cytomegalic inclusion disease in the east african headgehog.cytomegaly with intranuclear inclusion bodies was found in the duct epithelium of the salivary glands of five of ten hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris). cytomegalovirus infection was presumed to be the cause.1975167206
salivary gland oncocytes in african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) mimicking cytomegalic inclusion disease.the salivary glands from three african hedgehogs contained multiple foci of cytomegalic cells, which occasionally had a mild to moderate infiltrate of lymphocytes at the periphery. the cytomegalic cells were 35 to 40 microns in diameter with abundant acidophilic granular to hyalin cytoplasm. the nuclei were enlarged with clumped marginalized chromatin and a large, (6 to 8 microns in diameter) central, brightly eosinophilic nucleolus that had the appearance of an inclusion body by light microscop ...19911655834
the immunocytochemistry of cytokeratin in fish increasing interest in fish species as sentinels of environmental pollution and in carcinogenesis research has led to the identification of diagnostically challenging neoplasms of uncertain cellular origin and the need for additional diagnostic methods. to determine the potential of using commercially available antibodies to intermediate filament proteins on paraffin-embedded fish tissues for immunocytochemistry in tumor diagnosis, the application of three antikeratin antibodies to normal adu ...19937505508
corynebacterial pneumonia in an african hedgehog.a 3-mo-old, male african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was anorectic and lethargic for a period of 3 days prior to death. necropys revealed lungs that were diffusely firm, dark red, and dorsally adhered by fibrinous tags to the pericardial sac. histopathology revealed necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia with pulmonary abscesses and suppurative pericarditis and myocarditis. a corynebacterium sp. was isolated from the lungs. we believe this is the first reported case of corynebacterial pneumonia i ...19989577794
reproductive characteristics of the african pygmy hedgehog, atelerix obtain further perspective on reproduction and particularly gamete function among so-called primitive mammals presently grouped in the order insectivora, we have examined the african hedgehog, atelerix albiventris, in light of unusual features reported in shrews and moles. atelerix proves to share many but not all of the characteristics seen in these other insectivores. the penis of atelerix has a 'snail-like' form, but lacks the surface spines common in insectivores and a number of other mam ...200011006156
marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.this article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. marsupials commonly kept as pets in the u.s. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (macropus giganteus), bennett's wallabies (macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., tasmanian devils, koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. of the insectivores, only t ...200111217462
soft tissue sarcomas in the african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris): microscopic and immunohistologic study of three cases.three soft tissue tumors from 2 female hedgehogs were examined microscopically and immunohistochemically. two tumors involved haired skin and the third one was vaginal. microscopically, the cutaneous tumors had features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (mpnst), whereas the vaginal tumor was classified only as a spindle cell sarcoma. immunohistochemically, all 3 tumors were strongly positive for vimentin and strongly to moderately positive for cd10 and neuron-specific enolase but did no ...200111580072
fatal herpes simplex infection in a pygmy african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).an adult pygmy african hedgehog developed acute posterior paresis attributed to a prolapsed intervertebral disc diagnosed by c-t scan. corticosteroid therapy resulted in prompt resolution of the ataxia, but 2 weeks later the animal became anorexic and died. macroscopically, the liver was stippled with punctate off-white foci which were confirmed microscopically to be foci of necrosis. numerous hepatocytes contained intranuclear inclusions and syncytial cell formation was also present. a herpes v ...200211814325
an isolate of arthroderma benhamiae with trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph isolated from a four-toed hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) in japan.a female four-toed hedgehog probably imported from africa and kept as a pet by a family suffered from depilation and mite (caparinia tripilis) infection. depilated quills were inoculated on a commercially available medium and an isolate of the dermatophytes was obtained. a giant colony after 14 days incubation on yeast extract sabourauds agar had a central umbo with white granular surface and a yellow pigment ring in the reverse. the hedgehog isolate produced numerous elongated microconidia sing ...200212402026
the epidemiology and mating behavior of arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) in epidemiological survey of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between january 17, 2002 and february 28, 2002 in japan. quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. the fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from kanto to kyushu regions. isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as t. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. th ...200312590257
unilateral proptosis and orbital cellulitis in eight african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).eight african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) were presented with unilateral proptosis. six animals presented specifically for an ocular problem, whereas two had concurrent neurologic disease. enucleation and light microscopic examination of tissues was performed in five animals, and euthanasia followed by complete postmortem examination was performed in three animals. histopathologic findings in all hedgehogs included orbital cellulitis, panophthalmitis, and corneal ulceration, with perforatio ...200112790427
actinomyces naeslundii infection in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) with mandibular osteomyelitis and cellulitis. 200516215248
notoedric mange caused by notoedres cati in a pet african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris). 200616415235
