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oxygen affinity and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in blood of australian marsupials of differing body size.oxygen carriage and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-dpg) levels have been measured in the blood of seven species of australian marsupials ranging in size from 35 to 0.03 kg. they were red and grey kangaroos, wallaroo, tammar wallaby, brush-tailed possum, potoroo, and brown marsupial mouse. oxygen affinity decreased with decrease in adult body size, standard p50 (at 36 c) varying from 24.6 torr in the largest (red kangaroo) to 41.9 torr in the smallest (brown marsupial mouse). the relationship betwee ...197724866
an outbreak of toxoplasmosis in wallaroos (macropus robustus) in a california zoo.four wallaroos (macropus robustus) from a central california zoo colony of 22 died within a three week period. histopathologic findings in all four cases were suggestive of toxoplasmosis. brain, lung and heart were the most frequently involved organs. within 4 months of the last death sera from nine colony members were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using the indirect hemagglutination test. all nine had serological titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:131,072.1977839626
effects of dehydration on body-water distribution in desert kangaroos.the effect of dehydration on the distribution of water in the bodies of two species of desert kangaroos, the red kangaroo megaleia rufa and the euro macropus robustus, has been examined. the volumes of various body-fluid compartments were determined in normally hydrated animals and then after the kangaroos had been dehydrated until body weight declined to 80% of the initial weight. the fluid compartments examined were total body water, plasma volume, intracellular volume (cellular and gut water) ...19751147052
characteristics of cardiac action potentials in marsupials.standard microelectrode techniques were used to record action potentials from single atrial, ventricular and purkinje fibers of hearts taken from three species of marsupial (macropus rufus, macropus robustus and macropus eugenii) and from dogs, sheep and guinea-pigs. the major electrophysiological parameters of marsupial potentials were qualitatively similar to the values for placental mammals. the grouped data for ventricular action potentials from studies on 6 adult male red kangaroos (macropu ...19892715459
proteins of marsupial erythrocyte membranes.the proteins of erythrocyte membranes from the red kangaroo, western grey kangaroo, eastern grey wallaroo (euro), red-necked wallaby, tammar wallaby, and brush-tail possum have been fractionated on acrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. the pattern of proteins was remarkably similar between the different marsupial species. the pattern of coomassie blue-staining proteins in the membranes of these species was also very similar to that of the human erythrocyte membrane. however, ...19854051902
thermoregulatory responses of the arid zone kangaroos, megaleia rufa and macropus robustus. 19734147795
aspects of the life-history of dirofilaria roemeri in naturally and experimentally infected kangaroos, wallaroos and wallabies. 19724652909
differences in a ribosomal dna sequence of morphologically indistinguishable species within the hypodontus macropi complex (nematoda: strongyloidea).the nucleotide sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) from ribosomal dna has been determined for 3 members of the hypodontus macropi species complex. sequences were compared from nematodes collected from 3 species of australian macropodid marsupial, petrogale persephone, macropus robustus robustus and thylogale billardierii. the its-2 of each operational taxonomic unit ranged from 287 to 292 bases in length, and had a gc content of 36.6-40.1%. differences in nucleotide sequen ...19957635644
glucose metabolism in a kangaroo (macropus robustus erubescens) and a similar size eutherian herbivore, the feral goat.1. glucose pool size, space, entry rate, and turnover time were estimated from the specific radioactivity vs time curves of [3h] and [14c]glucose administered as a single injection in the euro (macropus robustus erubescens) and the sympatric feral goat (capra hircus). 2. digestible energy intake was greater (p < 0.05 +/- se) in the goat than in the euro (798 +/- 64 vs 624 +/- 31 kj/kg0.75 x day). 3. however, there were no significant differences between the two species in parameters of glucose m ...19937902800
phosphoglycerate kinase pseudogenes in the tammar wallaby and other macropodid marsupials.phosphoglycerate kinase (ec 2.7.2.3; pgk) exists in two forms in marsupials. pgk1 is an x-linked house-keeping enzyme, and pgk2 is a mainly testis-specific enzyme under autosomal control. we have used pgk1 probes derived from two closely related species of macropodid marsupials (kangaroos and wallabies) to demonstrate the existence of a large family of pseudogenes in the tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii). over 30 fragments are detectable after taq digestion. we estimate that there are 25-30 copi ...19948000135
protein turnover in two kangaroo sub-species (macropus robustus robustus and m. r. erubescens) from divergent habitats and the sympatric feral goat (capra hircus).1. whole-body protein turnover was measured by a single-injection [15n]glycine method in the euro (macropus robustus erubescens), wallaroo (m. r. robustus) and goat (capra hircus). 2. dietary nitrogen (n) intake was greater (p < 0.05) in the goat (1.17 g n/kg 0.75 x day) than in the kangaroo sub-species and greater (p < 0.05) in the wallaroo (1.07 g n/kg 0.75 x day) than in the euro (0.93 g n/kg 0.75 x day). similar (0.29-0.34 g n/kg 0.75 x day) among the species. 3. crude protein (cp) turnover ...19938101778
