Publications

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comparative hematology: studies on opossums didelphis marsupialis (virginianus). 1975237655
host range characteristics of the primate coccidian, isospora arctopitheci rodhain 1933 (protozoa: eimeriidae).studies were conducted on 35 primates, 12 carnivores, and 2 marsupials to determine their susceptibility to the primate coccidian, isospora arctopitheci. patent oocyst infections resulted in 12 of the 14 species of animals investigated. these included 6 genera of new world primates native to panama: saguinus geoffroyi, aotus trivirgatus, ateles fusciceps, cebus capucinus, alouatta villosa, and saimiri sciureus. in addition 4 families of carnivores (2 domestic and 2 sylvatic) and 1 species of mar ...1977403270
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in florida.blood samples were collected for serum separation from 114 species of wild animals (25 species of mammals, 82 species of birds, and 7 species of reptiles) in florida. each of the 3,471 samples was tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, using the indirect hemagglutination test. the highest prevalences of t gondii antibodies were 19% in armadillos (dasypus novemcinctus), 18% in raccoons (procyon lotor), 13% in black rats (rattus rattus), and 11% in opossums (didelphis marsupialis). antibody p ...1979521384
babesia ernestoi sp. n., in didelphis marsupialis l., 1758, and d. albiventris lund, 1841, in brazil. 1979525096
trematode eggs in the peritoneal cavity of man in honduras.surgical repair of an inguinal hernia in a 19-year-old man in honduras revealed massive numbers of small granulomata containing trematode eggs on the omentum and other peritoneal surfaces. the eggs resembled those of achillurbainia recondita travassos, 1942, a species found in the maxillary sinuses of the opossum, didelphis marsupialis. species of achillurbainis (syn. poikilorchis fain and vandepitte, 1957) have been reported in retroauricular cysts or abscesses in residents of west africa and s ...1977560803
[finding of leishmania species in didelphis marsupialis aurita in the state of são paulo, brazil. preliminary note]. 1979573492
decrease in the lethal effect of snake venom by serum of the opossum, didelphis marsupialis.decrease in the lethal effect of several crotalid snake venoms were compared when diluted or mixed with opossum serum, normal horse serum, or normal dog serum and injected into mice. normal dog and horse serum showed no protective qualities while opossum serum and diluted antivenin were approximately equivalent in their protective effect.1978750730
pasteurella hemolytica infection in the opossum (didelphis marsupialis). 1977850385
pathologic manifestations of experimentally and naturally acquired lungworm infections in opossums.experimentally induced and naturally acquired lungworm infections (didelphostrongylus and capillaria) were studied in opossums, didelphis marsupialis. each of 4 helminth-free opossums were experimentally infected with 250 3rd-stage didelphostrongylus hayesi larvae. at 2 and 8.5 months after infection, 2 animals were necropsied. hypertrophy of pulmonary smooth muscle characterized d hayesi infections, with lesions pronounced in the vicinity of helminths. there was mucous bronchitis characterized ...1977851287
reproduction in didelphis marsupialis and d. albiventris in colombia. 1976932567
the amino-acid sequence of the alpha-crystallin a chains of red kangaroo and virginia opossum.the amino acid sequence of the a chain of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin from the red kangaroo (macropus rufus) was completely determined by manual edman degradation of tryptic, thermolytic and cyanogen bromide peptides. the sequence of the alpha-crystallin a chain from the virginia opossum (didelphis marsupialis) was deduced from amino acid analyses and partial edman degradation of peptides. the 173-residue a chains of kangaroo and opossum differ in six positions, whereas comparison with ...1976964255
primary isolation of mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 on blood agar.mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 was isolated in pure culture on blood agar plates from inocula taken from the heart blood, lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen of a naturally infected captive female opossum (didelphis marsupialis virginiana). repeat cultures from stored tissues and transfer of colonies from original blood agar plates revealed that the mycobacterium grew on tryptose, brilliant green, eosin-methylene blue. sabouraud glucose, and mycobiotic agar plates and in fletcher leptospir ...1976972192
