic ligands such as chloride and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate [gri(2,3)p2]. the results obtained with hemoglobins from reindeer and musk ox indicate that their low oxygen affinity and their insensitivity to gri(2,3)p2 are not only an intrinsic property of the molecule, ...19902253624
bat flies (diptera: nycteribiidae and streblidae) infesting cave-dwelling bats in gabon: diversity, dynamics and potential role in polychromophilus melanipherus transmission.evidence of haemosporidian infections in bats and bat flies has motivated a growing interest in characterizing their transmission cycles. in gabon (central africa), many caves house massive colonies of bats that are known hosts of polychromophilus dionisi parasites, presumably transmitted by blood-sucking bat flies. however, the role of bat flies in bat malaria transmission remains under-documented.201627286888
click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all.echolocating bats of the genus rousettus produce click sonar signals, using their tongue (lingual echolocation). these signals are often considered rudimentary and are believed to enable only crude performance. however, the main argument supporting this belief, namely the click's reported long duration, was recently shown to be an artifact. in fact, the sonar clicks of rousettus bats are extremely short, ~50-100 μs, similar to dolphin vocalizations. here, we present a comparison between the sona ...201121465138
filoviruses and bats.while reston and lloviu viruses have never been associated with human disease, the other filoviruses cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever characterised by person-to-person transmission and high case fatality ratios. cumulative evidence suggests that bats are the most likely reservoir hosts of the filoviruses. ecological investigations following marburg virus disease outbreaks associated with entry into caves inhabited by rousettus aegyptiacus bats led to the identification of this bat species as ...201728603449
isolated case of marburg virus disease, kampala, uganda, 2014.in september 2014, a single fatal case of marburg virus was identified in a healthcare worker in kampala, uganda. the source of infection was not identified, and no secondary cases were identified. we describe the rapid identification, laboratory diagnosis, and case investigation of the third marburg virus outbreak in uganda.201728518032
modelling filovirus maintenance in nature by experimental transmission of marburg virus between egyptian rousette bats.the egyptian rousette bat (erb) is a natural reservoir host for marburg virus (marv); however, the mechanisms by which marv is transmitted bat-to-bat and to other animals are unclear. here we co-house marv-inoculated donor erbs with naive contact erbs. marv shedding is detected in oral, rectal and urine specimens from inoculated bats from 5-19 days post infection. simultaneously, marv is detected in oral specimens from contact bats, indicating oral exposure to the virus. in the late study phase, ...201728194016
isolation of a zoonotic pathogen kluyvera ascorbata from egyptian fruit-bat rousettus aegyptiacus.the egyptian fruit-bat rousettus aegyptiacus which had been raised at the private commercial aquarium in seoul, korea for indoor exhibition was found dead and submitted to college of veterinary medicine, seoul national university for postmortem examination. a pure bacterium of kluyvera ascorbata was isolated from the blood specimen. the isolation of k. ascorbata from fruit bat is very important, because it is the most infectious agent of the genus kluyvera that cause serious diseases to animals ...201019915337
lack of marburg virus transmission from experimentally infected to susceptible in-contact egyptian fruit bats.egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) were inoculated subcutaneously (n = 22) with marburg virus (marv). no deaths, overt signs of morbidity, or gross lesions was identified, but microscopic pathological changes were seen in the liver of infected bats. the virus was detected in 15 different tissues and plasma but only sporadically in mucosal swab samples, urine, and fecal samples. neither seroconversion nor viremia could be demonstrated in any of the in-contact susceptible bats (n = 14) up ...201525838270
anatomical and physiological investigation of auditory input to the superior colliculus of the echolocating megachiropteran bat rousettus aegyptiacus.the objective of this study was to investigate whether a representation of auditory space in the superior colliculus (sc) of the echolocating megachiropteran bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) exists. additionally the subcortical auditory connectivity of the sc was investigated. a total of 207 units were recorded in five awake animals while presenting acoustic stimuli (white noise, clicks, and pure tones) at different positions in space. six units responded to acoustic stimulation. three of these locat ...19968951391
novel adenoviruses and herpesviruses detected in bats.samples from native hungarian or captive bats were tested by pcr for the presence of adenoviruses and herpesviruses. two novel adenoviruses from a common noctule (nyctalus noctula) and a greater horseshoe (rhinolophus ferrum-equinum) bat were detected. in captive egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus), dna from two novel herpesviruses was demonstrated. phylogenetic analysis facilitated provisional taxonomic placement of the newly detected viruses. such analysis and the existence of unique, ...201120813566
