the primary structure of the hemoglobin from the grey-headed flying fox (pteropus poliocephalus) and the black flying fox (p. alecto, megachiroptera).the primary structures of the hemoglobins of two flying foxes of the genus pteropus are presented. both comprise two components: in p. alecto hemoglobin two alpha-chains at a ratio of 1:1 and two beta-chains at a ratio of 4:1 were detected. the hemoglobin of p. poliocephalus comprises one alpha-chain and two beta-chains, the latter at a ratio of 1:1. the globin chains were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid and gas phase edman deg ...19883228493
a heterologous assay for measuring prolactin in pituitary extracts and plasma from australian flying foxes (genus pteropus).a sensitive heterologous assay was developed to measure prolactin-like activity in pteropus alecto, p. poliocephalus, and p. scapulatus, australian flying foxes. adapted from an established radioimmunoassay for rabbit prl, it utilises the well-characterised, polyclonal antiserum 33/9 (guinea pig anti-human prolactin). in the assay, pituitary extracts from p. alecto, p. poliocephalus, and p. scapulatus diluted in parallel with ovine prolactin standards, although absolute levels estimated were low ...19968954763
encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus in fruit bats in australia.this report describes the first pathologic and immunohistochemical recognition in australia of a rabies-like disease in a native mammal, a fruit bat, the black flying fox (pteropus alecto). a virus with close serologic and genetic relationships to members of the lyssavirus genus of the family rhabdoviridae was isolated in mice from the tissue homogenates of a sick juvenile animal.19968969249
australian bat lyssavirus infection in three fruit bats from north queensland.we report the case findings of australian bat lyssavirus infection in two black flying foxes (pteropus alecto) and one little red flying fox (pteropus scapulatus) from north queensland between january 1995 and august 1996. although the p. alecto case in january 1995 is the first recognised case of australian bat lyssavirus infection in australia, this was a retrospective diagnosis made after identification of the index case at ballina in may 1996. eight persons had exposure to the three bats. se ...19979145563
lyssaviral infection and lead poisoning in black flying foxes from queensland.pteropid lyssaviral infection, lead poisoning, and the difficulties in diagnosing pteropid lyssaviral infection using histopathological examination of tissues are described in wild black flying foxes (pteropus alecto) from northern queensland (australia). an adult female p. alecto showed aggression before death in january 1995. lead poisoning was diagnosed due to the presence of intranuclear lead inclusion bodies in renal proximal convoluted tubular epithelium and high concentrations of lead in ...19989577784
australian bat lyssavirus infection in a captive juvenile black flying fox.the newly emerging australian bat lyssavirus causes rabieslike disease in bats and humans. a captive juvenile black flying fox exhibited progressive neurologic signs, including sudden aggression, vocalization, dysphagia, and paresis over 9 days and then died. at necropsy, lyssavirus infection was diagnosed by fluorescent antibody test, immunoperoxidase staining, polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. eight human contacts received postexposure vaccination.199910341182
isolation of hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of hendra virus.since it was first described in australia in 1994, hendra virus (hev) has caused two outbreaks of fatal disease in horses and humans, and an isolated fatal horse case. our preliminary studies revealed a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to hev in bats of the genus pteropus:, but it was unclear whether this was due to infection with hev or a related virus. we developed the hypothesis that hev excretion from bats might be related to the birthing process and we targeted the reproductive tr ...200010900029
collection, seminal characteristics and chilled storage of spermatozoa from three species of free-range flying fox (pteropus spp.).this study reports observations on the collection and characteristics of semen from free-range populations of flying fox in brisbane, australia. semen was successfully recovered by electroejaculation from 107 of 115 wild flying foxes (pteropus alecto, pteropus poliocephalus and pteropus scapulatus). a proportion of ejaculates collected from all three species contained seminal vesicle secretions, the incidence of which appeared related to breeding season. ejaculate volume was small (5--160 microl ...200515913752
flying foxes as carriers of pathogenic leptospira species.recent serologic studies have identified flying foxes (pteropus spp.) as carriers of leptospirosis; however, little is known about the role of flying foxes as carriers of pathogenic leptospira spp. to determine if australian pteropus spp. are carriers of pathogenic leptospira spp., taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to detect leptospiral dna in kidney and urine specimens from four species of flying fox, including the spectacled flying fox (pteropus conspicillatus), black f ...200516456164
development and evaluation of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to identify mosquito (diptera: culicidae) bloodmeals originating from native australian mammals.real-time taqman polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were developed for the identification of mosquito (diptera: culicidae) bloodmeals originating from three groups of native australian mammals. primers and probes were designed to amplify a partial fragment of the cytochrome b gene of the agile wallaby, macropus agilis (gould); brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula (kerr); and the consensus sequence of the four species of australian flying fox: pteropus alecto temminck, pteropus conspicilla ...200717294925
functional studies of host-specific ephrin-b ligands as henipavirus receptors.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) are closely related paramyxoviruses that infect and cause disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. to determine whether host receptor molecules play a role in species-specific and/or virus-specific infection we have cloned and characterized ephrin-b2 and ephrin-b3 ligands from a range of species, including human, horse, pig, cat, dog, bats (pteropus alecto and pteropus vampyrus) and mouse. hev and niv were both able to infect cells expressing any of th ...200818054977