effects of water restriction on digestive function in two macropodid marsupials from divergent habitats and the feral goat.the effects of water restriction on digestive function in the euro (macropus robustus erubescens) found in the arid zone of inland australia, the eastern wallaroo (m.r.robustus) from more mesic regions of eastern australia, and the feral goat (capra hircus) found throughout the range of m. robustus, were compared in order to examine some physiological adaptations required by herbivores for the exploitation of arid environments. eight animals of each species were held in individual metabolism cag ...19938349886
a new family of entodiniomorph protozoa from the marsupial forestomach, with descriptions of a new genus and five new species.a unique group of entodiniomorph protozoa was found in forestomach contents from quokka (setonix brachyurus), western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus), red kangaroo (macropus rufus) and euro (macropus robustus erubescens). a new genus, macropodinium n.g., containing five new species, is described. three species are described from forestomach contents of the quokka: macropodinium baldense n. sp., macropodinium moiri n. sp. and macropodinium setonixum n. sp. a single species, macropodinium enn ...19968768432
an electrophoretic analysis of patterns of speciation in cloacina clarkae, c. communis, c. petrogale and c. similis (nematoda:strongyloidea) from macropodid marsupials.an electrophoretic study was conducted on cloacina clarkae, c. communis, c. petrogale and c. similis based on 19 enzyme loci. c. communis was widely distributed in macropus robustus, showing some genetic variation among populations but occasionally switching to other macropodid hosts (m. agilis, m. antilopinus). c. similis occurred in members of the petrogale penicillata complex, macropus dorsalis and thylogale billardierii, but showed no evidence of genetic differentiation in spite of its occur ...19979193942
novel isotrichid ciliates endosymbiotic in australian macropodid marsupials.samples of foregut content were collected from 86 macropodid marsupials and examined for the presence of endosymbiotic ciliates. four host species were examined: macropus giganteus (eastern grey kangaroo), m. fuliginosus (western grey kangaroo), m. robustus (common wallaroo) and thylogale billardierii (tasmanian pademelon). ciliate morphology was determined by microscopical examination of live and silver-impregnated specimens. isotrichid ciliates were detected in 51 (59%) of the 86 animals exami ...200010803435
mutation scanning analysis of sequence heterogeneity in the second internal transcribed spacer (rdna) within some members of the hypodontus macropi (nematoda: strongyloidea) complex.single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis was employed to investigate sequence variation in the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of nuclear ribosomal dna within and among individuals representing three operational taxonomic units (otus) of hypodontus macropi from different species of australian macropodid marsupials. of the 96 nematodes analysed, totals of 3 (otu1 from petrogale persephone), 10 (otu2 from macropus robustus) and 7 (otu9 from macropus rufus) representative individ ...200111358128
single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of genetic variation in labiostrongylus longispicularis from kangaroos.single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) analysis was employed to screen for sequence heterogeneity in the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of ribosomal (r) dna of labiostrongylus longispicularis, a parasitic strongylid nematode occuring in some species of kangaroo in different geographical regions of australia. the results showed that most of the nematodes screened had different sscp profiles, which were subsequently shown to correspond to polymorphisms and/or an indel in the it ...200111465490
morphological variation of the thoracolumbar vertebrae in macropodidae and its functional relevance.the present study was designed to investigate how the form of the marsupial thoracolumbar vertebrae varies to cope with the particular demands of diverse loading and locomotor behaviors. the vertebral columns of 10 species of macropodidae, with various body masses and modes of locomotion, together with two other arboreal marsupials, koala and cuscus, were selected. seventy-four three-dimensional landmark coordinates were acquired on each of the 10 last presacral vertebrae of the 70 vertebral col ...200516136603
antibodies to the ross river virus in captive marsupials in urban areas of eastern new south wales, australia.serum samples collected from 224 tammar wallabies (macropus eugenii) in two captive populations in urban areas in eastern new south wales australia, between december 1999 and may 2004, were tested for antibodies to ross river virus (rrv). in one population in northwest sydney, 21 animals (11%) tested positive, and in another population in newcastle, new south wales, thirteen (33%) of the animals were positive. antibodies were detected in four of 11 wallaroos (macropus robustus) (36%) but not in ...200516244073
echinococcus granulosus in northern queensland. 2. ecological determinants of infection in beef cattle.to provide information on possible ecological determinants of infection with echinococcus granulosus in a beef pastoral area of northern queensland.200616958625
serologic responses of barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), indian antelope (antilope cervicapra), wallaroos (macropus robustus), and chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) to an inactivated encephalomyocarditis virus vaccine.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) is a picornavirus with a worldwide distribution, capable of infecting a wide range of species. episodes of emcv-associated mortality have been reported in zoos and national parks around the world, including sporadic cases at taronga zoo, sydney. an inactivated emcv vaccine was evaluated by inoculating barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), indian antelope (antilope cervicapra), eastern wallaroos (macropus robustus), and chimpanzees (pan troglodytes). a proportion of ...200517315459
