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damage and repair in mammalian cells after exposure to non-ionizing radiations. i. ultraviolet and visible light irradiation of cells of the rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylus) and determination of photorepairable damage in vitro. 1978672919
klossiella spp. in the kidneys of peramelid, petaurid, and macropodid marsupials.klossiella spp. were found in kidneys of individuals from six genera in two of the three superfamilies of australian marsupials. klossiella quimrensis sp.n. is described in the bandicoots, isoodon obesulus and perameles gunnii (peramelidae). k. convolutor sp.n. is described in the ringtail possum pseudocheirus peregrinus (petauridae). three macropodid genera were infected. k.serendipensis sp.n. is described in the swamp wallaby, wallabia bicolor, and k. callitris sp.n. is described in the wester ...1975807049
ultrastructure of the prophase kinetochore in cultured cells of rat-kangaroo (potorous tridactylis). 19751140998
combined immunofluorescence and high-voltage electron microscopy of cultured mammalian cells, using an antibody that binds to glutaraldehyde-treated tubulin.an antibody against tubulin that binds specifically to microtubules in glutaraldehyde-fixed cells has been prepared. sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured tubulin treated with glutaraldehyde was used to immunize rabbits. in glutaraldehyde-fixed cells the fluorescent image of this antibody reveals a fine lattice of microtubules around the nucleus of ptk1 (potorous tridactylis) cells and many uniformly fluorescent microtubules in the peripheral cytoplasm. in cells fixed with formaldehyde the microtubul ...1978415307
energy metabolism in potoroine marsupials.fasting and fed metabolic rates were measured in three species of potoroine marsupials, the rufous rat-kangaroo (aepyprymnus rufescens), the long-nosed potoroo (potorous tridactylus) and the brush-tailed bettong (bettongia penicillata). there were no significant differences among potoroine species in fasting metabolic rate. the lowest fasting heat production for each species was 11-20% less than the interspecific value of 295 kj.kg-0.75.day-1 for basal metabolism of mature, non-reproductive euth ...19921401340
panting in small mammals: a comparison of two marsupials and the laboratory rabbit.by use of a barometric technique, tidal volume (vt), minute volume (ve), respiratory frequency (f), and respiratory evaporative heat loss (eex) were measured from conscious unrestrained potoroos (potorous tridactylus), barred bandicoots (perameles gunnii), and new zealand white rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) at temperatures in and above the thermoneutral zone (tnz). rectal temperature (tre) and oxygen consumption were also measured. vt initially decreased with rising ta, but in the potoroo and ...1977863814
a tubulin identified by a monoclonal antibody is not present in mitotic spindles.a monoclonal antibody, g8, which recognizes a form of tubulin (g8-tubulin) with a novel distribution in rat-1 cells and potorous tridactylis kidney (ptk-2) cells was isolated. g8 labeled the interphase cytoskeleton of rat-1 fibroblasts but not mitotic spindles or midbodies. g8 also stained a fiber network in some but not all ptk-2 interphase cells but did not label mitotic spindles or midbodies in these cells. g8-tubulin is the only identified tubulin known to be absent from these structures. th ...19892806400
evidence that the 90-kilodalton heat shock protein is associated with tubulin-containing complexes in l cell cytosol and in intact ptk cells.it has been established that the 90-kilodalton murine heat shock protein, hsp90, is associated with the untransformed, non-dna-binding form of the glucocorticoid receptor in l cell cytosol. in this work, we show that incubation of l cell cytosol with affi-gel-coupled monoclonal antibodies directed against either alpha-tubulin alone or both alpha- and beta-tubulin results in the immune-specific adsorption of hsp90 identified by western blotting with the ac88 monoclonal antibody. similarly, the ac ...19883062385
propagation and quantitation of animal herpesviruses in eight cell culture systems.a comparative study was carried out to determine the relative sensitivities of eight different cell culture systems to six different herpesviruses of animals. the cells used were: ofl (ovine fetal lung), ml (mink lung), fk (ferret kidney), ptk-2 (potoroo kidney), tek (turkey embryo kidney), ed (equine dermal), bt (bovine turbinate), and pk15 (porcine kidney). the viruses tested were: prv (pseudorabies) of swine, cphv (caprine herpesvirus), ibrv (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), dn-599 s ...19882846231
levels of synthesis of primate-specific nuclear proteins differ between growth-arrested and proliferating cells.a monoclonal antibody that reacts specifically with the proliferation-sensitive nuclear proteins, isoelectric focusing (ief) 8z30 and 8z31 (molecular weight (mw), 76,000 charge variants, hela protein catalogue number) has been characterized. as determined by indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody stains the nucleolus and nucleoplasm of interphase-cultured cells of primate origin, but does not react with cells of other species. proteins having similar mws and isoelectric points as the human or ...19873542540
posttranslational modification and microtubule stability.we have probed the relationship between tubulin posttranslational modification and microtubule stability, using a variation of the antibody-blocking technique. in human retinoblastoma cells we find that acetylated and detyrosinated microtubules represent congruent subsets of the cells' total microtubules. we also find that stable microtubules defined as those that had not undergone polymerization within 1 h after injection of biotin-tubulin were all posttranslationally modified; furthermore dyna ...19873316248
radiation-induced recovery processes in cultured marsupial cells.the ultraviolet sensitivity of potorous tridactylus male kidney (ptk-2) cells is markedly increased by post irradiation treatment for 24 h with 5 microm emetine (which inhibits protein synthesis by acting on the 40s ribosomal subunit), or with 5 microm cycloheximide (which inhibits by interaction with the 60s subunit), or with the rna polymerase ii inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole at 50 microm. all 3 treatments give the same sensitivity, while unirradiated cells are littl ...19883412365
