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mortalities associated with herpesvirus infection in captive macropods.fatal cases of herpesvirus infection in a quokka (setonix brachyurus), eight grey dorcopsis wallabies (dorcopsis muelleri luctuosa) in two separate outbreaks, as well as presumptive fatal herpesvirus infection in a western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) are described. all were captive animals and deaths were preceded by a period of stress. lesions occurred most often in alimentary tract epithelium, respiratory tract, skin, genital epithelium, conjunctivae, liver and adrenal cortex. herpesv ...19816264169
familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. we repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water). if these predator cues were al ...201020463952
klossiella spp. in the kidneys of peramelid, petaurid, and macropodid marsupials.klossiella spp. were found in kidneys of individuals from six genera in two of the three superfamilies of australian marsupials. klossiella quimrensis sp.n. is described in the bandicoots, isoodon obesulus and perameles gunnii (peramelidae). k. convolutor sp.n. is described in the ringtail possum pseudocheirus peregrinus (petauridae). three macropodid genera were infected. k.serendipensis sp.n. is described in the swamp wallaby, wallabia bicolor, and k. callitris sp.n. is described in the wester ...1975807049
identification of theileria fuliginosa-like species in ixodes australiensis ticks from western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) in western australia.piroplasms, including the genera babesia and theileria, are intra-erythrocytic protozoa that are generally transmitted by ticks and are the aetiological agents for piroplasmosis in animals, as well as humans, worldwide. in australia, numerous studies have been conducted on piroplasms in domestic animals; however, less is known about these protozoa in ticks from native wildlife. the present study characterised piroplasms in ixodes australiensis (n = 119) and amblyomma triguttatum (n = 35) ticks c ...201829439876
the seroprevalence and factors associated with ross river virus infection in western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) in western australia.a serosurvey was undertaken in 15 locations in the midwest to southwest of western australia (wa) to investigate the seroprevalence of ross river virus (rrv) neutralizing antibodies and factors associated with infection in western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus). the estimated seroprevalence in 2632 kangaroo samples, using a serum neutralization test, was 43.9% (95% ci 42.0, 45.8). location was significantly associated with seroprevalence (p<0.001). there was a strong positive correlation ...201425325318
reproductive implications of exposure to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus ocydromus).australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by neospora caninum. pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. we studied adult female western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban perth, western australia, between may 2006 and october 2008. we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to t. go ...201424506426
Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia.We investigated the role of the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in the maintenance and transmission of Coxiella burnetii in Western Australia. Sera from 1,017 kangaroos were tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The overall antibody prevalence across 12 locations throughout mid- to southwestern Western Australia was 24.1% (95% CI: 21.6-26.8). Feces from 990 of the same animals were tested using PCR to identify ...201122102652
erythrocyte osmotic fragility of red (macropus rufus) and grey (macropus fuliginosus and macropus giganteus) kangaroos and free-ranging sheep of the arid regions of australia.the mean corpuscular fragility (mcf) of erythrocytes may reflect phylogenetic characteristics as well as an animal's ability to respond to the osmotic challenges associated with cyclic dehydration and rehydration. this type of ecophysiological stress is commonly encountered by animals living in arid regions and low mcf may contribute to their ability to survive and thrive in these xeric habitats. the eastern grey kangaroo has only in recent times extended its range into the arid zone, and is con ...200111263725
kangaroo igf-ii is structurally and functionally similar to the human [ser29]-igf-ii variant.kangaroo igf-ii has been purified from western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) serum and characterised in a number of in vitro assays. in addition, the complete cdna sequence of mature igf-ii has been obtained by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. comparison of the kangaroo igf-ii cdna sequence with known igf-ii sequences from other species revealed that it is very similar to the human variant, [ser29]-higf-ii. both the variant and kangaroo igf-ii contain an insert of nine nuc ...199910333547
purification, amino acid sequence and characterisation of kangaroo igf-i.insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) and igf-ii have been purified to homogeneity from kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) serum, thus this represents the first report of the purification, sequencing and characterisation of marsupial igfs. n-terminal protein sequencing reveals that there are six amino acid differences between kangaroo and human igf-i. kangaroo igf-ii has been partially sequenced and no differences were found between human and kangaroo igf-ii in the 53 residues identified. thus the i ...19989496249
hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum koch, on southern yorke peninsula, south australia.amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western western australia (including barrow island), queensland (excluding cape york peninsula), and new south wales, south to dubbo and barham. the species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. in queensland, a. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of q fever. in 2000, the species was detected on southern yorke peninsula in south australia. we aimed to ide ...200717611781
landscape discontinuities influence gene flow and genetic structure in a large, vagile australian mammal, macropus fuliginosus.large vagile mammals typically exhibit little genetic structuring across their range, particularly when their habitat is essentially continuous. we investigated the population genetic structure of a large vagile australian macropodid, macropus fuliginosus, which is continuously distributed across most of southern australia, using nine highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci. five distinct genetic units were identified across the range, four on the mainland and one on kangaroo island. in a ...200919659477
a new family of entodiniomorph protozoa from the marsupial forestomach, with descriptions of a new genus and five new species.a unique group of entodiniomorph protozoa was found in forestomach contents from quokka (setonix brachyurus), western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus), red kangaroo (macropus rufus) and euro (macropus robustus erubescens). a new genus, macropodinium n.g., containing five new species, is described. three species are described from forestomach contents of the quokka: macropodinium baldense n. sp., macropodinium moiri n. sp. and macropodinium setonixum n. sp. a single species, macropodinium enn ...19968768432
hydatid disease in urban areas of western australia: an unusual cycle involving western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus), feral pigs and domestic dogs. 19883415619
species specificity of transferrin binding, endocytosis and iron internalization by cultured chick myogenic cells.the ability of unlabelled heterologous transferrin to interact with transferrin receptors on developing chick myogenic cells was investigated by measuring their capacity to inhibit the surface-binding and internalization of 125i- and 59fe-labelled ovotransferrin. transferrins from rat, rabbit, human, and a species of kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) were unable to inhibit either surface-binding or internalization of labelled ovotransferrin even at concentrations ten times the molar concentration ...19883249019
effects of temperature and duration of sample storage on the haematological characteristics of western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus).to investigate the effects of storage duration and temperature on haematological analyses performed on blood from the western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosis).200616629196
microfilaraemia associated with pelecitus roemeri in a western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus). 200515986913
seroprevalence of retrovirus in north american captive macropodidae.laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 north american captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. the prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, an ...200818816994
genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 within three species of progamotaenia (cestoda: anoplocephalidae) from macropodid marsupials.sequence variation within 3 morphologically defined species of the anoplocephalid cestode genus progamotaenia (p. ewersi, p. macropodis and p. zschokkei) was investigated using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. the magnitude of genetic variation detected within each morphospecies suggests that, in each instance, several cryptic species are present. within p. ewersi, 5 genetically distict groups of cestodes were detected, 1 shared by macropus robustus and m. parryi in queensland, 1 in m. a ...200515700763
development of the area centralis and visual streak in the grey kangaroo macropus fuliginosus.to further our understanding of area centralis and visual streak formation we have investigated the distribution and number of the total cell population in the retinal ganglion cell layer of the western grey kangaroo macropus fuliginosus using adults and young from 7-200 days postnatal. this species was chosen since, as we describe, the adult possesses a particularly prominent area centralis and visual streak. by studying the total cell population we were able to compare cell distributions in im ...19873576976
a multigene family for the vasopressin-like hormones? identification of mesotocin, lysipressin and phenypressin in australian macropods.mesotocin ([ile8]-oxytocin), lysipressin ([ lys8]-vasopressin) and phenypressin ([phe8]-vasopressin) have been identified in the western gray kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) as well as four other macropodids. lysipressin and phenypressin, which differ by the amino acids in positions 2 (tyr/phe) and 8 (lys/arg) are likely products of two separate vasopressin-like genes. it is assumed that arginine vasopressin found in most mammals is the product of two identical genes which can be revealed in som ...19836639661
electroretinography in the western gray kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus).to perform electroretinography on normal anesthetized western gray kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus). animals studied  six captive western gray kangaroos.201020840089
