effect of cold exposure on water requirements on three species of small mammals.water turnover rate (wtr) was determined from tritiated water (3h2o) loss in the short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda), red-backed vole (clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus). when given ad libitum water at ta of 20 degrees, b. brevicauda, c. gapperi, and p. leucopus turned over 16.2, 13.8, and 6.2 ml/day, respectively; minimum wtr was 9.9, 7.8, and 3.5 ml/day, respectively. when they were given ad libitum water at 5 degrees c, wtr was 1.4 to 1.6 times higher tha ...1977330486
[new studies on the parasitic helminths of the short-tailed shrew blarina brevicauda (say) (author's transl)]. 1978694404
etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, detected in ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected at a focus in alabama.the study was conducted at sites of known transmission of borrelia burgdorferi in east central alabama. the objectives were to determine species of ticks present at these sites, their host associations, and species of ticks and small mammals naturally infected with b. burgdorferi. a total of 451 hosts were examined for ticks, including cotton mice, peromyscus gossypinus (le conte); cotton rats, sigmodon hispidus say & ord; southern short-tailed shrews, blarina carolinensis (bachman); house mice, ...19911941933
small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.the merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. to document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available ...19911992495
short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of lyme disease and human determine whether short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by b. burgdorferi. one of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected t ...19902213411
trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. iii. epidemiological investigations of trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. during a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (blarina bre ...19883193554
new infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.a spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in connecticut and minnesota. after inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected swiss mice and syrian hamsters. this spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of treponema, borrelia, leptospira, and spirochaeta examined.19873305565
isolation of the lyme disease spirochete from mammals in minnesota.lyme disease spirochetes were isolated from the kidneys of two peromyscus spp. trapped in minnesota in september and october 1983. no spirochetes were isolated from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), red backed voles (clethrionomys gapperi), or shrews (sorexy cinereus and blarina brevicauda). this is the first report of the isolation of the lyme disease spirochete from the midwestern united states and isolations from these animals, which were free of ticks, suggest that the lyme disease ...19854001130
ultrastructure of the stomach of the small short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda c.the normal gastric ultrastructure has been characterized for the small short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda c., which is a primitive eutherian and one of the smallest living mammals with extraordinarily high metabolic rate. in general the cell types present and cytologic character of gastric mucosal, submucosal, and muscularis cells were similar to that reported for other more advanced small mammalian species. chief cells, endocrine cells, and lamina proprial elements were morphologically iden ...19854020920
common tree shrews and primates share leukocyte membrane antigens.monoclonal antibodies reactive with human peripheral blood lymphocyte and myeloid cell surface antigens were utilized to study the phylogeny of the common tree shrew. blood cells from the common tree shrew, but not the bat or short-tailed shrew, react with certain of these antibodies. these data strengthen the argument that the tupaiidae are primitive primates rather than insectivores. they also indicate that this approach should be useful for further work in taxonomic systemization.19846334161
brevinema andersonii gen. nov., sp. nov., an infectious spirochete isolated from the short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda) and the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus).a spirochete which infects short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) has been shown previously to be ultrastructurally and serologically distinct from other spirochetes. two of the original isolates from connecticut and minnesota and 16 new isolates obtained from shrews captured in minnesota were characterized phenotypically and genetically in this study. a comparative analysis of the 16s rrna sequences of two shrew isolates and one mouse isolate and th ...19957857811
the uptake and effects of lead in small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range.this study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. the total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 micrograms/g dry weight. elevated tissue lead concentrations and depressed alad activities in small mammals and frogs indicate that some of the lead deposited at the site is bioavailable. mean tissue lead concentrations (micrograms/g dry wt.) in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) at the range ...19968593083