comparative studies on photoreactivation of ultraviolet light-induced t4 endonuclease susceptible sites and sister-chromatid exchanges in potorous cells.photoreactivation (pr) of t4 endonuclease-susceptible sites (ess) and sister-chromatid exchanges induced by ultraviolet light was investigated in potorous tridactylis pt k2 cells, using monochromatic light from a grating monochromator. both ess and sce showed maximum pr at 350 nm and the action spectra of pr essentially overlapped between ess and sce at 350, 400 and 450 nm. exposure to 325-nm light after uv irradiation induced additional ess and sce, but reduction of ess was shown by increasing ...19854000171
blood chemistry of the rat kangaroo, potorous tridactylus. 19744365344
dna repair in potorous tridactylus.the dna synthesized shortly after ultraviolet (uv) irradiation of potorous tridactylis (ptk) cells sediments more slowly in alkali than that made by nonirradiated cells. the size of the single-strand segments is approximately equal to the average distance between 1 or 2 cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in the parental dna. these data support the notion that dimers are the photoproducts which interrupt normal dna replication. upon incubation of irradiated cells the small segments are enlarged to form ...19744473053
the distribution of x-ray induced chromosomal abnormalities in rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylis) cells in vitro. 19744134768
the rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylus). handling and husbandry practices in a research facility. 19694237319
detection of the 125-kda nuclear protein mitotin in centrosomes, the poles of the mitotic spindle, and the midbody.mitotin is a nuclear protein detectable in all proliferating cells investigated so far, including human and plant cells. in interphase cells the protein is localized mainly in the nucleoplasm. in g2/m phase it displays a characteristic redistribution and a marked increase which initiated the name mitotin. this study presents the precise localization of mitotin in cytoplasmic structures in two cell types, the potoroo rat kangaroo ptk2 cell and the human lung cancer eplc 65 cell. in addition to it ...19921544381
ultrastructure of the prophase kinetochore in cultured cells of rat-kangaroo (potorous tridactylis). 19751137315
laser microirradiation of the nucleolar organizer in cells of the rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylis). reduction of nucleolar number and production of micronucleoli. 19724674695
time of duplication of ribosomal rna cistrons in a cell line of potorous tridactylis (rat kangaroo). 19724673370
studies on marsupial proteins. vi. evolutionary changes of beta-globins of the macropodidae and the amino acid sequence of beta-globin from potorous tridactylus. 19715005884
differences in radiosensitivity of the chromosomes of rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylis) cells in vitro. 19715165148
quinacrine fluorescent patterns of the chromosomes in cell lines of the rat-kangaroo (potorous tridactylus apicalis). 19715166377
ultrastructural studies of radiation-induced chromosome damage.the fine structure of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in potorous tridactylis (rat kangaroo) cells was examined in situ by electron microscopy. the observations on the structure of terminal deletions (acentric fragments), anaphase bridges and "gaps," sidearm bridges, and specialized regions, such as the nucleolus organizer, are discussed in detail. conclusions based on these observations are the following: (a) damage is physically expressed only at anaphase; (b) a gap region is compose ...19694895598
hemogram of the rat kangaroo, potorous tridactylus. 19685689539
inner chromosomal structures in the stomatic metaphase of the rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylis). a light microscopic observation. 19675610132
widespread cellular distribution of map-1a (microtubule-associated protein 1a) in the mitotic spindle and on interphase microtubules.in the accompanying paper (bloom, g.s., t.a. schoenfeld, and r.b. vallee, 1983, j. cell biol. 98:320-330), we reported that microtubule-associated protein 1 (map 1) from brain comprises multiple protein species, and that the principal component, map 1a, can be detected in both neuronal and glial cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody. in the present study, we sought to determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of map 1a in commonly used cultured cell systems ...19846142895
assignment of snrna gene sequences to the large chromosomes of rat kangaroo and chinese hamster isolated by flow cytometric sorting.chromosomes from a rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylus) cell line (ptk2) and from a chinese hamster (cricetulus griseus) cell line (chv79) were isolated by means of fluorescence activated flow cytometric sorting. dapi (4'-6-diamino-2-phenylindole) was used as the dna specific fluorescent dye. the karyotype of the ptk2 cells which exhibits 13 chromosomes was separated into 6, and the 22 chromosomes of the chv79 cells were resolved into 11 fractions. dna extracted from these chromosomal fractions w ...19826181947
a monoclonal antibody epitope on keratin 8 identified using a phage peptide library.a bacteriophage random hexapeptide library was used to define the epitope of a monoclonal anti-keratin antibody. phage selected by the keratin 8-specific antibody le41 displayed highly related sequences on their piii coat protein. the consensus sequence s(x)lnp allowed the precise localization of an le41 epitope (sllsp) within the head domain (h1 subdomain) of human keratin 8, known to be important for correct filament polymerisation. by sequencing the immunizing antigen, keratin 8 from potorous ...19947507169
distribution of chromatids at mitosis.the distribution of labeled chromatids at the second mitosis after labeling with tritiated thymidine is random in both vicia faba (the broad bean) and potorous tridactylis (the rat kangaroo). this finding is contrary to that predicted by the hypothesis that chromatids containing "grandparent" polynucleotide templates segregate from those containing "parent" templates.19676054166