femoral bone perfusion through the nutrient foramen during growth and locomotor development of western grey kangaroosmacropus fuliginosus.the nutrient artery passes through the nutrient foramen on the shaft of the femur and supplies more than one-half of total blood flow to the bone. assuming that the size of the nutrient foramen correlates with the size of the nutrient artery, an index of blood flow rate (qi) can be calculated from nutrient foramen dimensions. interspecificqiis proportional to locomotor activity levels in adult mammals, birds and reptiles. however, no studies have yet estimated intraspecificqito test for the effe ...201729361586
scaling of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units and the biomechanical implications for bipedal hopping locomotion in the post-pouch kangaroo macropus fuliginosus.bipedal hopping is used by macropods, including rat-kangaroos, wallabies and kangaroos (superfamily macropodoidea). interspecific scaling of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units in the lower hindlimbs of these hopping bipeds shows that peak tendon stress increases disproportionately with body size. consequently, large kangaroos store and recover more strain energy in their tendons, making hopping more efficient, but their tendons are at greater risk of rupture. this is the first intraspecific ...201729034479
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern united states.toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to t. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern united states was determined by using the modified agglutination test (mat). a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. ...200818605803
complete genomic characterisation of two novel poxviruses (wkpv and ekpv) from western and eastern grey kangaroos.poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (wkpv) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (ekpv), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (macropus giganteus) kangaroos. poxvirus dna from wkpv and ekpv was isolated and ...201728958947
molecular detection of hybridization between sympatric kangaroo species in south-eastern australia.introgressive hybridization has traditionally been regarded as rare in many vertebrate groups, including mammals. despite a propensity to hybridize in captivity, introgression has rarely been reported between wild sympatric macropodid marsupials. here we investigate sympatric populations of western (macropus fuliginosus) and eastern (macropus giganteus) grey kangaroos through 12 autosomal microsatellite loci and 626 bp of the hypervariable mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region. m. fuliginosus ...201019812615
prevalence of salmonella in fecal samples of western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus).this is the first extensive study of the prevalence of naturally acquired salmonella infection in wild-caught kangaroos in australia. given the close association between kangaroos, livestock, and humans and the growing popularity of kangaroo meat, it is important to identify epidemiologic factors associated with infection in these marsupials in order to minimize the risk of salmonella transmission. the overall prevalence of fecal salmonella in 645 western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) sa ...201122102658
ecological specialisation in habitat selection within a macropodid herbivore guild.specialist species show stronger resource selection, narrower niches and lower niche overlap than generalist species. we examined ecological specialisation with respect to habitat selection in a macropodid community comprising the western grey kangaroo macropus fuliginosus, red-necked wallaby m. rufogriseus and swamp wallaby wallabia bicolor in the grampians national park, victoria, australia. we used radio tracking to quantify habitat selection. we predicted that because the fitness benefits of ...201626621691
identification of novel cryptosporidium genotypes in kangaroos from western australia.a total of 763 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) in western australia and screened for the presence of cryptosporidium by pcr at the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) locus. samples that were positive at the 18s locus were also amplified at the actin locus. the overall prevalence was 9.3% (71/763). at the 18s rrna locus, sequences were obtained for 28 of the 71 positives. sequence analysis identified four species; cryptosporidium fayeri in seven isolates, cr ...201121402448
decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.fundamental differences in methane (ch4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. using six western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute ch4 production in vivo as well as ch4 yield (ch4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. two food intake levels were tested us ...201526538176
impacts of visitor number on kangaroos housed in free-range exhibits.free range exhibits are becoming increasingly popular in zoos as a means to enhance interaction between visitors and animals. however very little research exists on the impacts of visitors on animal behaviour and stress in free range exhibits. we investigated the effects of visitor number on the behaviour and stress physiology of kangaroo island (ki) kangaroos, macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, and red kangaroos, macropus rufus, housed in two free range exhibits in australian zoos. behavioural o ...201526036594