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern united states.toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to t. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern united states was determined by using the modified agglutination test (mat). a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. ...200818605803
australia's savanna herbivores: bioclimatic distributions and an assessment of the potential impact of regional climate change.the future impacts of climate change are predicted to significantly affect the survival of many species. recent studies indicate that even species that are relatively mobile and/or have large geographic ranges may be at risk of range contractions or extinction. an ecologically and evolutionary significant group of mammals that has been largely overlooked in this research is australia's large marsupial herbivores, the macropodids (kangaroos). the aims of our investigation were to define and compa ...200818937565
separating the influences of environment and species interactions on patterns of distribution and abundance: competition between large herbivores.1. much recent research has focused on the use of species distribution models to explore the influence(s) of environment (predominantly climate) on species' distributions. a weakness of this approach is that it typically does not consider effects of biotic interactions, including competition, on species' distributions. 2. here we identify and quantify the contribution of environmental factors relative to biotic factors (interspecific competition) to the distribution and abundance of three large, ...200919175695
new reports of australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern australian macropods.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. we describe the first cases of australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the northern territory of australia. diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time pcr. the causative organism was found to b ...200919288959
molecular characterization of species of cloacina (strongyloidea: cloacininae) from the common wallaroo, macropus robustus (marsupialia: macropodidae) in australia.this study examined genetic variation within and among species of cloacina found in the common wallaroo (macropus robustus) collected at different localities from mainland australia, and evaluated geographical distance as a potential driver for genetic variation. the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its-1 and its-2=its) of nuclear ribosomal dna were used to characterize individuals of 17 morphospecies of cloacina that parasitize macropus robustus and its sub-species. results reveal ...201627426890
analyses of mitochondrial amino acid sequence datasets support the proposal that specimens of hypodontus macropi from three species of macropodid hosts represent distinct species.hypodontus macropi is a common intestinal nematode of a range of kangaroos and wallabies (macropodid marsupials). based on previous multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (mee) and nuclear ribosomal dna sequence data sets, h. macropi has been proposed to be complex of species. to test this proposal using independent molecular data, we sequenced the whole mitochondrial (mt) genomes of individuals of h. macropi from three different species of hosts (macropus robustus robustus, thylogale billardierii an ...201324261823
hypodontus macropi mönnig, 1929, a hookworm-like parasite of macropodid marsupials.hypodontus macropi mönnig, 1929, is redescribed and its taxonomic affinities discussed. h. macropi is recorded for the first time from wallabia bicolor, macropus robustus, m. fuliginosus, m. dorsalis, m. agilis and thylogale billardierii. the method of attachment of the parasite and gross and histopathological changes associated with it are described. free living larval stages are described. experimental infestations were attempted but were not successful. hypodontus thetidis johnston and mawson ...1979575542
shedding light on the microbial community of the macropod foregut using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing.twenty macropods from five locations in queensland, australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. specifically, the v3/v4 region of 16s rrna gene was examined. a total of 5040 otus were identified in the data set (post filtering). thirty-two otus were identified as 'shared' otus (i.e. present in all samples) belonging to either firmicutes or bacteroidetes (clostridiales/bacteroidales). t ...201323626688
effects of spines and thorns on australian arid zone herbivores of different body masses.we investigated the effects of thorns and spines on the feeding of 5 herbivore species in arid australia. the herbivores were the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), euro kangaroo (macropus robustus), red kangaroo (macropus rufus), sheep (ovis aries), and cattle (bos taurus). five woody plants without spines or thorns and 6 woody plants with thorns were included in the study. the spines and thorns were not found to affect the herbivores' rates of feeding (items ingested/min), but they did reduce the ...199128312622
subtype distribution of blastocystis isolates from a variety of animals from new south wales, australia.a total of 438 stool samples from 38 different species of animal from seven different locations were studied for the presence of blastocystis. pcr analysis was completed on all samples and dna sequence data from the rdna were submitted to subtype allocation. there was a total of 80 (18%) sequences from 18 species, and nine different subtypes were identified - st1, st2, st3, st4, st5, st7, st11, st12 and st13. this is the first report of blastocystis from the eastern grey kangaroo, red kangaroo, ...201323398989