comparative phylogeography of african fruit bats (chiroptera, pteropodidae) provide new insights into the outbreak of ebola virus disease in west africa, 2014-2016.both ebolavirus and marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. after four decades of zaire ebolavirus (zebov) outbreaks in central africa, the virus was detected for the first time in west africa in 2014. to better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between central and west africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phyloge ...201727746072
absorption of sugars in the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus): a paradox explained.two decades ago d. j. keegan reported results on egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus, megachiroptera) that were strangely at odds with the prevailing understanding of how glucose is absorbed in the mammalian intestine. keegan's in vitro tests for glucose transport against a concentration gradient and with phloridzin inhibition in fruit bat intestine were all negative, although he used several different tissue preparations and had positive control results with laboratory rats. because gluc ...200717488935
mapping the zoonotic niche of marburg virus disease in africa.marburg virus disease (mvd) describes a viral haemorrhagic fever responsible for a number of outbreaks across eastern and southern africa. it is a zoonotic disease, with the egyptian rousette (rousettus aegyptiacus) identified as a reservoir host. infection is suspected to result from contact between this reservoir and human populations, with occasional secondary human-to-human transmission.201525820266
ebola and marburg virus diseases in africa: increased risk of outbreaks in previously unaffected areas?filoviral hemorrhagic fever (fhf) is caused by ebolaviruses and marburgviruses, which both belong to the family filoviridae. egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) are the most likely natural reservoir for marburgviruses and entry into caves and mines that they stay in has often been associated with outbreaks of mvd. on the other hand, the natural reservoir for ebola viruses remains elusive; however, handling of wild animal carcasses has been associated with some outbreaks of evd. in the la ...201425040642
morphology of the lingual papillae in the egyptian rousette bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).the dorsal lingual surface of the egyptian rousette bat was examined by scanning electron microscopy. filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. the filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. the filiform papillae notably differed in morphology by their location on the tongue and could be classified into 5 types: 1) scalelike, 2) small crown-like, 3) giant trifid, 4) large crown-like, 5) conical papillae. the fungiform papillae were present roun ...201223429050
basal, diurnal, and stress-induced levels of glucose and glucocorticoids in captive bats.plasma levels of glucocorticoids and glucose were measured in three species of fruit bats (chiroptera) sampled from captive populations. three species of old world bats (pteropus vampyrus, p. hypomelanus, and rousettus aegyptiacus) had plasma levels of glucose that were within the normal mammalian range (80-100 mg/dl), with no difference between males and females. all animals had detectable levels of one or both of the major glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) found in mammals. steroid ...19938468542
pattern of retinotectal projection in the megachiropteran bat rousettus aegyptiacus.the retinotopic organisation of the superior colliculus (sc) in the megachiropteran bat rousettus aegyptiacus was examined with single and multi-unit recordings and by tracing the retrograde and anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) between the retina and the sc. the pattern of projection of the visual field onto the sc in rousettus resembles the pattern found in most mammals. the whole of the contralateral visual field is represented and, in addition, a region of the ipsilateral ...19911816270
assessment of potential zoonotic disease exposure and illness related to an annual bat festival--idanre, nigeria.bats provide vital ecologic services that humans benefit from, such as seed dispersal and pest control, and are a food source for some human populations. however, bats also are reservoirs for a number of high-consequence zoonoses, including paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and lyssaviruses. the variety of viruses that bats harbor might be related to their evolutionary diversity, ability to fly large distances, long lifespans, and gregarious roosting behaviors. every year a festival takes place in i ...201424739343
social grooming in bats: are vampire bats exceptional?evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. it is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. we compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, artibeus jamaicensis, carollia perspicillata, eidolon helvum and rousettus aegyptiacus, u ...201526445502