scaling of left ventricle cardiomyocyte ultrastructure across development in the kangaroo macropus fuliginosus.the heart and left ventricle of the marsupial western grey kangaroo macropus fuliginosus exhibit biphasic allometric growth, whereby a negative shift in the trajectory of cardiac growth occurs at pouch exit. in this study, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine the scaling of left ventricle cardiomyocyte ultrastructure across development in the western grey kangaroo over a 190-fold body mass range (0.355-67.5 kg). the volume-density (%) of myofibrils, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reti ...201525908057
biphasic allometry of cardiac growth in the developing kangaroo macropus fuliginosus.interspecific studies of adult mammals show that heart mass (m(h), g) increases in direct proportion to body mass (m(b), kg), such that m(h) ∝ m(b)(1.00). however, intraspecific studies on heart mass in mammals at different stages of development reveal considerable variation between species, m(h) ∝ m(b)(0.70-1.00). part of this variation may arise as a result of the narrow body size range of growing placental mammals, from birth to adulthood. marsupial mammals are born relatively small and offer ...201525730276
ophthalmic examination findings in a captive colony of western gray kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus).complete ophthalmic examination of a mob of western gray kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) was performed under chemical restraint. examination included intraocular pressure (iop) measurement by rebound and applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, corneal diameter measurement, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect funduscopy. the corneal diameters had a mean of 19.52 mm, sd 2.16 mm, 95% confidence interval (ci) 18.71-20.32 mm. ocular abnormalities were noted in 4/8 (50%) of examined kangaroos. ...201020945644
morphologic evidence suggestive of hypertension in western gray kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus).marked renal vascular changes, suggestive of hypertension, were present in adult western gray kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) from a single facility over a 14-year period. a subset of these kangaroos also had vague clinical nervous system deficits, including blindness. to characterize the vascular lesions, determine prevalence, and document other changes, case histories and archival tissue sections from 21 adult kangaroos (8 male, 13 female) that died or were euthanatized between 1994 and 2008 ...200919429991
brain thermal inertia, but no evidence for selective brain cooling, in free-ranging western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus).marsupials reportedly can implement selective brain cooling despite lacking a carotid rete. we measured brain (hypothalamic) and carotid arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for 5, 17, and 63 days in spring in three free-living western grey kangaroos. body temperature was highest during the night, and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00. the highest body temperatures recorded occurred sporadically in the afternoon, presumably associated with exercise. hypothalami ...200918820935
toxoplasmosis in black-faced kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus melanops).an epizootic of toxoplasmosis among captive black-faced kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus melanops) is reported. eight of 25 adult kangaroos had antibodies to toxoplasma gondii. serologic data indicated recent exposure to t. gondii in six kangaroos. two kangaroos had high t. gondii antibody titers (greater than or equal to 16,384) in the modified agglutination test and their infants died when less than 7 months old. toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were found in several organs of one infant kangaroo ...19883245110
iron-binding properties and amino acid composition of marsupial transferrins: comparison with eutherian mammals and other vertebrates.1. some physicochemical properties of transferrin from three marsupials, viz a possum (trachosurus vulpecula), a kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) and the quokka (setonix brachyurus) were studied and compared with those of transferrins from mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrate species. 2. the molecular weight of the marsupial transferrins fell within the range of 76,000-79,000 daltons. 3. the marsupial transferrins were similar to the transferrins of eutherian mammals with respect to optical spe ...19882899476
immunocytochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in the grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus).the endocrine pancreas of the grey kangaroo, macropus fuliginosus, was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry using the pap method on the same section at the light- and electron-microscopic levels. semithin plastic sections were stained individually with primary antibodies for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide (pp), and then photographed. sections were osmicated, re-embedded in beem capsules, and ultrathin sections made and examined. the same labelled cells as in t ...19901967553
galactose-1 phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency in the western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus; marsupialia): a model system for gene therapy studies.the western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) was found to be deficient for galactose-1 phosphate uridyl transferase (gput). this species could be used therefore for studies of gene therapy techniques. an improved gput assay procedure was developed. it was found that phage particles injected intravenously remain in the blood of kangaroos until the particles are removed by the reticuloendothelial system or, if this system is overloaded, the particles are inactivated by the immune system four d ...1979383061