seroprevalence of retrovirus in north american captive macropodidae.laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 north american captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. the prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, an ...200818816994
methylation analysis of a marsupial x-linked cpg island by bisulfite genomic sequencing.paternal x chromosome inactivation occurs in rodent extraembryonic membranes and in all tissues of marsupials. methylation of cpg islands occurs on the inactive x in eutherians and is considered to be a stabilizing mechanism. the only previous study of a marsupial x-linked cpg island was of the g6pd gene of the virginia opossum, in which the paternally derived allele is not completely repressed. we have cloned the 5' end of the g6pd gene from an australian marsupial, the common wallaroo, and seq ...19968919690
genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 within three species of progamotaenia (cestoda: anoplocephalidae) from macropodid marsupials.sequence variation within 3 morphologically defined species of the anoplocephalid cestode genus progamotaenia (p. ewersi, p. macropodis and p. zschokkei) was investigated using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. the magnitude of genetic variation detected within each morphospecies suggests that, in each instance, several cryptic species are present. within p. ewersi, 5 genetically distict groups of cestodes were detected, 1 shared by macropus robustus and m. parryi in queensland, 1 in m. a ...200515700763
host-parasite associations of eimeria spp. (apicomplexa:eimeriidae) in kangaroos and wallabies of the genus macropus (marsupialia:macropodidae).faecal samples from 514 kangaroos and wallabies representing 12 species of the genus macropus were examined for oocysts of eimeria spp. six species of eimeria were redescribed from their type hosts, and on the basis of finding homologous oocysts in the faeces of other macropus spp., host ranges for these coccidia were extended. eimeria hestermani mykytowycz, 1964 is redescribed from m. giganteus (eastern grey kangaroo) and is described from m. fuliginosus (western grey kangaroo), m. rufogriseus ...19892759765
repeated dna sequences and kangaroo phylogeny.three highly repeated dna sequences have been used to determine relationships of species within the macropodidae (kangaroos and wallabies). two highly repeated dna sequences were isolated as buoyant density satellites in the red-necked wallaby and in the wallaroo-euro group. the third probe was a cloned representative of one class of highly repeated species from the red kangaroo. radioactively labelled probes of these three repeated sequences were used to determine the incidence and distribution ...19817295212
phylogeography of the antilopine wallaroo (macropus antilopinus) across tropical northern australia.the distribution of antilopine wallaroo,macropus antilopinus, is marked by a break in the species' range between queensland and the northern territory, coinciding with the carpentarian barrier. previous work onm. antilopinusrevealed limited genetic differentiation between the northern territory and queenslandm. antilopinuspopulations across this barrier. the study also identified a number of divergent lineages in the northern territory, but was unable to elucidate any geographic structure. here, ...201627878077
molecular evidence for a cryptic species within the parasitic nematode macroponema comani (strongyloidea: cloacininae).nematodes resembling macroponema comani, a common parasite of eastern grey kangaroos, macropus giganteus, in eastern australia were collected from an unexpected host species, the northern wallaroo, macropus robustus woodwardi, in the northern territory, representing a highly disjunct occurrence. although these specimens showed no morphological differences when compared with ma. comani from m. giganteus, sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacers its-1 and its-2 of the nuclea ...201222710283
immunology of pouch young marsupials. i. levels of immunoglobulin transferrin and albumin in the blood and milk of euros and wallaroos (hill kangaroos: macropus robustus, marsupialia).the concentration of total protein, albumin, transferrin, and immunoglobulin g of adult serum, pouch young serum, milk whey and colostrum has been estimated in three species of kangaroos, macropus robustus, macropus rufus (= megaleia rufa) and macropus giganteus. no study of this kind has previously been published for any marsupial species. the three individual proteins were antigenically identical in all four kinds of fluid. colostrum and milk whey are relatively enriched in transferrin but hav ...19846519341
phylogeny of neurohypophyseal hormones. vasopressin polymorphism in three kangaroo species.the neurohypophyseal hormones of three species of australian marsupials belonging to the family macropodidae (macropus rufus, macropus giganteus, macropus robustus) have been investigated. in these species three active peptides have been disclosed, one with oxytocic activity and two with pressor activity. the three hormones are present in all the individual glands which have been examined. purification has been undertaken by ion-exchange chromatography and paper chromatoelectrophoresis. the more ...19817228493
comparative water metabolism of barrow island macropodid marsupials: hormonal versus behavioural-dependent mechanisms of body water conservation.seasonal variations in rates of water turnover were measured over a 7-year period in four species of macropodid marsupials (lagorchestes conspicillatus, bettongia lesueur, petrogale lateralis and macropus robustus isabellinus), on barrow island off the arid pilbara coast of western australia. these ranged from over 100 ml kg(-0.82) d(-1) in wet seasons to as low as 28.2 ml kg(-0.82) d(-1) in dry seasons in the spectacled hare wallaby, l. conspicillatus. plasma osmolality increased significantly ...200817720162