photorepair prevents ultraviolet-induced apoptosis in human cells expressing the marsupial photolyase gene.photolyase absorbs blue light and employs the energy to remove uv-induced dna damage, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, or pyrimidine pyrimidone (6-4) lesions. these enzymes have been found in many living organisms ranging from bacteria to aplacental mammals, but their photoreactivation effect, such as survival increase of uv-irradiated cells by light-illumination, has not been identified in placental mammals, including humans. therefore, we introduced a photolyase gene derived from the marsupial r ...200010811124
the microtubule-stabilizing agent discodermolide competitively inhibits the binding of paclitaxel (taxol) to tubulin polymers, enhances tubulin nucleation reactions more potently than paclitaxel, and inhibits the growth of paclitaxel-resistant cells.the lactone-bearing polyhydroxylated alkatetraene (+)-discodermolide, which was isolated from the sponge discodermia dissoluta, induces the polymerization of purified tubulin with and without microtubule-associated proteins or gtp, and the polymers formed are stable to cold and calcium. these effects are similar to those of paclitaxel (taxol), but discodermolide is more potent. we confirmed that these properties represent hypernucleation phenomena; we obtained lower tubulin critical concentratio ...19979380024
optical trapping for chromosome manipulation: a wavelength dependence of induced chromosome bridges.using a tunable titanium-sapphire laser, we have compared different wavelengths (from 700 to 840 nm) for their utility in optical trapping of chromosomes in mitotic rat kangaroo potorous tridactylus (ptk2) cells. it was found that irradiation with a near-infrared light induces the sticking together of chromosome shoulders. the attached chromatids failed to separate, or separated with significant delay and formed a chromosome bridge during anaphase. using this bridge (and induced c-mitosis) as a ...19938457677
cloning of human, murine, and marsupial keratin 7 and a survey of k7 expression in the mouse.keratins are cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins expressed by epithelial cells. keratin 7 (k7) is expressed in a wide range of epithelial structures in humans. we have cloned and fully sequenced the human and mouse k7 genes and mrnas, and the k7 mrna from the marsupial potorous tridactylis, from which the widely used simple epithelial cell lines ptk1 and ptk2 are derived. percentage identity plots comparing the mouse and human genomic sequences revealed a number of conserved cpg islands a ...200212359226
interspecies diversity of the occludin sequence: cdna cloning of human, mouse, dog, and rat-kangaroo homologues.occludin has been identified from chick liver as a novel integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions (furuse, m., t. hirase, m. itoh, a. nagafuchi, s. yonemura, sa. tsukita, and sh. tsukita. 1993. j. cell biol. 123:1777-1788). to analyze and modulate the functions of tight junctions, it would be advantageous to know the mammalian homologues of occludin and their genes. here we describe the nucleotide sequences of full length cdnas encoding occludin of rat-kangaroo (potoroo), human, m ...19968601611
a new class of dna photolyases present in various organisms including aplacental mammals.dna photolyase specifically repairs uv light-induced cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers in dna through a light-dependent reaction mechanism. we have obtained photolyase genes from drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), oryzias latipes (killifish) and the marsupial potorous tridactylis (rat kangaroo), the first photolyase gene cloned from a mammalian species. the deduced amino acid sequences of these higher eukaryote genes show only limited homology with microbial photolyase genes. together with th ...19947813451
the chondramides: cytostatic agents from myxobacteria acting on the actin cytoskeleton.chondramides are cyclodepsipeptides produced by strains of the myxobacterium, chondromyces crocatus. these peptides, which have been reported to inhibit yeast and mammalian cell proliferation, are related to jasplakinolide, which has been isolated from marine sponges of the genus jaspis and has been shown to interfere with the actin cytoskeleton (a structural component of cells that helps maintain their shape and is involved in processes, such as cell division and cell locomotion). we studied th ...19989790549
activities of the microtubule-stabilizing agents epothilones a and b with purified tubulin and in cells resistant to paclitaxel (taxol(r)).epothilones a and b, natural products with minimal structural analogy to taxoids, have effects similar to those of paclitaxel (taxol(r)) in cultured cells and on microtubule protein, but differ from paclitaxel in retaining activity in multidrug-resistant cells. we examined interactions of the epothilones with purified tubulin and additional cell lines, including a paclitaxel-resistant ovarian carcinoma line with an altered beta-tubulin. the epothilones, like paclitaxel, induced tubulin to form m ...19978999970
the chromosomes of the tasmanian rat-kangaroo (potorous tridactylis apicalis). 196414154338
archazolids, new cytotoxic macrolactones from archangium gephyra (myxobacteria). production, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties.novel cytotoxic compounds, archazolid a and b, were isolated from the culture broth of strains of the myxobacteria archangium gephyra and cystobacter sp. archazolids consist of a macrocyclic lactone ring with a thiazole side chain and showed high activity against mammalian cells. the ic50 values with different cell lines ranged from 0.1 to 1 ng/ml. an incubation of ptk2 potoroo cells with archazolid a (5 ng/ml) led to the formation of vacuoles in the er, a phenomenon that is typical for inhibito ...200312931860
molecular phylogenetic relationships of two extinct potoroid marsupials, potorous platyops and caloprymnus campestris (potoroinae: marsupialia).complete 12s rrna and partial cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences have been obtained from museum samples of two recently extinct potoroids-potorous platyops and caloprymnus campestris. phylogenetic analyses based on these mitochondrial dna sequences suggest that the broad-faced potoroo (p. platyops) was a close relative of the recently discovered potorous longipes and the recently re-discovered potorous gilberti. although the extinct desert rat-kangaroo (c. campestris) was clearly resolved as a m ...200415062789