oral shedding of marburg virus in experimentally infected egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus).marburg virus (marburg marburgvirus; marv) causes sporadic outbreaks of marburg hemorrhagic fever (mhf) in africa. the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) has been identified as a natural reservoir based most-recently on the repeated isolation of marv directly from bats caught at two locations in southwestern uganda where miners and tourists separately contracted mhf from 2007-08. despite learning much about the ecology of marv through extensive field investigations, there remained unansw ...201525375951
experimental inoculation of egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) with ebola virus.colonized egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus), originating in south africa, were inoculated subcutaneously with ebola virus (ebov). no overt signs of morbidity, mortality, or gross lesions were noted. bats seroconverted by day 10-16 post inoculation (p.i.), with the highest mean anti-ebov igg level on day 28 p.i. ebov rna was detected in blood from one bat. in 16 other tissues tested, viral rna distribution was limited and at very low levels. no seroconversion could be demonstrated in an ...201626805873
de novo transcriptome reconstruction and annotation of the egyptian rousette bat.the egyptian rousette bat (rousettus aegyptiacus), a common fruit bat species found throughout africa and the middle east, was recently identified as a natural reservoir host of marburg virus. with ebola virus, marburg virus is a member of the family filoviridae that causes severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and nonhuman primates, but results in little to no pathological consequences in bats. understanding host-pathogen interactions within reservoir host species and how it differs from h ...201526643810
topographic organization of facial motoneurons to individual pinna muscles in rat (rattus rattus) and bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).the location and number of motoneurons to individual pinna muscles were determined by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase in rat and flying fox. the degree of ear mobility differs considerably between these species in that rats perform simpler ear movements while flying foxes move their pinnae in a sophisticated way. five pinna muscles were investigated in each species. motoneurons lay within the medial subdivision of the facial motor nucleus extending over its entire rostrocaudal len ...19854056108
innate immune responses of bat and human cells to filoviruses: commonalities and distinctions.marburg (marv) and ebola (ebov) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. the natural reservoir of marv is the egyptian rousette bat (rousettus aegyptiacus); that of ebov is unknown but believed to be another bat species. the egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with marv but is refractory to ebov. interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (ifn)-inhibiting domains (iid). our study was aimed at char ...201728122983
comparative analysis of the digestive efficiency and nitrogen and energy requirements of the phyllostomid fruit-bat (artibeus jamaicensis) and the pteropodid fruit-bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).nitrogen (n) and energy (e) requirements of the phyllostomid fruit bat, artibeus jamaicensis, and the pteropodid fruit bat rousettus aegyptiacus, were measured in adults that were fed on four experimental diets. mean daily food intake by a. jamaicensis and r. aegyptiacus ranged from 1.1-1.6 times body mass and 0.8-1.0 times body mass, respectively. dry matter digestibility and metabolizable e coefficient were high (81.1% and 82.4%, respectively) for a. jamaicensis and (77.5% and 78.0%, respectiv ...199910227185
biannual birth pulses allow filoviruses to persist in bat populations.filoviruses ebolavirus (ebov) and marburgvirus (marv) cause haemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates, posing significant threats to public health. to understand transmission into human populations, filovirus dynamics within reservoir host populations must be understood. studies have directly linked filoviruses to bats, but the mechanisms allowing viral persistence within bat populations are poorly understood. theory suggests seasonal birthing may decrease the probability of pathogen persist ...201525673678
virological and serological findings in rousettus aegyptiacus experimentally inoculated with vero cells-adapted hogan strain of marburg virus.the egyptian fruit bat, rousettus aegyptiacus, is currently regarded as a potential reservoir host for marburg virus (marv). however, the modes of transmission, the level of viral replication, tissue tropism and viral shedding pattern remains to be described. captive-bred r. aegyptiacus, including adult males, females and pups were exposed to marv by different inoculation routes. blood, tissues, feces and urine from 9 bats inoculated by combination of nasal and oral routes were all negative for ...201223029039
[bats and other reservoir hosts of filoviridae. danger of epidemic on the african continent?--a deductive literature analysis].ebola and marburg virus, forming the filoviridae family, cause hemorrhagic fever in countries of sub-saharan africa. these viral diseases are characterized by a sudden epidemic occurrence as well as a high lethality. even though a reservoir host has not been approved yet, literature indicates the order of bats (chiroptera) as a potential reservoir host. significant references lead to a delineation of a hypothetical ecosystem of filoviridae including chiroptera. igg-specific ebola-zaire antibodie ...201020924703
