organochlorine pesticide residues in animals of tasmania, australia-1975-77.animals taken in tasmania including duck (anas superciliosa), eel (anguilla australis), english perch (perca fluviatilis), white-faced heron (ardea pacifica), brown trout (salmo trutta), european starling (strunus vulgaris), cat (felis cattus), cormorant (phalacrocorax sp.), mutton bird (puffinus tenuirostris), tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii), rainbow trout (salmo gairdnerii), tasmanian raven (corvus mellori), tench (tinca tinca), and quail (coturnix sp.) were sampled for p,p'-dde, pp,p'- ...1979537866
the role of the tasmanian devil in the epizootiology of ovine cysticercosis and echinococcosis.tasmanian devils were fed infective cystic material of taenia ovis, t. hydatigena and echinococcus granulosus and later killed and examined for adult tapeworms. no infections with t. ovis were found after feeding 23 cysts to 8 devils. t. hydatigena were recovered from 5 to 41 devils and 10 worms established after feeding 417 cysticerci. no e. granulosus were recovered from any of 3 devils. specimens of t. hydatigena appeared to develop as well in devils as in dogs. from these and previous result ...19761035096
studies on anoplotaenia dasyuri beddard, 1911 (cestoda: taeniidae), a parasite of the tasmanian devil: observations on the egg and metacestode. 19751092629
studies on anoplotaenia dasyuri beddard, 1911 (cestoda: taeniidae), a parasite of the tasmanian devil: life-cycle and epidemiology. 19751116898
pasteurella multocida infection after a tasmanian devil bite. 19921623089
vascular and avascular retinae in mammals. a funduscopic and fluorescein angiographic study.intraretinal blood vessels are present in some and absent in other vertebrate species, including the mammals. among the marsupials, both vascular and avascular retinae are seen. we determined the funduscopic appearance of the eye, investigated the functional aspects of ocular blood flow in both types of retina in marsupials and compared our results with known patterns in placental mammals. the australian polyprotodont marsupials, the tasmanian devil, sarcophilus harrisii, and the quoll, dasyurus ...19902375974
adrenal steroid secretion in the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harisii) and the eastern native cat (dasyurus viverrinus). a comparison of adrenocortical activity of different australian marsupials. 19714326334
taenia ovis in the tasmanian devil. 19724655392
acetylation of sulphanilamide in four marsupials and a monotreme.1. the urinary metabolites of sulphanilamide (100 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied in four marsupials (the tasmanian devil, brushtail possum, pademelon and barred bandicoot), a monotreme (the echidna) and a eutherian (the rat). 2. all species excreted some unchanged sulphanilamide (20-30% of dose in 24 h). the major urinary metabolite in the devil, possum and pademelon was n4-acetylsulphanilamide (6-17%). this was less than that excreted by the rat (40%). these three marsupials and the rat also ex ...19836880241
the distribution and sizes of ganglion cells in the retinas of five australian marsupials.maps of ganglion-cell distribution have been constructed from whole-mounted retinas of five australian marsupial species. the pademelon wallaby (thylogale billiardieri), the scrub wallaby or tammar (macropus eugenii), and the carnivorous tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harissi) have both a visual streak and an area centralis. the retina of the brown bandicoot (isoodon obesulus) also shows both these features but they are less prominent than in the former three species, whereas the burrow-dwelling, ...19817204673
comparison of the inflammatory responses of mice infected with american and australian trichinella pseudospiralis or trichinella spiralis.this study was designed to determine if the tasmanian devil isolate of trichinella pseudospiralis suppressed inflammation as does the original isolate. while adult worm numbers were similar in all groups, lower enteritis occurred in devil isolate-infected mice compared with mice infected with the original isolate of t. pseudospiralis or with trichinella spiralis. diaphragm muscle inflammation was greater in t. spiralis-infected than in mice infected with either isolate of t. pseudospiralis or co ...19989512999
marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.this article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. marsupials commonly kept as pets in the u.s. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (macropus giganteus), bennett's wallabies (macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., tasmanian devils, koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. of the insectivores, only t ...200111217462
the humoral immune response of the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) against horse red blood cells.the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is under threat of extinction due to a fatal infectious neoplastic disease, named devil facial tumour disease. tumours are transferred as allografts between animals and no effective immune response or host resistance to the disease has been detected, raising interest in the immune function of the species. to investigate whether tasmanian devils had a competent humoral immune response, four devils were immunised with horse red blood cells (hrbc) either i ...200919264365
detection of a hepatozoon and spotted fever group rickettsia species in the common marsupial tick (ixodes tasmani) collected from wild tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii), tasmania.tasmanian devils are the largest extant marsupial carnivores, confined to the australian island state of tasmania. the iconic marsupial has dramatically declined in number since the discovery of devil facial tumor disease in 1996 and efforts are being made to uncover vital information to assist in the long-term survival of the species. ticks are the main vectors of arthropod-borne disease in animals, raising the question of whether tasmanian devils may be host to arthropods capable of harboring ...200919303711
novel rickettsia in ticks, tasmania, australia.a novel rickettsia was detected in ixodes tasmani ticks collected from tasmanian devils. a total of 55% were positive for the citrate synthase gene by quantitative pcr. according to current criteria for rickettsia speciation, this new rickettsia qualifies as candidatus rickettsia tasmanensis, named after the location of its detection.200919861066
inguinal panniculitis in a young tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) caused by mycobacterium mageritense.a 1-year-old, entire male tasmanian devil living in captivity was presented because of a nodular inguinal lesion that subsequently developed a draining sinus tract. a second, similar lesion developed later in the ipsilateral axillary region. a deep representative biopsy specimen of abnormal subcutaneous tissue showed chronic active pyogranulomatous inflammation and beaded gram-positive and acid-fast bacilli situated in lipid vacuoles within the lesion. a rapidly growing mycobacterium species, sh ...201020529031