survival-related dna repair phenomena in cultured rat-kangaroo cells.cultured cells (line ptk-2) from the marsupial mammal rat-kangaroo, or potoroo (potorous tridactylis), which photoreactivate (pr) both uv-induced dimers and lethality, excise few dimers, and are only slightly sensitized by post-uv exposure to caffeine, were subjected to caffeine and hydroxyurea (hu) treatments during the 30-min pr period. it was found that neither caffeine nor hu inhibited pr of lethality as measured by colony-forming ability. further, the cells exhibited no photoprotective prop ...197614997603
localization of chromosome regions in potoroo nuclei ( potorous tridactylus marsupialia: potoroinae).chromosome paints of the rat kangaroo ( aepyprymnus rufuscens, 2 n=32) were used to define chromosome regions in the long nosed potoroo ( potorous tridactylus, 2 n=12 female, 13 male) karyotype and localize these regions in three-dimensionally preserved nuclei of the potoroo to test the hypothesis that marsupial chromosomes have a radial distribution. in human nuclei chromosomes are distributed in a proposed radial fashion. gene-rich chromosomes in the human interphase nucleus are preferentially ...200312844220
comparative study on the effect of human bst-2/tetherin on hiv-1 release in cells of various species.in this study, we first demonstrate that endogenous hbst-2 is predominantly expressed on the plasma membrane of a human t cell line, mt-4 cells, and that vpu-deficient hiv-1 was less efficiently released than wild-type hiv-1 from mt-4 cells. in addition, surface hbst-2 was rapidly down-regulated in wild-type but not vpu-deficient hiv-1-infected cells. this is a direct insight showing that provirus-encoded vpu has the potential to down-regulate endogenous hbst-2 from the surface of hiv-1-infected ...200919490609
morphological and molecular characterization of trypanosoma copemani n. sp. (trypanosomatidae) isolated from gilbert's potoroo ( potorous gilbertii) and quokka ( setonix brachyurus).little is known of the prevalence and life-cycle of trypanosomes in mammals native to australia. native australian trypanosomes have previously been identified in marsupials in the eastern states of australia, with one recent report in brush-tailed bettongs (bettongia penicillata), or woylie in western australia in 2008. this study reports a novel trypanosoma sp. identified in blood smears, from 7 critically endangered gilbert's potoroos (potorous gilbertii) and 3 quokkas (setonix brachyurus) in ...200919416553
theileria gilberti n. sp. (apicomplexa: theileriidae) in the gilbert's potoroo (potorous gilbertii).the morphology and genetic characterisation of a new species of piroplasm identified in the blood of the gilbert's potoroo (potorous gilbertii) from the two peoples bay nature reserve near albany, western australia, is described from blood and tissue samples from 16 gilbert's potoroos. microscopy of blood showed these parasites are highly pleomorphic with a mean length of 1.8 mum and mean width of 0.85 mum. phylogenetic analysis of 18s rrna sequence data identified the piroplasm as a new species ...200919527357
verification of cell viability at progressively higher scanning forces using a hybrid atomic force and fluorescence microscope.the prudent use of the atomic force microscope as a supra-vital live cell imaging tool requires that cell viability must be determined before and after scanning. complementary optical techniques in conjunction with the fluorescent dyes rhodamine-123 and ethidium homodimer have been used within this study to determine cell viability after increasing loads are applied in contact mode. guideline force ranges for five commonly cultured cell lines, human squamous carcinoma (a431), fibroblast, hela, p ...200717970918
vector of trypanosoma copemani identified as ixodes sp.summarya total of 41 ticks were collected from 15 quokkas on bald island and 2 ticks from a gilbert's potoroo from two peoples bay. three species of ixodid ticks ixodes australiensis, ixodes hirsti and ixodes myrmecobii were identified on the quokkas known to have a high prevalence of trypanosoma copemani. tick faeces from ticks isolated from 8 individual quokkas and a gilbert's potoroo were examined with one identified as positive for trypanosomes. faecal examination revealed trypanosomes simil ...201121518469
The Potorous CPD photolyase rescues a cryptochrome-deficient mammalian circadian clock.Despite the sequence and structural conservation between cryptochromes and photolyases, members of the cryptochrome/photolyase (flavo)protein family, their functions are divergent. Whereas photolyases are DNA repair enzymes that use visible light to lesion-specifically remove UV-induced DNA damage, cryptochromes act as photoreceptors and circadian clock proteins. To address the functional diversity of cryptochromes and photolyases, we investigated the effect of ectopically expressed Arabidopsis ...201121858120
structure and expression of two nuclear receptor genes in marsupials: insights into the evolution of the antisense overlap between the α-thyroid hormone receptor and rev-erbα.alternative processing of α-thyroid hormone receptor (trα, nr1a1) mrnas gives rise to two functionally antagonistic nuclear receptors: trα1, the α-type receptor, and trα2, a non-hormone binding variant that is found only in mammals. trα2 shares an unusual antisense coding overlap with mrna for rev-erbα (nr1d1), another nuclear receptor protein. in this study we examine the structure and expression of these genes in the gray short-tailed opossum, monodelphis domestica, in comparison with that of ...201021143985
changes in milk composition during lactation in the potoroo, potorous tridactylus (marsupialia: potoroinae).milk samples from captive potoroos were analysed for composition during weeks 3-25 of the lactation period. during pouch residence, up to week 16, carbohydrate levels were high, ranging from 9 g 100 ml-1 at week 5 to 15 g 100 ml-1 at week 15; fat levels were consistently low, at around 2 g 100 ml-1; protein levels gradually increased from 5 g 100 ml-1 before week 10 to 12 g 100 ml-1 at week 16. growth rates during this period increased exponentially, from 1 g week-1 at week 3 to 40 g week-1 at w ...20123270499