emergency and critical care procedures in sugar gliders (petaurus breviceps), african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris), and prairie dogs (cynomys spp).less common exotic pet mammals are gaining in popularity. the australian sugar glider, african hedgehog, and prairie dog are seen regularly in exotic animal practices. they are subject to the same types of medical emergencies as more traditional pets, with the unfortunate addition of all too common underlying nutritional and husbandry-related disorders. emergency stabilization and critical care are important first steps before collection of diagnostic test samples and administration of definitiv ...200717577562
disseminated histoplasmosis in an african pygmy hedgehog.a 2-year-old captive-bred sexually intact female african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was evaluated because of vague signs of illness including inappetence, weakness, lethargy, and weight loss over a 20-day period.200818167112
surgical and medical management of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 5-yr-old female african hedgehog (ateleris albiventris) presented with hematuria. vulvar culture results revealed a 4+ growth of enterococcus sp. and gamma-streptococcus sp. susceptible to trimethoprim sulfa and enrofloxacin. ultrasound evaluation of the abdomen revealed an unidentifiable tubular structure in the region of the reproductive tract. an exploratory laparotomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. pathologic studies of the uterus showed a uterine spindle cell tumor, uterine endome ...200718229871
a new genotype of arthroderma benhamiae.nucleotide sequence analysis of chitin synthase 1 (chs1) indicated 90% sequence similarities among human and animal isolates of arthroderma benhamiae. in particular, greater than 99% similarity was noted in the nucleotide sequence among americano-european race isolates, african race isolates, and five isolates from four-toed hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris). the phylogenetic analysis indicated that the five isolates from hedgehogs were included in the same cluster and distinct from the americano ...200818608884
classification of pasteurella sp. b as pasteurella oralis sp. nov.pasteurella species b has so far only been reported from the oral cavity of dogs, cats and a ferret. in the present study, information from 15 recent isolates that included african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris), banded mongoose (mungos mungo), moholi bushbabies (galago moholi) and pneumonia of a cat were compared to five strains investigated previously from bite wounds in humans inflicted by a cat and dog and from gingiva of a cat. rpob gene sequence comparison showed 17 isolates including th ...201121841008
cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) in hedgehogs.the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype are described, and the species name cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. is proposed to reflect its specificity for hedgehogs under natural and experimental conditions. oocysts of c. erinacei are morphologically indistinguishable from cryptosporidium parvum, measuring 4.5-5.8 μm (mean=4.9 μm) × 4.0-4.8 μm (mean=4.4 μm) with a length to width ratio of 1.13 (1.02-1.35) (n=100). oocysts of c. erinacei obtai ...201424529828
astrocytoma in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome.a 28-month-old african hedgehog was referred to our hospital with progressive tetraparesis. on the first presentation, the hedgehog was suspected as having wobbly hedgehog syndrome (whs) and the animal was treated with medication and rehabilitation. the animal died 22 days after onset. pathological examination revealed that the animal was involved in astrocytoma between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord (c1). this report indicates that a primary central nervous system tumor should be con ...201121628867
hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.this article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory func ...201121601815
an outbreak of caparinia tripilis in a colony of african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) from february 2010, dermatitis characterized by scale and self-trauma due to puritis was recognized in a group of 22 four-toed hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris wagner, 1841) from a local pet shop in gwangju, korea. microscopic examinations of skin scraping samples showed numerous mites of all developmental stages. morphologically, pedicels of adult mites were short and unjointed. tarsal caruncles were bell-shaped on all legs of males while they were absent on legs iii and iv of females. three long ...201222711928
efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin against caparinia tripilis in african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).the efficacy and safety of a combination formulation of 10% imidacloprid + 1.0% moxidectin spot-on (advocate® for cats, bayer animal health gmbh, leverkusen, germany) was tested in 40 african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) naturally infested with caparinia tripilis.201222871121
first report of acariasis by caparinia tripilis in african hedgehogs, (atelerix albiventris), in costa rica.the african hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in costa rica. despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. two adult african hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in heredia, costa rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete los ...201324252963
diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy in a hedgehog.a one-year-old african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was evaluated for severe respiratory distress. physical examination findings included marked dyspnoea, cyanosis and tachypnoea. radiographic findings included an enlarged heart and pulmonary oedema, and dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed via echocardiogram. the patient was treated for congestive heart failure because of dilated cardiomyopathy with furosemide, enalapril, pimobendan and l-carnitine. within 24 hours of treatment, the pu ...201424372164
the placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the mammalian placenta.placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. in this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. the morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of marsupialia, have already been reconstruct ...201424797275