pulmonary mycobacteriosis caused by mycobacterium intracellulare in a tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii).the health of captive tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) is currently of increased interest because wild populations are being decimated by the spread of devil facial tumour disease. this report describes the pathology of an aged captive tasmanian devil that had a pulmonary mycobacterial infection caused by mycobacterium intracellulare in addition to multiple neoplastic processes.201020579036
active adaptive conservation of threatened species in the face of uncertainty.adaptive management has a long history in the natural resource management literature, but despite this, few practitioners have developed adaptive strategies to conserve threatened species. active adaptive management provides a framework for valuing learning by measuring the degree to which it improves long-run management outcomes. the challenge of an active adaptive approach is to find the correct balance between gaining knowledge to improve management in the future and achieving the best short- ...201020666263
a murine xenograft model for a transmissible cancer in tasmanian devils.the number of tasmanian devils in the wild is rapidly declining owing to a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (dftd). although progress has been made to understand the spread of this disease, crucial research on the pathogenesis of dftd has been limited because of the threatened status of the host species. here, the authors describe the development of a nod/scid (nonobese diabetic / severe combined immunodeficiency) mouse model that reproduces dftd and provides a much-needed model ...201120861503
microbiology of animal bite wound infections.the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. our review has focused on bite wound infections in ...201121482724
evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby y chromosome: implications for sex chromosome evolution.we report here the isolation and sequencing of 10 y-specific tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii) bac clones, revealing five hitherto undescribed tammar wallaby y genes (in addition to the five genes already described) and several pseudogenes. some genes on the wallaby y display testis-specific expression, but most have low widespread expression. all have partners on the tammar x, along with homologs on the human x. nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution ratios for nine of the tammar xy gene pai ...201122128133
disease and the dynamics of extinction.invading infectious diseases can, in theory, lead to the extinction of host populations, particularly if reservoir species are present or if disease transmission is frequency-dependent. the number of historic or prehistoric extinctions that can unequivocally be attributed to infectious disease is relatively small, but gathering firm evidence in retrospect is extremely difficult. amphibian chytridiomycosis and tasmanian devil facial tumour disease (dftd) are two very different infectious diseases ...022966138
molecular evolution of pten pseudogenes in mammals.phosphatase and tensin homolog (pten) is a tumor-suppressor gene. pten pseudogene (ptenp) acts as an endogenous rna, which regulates its parental gene by competitively binding to the 3' utr of pten gene in the human. despite the importance of this pseudogene, little is known about the molecular evolution of ptenp in mammals. in this study, we identified 37 pseudogenes from 65 mammalian genomes. among them, 32 were from rodents or primates. phylogenetic analyse showed a complex evolutionary histo ...201627936183
prevalence and clinical significance of herpesvirus infection in populations of australian marsupials.herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (antechinus flavipes and antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (phascolarctos cinereus). in this study we examined a range of australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological ...201526222660
expression profiles of the immune genes cd4, cd8β, ifnγ, il-4, il-6 and il-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (phascolarctos cinereus) by qrt-pcr.investigation of the immune response of the koala (phascolarctos cinereus) is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is chlamydial disease, caused by chlamydia pecorum and chlamydia pneumoniae. in addition, koala retrovirus (korv), which is of 100% prevalence in northern australia, has been ...201424688858
beyond the disease: is toxoplasma gondii infection causing population declines in the eastern quoll (dasyurus viverrinus)?disease is often considered a key threat to species of conservation significance. for some, it has resulted in localised extinctions and declines in range and abundance. however, for some species, the assertion that a disease poses a significant threat of extinction is based solely on correlative or anecdotal evidence, often inferred from individual clinical case reports. while a species' susceptibility to a disease may be demonstrated in a number of individuals, investigations rarely extend to ...201425161908
wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis.changing ecosystem dynamics are increasing the threat of disease epidemics arising in wildlife populations. several recent disease outbreaks have highlighted the critical need for understanding pathogen dynamics, including the role host densities play in disease transmission. in australia, introduced feral cats are of immense concern because of the risk they pose to native wildlife through predation and competition. they are also the only known definitive host of the coccidian parasite, toxoplas ...201324533323
real-time pcr as a surveillance tool for the detection of trichinella infection in muscle samples from wildlife.trichinella nematodes are the causative agent of trichinellosis, a meat-borne zoonosis acquired by consuming undercooked, infected meat. although most human infections are sourced from the domestic environment, the majority of trichinella parasites circulate in the natural environment in carnivorous and scavenging wildlife. surveillance using reliable and accurate diagnostic tools to detect trichinella parasites in wildlife hosts is necessary to evaluate the prevalence and risk of transmission f ...201222541794
weird genotypes? don't discard them, transmissible cancer could be an explanation.genetic chimerism is rarely considered in the analysis of population genetics data, because assumed to be an exceptionally rare, mostly benign, developmental accident. an unappreciated source of chimerism is transmissible cancer, when malignant cells have become independent parasites and can infect other individuals. parasitic cancers were thought to be rare exceptions, only reported in dogs (murgia et al., cell, 2006, 126, 477; rebbeck et al., evolution, 2009, 63, 2340), tasmanian devils (pears ...201728127390