modification of uptake and subcellular distribution of doxorubicin by n-acylhydrazone residues as visualised by intrinsic fluorescence.purpose: doxorubicin (1) is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. some n-acylhydrazones of 1 were previously found to have an improved tumour and organ selectivity. in order to clarify the molecular basis for this effect, the cellular uptake into various cancer cells and the localisation in ptk(2) potoroo kidney cells of 1 and its n-acylhydrazones derived from heptadecanoic acid (2) and 11-(menthoxycarbonyl)undecanoic acid (3) were studied drawing on their intrinsic fluoresc ...201121607555
molecular characterization of native australian trypanosomes in quokka (setonix brachyurus) populations from western australia.the quokka, setonix brachyurus, is a vulnerable, small marsupial endemic to western australia. blood samples were collected from quokkas from three different geographical locations; two peoples bay, bald island and rottnest island. the overall prevalence of trypanosomes by nested pcr at the 18s ribosomal rna gene was 57.3% (63/110) with prevalences of 91.4%, 85.3% and 4.9% respectively for two peoples bay, bald island and rottnest island. phylogenetic analysis conducted on 47 18s pcr positives i ...201626697991
non-shivering thermogenesis in the potoroo, potorous tridactylus (kerr). 199824519
investigation of the morphological diversity of the potentially zoonotic trypanosoma copemani in quokkas and gilbert's potoroos.trypanosomes are blood-borne parasites that can cause severe disease in both humans and animals, yet little is known of the pathogenicity and life-cycles of trypanosomes in native australian mammals. trypanosoma copemani is known to be infective to a variety of australian marsupials and has recently been shown to be potentially zoonotic as it is resistant to normal human serum. in the present study, in vivo and in vitro examination of blood and cultures from australian marsupials was conducted u ...201526160545
cryptococcosis in gilbert's and long-nosed potoroo.two cases of fatal cryptococcosis are described, one of cryptococcus neoformans infection in a gilbert's potoroo (potorous gilbertii) and one of cryptococcus gattii infection in a long-nosed potoroo (potorous tridactylus). the diagnoses were confirmed by culture and specific immunohistochemistry, respectively. the long-nosed potoroo tested positive using the latex cryptococcal antigen test (lcat), whereas the gilbert's potoroo had a negative lcat result despite having advanced disease of some du ...200718229862
hematological and serum biochemical reference values and cohort analysis in the gilbert's potoroo (potorous gilbertii).hematology and serum biochemistry blood values are tabulated for australia's most critically endangered mammal, the gilbert's potoroo (potorous gilbertii). significant differences were found between origin (captive or wild individuals) and age (subadult or adult) of animals. sex, and presence or absence of treponema infection, had minimal significance on blood values. typical cell morphology is discussed, and hemoparasite examination identified theileria spp. and breinlia spp. eighty samples wer ...200919569474
protection after x-irradiation by 1,4-dithiothreitol of two mammalian cell types in vitro.1,4-dithiothreitol (dtt) was found to diminish the amount of chromosomal breakage in leucocyte cultures of the marsupial potorous tridactylus and in the don strain of chinese hamster cells (lhi). the maximum decrease of damage in potorous lymphocytes was to 54% of that of the irradiated cells without dtt treatment, and to 64% in the case of the chinese hamster cells. for both cell types, it was shown that the most significant effect of dtt was due to its presence in the first 30 min post irradia ...2005546598
[the phenomenon of phylogenetic synhospitality in acariform mites (acari: acariformes)--the permanent parasites of vertebrates].the term synhospitality means the association of two or more closely related parasite species with one host species (eichler, 1966). the cases of two or three synhospitalic species are known from the same host species, and especially ones where parasites were recorded from different parts of the host range, are quite common. the most ordinary reason causing synhospitality in permanent parasites is the host switching. nevertheless, there are a number of synhospitality cases, where the parasite co ...200818664065
[characteristics of quantitative karyotypic variability in cell line of kidney from rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylis)].the goal of this work was to investigate the numeral karyotypic variability in different sublines (mt, m2). these sublines are formed spontaneously from the main cell line (m) and have modal number of chromosomes 9 and 10, msvk (main structural variant karyotype)--3 + 3 + 1 + 2 and 3 + 4 + 2 + 1. there are general regulations which were originally got for the line m. in particular: 1) nonrandom character of cell distribution according to the number of chromosomal deviations from msvk; 2) specifi ...199910591120
the phylogenetic position of the musky rat-kangaroo and the evolution of bipedal hopping in kangaroos (macropodidae: diprotodontia).kangaroos and their relatives (family macropodidae) are divided into the subfamilies macropodinae (kangaroos, wallabies, pademelons) and potoroinae (rat-kangaroos, potoroos, bettongs). the musky rat-kangaroo, hypsiprymnodon moschatus, is traditionally allied with other potoroines, based primarily on the basis of osteological characters and aspects of the female reproductive system. unlike other macropodids, however, which are capable of bipedal hopping, hypsiprymnodon is a quadrupedal bounder an ...199812066687
[characteristics of quantitative karyotypic variability in cell line of kidney from rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylis)].the numerical regulations of karyotypic variability in cell line of rat kangaroo kidney, nbl-3-11, has been investigated. these regulations are similar with ones found for cell lines of the indian muntjac skin fibroblasts (m, mt, m2). in particular the balanced karyotypic structure of cell population in vitro is determined by correlations of the structural variants of the karyotype (svk). these correlations depend on the following regulations 1) nonrandom character of cell distribution according ...199910591122