ticks and fleas of shrews in appalachian georgia and north carolina.ticks (acari: ixodidae) and fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) were recovered from 8 smoky shrews, sorex fumeus miller, and 9 northern short-tailed shrews, blarina brevicauda (say), trapped at elevations of 720-1,310 m in macon and jackson counties in western north carolina and union county in northern georgia from april 1994 to august 1995. the ticks ixodes angustus neumann and ixodes woodi bishopp, and the flea corrodopsylla curvata (rothschild), were recovered from smoky shrews. the same 2 tick sp ...19968691385
interspecific differences between small mammals as hosts of immature dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) and a model for detection of high risk areas of rocky mountain spotted fever.fourteen species of small mammals were captured from july 1990 through august 1991 in tennessee, from which 1,217 immature dermacentor variabilis and 1 ixodes dentatus were collected. mammal species were given scores of importance (ts) as hosts to immature d. variabilis based on mean intensity and prevalence. the rice rat ranked the highest, with a ts = 5, followed by the golden mouse ts = 4, white-footed mouse ts = 3, pine vole ts = 2, cotton rat ts = 1, with the norway rat, house mouse, and sh ...19968885876
lung parasites of shrews from pennsylvania.we examined lung parasites of three species of soricids, sorex cinereus (n = 58), sorex fumeus (n = 23) and blarina brevicauda (n = 45) collected from pennsylvania (usa), from 1990 to 1995. yeast-like cells of hisfoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum were found in lung sections stained with grocott's modification of gomori's methenamine silver, periodic acid-schiff, giemsa, and hematoxylin-eosin in two (3%) s. cinereus, eight (35%) s. fumeus and two (4%) b. brevicauda. the number of spores of h. c ...19979131560
natural infection of small mammal species in minnesota with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.the natural reservoirs for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) are suspected to be the small mammals that host immature stages of ixodes scapularis ticks. to determine if such small mammals are naturally infected, we collected blood and serum samples from small mammal species in rural and suburban areas of minneapolis and st. paul, minn. samples were collected from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus), southern red-backed voles (clethrionomy ...19979157141
robertsonian chromosomal rearrangements in the short-tailed shrew, blarina carolinensis, in western tennessee.we report significant heterozygosity for numerous robertsonian translocations in the southern short-tailed shrew (blarina carolinensis) in western tennessee. eight robertsonian rearrangements were documented using g-banding techniques that explain the variability in diploid numbers from 46 throughout most of the range of the species to 34-40 in western tennessee. these fusions resulted in the loss of telomere sequences and were not associated with nucleolar organizer regions. when heterozygocity ...19979186509
a small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from order to determine if hantaviruses were present in mice and other small mammals in indiana (usa), small mammals were trapped in brown, laporte, tippecanoe and whitley counties. sixty-seven small mammals were trapped during august and september 1994. sixty-three peromyscus leucopus, one microtus pennsylvanicus, one zapus hudsonius and two blarina brevicauda were captured and tested for hantaviruses. six p. leucopus were found to have antibody to sin nombre virus (sn) by igg elisa, and a 139 bp ...19979391967
evaluation of two oral baiting systems for wild rodents.tetracycline hydrochloride (tc)-treated peanut butter or rodent chow baits were distributed during march 1990, on separate 0.53 ha sites in oglethorpe county, georgia (usa). rodents were trapped on a control site prior to bait distribution and on two baited sites 6 days post-distribution. cleaned skulls from euthanized mammals were grossly examined for tc fluorescence using an ultraviolet (uv) light. mandibles were sectioned and examined for tc fluorescence using an ultraviolet light microscope. ...19989577787
blood parasites of shrews from pennsylvania.we examined 30 sorex cinereus, 5 sorex fumeus, and 21 blarina brevicauda collected from pennsylvania in 1995 for blood parasites. trypomastigotes of trypanosoma sp. were visible in 13% of the s. cinereus. ten percent of s. cinereus, 20% of s. fumeus, and 14% of b. brevicauda were infected with bartonella sp. (or spp.). in s. cinereus, we detected no concurrent trypanosoma and bartonella infections.19989920338
nitroaromatic munition compounds: environmental effects and screening values.available data on the occurrence, transport, transformation, and toxicity of eight nitroaromatic munition compounds and their degradation products, tnt, tnb, dnb, dna, 2-adnt, rdx, hmx, and tetryl were used to identify potential fate in the environment and to calculate screening benchmarks or safe environmental levels for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. results of monitoring studies revealed that some of these compounds persist at sites where they were produced or processed. most of the compo ...199910218448