close association between paralogous multiple isomirs and paralogous/orthologues mirna sequences implicates dominant sequence selection across various animal species.micrornas (mirnas) are crucial negative regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. next-generation sequencing technologies have identified a series of mirna variants (named isomirs). in this study, paralogous isomir assemblies (from the mirna locus) were systematically analyzed based on data acquired from deep sequencing data sets. evolutionary analysis of paralogous (members in mirna gene family in a specific species) and orthologues (across different animal species) mirna ...201323856130
transmissible tumors: breaking the cancer paradigm.transmissible tumors are those that have transcended the bounds of their incipient hosts by evolving the ability to infect another individual through direct transfer of cancer cells, thus becoming parasitic cancer clones. coitus, biting, and scratching are transfer mechanisms for the two primary species studied, the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris) and the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii). canine transmissible venereal tumors (ctvt) are likely thousands of years old, and have successf ...201626686413
identification, characterisation and expression analysis of natural killer receptor genes in chlamydia pecorum infected koalas (phascolarctos cinereus).koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), an iconic australian marsupial, are being heavily impacted by the spread of chlamydia pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. koalas vary in their response to this pathogen, with some showing no symptoms, while others suffer severe symptoms leading to infertility, blindness or death. little is known about the pathology of this disease and the immune response against it in this host. studies have demonstrated that natural killer (nk) cells, key comp ...201526471184
pd-l1 is not constitutively expressed on tasmanian devil facial tumor cells but is strongly upregulated in response to ifn-γ and can be expressed in the tumor microenvironment.the devil facial tumor disease (dftd) is caused by clonal transmissible cancers that have led to a catastrophic decline in the wild tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) population. the first transmissible tumor, now termed devil facial tumor 1 (dft1), was first discovered in 1996 and has been continually transmitted to new hosts for at least 20 years. in 2015, a second transmissible cancer [devil facial tumor 2 (dft2)] was discovered in wild devils, and the dft2 is genetically distinct and ind ...201628018348
crispr diversity in e. coli isolates from australian animals, humans and environmental waters.seventy four snp genotypes and 54 e. coli genomes from kangaroo, tasmanian devil, reptile, cattle, dog, horse, duck, bird, fish, rodent, human and environmental water sources were screened for the presence of the crispr 2.1 loci flanked by cas2 and iap genes. crispr 2.1 regions were found in 49% of the strains analysed. the majority of human e. coli isolates lacked the crispr 2.1 locus. we described 76 crispr 2.1 positive isolates originating from australian animals and humans, which contained a ...201525946192
tasmanian devil facial tumor disease: insights into reduced tumor surveillance from an unusual malignancy.tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (dftd) is a highly aggressive cancer involving the facial tissues that currently presents a serious extinction risk for the tasmanian devil population. although the histogenesis is uncertain, an origin from a neural crest cell-lineage is considered likely. epidemiological, cytogenetic and immunological data all support the premise that dftd arose from a single tumor clone from an individual diseased animal, and is being transmitted between individual animals ...201020473867
molecular identification of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 in a carnivorous marsupial, the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii).this study investigated the expression of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (ucp2 and ucp3) in the carnivorous marsupial sarcophilus harrisii. the current study used molecular techniques to ascertain whether this species expresses ucp2 and/or ucp3. this species increases nonshivering thermogenesis in response to cold exposure and norepinephrine, although our previous study was unable to demonstrate the presence of brown adipose tissue or uncoupling protein 1. samples of skeletal muscle and white adipo ...200415057721
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium and giardia from the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii).the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in tasmania, australia. tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in tasmania. to prevent extinction of tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the save the tasmanian devil program. this study aimed to assess if conservation management was a ...201728423030
Ensembl 2012.The Ensembl project ( provides genome resources for chordate genomes with a particular focus on human genome data as well as data for key model organisms such as mouse, rat and zebrafish. Five additional species were added in the last year including gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) and Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) bringing the total number of supported species to 61 as of Ensembl release 64 (September 2011). Of these, 55 species appear on the main Ensembl website and ...201222086963
bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa.we provide the first predictions of bite force (bs) in a wide sample of living and fossil mammalian predators. to compare between taxa, we calculated an estimated bite force quotient (bfq) as the residual of bs regressed on body mass. estimated bs adjusted for body mass was higher for marsupials than placentals and the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) had the highest relative bs among extant taxa. the highest overall bs was in two extinct marsupial lions. bfq in hyaenas were similar to tho ...200515817436
genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered marsupial sarcophilus harrisii (tasmanian devil).the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction because of a contagious cancer known as devil facial tumor disease. the inability to mount an immune response and to reject these tumors might be caused by a lack of genetic diversity within a dwindling population. here we report a whole-genome analysis of two animals originating from extreme northwest and southeast tasmania, the maximal geographic spread, together with the genome from a tumor taken from one of them. a 3.3- ...201121709235