[coexistence of nematodes trichostrongyloidea in marsupials from french guyana (author's transl)].analysis of the helminthofauna of two didelphis marsupialis, compared to that of a metachirops opossum from the same area, studied by durette-desset, 1974. except for their similarities in the general repartition of the species, the two marsupials are easily differentiated: the dominant species is not the same. the location of common or "vicariant" species is stable. in opposition to former notions, the fauna appears to be composed of but one lineage, except for moennigia, which would appear as ...1976984667
hemoglobins of the opossum (didelphis marsupialis). ii. polymorphism; electrophoretic and chromatographic observations.eighty-five adult opossums (didelphis marsupialis) were examined for variation of hemaglobin by means of electrophoresis and column chromatography. a single hemoglobin was found in 83 animals while two hemoglobins were observed in two animals. the results of the chromatography studies suggested that the polymorphism was due to primary sequence differences in the alpha chain. attempts to confirm this result by hybridization with human or canine hemoglobins were unsuccessful. the polymorphism was ...19761018476
parasitological aspects of schistosoma haemotobium (iran) infection in the american opossum (didelphis marsupialis l.). 19751112626
the inferior olivary nucleus of the opossum (didelphis marsupialis virginiana), its organization and connections.although the inferior olivary nucleus of the opossum is small, sections stained either for nissl substance, normal axons or cholinesterase activity reveal distinct medial, dorsal and principal nuclei. the medial nucleus contains three major subdivisions (labelled a, b, c after bowman and sladek, '73) and a group of neurons which is comparable to the cap of kooy. in contrast to the cat and monkey, the major portion of the "medial" nucleus (subgroup a) lies lateral to the principal nucleus in rost ...19751123465
severe parasitism in an opossum.chronic debilitation and anemia were observed in a free-living opossum (didelphis marsupialis) heavily parasitized by physaloptera turgida, brachylaima virginianum, and cruzia americana. chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with capillaria aerophila and a metastrongyloid nematode also was present.19751152183
leptospirosis in wildlife in brazil: isolation of a new serotype in the pyrogenes group.a new leptospiral serotype in the serogroup pyrogenes is described. the strain was isolated from one gray "four-eyed" opossum (philander opossum). it is proposed that the serotype be designated guaratuba, strain an-7705. the isolations of serotypes ballum from the south american field mouse (akodon arviculoides), szwajizak and icterohaemorrhagiae from the north american opossum (didelphis marsupialis), and grippotyphosa from many other wild animal species as well as domesticated animals are also ...19751163877
comparative electrophysiology and pharmacology of mammalian (including one marsupial) intercostal muscle biopsy preparations.characteristics of minature end-plate potentials (mepp) of isolated external intercostal muscle preparations of 7 mammalian species (dog, cat, pig, horse, cow, and goat) including 1 marsupial (opossum, didelphis marsupialis) were determined with intracellular microelectrodes. mean amplitude (+/- standard error of mepp for all species was 0.60 +/- 0.06 mv, and the range was 0.28 mv (opossum) to 1.07 mv (pig). amplitude was inversely correlated (p less than 0.01) with muscle fiber diameter which r ...19751190605
corticobulbar fibres in the north american opossum (didelphis marsupialis virginiana) with notes on the tasmanian brust-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and other marsupials.corticobulbar projections have been studied in the american opossum by both degeneration and autoradiographic methods and, for the most part, the results confirm our earlier observations (martin & west, 1967; martin, 1968). however, we have obtained evidence for certain connexions not previously described and have delineated the origin(s) of several connexions more precisely by paying particular attention to the degeneration present at thalamic levels in all cases and by the use of autoradiograp ...19751213949