authentication of the r06e fruit bat cell line.fruit bats and insectivorous bats are believed to provide a natural reservoir for a wide variety of infectious diseases. several lines of evidence, including the successful isolation of infectious viruses, indicate that marburg virus and ravn virus have found a major reservoir in colonies of the egyptian rousette (rousettus aegyptiacus). to facilitate molecular studies on virus-reservoir host interactions and isolation of viruses from environmental samples, we established cell lines from primary ...201222754654
tissue distribution of the mers-coronavirus receptor in bats.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) has been shown to infect both humans and dromedary camels using dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (dpp4) as its receptor. the distribution of dpp4 in the respiratory tract tissues of humans and camels reflects mers-cov tropism. apart from dromedary camels, insectivorous bats are suggested as another natural reservoir for mers-like-covs. in order to gain insight on the tropism of these viruses in bats, we studied the dpp4 distribution in the respirator ...201728446791
hemoglobins from bats (myotis myotis and rousettus aegyptiacus): a possible example of molecular adaptation to different physiological requirements.the functional properties of the hemoglobin systems from two different species of bat i.e. rousettus aegyptiacus and myotis myotis have been studied as a function of chloride, polyphosphates, ph and temperature. apart from overall similarities shared with most mammalian hemoglobins, the two systems show significant differences with respect to the effect of chloride and temperature sensitivity. these findings have been related to the different physiological needs of the two species.19892590470
development of a reverse genetics system to generate recombinant marburg virus derived from a bat isolate.recent investigations have shown the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) to be a natural reservoir for marburgviruses. to better understand the life cycle of these viruses in the natural host, a new reverse genetics system was developed for the reliable rescue of a marburg virus (marv) originally isolated directly from a r. aegyptiacus bat (371bat). to develop this system, the exact terminal sequences were first determined by 5' and 3' race, followed by the cloning of viral proteins np, v ...201324074586
seasonal pulses of marburg virus circulation in juvenile rousettus aegyptiacus bats coincide with periods of increased risk of human infection.marburg virus (family filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-saharan africa. bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the kitaka mine, uganda, which contained a large population of marburg virus-infected rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. described here is an ecologic investigation of python cave, uganda, where an american and a dutch tourist acquired marburg v ...201223055920
highly diverse and antimicrobial susceptible escherichia coli display a naïve bacterial population in fruit bats from the republic of congo.bats are suspected to be a reservoir of several bacterial and viral pathogens relevant to animal and human health, but studies on escherichia coli in these animals are sparse. we investigated the presence of e. coli in tissue samples (liver, lung and intestines) collected from 50 fruit bats of five different species (eidolon helvum, epomops franqueti, hypsignathus monstrosus, myonycteris torquata, rousettus aegyptiacus) of two different areas in the republic of congo between 2009 and 2010. to as ...201728700648
kinematics of chiropteran shoulder girdle in flight.new data on the mechanisms of movements of the shoulder girdle and humerus of bats are described; potential mobility is compared to the movements actually used in flight. the study was performed on the basis of morphological and functional analysis of anatomical specimens of 15 species, high speed and high definition filming of two species and x-ray survey of rousettus aegyptiacus flight. our observations indicate that any excursions of the shoulder girdle in bats have relatively small input in ...201323381941
primate-like retinotectal decussation in an echolocating megabat, rousettus aegyptiacus.the current study was designed to reveal the retinotectal pathway in the brain of the echolocating megabat rousettus aegyptiacus. the retinotectal pathway of other species of megabats shows the primate-like pattern of decussation in the retina; however, it has been reported that the echolocating rousettus did not share this feature. to test this prior result we injected fluorescent dextran tract tracers into the right (fluororuby) and left (fluoroemerald) superior colliculi of three adult rouset ...200818367343