clonally transmissible cancers in dogs and tasmanian devils.tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (dftd) and canine transmissible venereal tumor (ctvt) are the only known naturally occurring clonally transmissible cancers. these cancers are transmitted by the physical transfer of viable tumor cells that can be transplanted across histocompatibility barriers into unrelated hosts. despite their common etiology, dftd and ctvt have evolved independently and have unique life histories and host adaptations. dftd is a recently emerged aggressive facial tumor tha ...200819956175
contact networks in a wild tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) population: using social network analysis to reveal seasonal variability in social behaviour and its implications for transmission of devil facial tumour disease.the structure of the contact network between individuals has a profound effect on the transmission of infectious disease. using a novel technology--proximity sensing radio collars--we described the contact network in a population of tasmanian devils. this largest surviving marsupial carnivore is threatened by a novel infectious cancer. all devils were connected in a single giant component, which would permit disease to spread throughout the network from any single infected individual. unlike the ...200919694783
laminar and non-laminar patterns of acetylcholinesterase activity in the marsupial lateral geniculate nucleus.acetylcholinesterase (ache) distribution in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (lgd) of 3 polyprotodont and 3 diprotodont marsupials has been compared with the cytoarchitecture and, as appropriate, with retinal terminal bands (rtbs) as demonstrated by tracers injected into the vitreous body. in this series those polyprotodont marsupials showing only partial segregation of retinal input (virginia opossum and tasmanian devil), display the least cell laminar differentiation. in them ache stainin ...19892731033
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is not the major surfactant phospholipid species in all mammals.pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, lowers the surface tension in terminal air spaces and is crucial for lung function. within an animal species, surfactant composition can be influenced by development, disease, respiratory rate, and/or body temperature. here, we analyzed the composition of surfactant in three heterothermic mammals (dunnart, bat, squirrel), displaying different torpor patterns, to determine: 1) whether increases in surfactant cholesterol (chol) and ph ...200516037124
body temperatures and activity patterns of tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) and eastern quolls (dasyurus viverrinus) through a subalpine winter.during a field study of carnivorous dasyurid marsupials in subalpine tasmania, the trapping success for tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii), but not for spotted-tailed quolls (dasyurus maculatus) or eastern quolls (dasyurus viverrinus), was significantly lower when winter weather conditions turned to sleet or snow or when deep snow lay on the ground. this field study was instigated to determine if devils and eastern quolls spend more time in burrows in severe weather conditions and if they e ...20089231376
occurrence of pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of selected marsupial species.eighty-two pasteurellaceae isolates from marsupials characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpob gene sequences formed five distinct groups. twenty-one strains from long-nosed potoroos ( potorous tridactylus apicalis), spotted-tailed quolls ( dasyurus maculatus), and eastern quolls ( dasyurus viverrinus) made up group 1, which classified with frederiksenia canicola. group 2, 15 strains from tasmanian devils ( sarcophilus harrisii), common wombats ( vombatus ursinus), common ring-tailed possums ...201729297829
dietary partitioning of australia's two marsupial hypercarnivores, the tasmanian devil and the spotted-tailed quoll, across their shared distributional range.australia's native marsupial fauna has just two primarily flesh-eating 'hypercarnivores', the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) and the spotted-tailed quoll (dasyurus maculatus) which coexist only on the island of tasmania. devil populations are currently declining due to a fatal transmissible cancer. our aim was to analyse the diet of both species across their range in tasmania, as a basis for understanding how devil decline might affect the abundance and distribution of quolls through rel ...201729176811
use of anthropogenic linear features by two medium-sized carnivores in reserved and agricultural landscapes.many carnivores are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. these changes create linear features and habitat edges that can facilitate foraging and/or travel. to understand the significance of anthropogenic linear features in the ecology of carnivores, fine-scaled studies are needed. we studied two medium-sized carnivores: the endangered tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) and the near threatened spotted-tailed quoll (dasyurus maculatus), in a mixed landscape of conservation and agricul ...201728912508
longitudinal monitoring of plasma and fecal androgens in the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) and the spotted-tailed quoll (dasyurus maculatus).improved knowledge of the breeding biology of carnivorous marsupials is warranted given their heightened conservation status. past studies have focused on smaller dasyurids and little is known of male reproductive physiology in the larger species. this study aimed to characterize the pattern of androgen concentrations in male devils and spotted-tailed quolls and to evaluate fecal steroid measurement as a practical, alternative technique for monitoring reproductive activity. blood and fecal sampl ...200918602773
a novel stereocilia defect in sensory hair cells of the deaf mouse mutant tasmanian devil.stereocilia are specialized actin-filled, finger-like processes arrayed in rows of graded heights to form a crescent or w-shape on the apical surface of sensory hair cells. the stereocilia are deflected by the vibration of sound, which opens transduction channels and allows an influx of ions to depolarize the hair cell, in turn triggering synaptic activity. the specialized morphology and organization of the stereocilia bundle is crucial in the process of sensory transduction in the inner ear. ho ...200212405956
retinal projections in the tasmanian devil, sarcophilus harrisii.retinal projections were mapped in tasmanian devils which had one eye injected with 3h-proline. the retinal fibers terminate in seven regions in the brain. these are (1) dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (lgnd), (2) ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, (3) lateral posterior nucleus, (4) pretectum, (5) superior colliculus, (6) hypothalamus and (7) accessory optic system. the pattern of retinal input to six of these regions is similar to that seen in other marsupials. the pattern of retinal project ...1979500862