evidence for hybridisation between paramacropostrongylus iugalis and p. typicus (nematoda:strongyloidea) in grey kangaroos, macropus fuliginosus and m. giganteus, in a zone of sympatry in eastern australia.specimens of paramacropostrongylus iugalis and p. typicus, collected from eastern (macropus giganteus) and western (m. fuliginosus) grey kangaroos in new south wales and queensland, were examined morphologically and electrophoretically at 4 enzyme loci previously demonstrated to be diagnostic between the 2 species. collections of p. iugalis from m. giganteus from outside the zone of sympatry of the 2 kangaroo species conformed electrophoretically and morphologically with previous studies. within ...19979193941
the effects of bromocriptine on lactation and subsequent reproduction in grey kangaroos, macropus fuliginosus and macropus giganteus.both species of grey kangaroo were tested to determine whether a single exposure to bromocriptine in mid winter will terminate lactation, and whether females that cease to lactate will return to oestrus immediately and give birth early, or at the next summer breeding season. in experiment 1, 11 lactating western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) received injections either of saline (n = 2) or of bromocriptine at dose rates of 0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 mg kg-1 bodyweight (n = 3 per dose). pouch young o ...19947624511
a survey of western australian sheep, cattle and kangaroos to determine the prevalence of coxiella burnetii.the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of coxiella burnetii in two domestic ruminant species (cattle and sheep) and the western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus) in western australia (wa). the idexx chekit q fever elisa and cft were used to test sera from 50 sheep and 329 head of cattle for anti-c. burnetii antibodies and 343 kangaroo sera were tested using an indirect elisa developed specifically for this study. faecal or urine samples collected from the same animals w ...201020036083
dryland salinity and the ecology of ross river virus: the ecological underpinnings of the potential for transmission.alterations in transmission of vector-borne zoonoses are often linked to environmental change. however, ecological processes that determine variability in potential for transmission are generally not well understood. ross river virus (rrv, togoviridae: alphavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis in australia with a significant human disease burden. the inland southwest (wheatbelt) of western australia (wa) is substantially affected by an anthropogenic salinization of agricultural land (dryland sali ...200919326966
further characterisation of two eimeria species (eimeria quokka and eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (setonix brachyurus).the identification and characterisation of novel eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. variation in the size and shape of eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. the use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise eimeria species and ...201424508502
molecular characterization of eimeria species in macropods.a total of 597 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus), euros (m. robustus), red kangaroos (m. rufus) in western australia and eastern grey kangaroos (m. giganteus) from victoria and screened for the presence of eimeria by pcr at the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) locus. the overall prevalence was 24.3% (145/597). at the 18s rrna locus, sequences were obtained for 25 of the 145 positives. phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the macropod-derived eimeria spe ...201222796750
vertical transmission of toxoplasma gondii in australian marsupials.to date, little is known about the dynamics of vertical transmission of toxoplasma gondii in australian marsupials. studies in mice demonstrate that vertical transmission of t. gondii is common and that chronically infected mice can transmit t. gondii to successive generations. in this study, pcr and immunohistochemistry were used to detect t. gondii in chronically infected marsupial dams and their offspring. t. gondii was detected in the unfurred pouch young of 2 out of 10 chronically infected ...200919549348
differences down-under: alcohol-fueled methanogenesis by archaea present in australian macropodids.the australian macropodids (kangaroos and wallabies) possess a distinctive foregut microbiota that contributes to their reduced methane emissions. however, methanogenic archaea are present within the macropodid foregut, although there is scant understanding of these microbes. here, an isolate taxonomically assigned to the methanosphaera genus (methanosphaera sp. wgk6) was recovered from the anterior sacciform forestomach contents of a western grey kangaroo (macropus fuliginosus). like the human ...201627022996
a light-microscopic immunocytochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in the australian brush-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the endocrine pancreas of the australian brush-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula) was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. this was a light microscopic study using this established technique. serial paraffin sections were stained individually with primary antibodies for glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (pp), showing the same islet. cells immunoreactive to glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pp were found in endoc ...19921380858
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