comparison of deterministic and probabilistic calculation of ecological soil screening levels.the u.s. environmental protection agency (u.s. epa) is sponsoring development of ecological soil screening levels (eco-ssls) for terrestrial wildlife. these are intended to be used to identify chemicals of potential ecological concern at superfund sites. ecological soil screening levels represent concentrations of contaminants in soils that are believed to be protective of ecological receptors. an exposure model, based on soil- and food-ingestion rates and the relationship between the concentrat ...200211951965
phylogeography of the northern short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda (insectivora: soricidae): past fragmentation and postglacial recolonization.blarina brevicauda is distributed across the northeastern region of north america, in areas previously covered by pleistocene glaciers. previous molecular systematic study of the species in the genus blarina suggested the presence of two distinct eastern and western phylogroups within b. brevicauda, in agreement with traditionally recognized semi-species. to expand the previous work, a collection of 76 individuals from 14 localities collected throughout the range of b. brevicauda was used to ass ...200312755873
leptospira ballum infection in a shrew (blarina brevicauda brevicauda). 196214021530
short-tailed shrew: new host for histoplasma capsulatum. 196514323371
reduced free-radical production and extreme longevity in the little brown bat (myotis lucifugus) versus two non-flying mammals.the extended longevity of bats, despite their high metabolic rate, may provide insight to patterns and mechanisms of aging. here i test predictions of the free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging as an explanation for differences in lifespan between the little brown bat, myotis lucifugus (maximum lifespan potential mlsp=34 years), the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda (mlsp=2 years), and the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus (mlsp=8 years) by comparing whole-organism oxygen co ...200414706233
electron micrographs of newcastle disease virus preparation from chick embryos following infection by virus propagated in the short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda). 195114911929
blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: evaluation of hepatic cytochrome p450 induction.we assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome p450 and associated enzyme activities. first, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-o-dealkylase [brod], ethoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase [erod], methoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase [mrod], and pentoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase [prod]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic mi ...200415352474
purification and characterisation of blarinasin, a new tissue kallikrein-like protease from the short-tailed shrew blarina brevicauda: comparative studies with blarina toxin.a new tissue kallikrein-like protease, blarinasin, has been purified from the salivary glands of the short-tailed shrew blarina brevicauda. blarinasin is a 32-kda n-glycosylated protease with isoelectric values ranging between 5.3 and 5.7, and an optimum ph of 8.5 for enzyme activity. the cloned blarinasin cdna coded for a pre-pro-sequence and a mature peptide of 252 amino acids with a catalytic triad typical for serine proteases and 43.7-54.0% identity to other mammalian tissue kallikreins. bla ...200515843162
maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the northern short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda; insectivora: soricidae).we measured the enzymes of glycolysis, krebs cycle, beta-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the northern short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda. additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. the picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic capacity as indicated by small activities of glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase. lip ...200515914053
attempted isolation of blastomyces dermatitidis from native shrews in northern wisconsin, usa.the precise ecological niche of blastomyces dermatitidis is unknown. the related dimorphic fungus, paracoccidioides brasiliensis, has been isolated from south american ground-dwelling insectivorous armadillos. we attempted to isolate blastomyces from shrews, north american ground-dwelling insectivores that have been shown to harbor histoplasma capsulatum in endemic areas. forty-seven masked shrews (sorex cinereus) and 13 northern short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) were collected in endemic ...200516178369
toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in ontario wildlife.sera from seven species of wild animals in ontario were examined for antibody to toxoplasma gondii using the sabin-feldman dye test. of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. antibody to t. gondii was present in sera from wild animals cap ...197616502687