mixed glioma (oligoastrocytoma) in the brain of an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).this report describes an oligoastrocytoma in the brain of a 3.5-year-old female pet african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) that showed progressive central nervous system signs for 6 months. microscopical examination of the brain revealed a widely infiltrative, deep-seated glioma within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, basal nuclei, hippocampus, thalamus, midbrain, pons and the medulla of the cerebellum with extension of neoplastic cells into the cerebral cortex and overlying leptom ...201425172052
multicentric epitheliotropic t-cell lymphoma in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 2-year-old female african hedgehog was presented with a 5-month history of pruritus, and diffuse spine and hair loss. a dermatologic examination revealed erythema, excoriation, scales, and crusting affecting the face, flanks, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and dorsal and ventral abdomen. fine-needle aspiration was performed and skin biopsies were taken from several lesions for cytologic and histologic evaluation. the aspirates yielded smears characterized by a monomorphic population of medium-sized to ...201425204556
sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an african hedgehog (ateletrix albiventris).a sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris). the first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. the second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. the purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. although there is little information about diseases affecting this spec ...201425314843
caparinia tripilis in african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris). 201525496536
chylous ascites in a hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed as chylous ascites with biliary cirrhosis. abdomenocentesis revealed a milky fluid with a 324 mg/dl triglyceride level. on serum biochemical examination, the hedgehog had hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and high blood urea nitrogen. there was no cytologic or genomic evidence of infection, and a blood culture was negative. histopathologic examination revealed a liver with proliferative bile ducts that were often surrounded by prominent ...201425632690
morphometrics of foramen magnum in african four-toed hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).the purpose of this study was to examine the morphometry of the foramen magnum of african four-toed hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) in maiduguri. fourteen hedgehog skulls (7 male and 7 female each) were used for this study. the overall mean value of foramen magnum height and width were 0.51 ± 0.05 cm and 0.64 ± 0.04 cm while occipital condylar and interparacondylar widths were 1.00 ± 0.12 cm and 1.62 ± 0.07 cm, respectively. there was no significant difference between the two sexes. the foramen ...201526050805
surgical resection of peripheral odontogenic fibromas in african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris): a case study.neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland, lymph nodes, or oral cavity in african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) are common in captive animals. chemotherapy and radiotherapy protocols have not yet been established for the african pygmy hedgehog. thus, surgical resection is the current treatment of choice in this species.201526141314
claudin gene expression patterns do not associate with interspecific differences in paracellular nutrient absorption.bats exhibit higher paracellular absorption of glucose-sized molecules than non-flying mammals, a phenomenon that may be driven by higher permeability of the intestinal tight junctions. the various claudins, occludin, and other proteins making up the tight junctions are thought to determine their permeability properties. here we show that absorption of the paracellular probe l-arabinose is higher in a bat (eptesicus fuscus) than in a vole (microtus pennsylvanicus) or a hedgehog (atelerix albiven ...201626393434
cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris). a squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. to the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species.201526663924
malignant neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid) of the spleen in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a malignant neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid) of the spleen was diagnosed on post-mortem examination of a 3-year-old, male african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris). the animal presented with a history of inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, a wide-based gait and a palpable abdominal mass. the gross pathological, histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical findings are described. primary splenic carcinoids are reported rarely in the human medical literature and this is believed t ...201627212029
the african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris): low phase i and phase ii metabolism activities.the african hedgehog, atelerix albiventris, is a spiny mammal that has become popular as an exotic pet in many countries. to elucidate the ability of hedgehogs to metabolize xenobiotics, the animals were exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrene. the in vivo exposure study indicated that pyrene was biotransformed to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, such as pyrene-1-glucuronide, pyrene-1-sulfate, and pyrenediol-sulfate, and excreted in the urine. pyrene-1-glucuronide was the main meta ...201627544300
[oligodendroglioma with neuronal differentiation in an 8-month-old african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris)].an 8-month-old, male african hedgehog clinically displayed a wobbly walk, anuria, inappetence and apathy, whereupon the suspected diagnosis wobbly hedgehog syndrome was made. after exacerbation, the hedgehog was euthanized. histologically, a tumour mainly consisting of medium-sized, oval tumour cells and a smaller number of spindeloid cells was found in the cerebrum. the tumour contained neuropil islets and extracellular myxoid material. immunohistochemically, the tumour cells expressed oligoden ...201627595798
disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (hs) was diagnosed on post-mortem examination of a 1.5-year-old african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) that was presented in poor physical condition and with diarrhoea. leucocytosis and a hypoechoic abdominal mass were noted on haematological and ultrasonographical examinations. gross pathological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evaluation of the mass supported a diagnosis of disseminated hs. to our knowledge, this report represents t ...201627720131