collection of semen by manual stimulation and ejaculate characteristics of the black flying-fox (pteropus alecto).semen collection and preservation is the first step toward the development of an artificial insemination program in endangered pteropus spp. semen was collected by manual stimulation from a single "human-habituated" p. alecto. manual stimulation resulted in the successful collection of motile spermatozoa on 17 of 34 attempts. the semen had a ph of 8.2 (n=2). with the exception of volume, seminal characteristics (concentration, motility, acrosome and plasma membrane status) were similar to those ...200819360614
transmission of japanese encephalitis virus from the black flying fox, pteropus alecto, to culex annulirostris mosquitoes, despite the absence of detectable determine the potential role of flying foxes in transmission cycles of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) in australia, we exposed pteropus alecto (megachiroptera: pteropididae) to jev via infected culex annulirostris mosquitoes or inoculation. no flying foxes developed symptoms consistent with jev infection. anti-jev igg antibodies developed in 6/10 flying foxes exposed to infected cx. annulirostris and in 5/5 inoculated flying foxes. low-level viremia was detected by real-time reverse transc ...200919706915
establishment, immortalisation and characterisation of pteropid bat cell lines.bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including nipah virus, hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and ebola virus. since the discovery of sars-like coronaviruses in chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a sl-cov from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. new stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investig ...200920011515
bats without borders: long-distance movements and implications for disease risk management.fruit bats of the genus pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes) are the natural hosts of several recently emerged zoonotic viruses of animal and human health significance in australia and asia, including hendra and nipah viruses. satellite telemetry was used on nine flying-foxes of three species (pteropus alecto n=5, p. vampyrus n=2, and p. neohibernicus n=2) to determine the scale and pattern of their long-distance movements and their potential to transfer these viruses between countries in t ...201020645122
molecular characterisation of toll-like receptors in the black flying fox pteropus alecto.bats are believed to be reservoir hosts for a number of emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which are responsible for illness and mortality in humans, livestock and other animals. in other vertebrates, early responses to viral infection involve engagement of toll-like receptors (tlrs), which induce changes in gene expression collectively leading to an "antiviral state". in this study we report the cloning and bioinformatic analysis of a complete set of tlrs from the black flying fox pterop ...201120692287
emerging tropical diseases in australia. part 3. australian bat lyssavirus.since its discovery in a juvenile black flying fox (pteropus alecto) in 1996, australian bat lyssavirus (ablv) has become the cause of a potentially important emerging disease for health authorities in australia, with two human deaths (one in 1996 and one in 1998) attributed to the virus in the north-eastern state of queensland. in australia, the virus has been isolated from all four species of flying fox found on the mainland (i.e. p. alecto, p. scapulatus, p. poliocephalus and p. conspicillatu ...201021144181
type iii ifns in pteropid bats: differential expression patterns provide evidence for distinct roles in antiviral immunity.bats are known to harbor a number of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic viruses, many of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but result in no clinical symptoms in bats. the ability of bats to coexist with viruses may be the result of rapid control of viral replication early in the immune response. ifns provide the first line of defense against viral infection in vertebrates. type iii ifns (ifn-?s) are a recently identified ifn family that share similar antiviral activities with type i if ...201121278349
Cloning, expression and antiviral activity of IFN? from the Australian fruit bat, Pteropus alecto.Bats are natural reservoir hosts to a variety of viruses, many of which cause morbidity and mortality in other mammals. Currently there is a paucity of information regarding the nature of the immune response to viral infections in bats, partly due to a lack of appropriate bat specific reagents. IFN? plays a key role in controlling viral replication and coordinating a response for long term control of viral infection. Here we describe the cloning and expression of IFN? from the Australian flying ...201122093696
the immune gene repertoire of an important viral reservoir, the australian black flying fox.bats are the natural reservoir host for a range of emerging and re-emerging viruses, including sars-like coronaviruses, ebola viruses, henipaviruses and rabies viruses. however, the mechanisms responsible for the control of viral replication in bats are not understood and there is little information available on any aspect of antiviral immunity in bats. massively parallel sequencing of the bat transcriptome provides the opportunity for rapid gene discovery. although the genomes of one megabat an ...201222716473
the haemosporidian parasites of bats with description of sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov.four species of haemoproteidae were found in pteropus alecto temminck, 1837 in queensland, australia: i) johnsprentia copemani, landau et al., 2012; ii) sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov., characterised by schizonts in the renal vessels; iii) hepatocystis levinei, landau et al., 1985, originally described from pteropus poliocephalus temminck, 1825 and, experimentally from culicoides nubeculosus and found in this new host and for which features of the hepatic schizonts are reported; iv) gamet ...022550624
immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity in pteropid bats: evidence for a diverse and highly specific antigen binding repertoire.bats are the natural host reservoir for range of emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which cause significant morbidity and mortality in other mammals, yet appear to result in no clinical consequences for bats. the ability of bats to coexist with a variety of viruses presents an interesting immunological problem that has not been examined in any detail but which could provide significant insights into the evolution of antiviral mechanisms in mammals. towards a better understanding of the ba ...201020162414