prevalence of bordetella bronchiseptica in certain central iowa.bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from 6 of 13 short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and 1 of 47 house sparrows (passer domesticus) trapped in the vicinity of a swine bordetella rhinitis experimental area. the organism was found in four of 50 foxes (vulpes fulva), 2 of 36 opossums (didelphis marsupialis) and 1 of 37 raccoons (procyon lotor) trapped in the ames, iowa area. this bacterium was not culturally isolated from 14 deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), 64 house mice (mus musculus), ...197616502690
cross-species chromosome painting unveils cytogenetic signatures for the eulipotyphla and evidence for the polyphyly of insectivora.insectivore-like animals are traditionally believed among the first eutherian mammals that have appeared on the earth. the modern insectivores are thus crucial for understanding the systematics and phylogeny of eutherian mammals as a whole. here cross-species chromosome painting, with probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human, was used to delimit the homologous chromosomal segments in two soricidae species, the common shrew (sorex araneus, 2n = 20/21), and asiatic short-tailed shrew ( ...200616544189
ecological risk assessment of lead contamination at rifle and pistol ranges using techniques to account for site characteristics.spent ammunition at outdoor rifle and pistol (rp) firing ranges creates a characteristic pattern of contamination, whereby small areas surrounding backstop berms exhibit extremely high soil lead (pb) concentrations. we characterized sources, pathways and uncertainty in contaminant accumulation for receptors at two rp ranges in southeastern ontario. based on these results, we performed risk calculations using kriging to estimate risk across "worst-case" species foraging ranges. range-normalized h ...200717257653
prevalence of cryptosporidium species in wildlife populations within a watershed landscape in southeastern new york state.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium in wildlife in the new york city (nyc) watershed in southeastern new york state. a total of 6227 fecal samples were collected and evaluated from 5892 mammals (38 species), 263 birds (14 species), 2 reptiles (2 species), 8 amphibians (4 species), and 62 fish (15 species). cryptosporidium was detected in 30 species. of the species found positive for cryptosporidium, 16 represented new records for this parasite-alo ...200717466459
lead bioaccessibility in food web intermediates and the influence on ecological risk characterization.models simulating gastric conditions of mammalian (eastern cottontail, sylvilagus floridanus; short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda) and avian (american robin, turdus migratorius) receptors were used to investigate the proportion of lead (pb) mobilized into the digestive juices (the bioaccessible fraction) from soil, earthworms, and vegetation collected at a rifle and pistol (rp) range in eastern ontario, canada. pb concentrations averaged 5044 mg kg(-1) in rp range surface soils, 727 mg kg(-1) ...200717874804
hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, united states.phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-pcr in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) captured in minnesota in august 1998. to our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the americas.200718252128
response to enrichment, type and timing: small mammals vary in their response to a springtime cicada but not a carbohydrate pulse.1. masting events in the autumn provide a carbohydrate-rich pulse of resources that can influence the dynamics of small mammals and their natural enemies. similar patterns are observed with the periodical cicada emergence which provides a protein-rich pulse in the spring, but comparisons are confounded by timing and food type. 2. we compared the influence of a naturally occurring spring pulse of cicadas with an experimental spring pulse of carbohydrate-rich seeds. we used a replicated population ...200918684131
Molting success of Ixodes scapularis varies among individual blood meal hosts and species.The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is an important vector of emerging human pathogens. It has three blood-feeding stages, as follows: larva, nymph, and adult. Owing to inefficient transovarial transmission, at least for the Lyme disease agent (Borrelia burgdorferi), larval ticks rarely hatch infected, but they can acquire infection during their larval blood meal. Nymphal ticks are primarily responsible for transmitting pathogens to hosts, including humans. The transition from uninfected ho ...201121845946
reservoir competence of wildlife host species for babesia microti.human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern united states, where the causal agent, babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected ixodes scapularis ticks. we sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern new york to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time pcr. we found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (pro ...201223171673
detection of clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild mammals in southern ontario, canada.we sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in ontario, canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the toronto zoo. the positive animals included two raccoons from one be ...201323568920