myxoma of the penis in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a penile tumor (4 × 2.5 × 1 cm) was surgically removed from an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) aged 3 years and 5 months. the tumor was continuous with the dorsal fascia of the penile head. histopathologically, tumor cells were pleomorphic (oval-, short spindle- and star-shaped cells) with low cell density. abundant edematous stroma was weakly positive for alcian blue staining and positive for colloidal iron reaction. tumor cells displayed no cellular atypia or karyokinesis. tumor ...201727784859
fiber digestion in the african white-bellied hedgehog (atelerix albiventris): a preliminary evaluation. 19989868236
eosinophilic leukemia in three african pygmy hedgehogs ( atelerix albiventris) and validation of luna stain.neoplasia is usually encountered in the african pygmy hedgehog at a mean age of 3.5 y, and malignancy is common. myelogenous leukemias are rarely reported in hedgehogs. we describe 3 cases of eosinophilic leukemia in adult, middle-aged (mean age: 2.3 y) hedgehogs, for which prognosis appears grave. in 1 case, attempted treatment was unsuccessful, and in all 3 cases, the disease course was rapid and all died soon after diagnosis. blood smear evaluation, along with complete blood count, was critic ...201728114859
spontaneous multicentric soft tissue sarcoma in a captive african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris): case report and literature review.this report describes the clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and immunohistological features of a spontaneous multicentric extraskeletal sarcoma in an adult male african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris). it also provides a succinct up-to-date review on neoplasia in this species. on autopsy examination, main gross findings included a moderately demarcated cranial mass and a multilobulated, caudal intra-abdominal mass. the cranial mass had perforated the underlying temporal and occipital bone ...201728331115
organization of sensory cortex in the east african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).we investigated the organization of neocortex in the east african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) with microelectrode recordings from sensory areas that were later correlated with cytochrome oxidase patterns in sections of flattened cortex. the location of corticospinal projecting neurons was also examined and related to sensory areas by making small injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the spinal cord. our goals were to determine how hedgehog cortex is organized, how ...200010813786
a different kind of hedgehog pathway: tinea manus due to trichophyton erinacei transmitted by an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).the unusual case of a 29-year-old woman with tinea manus caused by infection due to trichophyton erinacei is described. the patient presented with marked erosive inflammation of the entire fifth finger of her right hand. mycological and genomic diagnostics resulted in identification of t. erinacei as the responsible pathogen, which had been transmitted by a domestic african pygmy hedgehog, atelerix albiventris. upon prolonged treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents skin lesions slo ...201423889168
molecular identification of cryptosporidium isolates from exotic pet animals in japan.the cryptosporidium horse genotype, a zoonotic protozoan parasite first found in a prezewalski wild horse, has not been found in any other mammal but calves, horses, and humans. hedgehogs, popular exotic pet animals in japan, are a reservoir of two zoonotic cryptosporidum: c. parvum and c. erinacei (previously known as the hedgehog genotype). recently, after finding cryptosporidium infection in a four-toed hedgehog (atelerix albiventris), we identified the isolate genetically as the cryptosporid ...201525801359
cardiac assessment of african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. to date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. the objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive african hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ecg), and radiographs. adult african hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an ...201122946370
recurrent sebaceous carcinoma in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 1.5-year-old intact male african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was presented with a firm, non-movable subcutaneous mass on ventral chest area. microscopically, the tumor was un-encapsulated, invasive up to the muscle layer, and composed of highly pleomorphic polygonal cells arranged in variably-sized lobules. the neoplastic cells had abundant cytoplasm with vacuolation and a large pleomorphic nucleus with prominent nucleoli. mitotic figures were frequently observed with atypical mitoses. imm ...201020215722
feeding behavior and nutrition of the african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).despite their wide global distribution and popularity as pets, little is known concerning specific nutritional requirements of hedgehogs. they inhabit a wide variety of environments from desert to temperate forest, and they display flexible and opportunistic feeding behaviors. natural diets include invertebrate and vertebrate prey, carrion, and plant material. hedgehogs have enzymatic ability to digest chitin from insect exoskeletons as a dietary fiber source, but they do not seem to digest cell ...200919341959
anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 2-year-old, female hedgehog presented with an 8-month history of progressive, ascending paresis/paralysis and was tentatively diagnosed with wobbly hedgehog syndrome. she died awaiting further diagnostic tests, and the owners consented to postmortem examination. grossly, the bladder was large and flaccid and the cervical and lumbar spinal cord were regionally enlarged, light grey, and friable with multifocal hemorrhages. the thoracic spinal cord was grossly normal. microscopically all regions ...200818984799
cutaneous t-cell lymphoma in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a three-year-old male african hedgehog was presented for a non healing crusty proliferation on the left pinna. the lesion failed to respond to topical therapy and systemic antibiotic therapy. whole body radiography and abdominal ultrasonograpy were within normal limits. the lesion was surgically removed. the patient recovered well from the procedure and remained in remission for nine months when he came back as an emergency case and died of an unrelated disease. the histopathology report enabled ...201518396780