environmental margin and island evolution in middle eastern populations of the egyptian fruit bat.here, we present a study of the population genetic architecture and microevolution of the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) at the environmental margins in the middle east using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites. in contrast to the rather homogenous population structure typical of cave-dwelling bats in climax tropical ecosystems, a relatively pronounced isolation by distance and population diversification was observed. the evolution of this pattern could be ascribed to ...201223094994
large-scale navigational map in a mammal.navigation, the ability to reach desired goal locations, is critical for animals and humans. animal navigation has been studied extensively in birds, insects, and some marine vertebrates and invertebrates, yet we are still far from elucidating the underlying mechanisms in other taxonomic groups, especially mammals. here we report a systematic study of the mechanisms of long-range mammalian navigation. high-resolution global positioning system tracking of bats was conducted here, which revealed h ...201121844350
echolocation signal structure in the megachiropteran bat rousettus aegyptiacus geoffroy 1810.rousettus aegyptiacus geoffroy 1810 is a member of the only genus of megachiropteran bats to use vocal echolocation, but the structure of its brief, click-like signal is poorly described. although thought to have a simple echolocation system compared to that of microchiroptera, r. aegyptiacus is capable of good obstacle avoidance using its impulse sonar. the energy content of the signal was at least an order of magnitude smaller than in microchiropteran bats and dolphins (approximately 4 x 10(-8 ...200415557022
effects of ethanol on food consumption and skin temperature in the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).since mammalian frugivores generally choose to eat ripe fruit in which ethanol concentration ([etoh]) increases as the fruit ripens, we asked whether ethanol acts as an appetitive stimulant in the egyptian fruit bat, rousettus aegyptiacus, and also studied the effects of ethanol on their skin temperature (t(s)). we hypothesized that the responses of fruit bats to dietary ethanol are concentration dependent and tested the predictions that the bats' response is positive, i.e., they eat more when [ ...201121705791
molecular detection of viruses in kenyan bats and discovery of novel astroviruses, caliciviruses and rotaviruses.this is the first country-wide surveillance of bat-borne viruses in kenya spanning from 2012-2015 covering sites perceived to have medium to high level bat-human interaction. the objective of this surveillance study was to apply a non-invasive approach using fresh feces to detect viruses circulating within the diverse species of kenyan bats. we screened for both dna and rna viruses; specifically, astroviruses (astvs), adenoviruses (advs), caliciviruses (calvs), coronaviruses (covs), flaviviruses ...201728393313
vitamin d metabolism in a frugivorous nocturnal mammal, the egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).the nocturnal, frugivorous egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) has no obvious access to either endogenous or dietary sources of vitamin d. we hypothesized that this species under natural conditions would be vitamin d deficient and that both serum mineral concentrations and vitamin d metabolite concentrations would be low. both wild populations and captive populations appear to have an impoverished vitamin d status, as concentrations of the principle circulating metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitam ...200312899852
sound localization in an old-world fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus): acuity, use of binaural cues, and relationship to vision.the passive sound-localization acuity of egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) was determined using a conditioned-avoidance procedure. the mean minimum audible angle for left-right discrimination for 3 bats was 11.6 degrees--very near the mean for terrestrial mammals. the bats also were able to localize low- and high-frequency pure tones, indicating that they can use both binaural phase-difference and binaural intensity-difference cues to localize sound. moreover, they were able to use the ...199910497795
discovery of african bat polyomaviruses and infrequent recombination in the large t antigen in the polyomaviridae.bat species represent natural reservoirs for a number of high-consequence human pathogens. the present study investigated the diversity of polyomaviruses (pyvs) in zambian insectivorous and fruit bat species. we describe the complete genomes from four newly proposed african bat pyv species employing the recently recommended criteria provided by the polyomaviridae study group of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. a comprehensive phylogenetic and recombination analysis was perform ...201728430100
[bats in israel: is there a reason for medical concern?].bats (classified in the order chiroptera) are the most abundant and widely distributed species of mammals in the world. they occupy a variety of ecosystems and are known for their ecological importance as seed dispersers, pollinators and insectivores. the order chiroptera, containing 33 known species, is the largest mammalian order in israel bats are homothermous, can fly for long distances, have long life spans and are very often highly gregarious. these traits make them important reservoir hos ...201021341436
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