irf7 in the australian black flying fox, pteropus alecto: evidence for a unique expression pattern and functional the only flying mammal, bats harbor a number of emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which cause severe diseases in humans and other mammals yet result in no clinical symptoms in bats. as the master regulator of the interferon (ifn)-dependent immune response, ifn regulatory factor 7 (irf7) plays a central role in innate antiviral immunity. to explore the role of bat irf7 in the regulation of the ifn response, we performed sequence and functional analysis of irf7 from the pteropid bat, pt ...201425100081
unique loss of the pyhin gene family in bats amongst mammals: implications for inflammasome sensing.recent genomic analysis of two bat species (pteropus alecto and myotis davidii) revealed the absence of the pyhin gene family. this family is recognized as important immune sensors of intracellular self and foreign dna and activators of the inflammasome and/or interferon pathways. further assessment of a wider range of bat genomes was necessary to determine if this is a universal pattern for this large mammalian group. here we expanded genomic analysis of this gene family to include ten bat spec ...201626906452
contraction of the type i ifn locus and unusual constitutive expression of ifn-α in bats.bats harbor many emerging and reemerging viruses, several of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but cause no clinical signs of disease in bats. to determine the role of interferons (ifns) in the ability of bats to coexist with viruses, we sequenced the type i ifn locus of the australian black flying fox, pteropus alecto, providing what is, to our knowledge, the first gene map of the ifn region of any bat species. our results reveal a highly contracted type i ifn family consisting of on ...201626903655
evolution and comparative analysis of the bat mhc-i region.bats are natural hosts to numerous viruses and have ancient origins, having diverged from other eutherian mammals early in evolution. these characteristics place them in an important position to provide insights into the evolution of the mammalian immune system and antiviral immunity. we describe the first detailed partial map of a bat (pteropus alecto) mhc-i region with comparative analysis of the mhc-i region and genes. the bat mhc-i region is highly condensed, yet relatively conserved in orga ...201626876644
adaptive evolution of the hox gene family for development in bats and dolphins.bats and cetaceans (i.e., whales, dolphins, porpoises) are two kinds of mammals with unique locomotive styles and occupy novel niches. bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight in the sky, while cetaceans have returned to the aquatic environment and are specialized for swimming. associated with these novel adaptations to their environment, various development changes have occurred to their body plans and associated structures. given the importance of hox genes in many aspects of embr ...201323825528
the mitochondrial genome of angiostrongylus mackerrasae as a basis for molecular, epidemiological and population genetic studies.angiostrongylus mackerrasae is a metastrongyloid nematode endemic to australia, where it infects the native bush rat, rattus fuscipes. this lungworm has an identical life cycle to that of angiostrongylus cantonensis, a leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. the ability of a. mackerrasae to infect non-rodent hosts, specifically the black flying fox, raises concerns as to its zoonotic potential. to date, data on the taxonomy, epidemiology and population genetics of a. mackerrasae are ...201526381738
patent angiostrongylus mackerrasae infection in a black flying fox (pteropus alecto).a wild adult male black flying fox (pteropus alecto) was presented unable to fly or hang strongly.201323980828
characterisation of novel micrornas in the black flying fox (pteropus alecto) by deep sequencing.bats are a major source of new and emerging viral diseases. despite the fact that bats carry and shed highly pathogenic viruses including ebola, nipah and sars, they rarely display clinical symptoms of infection. host factors influencing viral replication are poorly understood in bats and are likely to include both pre- and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. micrornas are a major mechanism of post-transcriptional gene regulation, however very little is known about them in bats.201425128405
duration of maternal antibodies against canine distemper virus and hendra virus in pteropid bats.old world frugivorous bats have been identified as natural hosts for emerging zoonotic viruses of significant public health concern, including henipaviruses (nipah and hendra virus), ebola virus, and marburg virus. epidemiological studies of these viruses in bats often utilize serology to describe viral dynamics, with particular attention paid to juveniles, whose birth increases the overall susceptibility of the population to a viral outbreak once maternal immunity wanes. however, little is unde ...201323826322
unlocking bat immunology: establishment of pteropus alecto bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages.bats carry and shed many emerging infectious disease agents including ebola virus and sars-like coronaviruses, yet they rarely display clinical symptoms of infection. bat epithelial or fibroblast cell lines were previously established to study the bat immune response against viral infection. however, the lack of professional immune cells such as dendritic cells (dc) and macrophages has greatly limited the significance of current investigations. using pteropus alecto (p. alecto) gm-csf plus il4, ...201627934903
analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including ebola virus, sars-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. these viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. to determine whether the utilizatio ...201525706132
bat cells from pteropus alecto are susceptible to influenza a virus infection and reassortment.waterfowl are primary hosts for influenza a viruses (iavs); however, there is sporadic infection of swine and other species that pose a risk of zoonotic spread. yellow-shouldered bats were shown to be hosts of an iav, thereby constituting a potential novel reservoir. we show that pteropus alecto kidney cells (paki) are susceptible to infection and sustain replication of a/wsn/33 (h1n1) and a/vietnam/1203/04 (h5n1). importantly, we show that co-infection of paki cells results in novel reassortant ...201323710888