description of cloacina atthis sp. nov. from the stomach of the euro (macropus robustus) (marsupialia: macropodidae) from western australia based on morphological and molecular criteria.a new species of strongyloid nematode from the genus cloacina (chabertiidae: cloacininae) is described from the stomach of the hill kangaroo or euro (macropus robustus) (marsupialia: macropodidae) from western australia. cloacina atthis sp. nov. was found only in euros from the pilbara region in the northwest of western australia, in spite of extensive collecting of the same host species from around the australian continent. c. atthis is most closely related to cloacina clymene, a species found ...201425028208
description and molecular characterisation of cloacina johnstoni sp. nov. (nematoda: strongyloidea) from the wallaroo, macropus robustus (marsupialia: macropodidae) and relationships with the synhospitalic species c. macropodis.cloacina johnstoni sp. nov. (nematoda: strongyloidea) is described from the sacculated forestomach of the wallaroo, macropus robustus (marsupialia: macropodidae) from australia. it resembles the synhospitalic species cloacina macropodis but differs from it principally in the shape of the cephalic papillae. the two species are also distinguishable based on differences in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). cloacina johnstoni commonly co-occurs ...201627169862
isolation of a clone partially encoding hill kangaroo x-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase: sex differences in methylation in the body of the gene.an x-linked clone encoding exons 4-9 of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene was isolated from a kangaroo (macropus robustus: marsupialia) lambda embl4 genomic library. sequence similarity between the kangaroo and eutherian hprt coding sequences was high; however, intron sizes varied significantly between the kangaroo and other eutherian species. hpaii and hhai sites in the body of the gene were generally hypermethylated in vivo on the active, relative to the inactive x, with s ...19937685549
analysis of dnase 1 sensitivity and methylation of active and inactive x chromosomes of kangaroos (macropus robustus) by in situ nick translation.the overall nuclease sensitivity and methylation of active and inactive x chromosomes of kangaroos were examined by in situ nick translation. cultured fibroblasts of subspecies wallaroo-euro (macropus robustus robustus; macropus robustus erubescens) hybrids were used, enabling the paternally and maternally derived x chromosomes to be distinguished. no difference was found between the active and inactive x chromosomes with dnase i or mspi digestion. when chromosomes were digested with the methyla ...19938381740
apparent lack of genetic variation within pelecitus roemeri (nematoda: filarioidea) from three australian species of macropodid marsupial.an electrophoretic study of pelecitus roemeri from macropus robustus, m. giganteus and wallabia bicolor revealed no genetic differences at 23 enzyme loci. the genetic data support the existing morphological evidence that p. roemeri from these three hosts represents a single species. the data show no genetic variation between nematodes from the same or different host species collected in northern and southern australia. this result is discussed briefly in relation to price's model of parasite spe ...19921459780
lack of correlation between gpd expression and x chromosome late replication in cultured fibroblasts of the kangaroo macropus robustus.cultured fibroblasts and lymphocytes from m. robustus females heterozygous for the x-linked gpd gene were examined electrophoretically and cytologically. gpd expression in lymphocytes was restricted to the maternal allele while in fibroblasts there was also partial expression of the paternal allele. the gpd gene is thought to be located on the long arm of the x chromosome. however, in fibroblasts the long arm of the paternal x chromosome showed no indication of an early replicating segment.19863778357
dictyate oocytes of a kangaroo (macropus robustus) show paternal inactivation at the x-linked gpd locus.purified samples of large numbers of dictyate oocytes from 13 m. robustus pouch young heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase type and six homozygous controls were examined electrophoretically to determine activity states at the gpd locus. like somatic cortical and medullary cells, oocytes expressed only the maternal phenotype irrespective of the direction of the cross. no evidence was found of reactivation of the inactive (paternal) allele or inactivation of both maternal and paterna ...19854062696
satellite dna sequences in the red kangaroo (macropus rufus).there is a complex pattern of satellite dna sequences in m. rufus which are revealed by addition of ag+ or dye (hoechst 33258) to the dna ink cs2so4 or cscl equilibrium density gradients. six satellite dna fractions have been isolated; these have buoyant densities in neutral cscl of 1.692, 1.704, 1.705, 1.707 (two), 1.710 and 1.712 g/ml compared with 1.696 g/ml for the main band dna. each satellite accounts for 1-3% of the dna of the genome. the satellites are located in the centromeric heteroch ...19826293435
inheritance and expression of two peptidases in the wallaroo, macropus robustus (gould).the formal genetics of two peptidase loci in m. robustus are presented. both loci are autosomal but do not appear to be located on the same chromosome pair. alleles at both loci are codominantly expressed in neonates, pouch young and adults. the application of autosomal loci segregating for three or more alleles in studies of embryonic gene expression is discussed.19817028015