didelphostrongylus hayesi gen. et sp. n. (metastrogyloidea: filaroididae) from the opossum, didelphis marsupialis.didelphostrongylus hayesi gen. et sp. n. from the opossum, didelphis marsupialis, is distinguished from other genera of the angoistrongylinae by the structure of the dorsal and lateral rays, complex gubernaculum, and ovoviviparity. third-stage larvae developed in mesodon perigraptus and triodopsis albolabris. the prepatent period was 22 days in experimentally infected opossums.19761263038
neutralization of the oedematogenic activity of bothrops jararaca venom on the mouse paw by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (didelphis marsupialis) serum.the pharmacological modulation of mice paw oedema produced by bothrops jararaca venom (bjv) has been studied. intraplantar injection of bjv (1-30 micrograms/paw) produced a dose- and time-related oedema, which was maximal 30 min after injection, reduced gradually thereafter and disappeared over 48 h. bjv heated at 100 degrees c for 5 or 15 min blocked local hemorrhage and caused partial inhibition of its oedematogenic activity. the bjv oedema was not inhibited by the anti-histamine meclizine, th ...19921295374
didelphis marsupialis: a primary reservoir of trypanosoma cruzi in urban areas of caracas, venezuela.direct blood examination and xenodiagnosis of 45 sylvatic, peridomestic or domestic mammals from the caracas valley, venezuela, revealed trypanosome infection in six of the 24 opossums, didelphis marsupialis, collected in urban areas. isolates were successfully made of trypanosomes from four of the opossums, using the parasites which developed in rhodnius prolixus fed on the infected opossums to infect nmri mice. the prepatent period, course of parasitaemia, morphology of bloodstream trypomastig ...19921304702
natural anti-snake venom proteins.the resistance of several animals to snake venom has been reviewed. some general concepts are introduced to allow the comparative evaluation of the resistance of different animals studied by different investigators. the purification and properties of several factors isolated from the serum of different animals by some researchers are described: trimeresurus flavoviridis (omori-satoh et al., 1972); vipera palaestinae (ovadia et al., 1975, 1977); sigmodon hispidus (pichyangkul and perez, 1981); di ...19911801313
didelphis marsupialis: reservoir of babesia brasiliensis in the valley of caracas (venezuela). 19911843558
characterization and classification of leishmanial parasites from humans, wild mammals, and sand flies in the amazon region of brazil.ninety-four leishmanial isolates from the brazilian amazon region (amapá, amazonas, pará, and rondônia) were identified and classified using specific monoclonal antibodies and an indirect radioimmunoassay (serodeme analysis); eighty-two were also characterized by enzyme electrophoresis (zymodeme analysis), the results of which were subjected to a numerical phenetic analysis. six isolates from humans (3), didelphis marsupialis (1), lutzomyia olmeca nociva (1), and lu, reducta (1) showed reactivit ...19911858968
trypanosoma cruzi in the opossum didelphis marsupialis: parasitological and serological follow-up of the acute infection.the opossum didelphis marsupialis is known to be among the most important wild reservoirs of trypanosoma cruzi and one in which the trypanosome may go through both the usual vertebrate intracellular cycle in its tissues and an extracellular cycle in the lumen of its scent glands. the species is highly resistant to heavy inocula and, depending on the parasite strain, experimental infections may be permanent or self limited. aiming to understand the mechanisms involved in this parasite-host intera ...19911915740
didelphis marsupialis, an apparent wild reservoir of leishmania donovani chagasi in colombia, south america. 19892609371
isolation of leishmania species from wild mammals in french guiana.between 1981 and 1987, 486 wild mammals collected from 13 sites in french guiana were examined for leishmania. eleven of 31 two-toed sloths, choloepus didactylus, were infected, 4 of the isolates being identified as l. braziliensis guyanensis. this species was also found in 2 didelphis marsupialis and 2 proechimys sp. l. mexicana amazonensis was isolated from 3 proechimys sp., 2 of which were p. cuvieri. the role of these mammals in the life cycles of the 2 anthropotropic species of leishmania e ...19892617621
epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in colombia.epidemiologic studies were conducted during the period 1986-1988 in a small rural community in colombia (el callejon) where visceral leishmaniasis is highly endemic. in this community of 185 people, 14 cases of infantile visceral leishmaniasis were diagnosed in the 9 years 1981-1988. leishmanin skin testing of a sample of the human residents showed that prevalence of leishmania chagasi infection increased with age; overall, 51.2% of the subjects had a positive reaction. a canine surveillance pro ...19892729506
[presence of antibodies for hepatitis a virus in didelphis marsupialis (vertebrata. marsupialia) of the amazon region]. 19872827292
trypanosoma (herpetosoma) leeuwenhoeki in choloepus hoffmanni and didelphis marsupialis of the pacific coast of colombia.trypanosoma (herpetosoma) leeuwenhoeki, originally described in panamanian sloths, was isolated from didelphis marsupialis (marsupialia) and choloepus hoffmanni (edentata) inhabiting the pacific coast of colombia. trypanosomes were characterized by their large blood forms (total length 51-53 microns), poor infectivity for mice, and lack of development in rhodnius prolixus. isoenzyme studies, with either strains or clones, revealed homogeneous profiles clearly distinct from trypanosoma cruzi and ...19892926591
conserved restriction sites within the ribosomal rna genes of vertebrates.we have mapped the cleavage sites of four restriction enzymes which recognize six-base sequences within the nuclear ribosomal (rrna) genes of twelve vertebrates, including several placental mammals (homo sapiens, man; bos taurus, cow; equus caballus, horse; sus scofra, pig; ovis aries, sheep; rattus rattus, rat), a marsupial (didelphis marsupialis, opossum), a bird (gallus domesticus, chicken), an amphibian (xenopus laevis), a reptile (alligator mississipiensis), a bony fish (cynoscion nebulosus ...19863004584
rotavirus infection in wild marsupials (didelphis marsupialis) of the amazon region.rotavirus was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in faecal specimens collected from two (1.35%) of 148 marsupials trapped in the amazon jungle environment. the positive samples were both from the "common opossum", didelphis marsupialis. no infections were found in the stools of 198 animals belonging to other mammalian species: the latter included small rodents, chiropterans and primates. electron microscopic examination of one (ma 5928) rotavirus-positive specimen showed a large numbe ...19863014690
biology of arboledas virus, a new phlebotomus fever serogroup virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) isolated from sand flies in colombia.six isolates of a new phlebotomus fever serogroup virus, designated arboledas virus, were obtained from sand flies (lutzomyia spp.) collected in northeastern colombia. one of the isolates was made from a pool of male sand flies. by immunofluorescence, arboledas virus is related to caimito and pacui viruses; by neutralization test, it is distinct. arboledas virus neutralizing antibodies were found in the sera of opossums (didelphis marsupialis) and humans living in the study area. d. marsupialis ...19863024516
presence of trypanosoma cruzi in the anal glands of naturally infected opossum (didelphis marsupialis) in the state of santa catarina, brazil. 19883074238
infection of a mammal by monogenetic insect trypanosomatids (kinetoplastida, trypanosomatidae).monogenetic insect trypanosomatids of the genera crithidia, leptomonas and herpetomonas, multiplied as in axenic cultures, for many months, in the lumen of the scent glands of the opossum didelphis marsupialis. specific antibodies were detected in the serum of the animals but there was no evidence of invasion of their tissues by the parasites.19883152271
release of sarcoplasmic enzymes from skeletal muscle by bothrops jararacussu venom: antagonism by heparin and by the serum of south american marsupials.the venom of b. jararacussu induced a time- and dose-dependent (2-100 micrograms/ml) increase in the rate of release of sarcoplasmic enzymes (ck and ldh) from isolated rat and frog muscles. this effect, which we attribute to sarcolemmal damage by the venom, persisted in a ca2+-free media, suggesting that phospholipase a activity was not required. the venom-induced enzyme release from the isolated muscles was reversibly inhibited by the sera (1-10 microliters/ml) of the marsupials didelphis marsu ...19883347934