no evidence of hendra virus infection in the australian flying-fox ectoparasite genus cyclopodia.hendra virus (hev) causes potentially fatal respiratory and/or neurological disease in both horses and humans. although australian flying-foxes of the genus pteropus have been identified as reservoir hosts, the precise mechanism of hev transmission has yet to be elucidated. to date, there has been limited investigation into the role of haematophagous insects as vectors of hev. this mode of transmission is particularly relevant because australian flying-foxes host the bat-specific blood-feeding e ...201727770493
physiologic biomarkers and hendra virus infection in australian black flying foxes (pteropus alecto).bats of the genus pteropus (pteropodidae), colloquially known as flying foxes, are recognized as the natural reservoir of hendra virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for mortality in horses and humans. some previous studies have suggested that physiologic and ecologic factors promote hendra virus infection in flying foxes, and by extension, spillover to horses and humans. however, the impact of hendra virus infection on relevant physiologic biomarkers in flying foxes has not been measured ...201727723384
hendra virus infection dynamics in the grey-headed flying fox (pteropus poliocephalus) at the southern-most extent of its range: further evidence this species does not readily transmit the virus to horses.hendra virus (hev) is an important emergent virus in australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes") are considered the natural reservoir of hev, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. to help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (pteropus poliocephalus), at ...201627304985
temporal variation in physiological biomarkers in black flying-foxes (pteropus alecto), australia.bats of the genus pteropus (pteropodidae) are recognised as the natural host of multiple emerging pathogenic viruses of animal and human health significance, including henipaviruses, lyssaviruses and ebolaviruses. some studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may be associated with hendra virus infection in flying-foxes in australia; however, it is essential to understand the normal range and seasonal variability of physiological biomarkers before seeking physiological as ...201627026357
hendra virus ecology and transmission.hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral rna more frequently detected in pteropus alecto and p. conspicillatus than other species. infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. vertical transmis ...201626978066
routes of hendra virus excretion in naturally-infected flying-foxes: implications for viral transmission and spillover risk.pteropid bats or flying-foxes (chiroptera: pteropodidae) are the natural host of hendra virus (hev) which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern australia. while there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. identifying the potential routes o ...201526469523
natural hendra virus infection in flying-foxes - tissue tropism and risk factors.hendra virus (hev) is a lethal zoonotic agent that emerged in 1994 in australia. pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir. to date, hev has spilled over from flying-foxes to horses on 51 known occasions, and from infected horses to close-contact humans on seven occasions. we undertook screening of archived bat tissues for hev by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr). tissues were tested from 310 bats including 295 pteropodiformes and 15 vespertilion ...201526060997
hendra virus survival does not explain spillover patterns and implicates relatively direct transmission routes from flying foxes to horses.hendra virus (hev) is lethal to humans and horses, and little is known about its epidemiology. biosecurity restrictions impede advances, particularly on understanding pathways of transmission. quantifying the environmental survival of hev can be used for making decisions and to infer transmission pathways. we estimated hev survival with a weibull distribution and calculated parameters from data generated in laboratory experiments. hev survival rates based on air temperatures 24 h after excretion ...201525667321
matrix proteins of nipah and hendra viruses interact with beta subunits of ap-3 complexes.paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand rna viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. the matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the ap-3 adapter protein complex, ap3b1, as a binding partner for the m proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses nipah v ...201425210190
measuring physiological stress in australian flying-fox populations.flying-foxes (pteropid bats) are the natural host of hendra virus, a recently emerged zoonotic virus responsible for mortality or morbidity in horses and humans in australia since 1994. previous studies have suggested physiological and ecological risk factors for infection in flying-foxes, including physiological stress. however, little work has been done measuring and interpreting stress hormones in flying-foxes. over a 12-month period, we collected pooled urine samples from underneath roosting ...201424990534
the distribution of henipaviruses in southeast asia and australasia: is wallace's line a barrier to nipah virus?nipah virus (niv) (genus henipavirus) is a recently emerged zoonotic virus that causes severe disease in humans and has been found in bats of the genus pteropus. whilst niv has not been detected in australia, evidence for niv-infection has been found in pteropid bats in some of australia's closest neighbours. the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of henipaviruses in fruit bat (family pteropodidae) populations to the north of australia. in particular we tested the hypothesis that ...201323637812
evidence of bat origin for menangle virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus first isolated from diseased pigs.menangle virus (menpv) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus capable of causing disease in pigs and humans. it was first isolated in 1997 from stillborn piglets at a commercial piggery in new south wales, australia, where an outbreak of reproductive disease occurred. neutralizing antibodies to menpv were detected in various pteropid bat species in australia and fruit bats were suspected to be the source of the virus responsible for the outbreak in pigs. however, previous attempts to isolate menpv from var ...201222915696
chromosome banding patterns of four species of bats, with special reference to a case of x-autosome translocation.the karyotypes of 4 species of bats, artibeus lituratus (phyllostomatidae), pipistrellus pipistrellus (vespertilionidae), pteropus alecto and p. giganteus (pteropodidae), were studied after several banding techniques. for a. lituratus, in which an x-autosome translocation was observed, an analyse of the replication pattern in the rearranged chromosome was also made after brdu incorporation.19836607698