a highly repeated dna from the genome of the wallaroo (macropus robustus robustus).the major satellite of m. r. robustus dna has been isolated in a ag+-cs2so4 gradient. it has a density of 1.710 g/cm(3) compared with 1.697 g/cm(3) for the bulk of the dna, and accounts for about 10% of the total dna. sequence heterogeneity within the satellite was shown by an increase in density to 1.715 g/cm(3) and by a reduction of 12 degrees c in the temperature of denaturation (tm) after renaturation. the satellite was found to occur in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. this patte ...19816167251
studies on metatherian sex chromosomes. iii. the use of tritiated uridine-induced chromosome aberrations to distinguish active and inactive x chromosomes.the paternal x inactivation system of kangaroos has been investigated in this study by using tritiated uridine-induced chromosome aberrations to distinguish the active from the inactive x. previous work in eutherian mammals has demonstrated that constitutive heterochromatic chromosome regions are less susceptible to breakage by tritiated uridine than euchromatic regions. the results of a comparison between the paternal x chromosome of a wallaroo x red kangaroo hybrid female and the two x chromos ...1977901301
kidney structure and function of desert kangaroos.the structure and function of the kidneys of two species of desert kangaroos, the red kangaroo (megaleia rufa) and the euro (macropus robustus), were examined. both kangaroos had glomerular filtration rates (gfr), renal plasma flows, and urine flow rates, when hydrated and dehydrated, which were lower than those of similarly sized eutherian mammals. the differences observed between the two species of marsupials were both structural and functional. the gfr of the red kangaroo was higher than that ...1977863826
studies on metatherian sex chromosomes. i. inheritance and inactivation of sex-linked allelic genes determining glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variation in kangaroos.wallaroos (macropus robustus robustus), which have the g6pd-f electrophoretic phenotype, crossed with euros (m.r.erubescens), of g6pd-s phenotype, produced f1 animals which had only the maternal g6pd type regardless of the direction of the cross. when f1 hybrids were backcrossed to wallaroos or euros, backcross progeny of either perental phenotype resulted. sex-linked inheritance of allelic g6pd genes is shown to occur in wallaroos, euros and red kangaroos (m. rufus). dose compensation for x chr ...19751225290
interpopulation differences in red blood cell enzyme levels of the wallaroo macropus robustus (marsupialia). 19705472698
mitochondrial genomes of a bandicoot and a brushtail possum confirm the monophyly of australidelphian marsupials.recent molecular analyses suggest that the position of bandicoots is the major difficulty in determining the root of the tree of extant marsupials. to resolve this, we analyse mitochondrial genome sequences of a bandicoot (isoodon macrourus) and a brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) together with the previously available marsupial mitochondrial genomes, the virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) and the wallaroo (macropus robustus). analyses of mitochondrial protein-coding and rna genes st ...200111454299
molecular and morphological characterisation of pharyngostrongylus kappa mawson, 1965 (nematoda: strongylida) from australian macropodid marsupials with the description of a new species, p. patriciae n. sp.pharyngostrongylus kappa mawson, 1965 is a nematode (strongyloidea: cloacininae), endemic to the sacculated forestomachs of australian macropodid marsupials (kangaroos and wallaroos). a recent study revealed genetic variation within the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal dna among p. kappa specimens collected from macropus giganteus shaw and osphranter robustus (gould). this study aimed to characterise the genetic and morphological diversity within p. kappa from four mac ...201829703233
molecular systematics of sciurognathi (rodentia): the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12s rrna genes support the anomaluroidea (pedetidae and anomaluridae).nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial 12s rrna and cytochrome b genes were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships among sciurognath rodents. our sample taxa included representatives of 11 sciurognath and 3 hystricognath families with two marsupial species, didelphis virginiana and macropus robustus, as outgroups. the dataset was analyzed using both maximum-parsimony (weighted and unweighted) and likelihood methods. three suprafamilial groupings are strongly supported: geomyidae + h ...200211820843
ngaingan virus, a macropod-associated rhabdovirus, contains a second glycoprotein gene and seven novel open reading frames.ngaingan virus (ngav) was isolated from a pool of biting midges that were collected in the tropics of northern australia. reported here is the full-length sequence of the ngav genome, which, at over 15.7 kb, is the largest in any rhabdovirus described to date and contains 13 genes, the highest number of genes observed in any (-) ssrna virus. seven of these putative genes show no significant homology to known proteins. like viruses in the genus ephemerovirus, ngav possesses a second glycoprotein ...201020089287
genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 within progamotaenia festiva (cestoda: anoplocephalidae) from macropodid marsupials.genetic variation was examined in the anoplocephalid cestode progamotaenia festiva, from australian marsupials, in order to test the hypothesis that p. festiva, is a complex of sibling species and to assess the extent of host switching reported previously based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (mee). polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based single-strand conformational polymorphism (sscp) was used for the analysis of sequence variation in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene among 179 ...200717462123