cytogenetic analysis of some brazilian marsupials (didelphidae: marsupialia).three species of marsupials from the amazon region (marmosa cinerea, caluromys lanatus, and didelphis marsupialis) and two from the region of são paulo (didelphis marsupialis and didelphis albiventris) were studied. the g-banding pattern of the species with 2n = 14 (m. cinerea and c. lanatus) was very similar, as well as the pattern of g-bands in the species with 22 chromosomes (didelphis). all of the autosomes of m. cinerea and d. albiventris have centromeric c-bands and the y chromosome is tot ...19863697826
leishmania mexicana in didelphis marsupialis aurita in são paulo state, brazil. 19853832338
[trypanosoma rangeli tejera, 1920. viii. response to reinfections in 2 mammals].under experimental conditions, the course of the infection and the response to the reinfection by trypanosoma rangeli in mice and didelphis marsupialis, are studied. during the initial infection the mice show a relatively low parasitaemia and a short patent period. a scanty parasitaemia level of four days length, was observed following the first reinfection, being the mice resistant to new reinfections by t. rangeli. in opossums a lower parasitaemia and a longer patent period than that detected ...19853836326
[natural hosts of trypanosoma cruzi in french guiana. high endemicity of zymodeme 1 in wild marsupials].during an epidemiological survey in french guiana, three species of marsupiala were found infected by trypanosoma cruzi with high infection rates (30,8% for didelphis marsupialis). six triatomine bug species were recorded, five of them being well known vectors of chagas' disease. iso-enzyme characterization of 22 stocks isolated (16 from d. marsupialis, 3 from philander opossum and 3 from rhodnius prolixus) revealed that they were all related to zymodeme 1 of miles. the silvatic cycle is endemic ...19853923891
trypanosoma cruzi in the opossum didelphis marsupialis: an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the diagnosis and follow-up of natural and experimental infections.the use of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) performed in a "sandwich" technique has demonstrated: (i) the usefulness of the test for the diagnosis of trypanosoma cruzi infection in the opossum didelphis marsupialis; (ii) the existence of differences in the serological response of the opossum, that were related to the parasite strain and were clearly evident during the follow-up of experimental infections in laboratory born specimens; (iii) that, despite a good correlation between ser ...19853936240
distribution of histoplasma capsulatum in amazonian wildlife.in a survey of 296 sylvatic animals captured from virgin forests in the north-eastern and south-western amazon of brazil, histoplasma capsulatum was isolated, via the indirect hamster inoculation method, from the liver and spleen of four common opossums didelphis marsupialis and two pacas agouti paca. the infected animals did not show any clinical symptoms or histopathology. the known amazonian mammalian species with natural histoplasmosis now total five, the previously reported species being th ...19853990770
physiological responses associated with feigned death in the american opossum.heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature of four free-ranging american opossums, didelphis marsupialis of both sexes (2.47 +/- 0.27 kg; mean +/- se), were monitored during mild provocation and during death feigning ('play possum'). mild provocations, caused by the approach of either man or dog, elicited a freezing response. the behavioural response was accompanied by a 12% decrease in heart rate (218 +/- 11 to 192 +/- 10 beats x min-1; mean +/- se) and a 31% reduction in respiratory rat ...19853993399
a field study of paragonimiasis in venezuela.in a natural focus of paragonimiasis in the northeastern region of venezuela, 130 people were clinically, parasitologically and immunologically evaluated. a specific intradermal test was positive in 13%. besides an index case, three other active cases of paragonimiasis were identified. adult paragonimus worms and metacercariae were recovered from didelphis marsupialis and eudaniela garmani, respectively. previous reports of paragonimus infection in venezuela are discussed.19854025691
diseases of the opossum (didelphis marsupialis): a review. 19704317886
besnoitia darlingi in the opossum (didelphis marsupialis). 19714322769