molecular cloning of porcine sun5 gene and association between a snp with litter size trait.sun domain-containing protein 5 (sun5) is an important reproduction related gene. in this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of porcine sun5 gene through rt-pcr. sequence analysis of this gene revealed that the pig sun5 gene encodes a protein of 383 amino acids that has high homology with the sun5 protein of eight species: wild bactrian camel (95%), alpaca (95%), yangtze river dolphin (94%), sperm whale (94%), sheep (93%), black flying fox (93%), goat (92%), and horse (91%). this g ...201728358284
gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order chiroptera.bats are mammals in the order chiroptera. although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. the paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. in this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (ttr) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. to explore its utility, the complete sequences of ttr gene and intron 1 region of bat ...201626681450
sensory rewiring in an echolocator: genome-wide modification of retinogenic and auditory genes in the bat myotis davidii.bats comprise 20% of all mammalian species and display a number of characteristics, including true flight, echolocation, and a heightened ability to resist viral load that uniquely position this group for comparative genomic studies. here we searched for evidence of genomic variation consistent with sensory rewiring through bat evolution. we focused on two species with divergent sensory preferences. myotis davidii is a bat species that echolocates and possesses dim- but not daylight-adapted visi ...201425096539
comparative analysis of bat genomes provides insight into the evolution of flight and immunity.bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including nipah, hendra, ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars). to identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat-specific traits, we performed whole-genome sequencing and comparative analyses of two distantly related species, fruit bat pteropus alecto and insectivorous bat myotis davidii. we discovered an unexpected concen ...201323258410
a morphometric study of the lungs of different sized bats: correlations between structure and function of the chiropteran lung.1. the lungs of four species of bats, phyllostomus hastatus (ph, mean body mass, 98 g), pteropus lylei (pl, 456 g), pteropus alecto (pa, 667 g), and pteropus poliocephalus (pp, 928 g) were analysed by morphometric methods. these data increase fivefold the range of body masses for which bat lung data are available, and allow more representative allometric equations to be formulated for bats. 2. lung volume ranged from 4.9 cm3 for ph to 39 cm3 for pp. the volume density of the lung parenchyma (i.e ...19911682957
ifnar2-dependent gene expression profile induced by ifn-α in pteropus alecto bat cells and impact of ifnar2 knockout on virus infection.bats are important reservoirs of many viruses, which are capable of infecting the host without inducing obvious clinical diseases. interferon and the downstream interferon regulated genes (irgs) are known to act as the first line of defense against viral infections. little is known about the transcriptional profile of genes being induced by interferon in bats and their role in controlling virus infection. in this study, we constructed ifnar2 knockout bat cell lines using crispr technology and fu ...201728793350
physiological stress and hendra virus in flying-foxes (pteropus spp.), australia.pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in australia. pteropus alecto (the black flying-fox) and the paraphyletic p. conspicillatus (the spectacled flying-fox) appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. we sought ...201728767708
insights into the ancestral organisation of the mammalian mhc class ii region from the genome of the pteropid bat, pteropus alecto.bats are an extremely successful group of mammals and possess a variety of unique characteristics, including their ability to co-exist with a diverse range of pathogens. the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is the most gene dense and polymorphic region of the genome and mhc class ii (mhc-ii) molecules play a vital role in the presentation of antigens derived from extracellular pathogens and activation of the adaptive immune response. characterisation of the mhc-ii region of bats is crucial ...201728521747
phenotypic and functional characterization of the major lymphocyte populations in the fruit-eating bat pteropus alecto.the unique ability of bats to act as reservoir for viruses that are highly pathogenic to humans suggests unique properties and functional characteristics of their immune system. however, the lack of bat specific reagents, in particular antibodies, has limited our knowledge of bat's immunity. using cross-reactive antibodies, we report the phenotypic and functional characterization of t cell subsets, b and nk cells in the fruit-eating bat pteropus alecto. our findings indicate the predominance of ...201627883085
coronavirus infection and diversity in bats in the australasian region.following the sars outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. this study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the australasian region. we identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. we did not d ...201627048154
proteomic analysis of pteropus alecto kidney cells in response to the viral mimic, poly i:c.bats are recognised as an important reservoir for a number of highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses. while many of these viruses cause severe and often fatal disease in humans, bats are able to coexist with these viruses without clinical signs of disease. the mechanism conferring this antiviral response is not fully understood. here, we investigated the differential protein expression of immortalised pteropus alecto kidney cells (pakit03) following transfection with the viral mimic, poly i:c. two c ...201526535029
haematology and plasma biochemistry of wild black flying-foxes, (pteropus alecto) in queensland, australia.this paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild black flying-foxes (pteropus alecto) captured in south east queensland, australia. values were found to be consistent with those of other pteropus species. four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal ...201525938493