evaluation of post-polymerase chain reaction melting temperature analysis for meat species identification in mixed dna samples.real-time uniplex and duplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays with a sybr green i post-pcr melting curve analysis were evaluated for the identification and quantification of bovine, porcine, horse, and wallaroo dna in food products. quantitative values were derived from threshold-cycle (c(t)) data obtained from serial dilutions of purified dna. the limits of detection in uniplex reactions were 0.04 pg for porcine and wallaroo dna and 0.4 pg for cattle and horse dna. species specificity of ...200617031997
digastric muscle of the kangaroo: a comparative anatomical study.although the human digastric muscle is classified as a suprahyoid muscle, none of the digastric muscles in other mammals are classed as suprahyoid in textbooks of veterinary anatomy. the aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relationship of the digastric muscle in a marsupial, the kangaroo, and to consider factors thought to be important in leading to the different position of the muscle in quadrupeds compared with humans. eight heads of the common wallaroo (macropus robustus) were us ...19989669762
full-length cdna sequence of the x-linked hprt gene of an australian marsupial, the wallaroo (macropus robustus). 19968903736
full-length cdna sequence of x-linked g6pd of an australian marsupial, the wallaroo.in order to study the mechanism of x chromosome (chr) inactivation in marsupials, the cdna for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) from an australian marsupial, the wallaroo (macropus robustus), was cloned. a partial clone containing the 3' half of the cdna was obtained by screening a liver cdna library. the majority of the coding region was obtained by polymerase chain reaction of cdna with primers designed from regions of conservation between human and opossum g6pd. the 5' end was obtaine ...19957749228
naturally occurring gastric amebiasis in the wallaroo. 19734545125
a marsupial phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) processed pseudogene.a clone that cross-hybridized with a full-length human cdna pgk probe was isolated from a hill kangaroo (macropus robustus: marsupialia) lambda embl4 ecori genomic library. the clone was sequenced and demonstrated to be a pseudogene, with two deletions (one of 3 bases, the other 24 bases long), one single base insertion, and a nonsense mutation with respect to the functional human x-linked gene. it is flanked by terminal repeats in the 5' and 3' noncoding regions, but it has no 3' poly(a) remnan ...19892793181
bacteriophages from the forestomachs of australian marsupials.bacteriophages were observed in forestomach contents from three species of australian macropodoid marsupials possessing a foregut fermentative digestion: the eastern grey kangaroo (macropus giganteus), the eastern wallaroo (macropus robustus robustus), and the rufous bettong (aepyprymnus rufescens). forty-six morphologically distinct phage types, representing the families myoviridae, siphoviridae, and podoviridae, were identified. the range of forms varied between host species. the greatest dive ...19911785938
restriction fragment length variants in the marsupial sminthopsis crassicaudata.a fully pedigreed colony of the dasyurid marsupial sminthopsis crassicaudata has provided material for establishing two panels of dna samples: a broadbased test panel and a two-generation family panel. these have been used to search for genetic markers in the form of restriction fragment length variants. the molecular probes--psg-2h, a region of the s. crassicaudata embryonic beta-globin gene; pb8.bs, a region of the human ubiquitin gene, and p3-21a1:1, a region of the processed pseudogene of ph ...19921359871
analysis of the intron-exon structure of the g6pd gene of the wallaroo (macropus robustus) by polymerase chain reaction. 19979060417
the complete mitochondrial genome of the wallaroo (macropus robustus) and the phylogenetic relationship among monotremata, marsupialia, and eutheria.the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) (16,896 nt) of the wallaroo (macropus robustus) was sequenced. the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes of the wallaroo plus those of a number of other mammals were included in a phylogenetic study of early mammalian divergences. the analysis joined monotremes and marsupials (the marsupionta hypothesis) to the exclusion of eutherians. the analysis rejected significantly the commonly acknowledged theria hypothesis, accor ...19979037043
identification of a novel tissue-specific processed hprt gene and comparison with x-linked gene transcription in the australian marsupial macropus robustus.the genome of the australian marsupial macropus robustus contains a highly conserved processed hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase homologue, hprt-2. using the techniques of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and protein isoelectric focusing (ief) we have shown this processed gene to be fully functional, but liver specific. in contrast, the unprocessed x-linked parent gene hprt-1 was expressed in all somatic tissues. expression of the hprt-2 gene effectively doubles the ...19979047350
single nucleotide primer extension (snupe) analysis of the g6pd gene in somatic cells and oocytes of a kangaroo (macropus robustus).cdna sequence analysis of the x-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) gene has shown a base difference between two subspecies of the kangaroo, macropus robustus robustus (wallaroo) and m. r. erubescens (euro). a thymine residue in the wallaroo at position 358 in exon 5 has been replaced by a cytosine residue in the euro, which accounts for the previously reported electrophoretic difference between the two subspecies. this base difference allowed use of the single nucleotide primer exte ...200010893863