the crouching of the shrew: mechanical consequences of limb posture in small important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. after that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. it is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, ...201627413633
a synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (cnidaria: myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on soricimyxum fegati from common shrew sorex araneus in hungary and pygmy shrew sorex minutus in slovakia.myxozoans (cnidaria: myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of soricimyxum prunescu, prunescu, pucek et lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (soricidae) in central europe. myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have ssu rdna sequences that differ by about 4%. herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from soricimyxum fegati prunescu, prunescu, p ...201627312127
ecological risk assessment for mink and short-tailed shrew exposed to pcbs, dioxins, and furans in the housatonic river area.a probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to characterize risks to a representative piscivorous mammal (mink, mustela vison) and a representative carnivorous mammal (short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda) exposed to pcbs, dioxins, and furans in the housatonic river area downstream of the general electric (ge) facility in pittsfield, massachusetts. contaminant exposure was estimated using a probabilistic total daily intake model and parameterized using life history information of each specie ...201625976918
structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. to determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron ...201424556576
in vivo detection of human trpv6-rich tumors with anti-cancer peptides derived from soricidin.soricidin is a 54-amino acid peptide found in the paralytic venom of the northern short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda) and has been found to inhibit the transient receptor potential of vallinoid type 6 (trpv6) calcium channels. we report that two shorter peptides, sor-c13 and sor-c27, derived from the c-terminus of soricidin, are high-affinity antagonists of human trpv6 channels that are up-regulated in a number of cancers. herein, we report molecular imaging methods that demonstrate the in v ...201323554944
risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (tcc).triclocarban (tcc) is monitored under the usepa high production volume (hpv) chemical program and is predominantly used as the active ingredient in select antibacterial bar soaps and other personal care products. the compound commonly occurs at parts-per-million concentrations in processed wastewater treatment residuals (i.e. biosolids), which are frequently land-applied as fertilizers and soil conditioners. human and ecological risk assessment parameters measured by the authors in previous stud ...201323183124
effects of disturbance on small mammal community structure in the new jersey pinelands, usa.we compared small mammal community composition among undisturbed habitats and habitats disturbed by military operations on warren grove gunnery range (wgr) in the new jersey pinelands. wgr is one of the largest tracts of protected land within this globally rare ecosystem. disturbance in the form of fire, mowing, soil disruption and logging has had a large effect on small mammal occurrence and distribution. of the 14 small mammal species that occur in the pinelands, 9 live on wgr, including large ...201222405445
muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews (soricidae, subfamily soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. as muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. muscle samples of water shrews (sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) were the ...201020109576
convergent evolution of novel protein function in shrew and lizard do proteins evolve novel functions? to address this question, we are studying the evolution of a mammalian toxin, the serine protease bltx [1], from the salivary glands of the north american shrew blarina brevicauda. here, we examine the molecular changes responsible for promoting bltx toxicity. first, we show that regulatory loops surrounding the bltx active site have evolved adaptively via acquisition of small insertions and subsequent accelerated sequence evolution. second, these mutation ...200919879144
analysis of intraindividual and intraspecific variation in semicircular canal dimensions using high-resolution x-ray computed tomography.the semicircular canal system tracks head rotation and provides sensory input for the reflexive stabilization of gaze and posture. the purpose of this study was to investigate the intraspecific and intraindividual variation in the size of the three semicircular canals. the right and left temporal bones were extracted from 31 individuals of the short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda) and scanned on a high-resolution x-ray computed tomography system. the radius of curvature was calculated for each ...200919619167
muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews blarina brevicauda and sorex (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. we assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (ws), sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (sts), blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs ...200919296507