mycobacterial osteomyelitis in captive marsupials.mycobacterial osteomyelitis was detected in 3 marsupials exhibited at the national zoological park, washington, dc. one matschiei's tree kangaroo (dendrolagus matschiei), 1 parma wallaby (macropus parma), and 1 long-nosed rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylus) were affected. the parma wallaby had disseminated granulomatosis. acid-fast organisms were observed in the bone marrow of the wallaby, using the auramine-o-rhodamine fluorescent technique; however, cultures were negative. the tibiotarsal join ...19827174453
a centromere-specific retroviral element associated with breaks of synteny in macropodine marsupials.studies of chromosome evolution have focused heavily on the evolution of conserved syntenic, gene-rich domains. it is obvious, however, that the centromere plays an equally important role in chromosome evolution, through its involvement in fissions, centric fusions, translocations, inversions and centric shifts. it is unclear how the centromere, either as a functioning unit of the chromosome or as a dna sequence motif, has been involved in these processes. marsupials of the family macropodidae ( ...200415305065
length control of primary cilia: analysis of monociliate and multiciliate ptk1 cells.lengths of primary cilia in cultured ptk1 cells, on both a population basis and within individual (multiciliate) cells, have been compared. the latter examines the degree of discrepancy between cilia arising within the same cell and using a common precursor pool, on the hypothesis that a better correlation would be expected between cilia issuing from the same centrosome than between those in the population in general. to obtain accurate et plentiful measurements, a 'flow-fixation' technique was ...200011374436
myosin is involved in postmitotic cell spreading.we have investigated a role for myosin in postmitotic potoroo tridactylis kidney (ptk2) cell spreading by inhibitor studies, time-lapse video microscopy, and immunofluorescence. we have also determined the spatial organization and polarity of actin filaments in postmitotic spreading cells. we show that butanedione monoxime (bdm), a known inhibitor of muscle myosin ii, inhibits nonmuscle myosin ii and myosin v adenosine triphosphatases. bdm reversibly inhibits ptk2 postmitotic cell spreading. lis ...19957559774
effects of rhizopodin and latrunculin b on the morphology and on the actin cytoskeleton of mammalian cells.the effects of the novel myxobacterial compound rhizopodin on mammalian cells were studied and compared with those of latrunculin b. both substances induced adherently growing l929 mouse fibroblasts and ptk2 potoroo kidney cells to produce long, narrow, branched extensions or runners. rhizopodin was more efficient than latrunculin b in that respect (minimal inhibitory concentration with l929 cells 5 nm vs 50 nm), and, in contrast to latrunculin b, its effects were permanent. rhizopodin-treated c ...19999931358
investigation of the determinants of nuclear pore number.to assess the functional significance of nuclear pore complexes, we have investigated whether the number of pores per nucleus is determined by such factors as the nuclear volume, nuclear surface area, dna content, or aspects of nuclear activity. comparisons were made between cell types chosen to permit observation of differences in nuclear pore number as a function of differences in the other qualities measured. the number of nuclear pores was determined by freeze-etching and measurements of nuc ...19806966999
4pi microscopy of the nuclear pore complex.to explore whether super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is able to resolve topographic features of single cellular protein complexes, a two-photon 4pi microscope was used to study the nuclear pore complex (npc). the microscope had an axial resolution of 110-130 nm and a two-color localization accuracy of 5-10 nm. in immune-labeled hela cells, npcs could be resolved much better by 4pi than by confocal microscopy. when two epitopes of the npc, one localized at the tip of the cytoplasmic filame ...200818375513
ultraviolet-induced cell death is independent of dna replication in rat kangaroo cells.rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylus) cells have an efficient repair system for photoreactivation of lethal lesions induced by 254 nm uv. however, this ability is lost with increasing time after uv, being completely ineffective after 24 h. critical events leading to uv-induced cell death must occur within this period of time. dna synthesis was inhibited by the dna polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin and the loss of the capability to photorepair lethal lesions was maintained as for replicating cells. ...19957770506
characterization of microsatellite loci in the endangered long-footed potoroo potorous longipes. 19979161018
transfection of pseudouridine-modified mrna encoding cpd-photolyase leads to repair of dna damage in human keratinocytes: a new approach with future therapeutic potential.uvb irradiation induces harmful photochemical reactions, including formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (cpds) in dna. accumulation of unrepaired cpd lesions causes inflammation, premature ageing and skin cancer. photolyases are dna repair enzymes that can rapidly restore dna integrity in a light-dependent process called photoreactivation, but these enzymes are absent in humans. here, we present a novel mrna-based gene therapy method that directs synthesis of a marsupial, potorous tridacty ...201324211294
targeting telomere-containing chromosome ends with a near-infrared femtosecond laser to study the activation of the dna damage response and dna damage repair pathways.telomeres are at the ends of chromosomes. previous evidence suggests that laser-induced deoxyribose nucleic acid (dna) breaks at chromosome ends during anaphase results in delayed cytokinesis. a possible explanation for this delay is that the dna damage response (ddr) mechanism has been activated. we describe a live imaging method to study the effects of ddr activation following focal point near-infrared femtosecond laser microirradiation either at a single chromosome end or at a chromosome arm ...201324064949