composition of marsupial zona pellucida: a molecular and phylogenetic approach.the zona pellucida (zp) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds mammalian oocytes. in eutherians it is formed from three or four proteins (zp1, zp2, zp3, zp4). in the few marsupials that have been studied, however, only three of these have been characterised (zp2, zp3, zp4). nevertheless, the composition in marsupials may be more complex, since a duplication of the zp3 gene was recently described in one species. the aim of this work was to elucidate the zp composition in marsupials and relate ...201729162213
characterization of the antimicrobial peptide family defensins in the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii), koala (phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii).defensins comprise a family of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides with important roles in innate and adaptive immune defense in vertebrates. we characterized alpha and beta defensin genes in three australian marsupials: the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii), koala (phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii) and identified 48, 34, and 39 defensins, respectively. one hundred and twelve have the classical antimicrobial peptides characteristics required for pathogen membra ...201727838759
a transcriptome resource for the koala (phascolarctos cinereus): insights into koala retrovirus transcription and sequence diversity.the koala, phascolarctos cinereus, is a biologically unique and evolutionarily distinct australian arboreal marsupial. the goal of this study was to sequence the transcriptome from several tissues of two geographically separate koalas, and to create the first comprehensive catalog of annotated transcripts for this species, enabling detailed analysis of the unique attributes of this threatened native marsupial, including infection by the koala retrovirus.201425214207
marsupial genome sequences: providing insight into evolution and disease.marsupials (metatherians), with their position in vertebrate phylogeny and their unique biological features, have been studied for many years by a dedicated group of researchers, but it has only been since the sequencing of the first marsupial genome that their value has been more widely recognised. we now have genome sequences for three distantly related marsupial species (the grey short-tailed opossum, the tammar wallaby, and tasmanian devil), with the promise of many more genomes to be sequen ...201224278712
widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species.most cancers arise from oncogenic changes in the genomes of somatic cells, and while the cells may migrate by metastasis, they remain within that single individual. natural transmission of cancer cells from one individual to another has been observed in two distinct cases in mammals (tasmanian devils and dogs), but these are generally considered to be rare exceptions in nature. the discovery of transmissible cancer in soft-shell clams (mya arenaria) suggested that this phenomenon might be more w ...201627338791
how to build an efficient conservation fence.barriers are used to achieve diverse objectives in conservation and biosecurity. in conservation management, fences are often erected to exclude introduced predators and to contain diseased animals or invasive species. planning an efficient conservation fence involves a number of decisions, including the size and design of the enclosure. we formulated the first general framework for building a fence that minimizes long-term management costs by balancing the expense of constructing a more secure ...201019604295
mitogen-induced responses in lymphocytes from platypus, the tasmanian devil and the eastern barred the platypus (ornithorhynchus anatinus), the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisi) and the eastern barred bandicoot (perameles gunni) are currently at risk of serious population decline or extinction from fatal diseases in tasmania, the goal of the present study was to describe the normal immune response of these species to challenge using the lymphocyte proliferation assay, to give a solid basis for further studies.200818826514
genomic legacy of the african cheetah, acinonyx jubatus.patterns of genetic and genomic variance are informative in inferring population history for human, model species and endangered populations.201526653294
occurrence of pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii).the occurrence of bacteria belonging to the family pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) was investigated using phenotypic and subsequent genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. a total of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from tasmanian devils, tentatively classified with the family pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpob gene sequence similarity, which showed that the isolates investigated formed fi ...201526056874
contagious cancer.although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. in rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. the tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (dftd). another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (ctvt or sticker's sarcoma) in dog ...201121212437
recent australian tick rickettsioses discoveries and the threatened tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrissi). 201020402685
testing the theory of immune selection in cancers that break the rules of transplantation.modification of cancer cells likely to reduce their immunogenicity, including loss or down-regulation of mhc molecules, is now well documented and has become the main support for the concept of immune surveillance. the evidence that these modifications, in fact, result from selection by the immune system is less clear, since the possibility that they may result from reorganized metabolism associated with proliferation or from cell de-differentiation remains. here, we (a) survey old and new trans ...201020033157
disease-induced decline of an apex predator drives invasive dominated states and threatens biodiversity.apex predators are important in protecting biodiversity through top-down influence on food webs. their loss is linked with competitive release of invasive mesopredators and species extinctions. the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) has experienced severe declines over a 15-yr period as a novel transmissible cancer has spread across its current geographic range. we surveyed the mammalian community, using hair traps, across the spatial extent of the devil's progressive population decline. we ...201627145614