tooth wear, body mass index and management options for edentulous black flying-foxes (pteropus alecto gould) in the townsville district, north queensland, australia.we investigated the relationship between a body mass index and tooth wear in the black flying-fox (pteropus alecto gould) to provide guidance on management of edentulous individuals by wildlife carers and veterinarians.201525708792
novel paramyxoviruses in australian flying-fox populations support host-virus co-evolution.understanding the diversity of henipaviruses and related viruses is important in determining the viral ecology within flying-fox populations and assessing the potential threat posed by these agents. this study sought to identify the abundance and diversity of previously unknown paramyxoviruses (upvs) in australian flying-fox species (pteropus alecto, pteropus scapulatus, pteropus poliocephalus and pteropus conspicillatus) and in the christmas island species pteropus melanotus natalis. using a de ...201525701824
semen collection, ejaculate characteristics and in vitro manipulation of spermatozoa from six species of captive flying-fox (pteropus spp.).seminal characteristics are described in six pteropus species including the critically endangered p. rodricensis. spermic ejaculates (~40μl) were collected using electro-ejaculation on 406 of 413 attempts. all flying-fox species had mean percentages of acrosome- and plasma-membrane (pm)-intact spermatozoa of >66% and >73%, respectively; the predominant sperm abnormalities found across all species were damaged, folded or missing acrosomes, bent midpieces and coiled tails. seminal ph ranged from a ...201525000267
mitochondrial genome of the black flying fox, pteropus alecto (chiroptera: megachiroptera: pteropodidae).in this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. the mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna genes, 2 ribosomal rna genes and 1 control region. the base composition was a (33.1%), g (14.5%), c (27.2%) and t (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of a and t (58.3%) was higher than that of g and c. most of these genes were distributed on the h-strand, except ...201624438271
bat mx1 and oas1, but not pkr are highly induced by bat interferon and viral infection.bats harbour many emerging and re-emerging viruses, several of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but cause no diseases in bats. as the interferon (ifn) response represents a first line of defence against viral infection, the ability of bats to control viral replication may be linked to the activation of the ifn system. the three most studied antiviral ifn-stimulated genes (isgs) in other mammals; pkr, mx1 and oas1 were examined in our model bat species, pteropus alecto. our results de ...201623541614
purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the australian black flying fox (pteropus alecto) using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of iga.there is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model an ...201323308125
molecular characterisation of rig-i-like helicases in the black flying fox, pteropus alecto.the rig-i like helicases, rig-i, mda5 and lgp2 are an evolutionarily conserved family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors important in the recognition of viral rna, and responsible for the innate induction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines upon viral infection. bats are natural reservoir hosts to a variety of rna viruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality in other species; however the mechanisms responsible for the control of viral replication in bats are not unders ...201222166340
reproductive seasonality and the effect of the gnrh agonist deslorelin as a contraceptive in captive male black flying-foxes (pteropus alecto).effective contraception would enhance genetic management of captive pteropus species, which typically breed well in captivity. male reproductive seasonality was monitored (15-mo interval) in captive p. alecto (6 controls and 5 treated with 4.7 mg deslorelin). in untreated males, there were seasonal changes in testicular volume, body weight and testosterone secretion; testicular volume and body weight peaked in february and march, respectively, whereas testosterone concentration remained >5 ng/ml ...201222115809
type iii ifn receptor expression and functional characterisation in the pteropid bat, pteropus alecto.bats are rich reservoir hosts for a variety of viruses, many of which are capable of spillover to other susceptible mammals with lethal consequences. the ability of bats to remain asymptomatic to viral infection may be due to the rapid control of viral replication very early in the immune response through innate antiviral mechanisms. type i and iii interferons (ifns) represent the first line of defence against viral infection in mammals, with both families of ifns present in pteropid bats. to ob ...201121980438
climate change and the effects of temperature extremes on australian flying-foxes.little is known about the effects of temperature extremes on natural systems. this is of increasing concern now that climate models predict dramatic increases in the intensity, duration and frequency of such extremes. here we examine the effects of temperature extremes on behaviour and demography of vulnerable wild flying-foxes (pteropus spp.). on 12 january 2002 in new south wales, australia, temperatures exceeding 42 degrees c killed over 3500 individuals in nine mixed-species colonies. in one ...200818048286
mobility of australian flying-foxes, pteropus spp. (megachiroptera): evidence from genetic (pteropus alecto) and grey-headed (pteropus poliocephalus) flying-foxes inhabit large ranges in coastal north and eastern australia. p. poliocephalus is endemic to region and is classified as vulnerable. the bats are known to migrate in response to flowering and fruiting of their food plants, but direct observation of movement patterns is difficult. protein electrophoresis was used to investigate genetic subdivision among populations. high gene flow was inferred for both species with an es ...19968637931
comparative morphology of the pituitary gland in australian flying foxes (megachiroptera: genus pteropus).investigations of reproductive endocrinology of flying foxes (genus pteropus) have been hampered by inadequate information on the normal morphology of the megachiropteran pituitary.19968838425