rna polymerase activity in ptk1 micronuclei containing individual chromosomes. an in vitro and in situ study.micronuclei have been induced by colchicine in rat kangaroo (potorous tridactylis) ptk1 cells. the synthesis of rna was investigated both in isolated micronuclei by quantifying rna polymerase activities at different ionic strengths with or without inhibitors, and in micronucleated cells by radioautography after [3h]uridine pulse labeling. in vitro transcription shows that isolated micronuclei are able to take up [3h]utp. the rate curves of incorporation are close to those of isolated diploid nuc ...19873817015
monitoring reproduction in the critically endangered marsupial, gilbert's potoroo (potorous gilbertii): preliminary analysis of faecal oestradiol-17beta, cortisol and progestagens.gilbert's potoroo (potorous gilbertii) was rediscovered in 1994 after having been presumed extinct for 120 years. estimates indicate fewer than 40 individuals remain at two peoples bay nature reserve on the south coast of western australia although a translocated population of approximately 20 animals has recently been established on nearby bald island. a captive breeding facility has been established adjacent to the mainland population but few young have been produced (8 since 1995). faecal lev ...201019539621
eimeria spp. (apicomplexa:eimeriidae) parasitic in the rat-kangaroos hypsiprymnodon moschatus, potorous tridactylus, aepyprymnus rufescens and bettongia gaimardi (marsupialia:potoroidae). 19883225116
damage and repair in mammalian cells after exposure to non-ionizing radiations. ii. photoreactivation and killing of rat kangaroo cells (potorous tridactylus) and herpes simplex virus-1 by exposure to fluorescent "white" light or sunlight.photoreactivation (pr) of ultraviolet (254 nm)-inactivated cornea cells of the potoroo (or rat kangaroo; potorous tridacylus) has been studied at wavelengths greater than 375 nm from either fluorescent "white" light or sunlight. in both cases the pr kinetics curves pass through maxima, which most likely result from the superposition of concomitant inactivation by the photoreactivating light. the inactivating effect of light was directly demonstrated for non-uv-irradiated cells, permitting correc ...19806244485
calmodulin bound to stress fibers but not microtubules involves regulation of cell morphology and motility.calmodulin (cam) is a major cytoplasmic calcium receptor that performs multiple functions including cell motility. to investigate the mechanism of the regulation of cam on cell morphology and motility, first we checked the distribution of cam in the living cells using gfp-cam as an indicator. we found that gfp-cam showed a fiber-like distribution pattern in the cytosol of living potorous tridactylis kidney (ptk2) cells but not in living hela cells. the endogenous cam in heavily permeabilized hel ...200817884685
comparative lactation in two species of rat-kangaroo (marsupialia).1. milk composition and energy content was measured in two related marsupials, bettongia gaimardi and potorous tridactylus. 2. although protein content was consistently higher in bettong milk, lactational trends in both species are similar to those reported for other marsupials. 3. the faster relative growth rate of the bettong may be correlated with the increased protein and a higher milk intake.19882901316
wide range of chlamydiales types detected in native australian mammals.the chlamydiales are a unique order of intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause significant disease of birds and animals, including humans. the recent development of a chlamydiales-specific 16s rdna polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay has enabled the identification of chlamydiales dna from an increasing range of hosts and environmental sources. whereas the australian marsupial, the koala, has previously been shown to harbour several chlamydiales types, no other australian marsupials have b ...200314519335
oxygen affinity and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in blood of australian marsupials of differing body size.oxygen carriage and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-dpg) levels have been measured in the blood of seven species of australian marsupials ranging in size from 35 to 0.03 kg. they were red and grey kangaroos, wallaroo, tammar wallaby, brush-tailed possum, potoroo, and brown marsupial mouse. oxygen affinity decreased with decrease in adult body size, standard p50 (at 36 c) varying from 24.6 torr in the largest (red kangaroo) to 41.9 torr in the smallest (brown marsupial mouse). the relationship betwee ...197724866
the absence of centrioles from spindle poles of rat kangaroo (ptk2) cells undergoing meiotic-like reduction division in vitro.light and electron microscopy were used to study somatic cell reduction division occurring spontaneously in tetraploid populations of rat kangaroo potorous tridactylis (ptk2) cells in vitro. light microscopy coupled with time-lapse photography documented the pattern of reduction division which includes an anaphase-like movement of double chromatid chromosomes to opposite spindle poles followed by the organization of two separate metaphase plates and synchronous anaphase division to form four pol ...1977556729
the role of the centriolar region in animal cell mitosis. a laser microbeam study.an argon ion laser microbeam (488 and 514 nm) was used to selectively irradiate one of the two centriolar regions of rat kangaroo potorous tridactylis (ptk2) prophase cells in vitro. the cells were sensitized to the laser radiation by treatment with acridine orange (0.1-0.2 mug/ml). ultrastructural examination of the irradiated centriolar regions demonstrated that the primary site of damage was the pericentriolar material. this result suggests that nucleic acid is present in the pericentriolar m ...1977556728