encephalization of australian and new guinean marsupials.encephalization of australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ecv) of 52 species of dasyuromorphia and notoryctemorphia, 14 species of peramelemorphia and 116 species of diprotodontia from australia and new guinea and compared with 16 species of ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). linear regression analysis of the relationship between ecv and body weight for marsupials rev ...200818230970
[is cancer a transmittable disease?].a direct, horizontal and natural transmission of neoplasic cells has only recently been accepted by the biomedical community. there are three known examples in mammals: the tasmanian devil tumor disease, the canine transmissible venereal tumor and a similar disease in sirian hamsters. these diseases are not anecdotic cases only, but provide support for the cancer clonal evolution hypothesis.200717969847
trophic cascades following the disease-induced decline of an apex predator, the tasmanian apex predators disappear worldwide, there is escalating evidence of their importance in maintaining the integrity and diversity of the ecosystems they inhabit. the largest extant marsupial carnivore, the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction from a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (dftd). the disease, first observed in 1996, has led to apparent population declines in excess of 95% in some areas and has spread to more than 80% of their range. we a ...201424024987
integral projection models for host-parasite systems with an application to amphibian chytrid parasite models are typically constructed under either a microparasite or macroparasite paradigm. however, this has long been recognized as a false dichotomy because many infectious disease agents, including most fungal pathogens, have attributes of both microparasites and macroparasites.we illustrate how integral projection models (ipm)s provide a novel, elegant modeling framework to represent both types of pathogens. we build a simple host-parasite ipm that tracks both the number of susce ...201628239442
patterns of detection and capture are associated with cohabiting predators and prey.avoidance behaviour can play an important role in structuring ecosystems but can be difficult to uncover and quantify. remote cameras have great but as yet unrealized potential to uncover patterns arising from predatory, competitive or other interactions that structure animal communities by detecting species that are active at the same sites and recording their behaviours and times of activity. here, we use multi-season, two-species occupancy models to test for evidence of interactions between i ...201323565172
concise review: transmissible animal tumors as models of the cancer stem-cell process.tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (dftd) and canine transmissible venereal tumor (ctvt) are highly unusual cancers capable of being transmitted between animals as an allograft. the concept that these tumors represent a cancer stem-cell process has never been formally evaluated. for each, evidence of self-renewal is found in the natural history of these tumors in the wild, tumor initiation in recipient animals, and serial transplantation studies. additional data for stem-cell-specific genes an ...201121956952
reconstruction of the cortical maps of the tasmanian tiger and comparison to the tasmanian devil.the last known tasmanian tiger (thylacinus cynocephalus)-aka the thylacine-died in 1936. because its natural behavior was never scientifically documented, we are left to infer aspects of its behavior from museum specimens and historical recollections of bushmen. recent advances in brain imaging have made it possible to scan postmortem specimens of a wide range of animals, even more than a decade old. any thylacine brain, however, would be more than 100 years old. here, we show that it is possibl ...201728099446
satanicoptes armatus, n. gen., n.sp. (astigmata: sarcoptidae), a new mite producing mange in the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii boitard). 19751195287
assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. however, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (felis catus). these baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait ...201425229348
devil declines and catastrophic cascades: is mesopredator release of feral cats inhibiting recovery of the eastern quoll?the eastern quoll (dasyurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized australian marsupial carnivore that has recently undergone a rapid and severe population decline over the 10 years to 2009, with no sign of recovery. this decline has been linked to a period of unfavourable weather, but subsequent improved weather conditions have not been matched by quoll recovery. a recent study suggested another mechanism: that declines in tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) populations, due to the spread of the fata ...201525760348
assessment of oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells in various species based on cell deformability.the present study was designed to investigate the oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells (rbc) from four species (echidna, human, koala, tasmanian devil) based on changes in cellular deformability. these species were specifically chosen based on differences in lifestyle and/or biology associated with varied levels of oxidative stress. the major focus was the influence of superoxide radicals generated within the cell (phenazine methosulfate, pms, 50 μm) or in the extracellular medium (xanthine ...201122433570
oncogenesis as a selective force: adaptive evolution in the face of a transmissible cancer.similar to parasites, malignant cells exploit the host for energy, resources and protection, thereby impairing host health and fitness. although cancer is widespread in the animal kingdom, its impact on life history traits and strategies have rarely been documented. devil facial tumour disease (dftd), a transmissible cancer, afflicting tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii), provides an ideal model system to monitor the impact of cancer on host life-history, and to elucidate the evolutionary ar ...201829446482
identifying genome-wide immune gene variation underlying infectious disease in wildlife populations - a next generation sequencing approach in the gopher tortoise.infectious disease is the single greatest threat to taxa such as amphibians (chytrid fungus), bats (white nose syndrome), tasmanian devils (devil facial tumor disease), and black-footed ferrets (canine distemper virus, plague). although understanding the genetic basis to disease susceptibility is important for the long-term persistence of these groups, most research has been limited to major-histocompatibility and toll-like receptor genes. to better understand the genetic basis of infectious dis ...201829351737