species of coccidia (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) in shrews from alaska, u.s.a., and northeastern siberia, russia, with description of two new species.fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in alaska (n = 540) and northeastern siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (apicomplexa: eimeriidae). five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. these were eimeria inyoni, e. vagrantis, and isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (s. monticolus), and nor ...200818576829
these studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running. effects of lead on exploratory behavior and running speed in the shrew, blarina brevicauda (insectivora).these studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running speed in the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda. shrews from the experimental group received 25 mg/kg/day of lead acetate in their drinking water for a period of 90 days. control subjects received sodium acetate. exploratory behavior was determined using a computerized activity chamber where movements of test subjects broke infrared beams projected onto the floor of the apparatus. time spe ...200315248655
testing the free radical theory of aging in bats.the extended longevity of bats, despite their high metabolic rates, may provide insight to patterns and mechanisms of aging. i tested the free radical theory of aging as an explanation for the extreme longevity of the little brown bat, myotis lucifugus (maximum life span potential [mlsp] = 34 years). in a comparative study, i measured whole-organism oxygen consumption and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in brain, heart, and kidney tissues from m. lucifugus and short-tailed shrews, bla ...200415247075
blarina toxin, a mammalian lethal venom from the short-tailed shrew blarina brevicauda: isolation and characterization.venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been characterized. we have purified and characterized the blarina toxin (bltx), a lethal mammalian venom with a tissue kallikrein-like activity from the submaxillary and sublingual glands of the short-tailed shrew blarina brevicauda. mice administered bltx i.p. developed irregular respiration, paralysis, and convulsions before dying. based on the amino acid sequence of purified protein, we cloned the bltx cdna. it consists of a prosequence an ...200415136743
evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews.we describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode longistriata caudabullata (trichostrongyloidea: heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus blarina, insectivora: soricidae). parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, blarina brevicauda and b. hylophaga, in central north america. an 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the nd4 mitochondrial dna (mtdna) gene was sequenced for 28 worms and a 783- ...200312969487
demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. we examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the housatonic river (ma, usa) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) concentrations (1.5-38.3 pp ...200312785599
olfactory mucosa ultrastructure in the short-tailed shrews, blarina brevicauda and blarina carolinensis.the olfactory mucosae of the northern short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda, and the southern short-tailed shrew, blarina carolinensis, were examined by light and electron microscopy. a well-developed olfactory epithelium was observed that included all of the cells necessary to provide for a sensitive olfactory system, suggesting that olfaction plays a major role in the behavior of these animals. there were no significant differences between the olfactory mucosae of these two species. the gener ...200112221510
pulmonary appendix of the short-tailed shrew (blarina): a unique immunologic organ.the right bronchus of the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda, terminates in a nonrespiratory pulmonary appendix (pa) containing two bronchial extensions. the experimentally demonstrated ability of these structures to collect and peristaltically expel aspirated material was initially assumed to be a sufficient reason for their developmental persistence, but as bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (balt) became a subject of immunologic interest in other species, a possible immunologic role for ...200211870601
cortical organization in shrews: evidence from five species.cortical organization was examined in five shrew species. in three species, blarina brevicauda, cryptotis parva, and sorex palustris, microelectrode recordings were made in cortex to determine the organization of sensory areas. cortical recordings were then related to flattened sections of cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase or myelin to reveal architectural borders. an additional two species (sorex cinereus and sorex longirostris) with visible cortical subdivisions based on histology alone ...199910397395
food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentra ...199324201735
cardiac ultrastructure and electrocardiogram of the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda.the smaller species of shrews have been of considerable interest to scientists because of their high rate of metabolism, structure-functional and behavioral adaptations to support their energy demands. the present data are the first detailed cardiac ultrastructural findings and electrocardiographic (ecg) data of adult and immature small short-tailed shrews, blarina brevicauda. the heart is morphologically elongated and heart rates in excess of 900 b/min were observed, but ecg components and patt ...19938269404