corticobulbar fibres in the north american opossum (didelphis marsupialis virginiana) with notes on the tasmanian brust-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and other marsupials.corticobulbar projections have been studied in the american opossum by both degeneration and autoradiographic methods and, for the most part, the results confirm our earlier observations (martin & west, 1967; martin, 1968). however, we have obtained evidence for certain connexions not previously described and have delineated the origin(s) of several connexions more precisely by paying particular attention to the degeneration present at thalamic levels in all cases and by the use of autoradiograp ...19751213949
hyperoxaluria, hyperglycoluria and renal oxalosis in gilbert's potoroos (potorous gilbertii).six gilbert's potoroos (potorous gilbertii) in a captive colony, five of which were closely related, died or were euthanased with severe renal disease. clinical signs were mostly non-specific. renal calculi were seen on ultrasound of two affected potoroos and oxalate crystalluria was seen in two of three affected potoroos that had urine samples examined. necropsies revealed extensive severe renal oxalosis in all affected potoroos. these findings and markedly increased concentrations of glycolate ...201728653383
growth and role of the corpus luteum throughout delayed gestation in the potoroo, potorous tridactylus.the growth cycle of the corpus luteum (cl) of the potoroo is similar to that of other macropodids. during delayed gestation, the post-partum cl remains quiescent until it is reactivated by removal of the sucking pouch young. the cl then undergoes a period of growth, rapid from day 6 until day 12, followed by a gradual decline from day 21 to day 27. excision of the cl before day 6 of pregnancy either inhibited embryonic development or failed to support it. excision of the cl between 6 and 21 days ...19863944807
the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of macropodid marsupials: cytoarchitecture and retinal projections.the anatomy of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (lgd) is described in five macropodid species, including two rat kangaroos (bettong and potoroo), two wallabies (pademelon and tammar), and the large grey kangaroo. the distribution of retinal terminals in the lgd was examined following intraocular injections of tritiated amino acids. there are considerable differences in both lgd cytoarchitecture and the patterns of retinal terminations among the five species. cytoarchitecture in the bettong ...19846715581
in vitro photosensitization ii. an electron microscopy study of cellular destruction with mono-l-aspartyl chlorin e6 and photofrin ii.primary sites of subcellular destruction with photofrin ii (pfii) and mono-l-aspartyl chlorin e6 (mace) were determined by transmission electron microscopy (tem). potorous tridactylus (ptk2) cells were grown in rose chambers and incubated for 24 hr with a sensitizer concentration sufficient to provide 100% mortality. cells were irradiated with laser light and fixed and processed for electron microscopy at various times post-irradiation. the results indicate that pfii initially destroys mitochond ...19892523992
further observations on the potoroo (potorous tridactylus) in captivity.the maintenance and breeding performance of potoroos in captivity over a 7-year period is described. by removing offspring from the pouch and allowing 29 days for completion of embryonic development and birth to occur, pouch young of known ages can be obtained.19836865321
establishment of nucleolar deficient sublines of ptk2 (potorous tridactylis) by ultraviolet laser microirradiation.one of the two nucleoli of tetraploid ptk2 wa cells in early prophase was irradiated with an ultraviolet (uv) laser microbeam. the daughter cells that maintained the nucleolar deficiency were isolated and cloned. five nucleolar deficient sublines of ptk2 wa were established, thus providing an experimental system to study the ribosomal gene-nucleolar organizer complex.19836840209
the effects of hypoxia and co2 on the sleep-waking pattern of the potoroo (potorous tridactylus apicalis).four male potoroos (potorous tridactylus apicalis) breathed 21% and 7% o2 with and without the addition of 5% co2. the effects of these gas mixtures on the potoroo's sleeping-waking pattern (swp) were studied. the swp while breathing 21% o2/5% co2 was unchanged when compared with that of breathing ambient air (21% o2). while breathing 7% o2, the swp was severely disrupted: total sleep time (tst) and slow wave sleep (sws) increased markedly. brain temperature fell substantially. paradoxical sleep ...19836405411
the occurrence and structure of primary cilia in a subline of potorous tridactylus. 1979499374
Balanoposthitis, dyspareunia, and treponema in the critically endangered Gilbert's potoroo (Potorous gilbertii).The Gilbert's potoroo (Potorous gilbertii) is one of Australia's most critically endangered mammals with a current estimated population of 70 individuals. Both the wild and captive populations have a long history of balanoposthitis with associated crusting, ulceration, and preputial discharge. We sought to identify the microbial species found in the discharge, determine their significance in causing balanoposthitis, and correlate these findings with reproductive success and survivorship. Bacteri ...201122102677
recovery of viral capacity in irradiated exponentially growing cells.exponentially growing cells of the ptk-2 line (atcc no. ccl56, from the marsupial potorous tridactylus) require protein and rna synthesis in a limited period following uv-radiation damage for optimal recovery as colony formers [overberg et al. (1988) mutat. res. 194, 83-92]. overall behavior suggests the operation of damage-induced recovery processes. the capacity of confluent cell monolayers for infection with unirradiated herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) is sharply reduced by uv-irradiation. we ...19892548221
locomotion in the potoroo. 19744819593
the management of a small colony of the marsupial potorous tridactylus, and a record of its breeding in captivity. 19724673209
an analysis of chromosomal sensitivity of hpk1 cells from the marsupial potorous tridactylus to x-rays and to heliotrine. 20035065177
the origin, course and termination of the corticospinal tracts of the tasmanian potoroo (potorous apicalis). 19725039183
an anomalous effect of hydroxyurea and visible light on nucleic acids of a photoreactivating mammalian cell potorous tridactylis. 19724536933
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