congenital erythropoietic porphyria in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 6-mo-old, male african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) presented with a history of pink urine and demonstrating pink-colored teeth and mild hepatomegaly on examination. urinalysis revealed no physical, chemical, or cellular abnormalities other than a pink color and fluorescence under ultraviolet light (uv). also under uv, intense fluorescence of teeth, feet, and spines was noted. porphyria was suspected. spectrophotometric evaluation of urine showed extremely elevated levels of copro- and urop ...200517323578
cytologic diagnosis of diseases of hedgehogs.this article focuses on neoplastic diseases because they may be the most frequent disease processes in captive hedgehogs according to the literature and authors' case files and the most common cases submitted for cytologic diagnosis in these species, particularly the african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).200717198959
spinal osteosarcoma in a hedgehog with pedal african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed with osteosarcoma of vertebral origin with compression of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. the only presenting sign was a self-mutilation of rear feet. additional diagnoses included a well-differentiated splenic hemangiosarcoma, an undifferentiated sarcoma of the ascending colon, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.200616931383
rib osteoblastic osteosarcoma in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 3-year-old african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was presented to the exotic animal clinic of the university of montreal for evaluation of a mass growing on the right thoracic wall. the diagnostic workup, which included helical computed tomography, confirmed the presence of a large mass, originating from the right 7th rib, infiltrating the thoracic wall and cavity. the animal was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. at necropsy, a well-demarcated mass penetrated the thoracic wall and incorp ...200616921888
spontaneous proliferative lesions and tumors of the uterus of captive african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).fifteen captive female african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris), 3- to 5-yr-old, were diagnosed with proliferative uterine lesions (n = 28). lesions were associated with vaginal bleeding in all cases, hematuria in 11 of 13 cases, and weight loss in 7 of 12 cases. lesions were multiple in eight cases and single in seven cases. the lesions identified were 13 adenosarcomas, 7 endometrial stromal sarcomas, 6 endometrial polyps, 1 adenoleiomyosarcoma, and 1 adenoleiomyoma. in one animal with adenosar ...200415305518
acinic cell carcinoma in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a male african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris), estimated to be 3 years old, presented with exophthalmos and fixed abduction of the right eye. radiographic examination revealed a retrobulbar tumor in the right orbital cavity. the mass was surgically resected but recurred 3 months later and the hedgehog died. there was no gross or microscopic evidence of salivary or lacrimal gland involvement of the tumor at surgery or at necropsy. the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructur ...200415048626
surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an african pygmy hedgehog.a 3-year-old, female african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively.200312677695
thyroid c-cell carcinoma in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 3-yr-old african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was submitted with dysphagia, weight loss, and tetraparesis. a palpable mass was found on the ventral neck. histologic examination revealed replacement of the thyroid gland by a highly cellular, expansile, and infiltrative mass composed of lobules of polygonal cells separated by fine fibrovascular septa. examination of ultrathin sections revealed tumor cells with few to many dense-core neuroendocrine granules, approximately 100-200 nm in d ...200212564541
spontaneous tumours in captive african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.forty tumours were diagnosed in 35 (53%) of 66 captive african hedgehogs documented at northwest zoopath (nzp) between 1994 and 1999. three hedgehogs had more than one type of tumour and the remaining 32 had a single type. of the 35 hedgehogs with tumours, 14 were female, 11 were male, and 10 were of unknown gender; 21 were from zoological parks and 14 were privately owned. twenty of the hedgehogs with tumours were adult (>1 year old) with a median age of 3.5 years (range 2-5.5 years); 15, of un ...200911222009
cardiomyopathy in captive african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).from 1994 to 1999, 16 captive african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. the incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. the remaining 7 hedg ...200011021439
cortical organization in insectivora: the parallel evolution of the sensory periphery and the brain.insectivores are traditionally described as a primitive group that has not changed much in the course of mammalian evolution. in contrast, recent studies reveal a great diversity of sensorimotor specializations among insectivores adapted to a number of different ecological niches, indicating that there has been significant diversification and change in the course of their evolution. here the organization of sensory cortex is compared in the african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris), the masked shr ...200010971016
abnormal hematologic findings in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma.a 4-year-old african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was examined for weight loss and hematochezia, and was subsequently diagnosed with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma. abnormal hematological findings included marked leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and atypical circulating lymphocytes. this report represents the first documentation of hemogram abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma in this species.200010857034
mammary gland tumors in captive african hedgehogs.from december 1995 to july 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris). the tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stro ...200010813628