the ifn response in bats displays distinctive ifn-stimulated gene expression kinetics with atypical rnasel induction.bats host a large number of zoonotic viruses, including several viruses that are highly pathogenic to other mammals. the mechanisms underlying this rich viral diversity are unknown, but they may be linked to unique immunological features that allow bats to act as asymptomatic viral reservoirs. vertebrates respond to viral infection by inducing ifns, which trigger antiviral defenses through ifn-stimulated gene (isg) expression. although the ifn system of several bats is characterized at the genom ...201829180486
conditions affecting the timing and magnitude of hendra virus shedding across pteropodid bat populations in australia.understanding infection dynamics in animal hosts is fundamental to managing spillover and emergence of zoonotic infections. hendra virus is endemic in australian pteropodid bat populations and can be lethal to horses and humans. however, we know little about the factors driving hendra virus prevalence in resevoir bat populations, making spillover difficult to predict. we use hendra virus prevalence data collected from 13 000 pooled bat urine samples across space and time to determine if pulses o ...201728942750
climate change could increase the geographic extent of hendra virus spillover risk.disease risk mapping is important for predicting and mitigating impacts of bat-borne viruses, including hendra virus (paramyxoviridae:henipavirus), that can spillover to domestic animals and thence to humans. we produced two models to estimate areas at potential risk of hev spillover explained by the climatic suitability for its flying fox reservoir hosts, pteropus alecto and p. conspicillatus. we included additional climatic variables that might affect spillover risk through other biological pr ...201829556762
correction: ifnar2-dependent gene expression profile induced by ifn-α in pteropus alecto bat cells and impact of ifnar2 knockout on virus infection.[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182866.].201829342220
high throughput discovery of protein variants using proteomics informed by transcriptomics.proteomics informed by transcriptomics (pit), in which proteomic ms/ms spectra are searched against open reading frames derived from de novo assembled transcripts, can reveal previously unknown translated genomic elements (tges). however, determining which tges are truly novel, which are variants of known proteins, and which are simply artefacts of poor sequence assembly, is challenging. we have designed and implemented an automated solution that classifies putative tges by comparing to referenc ...201829718325
hendra in the hunter june 2019 the first equine case of hendra virus in the hunter valley, new south wales, australia was detected. an urgent human and animal health response took place, involving biosecurity measures, contact tracing, promotion of equine vaccinations and investigation of flying fox activity in the area. no human or additional animal cases occurred. equine vaccination uptake increased by over 30-fold in the surrounding region in the three months following the case. black flying fox and grey-heade ...202033117876
rtp4 is a potent ifn-inducible anti-flavivirus effector engaged in a host-virus arms race in bats and other mammals.among mammals, bats are particularly rich in zoonotic viruses, including flaviviruses. certain bat species can be productively yet asymptomatically infected with viruses that cause overt disease in other species. however, little is known about the antiviral effector repertoire in bats relative to other mammals. here, we report the black flying fox receptor transporter protein 4 (rtp4) as a potent interferon (ifn)-inducible inhibitor of human pathogens in the flaviviridae family, including zika, ...202033113352
complementary regulation of caspase-1 and il-1β reveals additional mechanisms of dampened inflammation in bats.bats have emerged as unique mammalian vectors harboring a diverse range of highly lethal zoonotic viruses with minimal clinical disease. despite having sustained complete genomic loss of aim2, regulation of the downstream inflammasome response in bats is unknown. aim2 sensing of cytoplasmic dna triggers asc aggregation and recruits caspase-1, the central inflammasome effector enzyme, triggering cleavage of cytokines such as il-1β and inducing gsdmd-mediated pyroptotic cell death. restoration of ...202033106404
a potent postentry restriction to primate lentiviruses in a yinpterochiropteran bat.bats are primary reservoirs for multiple lethal human viruses, such as ebola, nipah, hendra, rabies, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov), middle east respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (mers-cov), and, most recently, sars-cov-2. the innate immune systems of these immensely abundant, anciently diverged mammals remain insufficiently characterized. while bat genomes contain many endogenous retroviral elements indicative of past exogenous infections, little is known about ...202032934084
extreme mobility of the world's largest flying mammals creates key challenges for management and conservation.effective conservation management of highly mobile species depends upon detailed knowledge of movements of individuals across their range; yet, data are rarely available at appropriate spatiotemporal scales. flying-foxes (pteropus spp.) are large bats that forage by night on floral resources and rest by day in arboreal roosts that may contain colonies of many thousands of individuals. they are the largest mammals capable of powered flight, and are highly mobile, which makes them key seed and pol ...202032819385
retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in echolocating and non-echolocating bats.bats are nocturnal mammals known for their ability to echolocate, yet all bats can see, and most bats of the family pteropodidae (fruit bats) do not echolocate - instead they rely mainly on vision and olfaction to forage. we investigated whether echolocating bats, given their limited reliance on vision, have poorer spatial resolving power (srp) than pteropodids and whether tongue click echolocating fruit bats differ from non-echolocating fruit bats in terms of visual performance. we compared the ...202032818939
infectious korv-related retroviruses circulating in australian bats.bats are reservoirs of emerging viruses that are highly pathogenic to other mammals, including humans. despite the diversity and abundance of bat viruses, to date they have not been shown to harbor exogenous retroviruses. here we report the discovery and characterization of a group of koala retrovirus-related (korv-related) gammaretroviruses in australian and asian bats. these include the hervey pteropid gammaretrovirus (hpg), identified in the scat of the australian black flying fox (pteropus a ...202032284399