infection of the fittest: devil facial tumour disease has greatest effect on individuals with highest reproductive output.emerging infectious diseases rarely affect all members of a population equally and determining how individuals' susceptibility to infection is related to other components of their fitness is critical to understanding disease impacts at a population level and for predicting evolutionary trajectories. we introduce a novel state-space model framework to investigate survival and fecundity of tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) affected by a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease. we s ...201728489304
identification of candidate genes for devil facial tumour disease tumourigenesis.devil facial tumour (dft) disease, a transmissible cancer where the infectious agent is the tumour itself, has caused a dramatic decrease in tasmanian devil numbers in the wild. the purpose of this study was to take a candidate gene/pathway approach to identify potentially perturbed genes or pathways in dft. a fusion of chromosome 1 and x is posited as the initial event leading to the development of dft, with the rearranged chromosome 1 material now stably maintained as the tumour spreads throug ...201728821767
seasonality and breeding success of captive and wild tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii).the synchrony and timing of reproductive events are crucially important factors to maximize individual and offspring survival, especially in seasonal environments. to increase our understanding of the physiological basis of seasonality and the influence of associated environmental factors (maximum temperature, day length and rate of day length change associated with different latitudes) on reproduction in tasmanian devils, we reviewed records and research data from captive facilities throughout ...201728460677
untangling the model muddle: empirical tumour growth in tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.a pressing and unresolved topic in cancer research is how tumours grow in the absence of treatment. despite advances in cancer biology, therapeutic and diagnostic technologies, there is limited knowledge regarding the fundamental growth and developmental patterns in solid tumours. in this ten year study, we estimated growth curves in tasmanian devil facial tumours, a clonal transmissible cancer, in males and females with two different karyotypes (diploid, tetraploid) and facial locations (mucosa ...201728740255
variants in the host genome may inhibit tumour growth in devil facial tumours: evidence from genome-wide association.devil facial tumour disease (dftd) has decimated wild populations of tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) due to its ability to avoid immune detection and pass from host to host by biting. a small number of devils have been observed to spontaneously recover from the disease which is otherwise fatal. we have sequenced the genomes of these rare cases and compared them to the genomes of devils who succumbed to the disease. genome-wide association, based on this limited sampling, highlighted two ...201728341828
the role of mhc genes in contagious cancer: the story of tasmanian devils.the tasmanian devil, a marsupial species endemic to the island of tasmania, harbours two contagious cancers, devil facial tumour 1 (dft1) and devil facial tumour 2 (dft2). these cancers pass between individuals in the population via the direct transfer of tumour cells, resulting in the growth of large tumours around the face and neck of affected animals. while these cancers are rare, a contagious cancer also exists in dogs and five contagious cancers circulate in bivalves. the ability of tumour ...201728695294
regression of devil facial tumour disease following immunotherapy in immunised tasmanian devils.devil facial tumour disease (dftd) is a transmissible cancer devastating the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) population. the cancer cell is the 'infectious' agent transmitted as an allograft by biting. animals usually die within a few months with no evidence of antibody or immune cell responses against the dftd allograft. this lack of anti-tumour immunity is attributed to an absence of cell surface major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-i molecule expression. while the endangerment of the ...201728276463
cancer as a contagious disease.contagious cancers are malignant cells that are physically transferred between individuals as a natural allograft, forming new clonal tumours. these cancers are highly unusual, but have emerged in 2 mammalian species, the dog and the tasmanian devil, as well as 4 species of bivalve. the transfer of malignant cells in mammals should initiate a robust immune response and although invertebrates have a less complex immune system, these species still have mechanisms that should prevent engraftment an ...201728205368
nutritional status and functional digestive histology of the carnivorous tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii).tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest carnivorous marsupial in australia. currently many animals are being held in captivity as a management procedure to combat devil facial tumor disease. only one published study thus far has investigated nutrition in tasmanian devils, determining their maintenance energy requirements and digestibility on a rodent diet. more information is needed on tasmanian devil nutritional and gastrointestinal function to aid in their management. our study ...201727956166
the toll-like receptor ligands hiltonol®(polyiclc) and imiquimod effectively activate antigen-specific immune responses in tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii).devil facial tumour disease (dftd) describes two genetically distinct transmissible tumours that pose a significant threat to the survival of the tasmanian devil. a prophylactic vaccine could protect devils from dftd transmission. for this vaccine to be effective, potent immune adjuvants will be required. toll-like receptors (tlrs) promote robust immune responses in human cancer studies and are highly conserved across mammalian species. in this study, we investigated the proficiency of tlr ligan ...201728689773
monitoring, imperfect detection, and risk optimization of a tasmanian devil insurance population.most species are imperfectly detected during biological surveys, which creates uncertainty around their abundance or presence at a given location. decision makers managing threatened or pest species are regularly faced with this uncertainty. wildlife diseases can drive species to extinction; thus, managing species with disease is an important part of conservation. devil facial tumor disease (dftd) is one such disease that led to the listing of the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) as endang ...201728657164