necropsy and histopathologic findings in 14 african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.from fiscal years 1992 through 1996, 14 african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) cases were submitted to the animal disease diagnostic laboratory at purdue university. the most common diagnoses were splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis (91%), hepatic lipidosis (50%), renal disease (50%), and neoplastic disease (29%). other less frequent necropsy findings were myocarditis (21%), colitis (14%), bacterial septicemia (14%), and pneumonia (14%). the data indicate that splenic extramedullary hematopoie ...199910484145
[presence of a new trichostrongyloidea (nematoda) nochtia (nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. in an erinacoidea (insectivora) in togo].nochtia (nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. (nematoda, trichostrongyloidea) of ethiopian erinacoidea. - nochtia (nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. is found in the intestine of the hedgehog atelerix albiventris in togo. it is distinguished from the two other congeneric species parasite of asiatic primates, n. (n.) nochti travassos et vogelsang, 1929 and n. (n.) tani le van hoa, 1966, mainly by the highest number of cuticular crests and spicules with six tips.19826926936
intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive african hedgehogs.two captive adult female african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. these are the first report ...19989813852
intestinal plasmacytoma in an african hedgehog.a 3-yr-old male african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) had anorexia and weight loss for 1 wk before its death. the colon and mesocolon were diffusely infiltrated by a neoplastic proliferation of round cells with plasmacytoid features. a diagnosis of intestinal plasmacytoma was made and confirmed by electron microscopy. no other organs appeared to be affected. this is the first description of intestinal plasmacytoma in a hedgehog.19989577789
malignant mast cell tumor in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).in november 1995, a malignant mast cell tumor (mastocytoma) was diagnosed in an adult african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) from a zoological park (west lafayette, indiana, usa). the primary mast cell tumor presented as a firm subcutaneous mass along the ventrum of the neck. metastasis to the right submandibular lymph node occurred.19979027702
multicentric skeletal sarcomas associated with probable retrovirus particles in two african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris). 19947941242
use of permethrin as a miticide in the african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).the african hedgehog, atelerix albiventris (also known as erinaceous albiventris; 1,2) has recently undergone an increase in popularity as an exotic pet. this popularity (beatrix potter not withstanding) is due in part to the small size of the african hedgehog (adults are 4-6 in in length, weighing approximately 1 lb), its lack of hibernation or aestivation if reared under controlled light and temperature, and its general good nature and accommodation to handling.19948197715
the karyotype of the middle-african hedgehog atelerix albiventris wagner, 1841 and its cytotaxonomical relationships to other erinaceinae (insectivora: erinaceidae).like other hedgehog species investigated hitherto, also the middle african species atelerix albiventris has a diploid number of 48 chromosomes. however, aethechinus and atelerix display quite distinct cytogenetic characteristics compared to the hedgehog genera erinaceus, hemiechinus and paraechinus. individual chromosome structures and reactivities permit the recognition of similarities to the algerian hedgehog aethechinus algirus and indicate their close relationship. nevertheless, the proposal ...19911879689
lymphoma with mott cell differentiation and validation of immunohistochemical lymphoid markers in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 2-year-old female intact african pygmy hedgehog was presented for diagnostic investigation of a 2-month reduction in appetite, with weight loss and recent vomiting. clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass originating from the left cranial abdomen. ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates of the mass, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes revealed a population of pleomorphic round cells, some of which contained variable numbers of round, clear vacuoles, consistent with a diagnosis of lympho ...201931837029
electrochemotherapy palliation of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a five-year-old female african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) was referred for a one month growing oral mass. the hedgehog was quiet, alert and responsive, with a 1.00 × 1.50 cm ulcerated lesion on the mandible. the patient was staged with total body radiographs, hematological and biochemical analyses and the mass was biopsied under anesthesia. the excised tissue was reported to be a squamous cell carcinoma. at this time, due to the extension of the mass, a surgical excision was not a therapeut ...201830713619
proliferative lesions of the endometrium of 50 four-toed hedgehogs ( atelerix albiventris).uteri from 50 four-toed hedgehogs ( atelerix albiventris) with clinical signs of uterine disease were histopathologically examined. sixteen animals (32%) were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia, 7 animals (14%) were diagnosed with endometrial polyp, and 27 animals (54%) were diagnosed with endometrial neoplasia. the mean ages of the animals with endometrial hyperplasia, polyp, and neoplasia were 28.7 months, 29.4 months, and 25.2 months, respectively. the neoplasms were classified into 7 end ...201829448904
pleomorphic adenoma of the mandibular salivary gland in a captive african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 3.9-year-old female african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) had a firm, tan-colored mass with an uneven surface arising from the mandibular salivary gland. a histopathologic examination revealed that the mass was composed of neoplastic proliferation of epithelial and spindle cells. the neoplastic spindle cells showed positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, calponin and cytokeratin 14 and, negative for cytokeratin 19, suggesting that spindle cells were derived from myoepithelial cells ...201930531130
fatal bronchopneumonia caused by skunk adenovirus 1 in an african pygmy hedgehog.eleven adult african pygmy hedgehogs ( atelerix albiventris) were added to a group of 35 animals, and within 10 d, respiratory distress affected 8 of 35 resident animals in the group, but none of the introduced animals. three animals died following onset of clinical signs. tissues from one animal were collected and submitted for histopathology, which revealed acute necrotizing bronchopneumonia and tracheitis with intraepithelial intranuclear inclusion bodies. electron microscopy identified 75-90 ...201930475680