species-specific shifts in centromere sequence composition are coincident with breakpoint reuse in karyotypically divergent lineages.it has been hypothesized that rapid divergence in centromere sequences accompanies rapid karyotypic change during speciation. however, the reuse of breakpoints coincident with centromeres in the evolution of divergent karyotypes poses a potential paradox. in distantly related species where the same centromere breakpoints are used in the independent derivation of karyotypes, centromere-specific sequences may undergo convergent evolution rather than rapid sequence divergence. to determine whether ...200717708770
stress in an island kangaroo? the barrow island euro, macropus robustus isabellinus.selected physiological parameters were monitored over a 4-year period in the barrow island euro, macropus robustus isabellinus, in western australia in a study of this species' homeostatic capabilities in an extremely arid habitat where individuals are exposed to high environmental temperatures and a lack of free water for much of the year. evidence was found of a significant change in the animal's milieu intérieur on only one occasion on barrow island: in november 1994, following a protracted 8 ...201020178800
art and images in psychiatry. australian rock art: the giant wallaroo site. 201121969456
inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.the marsupial genus macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of m. (macropus) and m. (osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of m. (notamacropus). a recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into macropus. to further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. these sequences strongly f ...201323451266
speciation in the genus cloacina (nematoda: strongylida): species flocks and intra-host speciation.sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its1 + its2) of nuclear ribosomal dna were employed to determine whether the congeneric assemblages of species of the strongyloid nematode genus cloacina, found in the forestomachs of individual species of kangaroos and wallabies (marsupialia: macropodidae), considered to represent species flocks, were monophyletic. nematode assemblages examined in the black-striped wallaby, macropus (notamacropus) dorsalis, the wallaroos, macropus ...201728697818
differing impact of a major biogeographic barrier on genetic structure in two large kangaroos from the monsoon tropics of northern australia.tropical savannas cover 20-30% of the world's land surface and exhibit high levels of regional endemism, but the evolutionary histories of their biota remain poorly studied. the most extensive and unmodified tropical savannas occur in northern australia, and recent studies suggest this region supports high levels of previously undetected genetic diversity. to examine the importance of barriers to gene flow and the environmental history of northern australia in influencing patterns of diversity, ...201425035797
methylation sensitive protein binding to an intragenic active x-specific methylated region in the m. robustus hprt gene.an intragenic region of the wallaroo (macropus robustus) hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene which contains three active x-specific methylated cytosines was examined for protein(s) binding. in vitro dnase i footprinting of unmethylated dna identified three footprints, one of which (footprint i) contained two of the known differentially methylated sites (a hpaii and a hhai site). methylation of the footprint i hpaii site only, abolished the formation of several, specific dna-protein compl ...19969131016
isolation of a potentially functional hprt processed pseudogene from the hill kangaroo macropus robustus.a highly conserved hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase processed pseudogene (kph) has been isolated from a female kangaroo (macropus robustus) lambda embl3 genomic library. the pseudogene contains only transcribed material with all of the introns precisely removed and has possible direct repeats at either end of the message. it has a 654-nucleotide open reading frame (orf) from the met start codon to the stop codon that contains no additions, deletions or premature stops relative to expressed ...19947821807
gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the common wallaroo or euro, osphranter robustus (gould) (marsupialia: macropodidae) from australia.the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of 170 common wallaroos or euros, osphranter robustus (gould), collected from all mainland states in which the species occurs as well as the northern territory, are presented, including previously published data. a total of 65 species of helminths were encountered, including four species of anoplocephalid cestodes found in the bile ducts and small intestine, and 61 species of strongylid nematodes, all but two of which occurring in the stomach, and with the ...202031928550
new species of cloacina von linstow, 1898 (nematoda: strongyloidea) parasitic in the stomachs of wallaroos, osphranter spp. (marsupialia: macropodidae) from northern australia.three new species of the parasitic nematode genus cloacina von linstow, 1898 (strongyloidea: cloacininae) are described from the stomachs of wallaroos, osphranter spp. (marsupialia: macropodidae), from northern australia. cloacina spearei n. sp. is described from o. robustus woodwardi (thomas) and o. antilopinus (gould) and is distinguished from congeners by the shape of the cephalic papillae, the shallow buccal capsule, the presence of an oesophageal denticle and the convoluted but non-recurren ...201829808453
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