accelerated viral dynamics in bat cell lines, with implications for zoonotic emergence.bats host virulent zoonotic viruses without experiencing disease. a mechanistic understanding of the impact of bats' virus hosting capacities, including uniquely constitutive immune pathways, on cellular-scale viral dynamics is needed to elucidate zoonotic emergence. we carried out virus infectivity assays on bat cell lines expressing induced and constitutive immune phenotypes, then developed a theoretical model of our in vitro system, which we fit to empirical data. best fit models recapitulate ...202032011232
entry of scotophilus bat coronavirus-512 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in human and multiple animal cells.bats are natural reservoirs of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) and middle east respiratory syndrome cov (mers-cov). scotophilus bat cov-512 demonstrates potential for cross-species transmission because its viral rna and specific antibodies have been detected in three bat species of taiwan. understanding the cell tropism of scotophilus bat cov-512 is the first step for studying the mechanism of cross-species transmission. in this study, a lentivirus-based pseudovirus was ...201931766704
time of year, age class and body condition predict hendra virus infection in australian black flying foxes (pteropus alecto).hendra virus (hev) continues to cause fatal infection in horses and threaten infection in close-contact humans in eastern australia. species of pteropus bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of the virus. we caught and sampled flying-foxes from a multispecies roost in southeast queensland, australia on eight occasions between june 2013 and june 2014. the effects of sample date, species, sex, age class, body condition score (bcs), pregnancy and lactation on hev antibody prevalence, log-tr ...201931364577
the histidine-rich loop in the extracellular domain of zip4 binds zinc and plays a role in zinc transport.the zrt-/irt-like protein (zip) family mediates zinc influx from extracellular space or intracellular vesicles/organelles, playing a central role in systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis. out of the 14 family members encoded in human genome, zip4 is exclusively responsible for zinc uptake from dietary food and dysfunctional mutations of zip4 cause a life-threatening genetic disorder, acrodermatitis enteropathica (ae). about half of the missense ae-causing mutations occur within the large n-term ...201931164399
structure and peptidome of the bat mhc class i molecule reveal a novel mechanism leading to high-affinity peptide binding.bats are natural reservoir hosts, harboring more than 100 viruses, some of which are lethal to humans. the asymptomatic coexistence with viruses is thought to be connected to the unique immune system of bats. mhc class i (mhc i) presentation is closely related to cytotoxic lymphocyte immunity, which plays an important role in viral resistance. to investigate the characteristics of mhc i presentation in bats, the crystal structures of peptide-mhc i complexes of pteropus alecto, ptal-n*01:01/hev-1 ...201931076531
studies on b cells in the fruit-eating black flying fox (pteropus alecto).the ability of bats to act as reservoir for viruses that are highly pathogenic to humans suggests unique properties and functional characteristics of their immune system. however, the lack of bat specific reagents, in particular antibodies, has limited our knowledge of bat's immunity. here, we report a panel of cross-reactive antibodies against mhc-ii, nk1.1, cd3, cd21, cd27, and immunoglobulin (ig), that allows flow cytometry analysis of b, t and nk cell populations in two different fruit-eatin ...201930930908
a novel australian flying-fox retrovirus shares an evolutionary ancestor with koala, gibbon and melomys gamma-retroviruses.a novel gamma-retroviral sequence (7912 bp), inclusive of both partial 5' and 3' long terminal repeat regions, was identified from the brain of a black flying-fox (pteropus alecto), queensland, australia. the sequence was distinct from other retroviral sequences identified in bats and showed greater identity to koala, gibbon ape leukaemia, melomys burtoni and woolly monkey retroviruses, forming their own phylogenetic clade. this finding suggests that these retroviruses may have an unknown common ...201930877415
enhanced autophagy contributes to reduced viral infection in black flying fox cells.bats are increasingly implicated as hosts of highly pathogenic viruses. the underlying virus⁻host interactions and cellular mechanisms that promote co-existence remain ill-defined, but physiological traits such as flight and longevity are proposed to drive these adaptations. autophagy is a cellular homeostatic process that regulates ageing, metabolism, and intrinsic immune defense. we quantified basal and stimulated autophagic responses in black flying fox cells, and demonstrated that although b ...201930875748
hematology and plasma biochemistry of wild spectacled flying foxes ( pteropus conspicillatus) in australia.the spectacled flying fox ( pteropus conspicillatus) is listed as vulnerable to extinction in australia. the species' restricted population is in decline, putatively attributed to decreasing habitat, climatic extremes, anthropogenic activities, and more recently, mass mortality events associated with tick paralysis and neonatal cleft palate syndrome. knowledge of fundamental physiologic parameters of the species is limited. to address this knowledge gap, we sampled 50 wild-caught adult spectacle ...201930325258
environmental drivers of spatiotemporal foraging intensity in fruit bats and implications for hendra virus the australian subtropics, flying-foxes (family pteropididae) play a fundamental ecological role as forest pollinators. flying-foxes are also reservoirs of the fatal zoonosis, hendra virus. understanding flying fox foraging ecology, particularly in agricultural areas during winter, is critical to determine their role in transmitting hendra virus to horses and humans. we developed a spatiotemporal model of flying-fox foraging intensity based on foraging patterns of 37 grey-headed flying-foxes ...201829934514
unmasking the complexity of species identification in australasian flying-foxes.pteropus (flying-foxes) are a speciose group of non-echolocating large bats, with five extant australian species and 24 additional species distributed amongst the pacific islands. in 2015, an injured flying-fox with unusual facial markings was found in sydney, australia, following severe and widespread storms. based on an initial assessment, the individual belonged to pteropus but could not be readily identified to species. as a consequence, four hypotheses for its identification/origin were pos ...201829634748
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