primary histiocytic sarcoma of the brain in an african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).a 2.5-year-old african hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) with signs of progressive paresis/paralysis for approximately 6 months was diagnosed with 'wobbly hedgehog syndrome' (whs). post-mortem examination revealed a primary central nervous system (cns) histiocytic sarcoma (hs) associated with neurodegenerative changes of the cns and skeletal muscle atrophy. grossly, a spherical mass infiltrated the left forebrain and was located between the frontal lobe and thalamus in coronal sections. microscopi ...201729169617
osteosarcoma in african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris): five cases.osteosarcomas are unusual neoplasms in african hedgehogs ( atelerix albiventris ) and have been reported in extraskeletal and skeletal locations, including mandible, ribs, and vertebra. five hedgehogs with osteosarcoma submitted to the pathology department at facultad de medicina veterinaria y zootecnia, national autonomous university of mexico are reported. in two cases, the neoplasm arose from the skull; one case arose from the ribs with associated compression of the thoracic and abdominal cav ...201728749294
a retrospective study of disease incidence in african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).the african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) is becoming a popular pet in japan. the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of various diseases in african pygmy hedgehogs. we histologically investigated 105 samples from 100 privately-owned pet african pygmy hedgehogs that were submitted to two laboratories (north lab and patho labo) between 2012 and 2017. tissues submitted for this study were taken from female reproductive organs (33 cases; 31.43%), skin (20 cases; 19.05%), and th ...201830089737
painful circumscribed bullous dermatosis of the left hand after contact with african four-toed hedgehogs. 201829762916
fluralaner as a single dose oral treatment for caparinia tripilis in a pygmy african hedgehog.african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris) are popular pets belonging to the erinaceidae family of spined mammals. amongst the most common skin diseases occurring in this species is infestation caused by the mite caparinia spp. due to their skin anatomy and spiny coat, detection of skin lesions in these hedgehogs can be difficult. this may result in delays in seeking medical care, which may lead to secondary bacterial infection and self-inflicted trauma. multiple therapies have been used in ...201728691193
cytogenetic karyotype analysis in selected species of the erinaceidae family.comparative analysis of the karyotype structure was made in two hedgehog species: the northern white-breasted hedgehog (erinaceus roumanicus) and the african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).201931572815
the pathology of wobbly hedgehog syndrome.wobbly hedgehog syndrome (whs) is a leading cause of neurologic disease in african pygmy hedgehogs (aphs; atelerix albiventris). this study describes the signalment, clinical signs, gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions of whs in a cohort of 12 pet aphs. microscopically, lesions consisted of status spongiosus of the white matter, typically bilateral and symmetrical, with myelin degeneration and loss that was accompanied by neuronal/axonal degeneration plus reactive microgliosis and mil ...201829673307
complete genome analysis confirms that the pygmy marmoset adenovirus is a variant of the skunk adenovirus 1 - short communication.the complete genomic sequence along with phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus (adv), isolated from a dead captive pygmy marmoset (callithrix pygmaea) from a hungarian zoo is reported. earlier, based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a pcr-amplified fragment from the dna polymerase gene, the pygmy marmoset adv (pmadv) has been reported to cluster closest to certain chiropteran advs. in the following years similar advs were discovered in additional mammalian hosts, including a skun ...202033128521
evaluation of subcutaneous administration of alfaxalone-midazolam and ketamine-midazolam as sedation protocols in african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).to evaluate sc administration of 2 sedation protocols, ketamine-midazolam (km) and alfaxalone-midazolam (am), in african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).202033021455
molecular identification of cryptosporidium isolates from ill exotic pet animals in japan including a new subtype in cryptosporidium fayeri.cryptosporidium is an obligate intracellular parasite which can cause fatal diarrheal disease in exotic animals. sugar gliders (petaurus breviceps), hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris), chinchillas (chinchilla lanigera), and common leopard geckos (eublepharis macularius) are popular exotic animals commonly sold in pet shops in japan. we herein investigated the species and subtypes of cryptosporidium in these animals. cryptosporidium fayeri was detected in a sugar glider in a japanese animal hospita ...202032862916
antinociceptive efficacy and safety of subcutaneous buprenorphine hydrochloride administration in african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).to evaluate antinociceptive efficacy and safety of sc buprenorphine hydrochloride administration in african pygmy hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).202032857008
primary localized histiocytic sarcoma of the lumbar vertebrae in a four-toed hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).we describe a case of primary localized histiocytic sarcoma of the lumbar vertebrae in a four-toed hedgehog. the case showed aggressive osteolysis of lumbar vertebrae on radiography, and a soft-tissue mass effacing this region was noted, suggesting a neoplastic lesion. no metastatic lesions were apparent. antemortem diagnosis was challenging, and necropsy was performed. histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with localized histiocytic sarcoma. this report provides doc ...202032848108
transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis underlying the development of skin appendages and immunity in hedgehog (atelerix albiventris).the expression of hair features is an evolutionary adaptation resulting from interactions between many organisms and their environment. elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the expression of such traits is a topic in evolutionary biology research. therefore, we assessed the de novo transcriptome of atelerix albiventris at three developmental stages and compared gene expression profiles between abdomen hair and dorsal spine tissues. we identified 328,576 unigenes in our transcriptome, amon ...202032811876
histological and immunohistochemical features of normal histiocytes and langerhans cells, and histiocytic sarcomas in four-toed hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).histiocytic sarcoma (hs) is a haematopoietic tumour of histiocyte origin that has been sporadically reported in four-toed hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris). the present study aimed to investigate clinical, gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of hs in eight hedgehogs. histological and immunohistochemical features of normal histiocytes and langerhans cells (lcs) of hedgehogs were also investigated. hla-dr-, iba-1- and e-cadherin-positive lcs were observed in the epidermis, whi ...202032800106
an african pygmy hedgehog adenovirus 1 (ahadv-1) outbreak in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) colony in african pygmy hedgehog adenovirus 1 (ahadv-1) outbreak in a colony of 24 african pygmy hedgehogs (aphs) with a case of fatal pneumonia occurred in japan. thirteen out of a colony of 15 aphs with respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with ahadv-1 infection based on the detection of ahadv-1 genome in throat/nasal swabs and further one aph was diagnosed on isolation of the virus. five infected aphs died during the outbreak and ahadv-1 caused severe pneumonia and death in one case. after the outbre ...202032734101
bullous eruption caused by an exotic hedgehog purchased as a household unusual case of a 37-year-old woman with bullous tinea manuum caused by an infection with trichophyton mentagrophytes is described. the patient presented with a pruritic erythematous vesicular rash on the right palm and interdigital web spaces between the first and second digits. the preliminary diagnosis was acute contact dermatitis, which was treated with oral and topical corticosteroids. the rash failed to respond to treatment, resulting in tinea incognito. at 2-week follow-up, a potassium ...202032716985
geriatric hedgehogs.african hedgehogs are susceptible to aging changes like those of other small exotic mammals. common conditions of the geriatric hedgehog include heart disease, chronic renal disease, and dental/periodontal disease. hedgehogs are unique in that they have an unusually short life span and a propensity for neoplasia. these 2 factors make it especially common for exotic animal practitioners to encounter geriatric hedgehogs affected by one of the many conditions outlined in this article.202032690448
blood of african hedgehog atelerix albiventris contains 115-kda trypanolytic protein that kills trypanosoma congolense.protozoan parasites of the order trypanosomatida infect a wide range of multicellular plants and animals, causing devastating and potentially fatal diseases. trypanosomes are the most relevant members of the order in sub-saharan africa because of mortalities and morbidities caused to humans and livestock.202032385812
clinicopathologic findings of spontaneous leukemia in 9 pet african hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).previous reports of leukemia in hedgehogs are limited. we describe clinicopathologic features of leukemia in 9 hedgehogs, including eosinophilic leukemia (n = 3) and acute leukemia/leukemic phase of lymphoma (n = 6). all 3 hedgehogs with eosinophilic leukemia were older than 2 years of age; in contrast, 4 of 6 cases of acute leukemia/lymphoma were <2 years old. hedgehogs presented for non-specific clinical signs of anorexia and lethargy. on hematologic testing, hedgehogs with eosinophilic leukem ...202032118073
validation of the status of a species with high co1 and low nuclear genetic divergences: the scab mite caparinia ictonyctis stat. res. (acariformes: psoroptidae) parasitizing the african hedgehog atelerix albiventris.we report two host-specific lineages of scab mites of the genus caparinia, parasitizing european and african hedgehogs. based on morphology, these mite lineages are closely related sister groups. the morphological differences, however, are subtle and do not provide clear-cut evidence for the existence of separate species. co1 divergence between these lineages was 7.4-7.8%, well above the co1 barcoding gaps or thresholds commonly used to separate species, whereas divergence of five nuclear genes ...201930647256
the dermatitis by caparinia tripilis and microsporum , in african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris) in romania - first report.investigations were conducted on a case of generalized dermatitis in an african pygmy hedgehog (atelerix albiventris), purchased as a pet. clinical examination revealed restlessness, agitation, itching and scratching, large alopecic areas, skin congestion and thin whitish scabs. five skin lesions were scraped and the samples were collected for laboratory tests. microscopy revealed the presence of the mite caparinia tripilis (acari: psoroptidae). a dermatophyte belonging to microsporum genus was ...201930184000
primary central nervous system neoplasms in african this retrospective study, we describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in a series of primary central nervous system (cns) neoplasms in african hedgehogs ( atelerix albiventris). twelve cns neoplasms were found among 762 african hedgehog submissions (1.6%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in an 18-y period. the median age of affected hedgehogs was 3.5 y. no sex predilection was found. hindlimb paresis, weakness, and ataxia were the most commonly reported clinical signs ...201830132400
stromal-type nephroblastoma with or without anaplasia in two hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris).we describe the clinical and histological characteristics of stromal-type nephroblastomas that developed in two hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris). in case 1, the tumour was composed of a proliferation of anaplastic stromal cells with ductal structures resembling the epithelium of nephroblastoma. in case 2, spindle-shaped cells that were somewhat larger than nephroblasts were frequently seen surrounding the cell cluster, and there was proliferation of stromal cells with collagen fibres at the peri ...201931690414
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