fine structure of the submandibular salivary gland of the venomous short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda say (insectivora: soricidae).adult male short-tailed shrews, blarina brevicauda, (insectivora: soricidae) were trapped in virginia and pennsylvania, anesthetized, and perfused via the left ventricle of the heart with fixative. the submandibular glands were dissected free and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. the lobular, compound tubuloacinar glands had secretory endpieces consisting of seromucous acini and serous tubules connected to intercalated ducts, granular ducts, striated ducts, and excretory ducts. the ...20068398545
circadian rhythms in the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda.circadian rhythms of wheel running and feeding were measured in the short-tailed shrew. shrews were strongly nocturnal, and their activity rhythms entrained to both long-day (ld 16:8) and short-day (ld 6:18) photocycles. under conditions of continuous light (ll) or darkness (dd), the activity rhythms free-ran with average periodicities of 25.1 hours and 24.1 hours, respectively. in ll the level of activity was depressed, and in some cases wheel running was completely inhibited. no significant se ...19902255728
comparative morphology and morphometry of the nasal fossae of four species of north american shrews (soricinae).the present study compares the morphology of the nasal conchae and the relative development (i.e., surface area and neurosensory cell number) of the olfactory epithelium between four species of shrews occupying different ecotopes (blarina brevicauda, sorex cinereus, s. fumeus, s. palustris). the number of olfactory cells was corrected for split cell error. data were analyzed by using size indices based on the allometric method. the convoluted shape of the maxilloturbinal in blarina, with large r ...19892618929
the occurrence of a sporozoan in the myocardium of short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda). 19816787216
a new species of nearctopsylla rothschild 1915 (siphonaptera: hystrichopsyllidae) from the southern appalachians.nearcyopsylla pfitzeri sp. n. is a parasite of the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda, in the great smoky mountains. only two females have been collected, but they are clearly distinct from both the more northern n. genalis and the more southern n. georgiana.19807463255
functional interpretations of the radiographic anatomy of the femora of myotis lucifugus, pipistrellus subflavus, and blarina brevicauda.radiographs of right femora from 29 shrews (blarina brevicauda) and 51 bats (27 myotis lucifugus, 14 pipistrellus subflavus) were analyzed to determine if bone in these small mammals conformed to bassett's ('68) revision of wolff's law. five external and four cortical dimensions were made on enlargements of radiographs of each femur. comparative descriptions of the spongiosa are given. external dimensions appear to be determined genetically, and, in bats, are closely related to functional demand ...19807405858
function of venom in the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda. 1978750639
the annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.the annular hematoma of the shrew, blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. in this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. in the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial tropho ...1978677046
a behavioral and polygraphic study of sleep in the shrews suncus murinus, blarina brevicauda, and cryptotis parva. 1977889556
the effects of ddt on energetics of the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda. 19744433851
helminths of the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda, in north carolina. 19744833861
a reexamination of the chorioallantoic placental membrane of a shrew, blarina brevicauda: resolution of a controversy. 19734747737
reproduction and survival of short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) in captivity. 19714332160
mediorhynchus grandis in a short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda, from south dakota. 19715133879
reproduction and age structure in a population of short-tailed shrews, blarina brevicauda. 19685690510
[chromosome patterns and robertsonian polymorphism in blarina brevicauda (say) (mammalia: insectivora)]. 19676070628
lewisi-like trypanosomes in the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda. 196313964453
the development of the bronchial diverticula in blarina brevicauda and its bearing on congenital lung anomalies. 195914430477
a comparative study of certain trigeminal components in two soricid shrews, blarina brevicauda and sorex cinereus. 195713475504
properties of a toxin from the salivary gland of the shrew, blarina brevicauda. 195514392580
capillaria blarinae, n. sp. (nematoda: trichuridae) from the esophagus of the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda (say). 195313045178
chemical cytology of the placenta of two north american shrews (blarina brevicauda and sorex fumeus). 194720260755
myonyssus jamesoni, a new liponyssid mite (acarina: laelaptidae) from blarina brevicauda (say). 194720256991