major histocompatibility complex (mhc) markers in conservation biology.human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. in this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at fu ...201121954351
limited genetic diversity preceded extinction of the tasmanian tiger.the tasmanian tiger or thylacine was the largest carnivorous marsupial when europeans first reached australia. sadly, the last known thylacine died in captivity in 1936. a recent analysis of the genome of the closely related and extant tasmanian devil demonstrated limited genetic diversity between individuals. while a similar lack of diversity has been reported for the thylacine, this analysis was based on just two individuals. here we report the sequencing of an additional 12 museum-archived sp ...201222530022
preliminary investigation of social interactions and feeding behavior in captive group-housed tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii).as the number of tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) in captivity increases, an understanding of captive social dynamics and behavior is becoming increasingly important. in the wild, devils are solitary, although sometimes, they congregate to feed on a large carcass. however, it is common to house devils in groups as a form of social enrichment. this study investigated how behavior at feeding time of captive tasmanian devils varied in groups of different sizes. observations were made of indi ...201829350542
high-quality fossil dates support a synchronous, late holocene extinction of devils and thylacines in mainland australia.the last large marsupial carnivores-the tasmanian devil (sarcophilis harrisii) and thylacine (thylacinus cynocephalus)-went extinct on mainland australia during the mid-holocene. based on the youngest fossil dates (approx. 3500 years before present, bp), these extinctions are often considered synchronous and driven by a common cause. however, many published devil dates have recently been rejected as unreliable, shifting the youngest mainland fossil age to 25 500 years bp and challenging the sync ...201829343562
induced pluripotent stem cells from a marsupial, the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii): insight into the evolution of mammalian pluripotency.we demonstrate the generation of tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) induced pluripotent stem cells (devipscs) from dermal fibroblasts by lentiviral delivery of human transcription factors. devipscs display characteristic pluripotent stem cell colony morphology, with individual cells having a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio and alkaline phosphatase activity. devipscs are leukemia inhibitory factor dependent and have reactivated endogenous octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [oct4, pou do ...201829161957
effects of deslorelin implants on reproduction and feeding behavior in tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) housed in free-range captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximize the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, which can be facilitated through the use of selective contraception. this becomes critical when captive populations are held for several generations, and managers must prevent the confines of housing space and financial support from compromising genetic integrity. for example, the tasmanian devil insurance population, est ...201829149677
a role for selective contraception of individuals in conservation management programs.contraception has an established role to play in managing overabundant populations and preventing undesirable breeding in zoos. we propose that it can also be used strategically and selectively in conservation management programs to increase the genetic and behavioural quality of the animals. in captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximise the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, and preventing genetically su ...201729080297
conservation implications of limited genetic diversity and population structure in tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii).tasmanian devils face a combination of threats to persistence, including devil facial tumor disease (dftd), an epidemic transmissible cancer. we used rad sequencing to investigate genome-wide patterns of genetic diversity and geographic population structure. consistent with previous results, we found very low genetic diversity in the species as a whole, and we detected two broad genetic clusters occupying the northwestern portion of the range, and the central and eastern portions. however, these ...201728966567
the function of vigilance in sympatric marsupial carnivores: the eastern quoll and the tasmanian devil.sympatric marsupial carnivore (marsupialia: dasyuridae) species experience different levels of risk of predation and competition as a consequence of different body size and feeding adaptations. the small eastern quoll, dasyurus viverrinus, is preyed upon by owls and is aggressively displaced from carcasses by its larger competitor and potential predator, the tasmanian devil, sarcophilus laniarius. devils have no known predators but this specialized scavenger experiences intense intraspecific com ...19989819345
wildlife cancer: a conservation perspective.until recently, cancer in wildlife was not considered to be a conservation concern. however, with the identification of tasmanian devil facial tumour disease, sea turtle fibropapillomatosis and sea lion genital carcinoma, it has become apparent that neoplasia can be highly prevalent and have considerable effects on some species. it is also clear that anthropogenic activities contribute to the development of neoplasia in wildlife species, such as beluga whales and bottom-dwelling fish, making the ...200919550426
degenerative leukoencephalopathy and myelopathy in dasyurids.from june 1985 to november 1992 eight eastern quolls (dasyurus viverrinus) and six tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii), held at institutions in australia and canada, developed progressive blindness and posterior paresis progressing to paralysis. all were aged individuals. at necropsy white matter tracts, particularly in the spinal cord, optic tracts, and cerebellum, contained evidence of severe axon degeneration with vacuolation and macrophage infiltration. the surrounding tissue had evidenc ...19958592382
ancestry of the australian termitivorous numbat.the australian numbat, myrmecobius fasciatus, is the only marsupial that feeds almost exclusively on termites and that has a life following the diurnally restricted and dynamic geographical distribution of termites. the millions of years of this adaptation led to unique morphological and anatomical features, especially basicranial and dental characteristics, that make it difficult to identify a clear phylogenetic affiliation to other marsupials. from dna sequence analyses, the family myrmecobiid ...201323429857
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