the placentation of the american shrews, blarina brevicauda and sorex fumeus. 194720296012
a new nematode, longistriata caudabullata, n. sp. (nematoda: vianaiinae), from the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda. 194621026154
some observations on the food habits of the short-tailed shrew (blarina brevicauda). 191417830253
three subcutaneous glandular areas of blarina brevicauda. 189617771413
a lungworm, angiostrongylus blarini, n. sp., from the short-tailed shrew, with observations on the histopathology and life cycle. 195413212546
a risk assessment approach to dde exposure based on the case of the eastern screech-owl (megascops asio) in apple orchards of southern quebec, part of a larger study assessing exposure of the eastern screech-owl to pesticides in apple orchards from consumption of contaminated small-mammal prey, we evaluated the potential for owls in orchards of southern quebec to be exposed to persistent contaminants with emphasis on dde. levels were highest in short-tailed shrews (0.94 to 26.29 microg/g wet wt). based on a worst-case scenario, it is possible that consumption of small-mammal prey in orchards of the study area may result in exposure ...200516132415
quantifying dilution and amplification in a community of hosts for tick-borne pathogens.recent controversy over whether biodiversity reduces disease risk (dilution effect) has focused on the ecology of lyme disease, a tick-borne zoonosis. a criticism of the dilution effect is that increasing host species richness might amplify disease risk, assuming that total host abundance, and therefore feeding opportunities for ticks, increase with species richness. in contrast, a dilution effect is expected when poor quality hosts for ticks and pathogens (dilution hosts) divert tick blood meal ...201627209790
unexpectedly high genetic diversity of the asiatic short-tailed shrews blarinella (mammalia, lipotyphla, soricidae).genetic diversity of the genus blarinella was studied using one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes as examples. the first genotyping of shrews from the southeast of gansu province (china), which is a typical habitat of b. griselda, has been performed. molecular genetic analysis showed that blarinella sp. from southern gansu stand apart among the other representatives of the genus and can be assigned to neither of the known species.201728702725
evaluation of the physiological activity of venom from the eurasian water shrewneomys fodiens.animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. among shrews, only the venom ofblarina brevicaudahas been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. it is assumed thatneomys fodiensemploys its venom to hunt larger prey. however, the toxic profile, properties and mo ...201729026428
the complete mitogenome of asiatic short-tailed shrew blarinella quadraticauda (soricidae).the asiatic short-tailed shrew, blarinella quadraticauda, is an endemic shrew to china, and is only distributed in sichuan. in this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of b. quadraticauda was determined. the mitogenome is 17,014 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rna genes, 22 transfer rna genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.3 % a, 31.8% t, 22.3% c and 12.6% g. this study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of the a ...201624660918
molecular phylogeny of short-tailed shrews, blarina (insectivora: soricidae).phylogenetic relationships among the three described species of short-tailed shrews (genus blarina) were inferred based on mitochondrial dna sequences of 16s rrna (506 bp) and cytochrome b (1137 bp) from 38 specimens representing b. brevicauda, b. hylophaga, and b. carolinensis, from across their range in north america. phylogenetic analyses of both data sets combined followed tests showing lack of incongruence between these fragments. analysis of substitution patterns indicated saturation of tr ...200211820838
a potential model for early stages of chromosomal evolution via concentric robertsonian fans: a large area of polymorphism in southern short-tailed shrews (blarina carolinensis).western tennessee contains unusually highly polymorphic populations of southern short-tailed shrews (blarina carolinensis). we previously documented eight robertsonian translocations (robs) accounting for a variation in diploid number from 46 in most of this species' range to 34-40 in western tennessee. we have now expanded our study to include data from adjacent areas in tennessee and mississippi, 10 localities in all. the new data show a variation in diploid number ranging from 31 to 41, four ...199910640807
chromosomal variation in the southern short-tailed shrew (blarina carolinensis).chromosomal polymorphism was assessed in the southern short-tailed shrew (blarina carolinensis) using standard metaphase chromosome and g-banding techniques. twenty-one animals (11 males, 10 females) from the meeman biological station in shelby co., tennessee, were examined for diploid number. results showed diploid numbers of 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 and fundamental numbers of 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45. no diploid numbers or fundamental numbers were unique to a specific collecting locality. th ...19968999000
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 116