american trypanosomiasis in british honduras. vi. a natural infection with trypanosoma (schizotrypanum) cruzi in the opossum didelphis marsupialis (marsupialia, didelphoidea), and experimental investigations of different wild-animal species as possible reservoirs for the parasite. 19694980715
wild reservoirs of trypanosoma cruzi with special mention of the opossum, didelphis marsupialis, and its role in the epidemiology of chagas' disease in an endemic area of costa rica. 19704984084
schistosoma haematobium infection in the opossum (didelphis marsupialis): involvement of the urogenital system.investigations of experimental schistosomiasis haematobia have suffered for want of satisfactory mammals in which schistosome infections would establish host-parasite situations more or less comparable with those seen in man. as a consequence, mammals representing different major groups have been exposed to infection by schistosoma haematobium (iran strain) to determine their potential use as models for more detailed investigations. in preliminary studies, 8 american opossums (didelphis marsupia ...19715316850
besnoitiasis in the opossum (didelphis marsupialis). 19705421085
[dynamics of trypanosoma cruzi in populations of a primary reservoir, didelphis marsupialis, in the highlands of venezuela]. 19826216903
[besnoitia (protozoa: toxoplasmatinae) isolated from opossums didelphis marsupilis in the amazon region, brazil].from a total of 224 didelphis marsupialis examined, in 15 were found cysts of besnoitia in muscles and viscera. it's the first time that this protozoan is isolated from naturally infected animals in brazil. the experimental transmission to laboratory animals was done by the inoculum of tissue and cysts triturated.19836400169
vertebrate hosts and vectors of trypanosoma rangeli in the amazon basin of brazil.a total of 46 trypanosoma rangeli stocks were isolated from naturally infected mammals and triatomine vectors. twenty-two stocks were from the common opossum (didelphis marsupialis), one from the brown "4-eyed" opossum (metachirus nudicaudatus), one from the anteater (tamandua tetradactyla), one from the coati (nasua nasua), seven from rhodnius pictipes and 14 from rhodnius robustus. two stocks were also isolated from recently fed sandflies (lutzomyia sp., shannoni group). the stocks were identi ...19836418015
anion-exchange separation for neotropical trypanosomes: a preliminary trial and a description of trypanosoma devei from the tamarin saguinus midas niger.anion-exchange separation trials using deae-cellulose columns were performed with blood from two single species of marsupial and edentate, three species of rodent and single species of carnivore, primate, cayman and lizard. trypanosoma cruzi was isolated from didelphis marsupialis, dasypus novemcinctus and coendou sp. t. (megatrypanum) devei was isolated from the tamarin saguinus midas niger and the mensural characters of the organism were redescribed. anion-exchange separation was considered to ...19846429961
besnoitia darlingi (apicomplexa, sarcocystidae, toxoplasmatinae): transmission between opossums and cats.opossums (didelphis marsupialis), act as intermediate hosts for besnoitia darlingi and could be infected orally with sporozoites (oocysts) and bradyzoites (tissue cysts), or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with tachyzoites. infections could presumably be transmitted through cannibalism. cats (felis catus), the definitive host, could be infected only with bradyzoites but not sporozoites. oocysts shed by cats measure about 12 x 12 microns, resemble similarly sized oocysts of toxoplasma gondii and hammond ...19846439859
chagas' disease in the amazon basin iv. host records of trypanosoma cruzi zymodemes in the states of amazonas and rondonia, brazil.of 151 trypanosoma cruzi stocks from 117 different individual hosts collected in the states of amazonas and rondonia, 147 from 113 hosts were identified as zymodeme 1 (z1). these included t. cruzi stocks from three marsupial species, two rodent species and three triatomine species although most were from the common opossum, didelphis marsupialis. one t. cruzi stock from rhodnius robustus was identified as z1 with a z3 pgm character, one from sciurus sp. as z3 and two from monodelphis brevicaudat ...19846441530
trypanosoma cruzi: vertebrate and invertebrate cycles in the same mammal host, the opossum didelphis marsupialis.epimastigotes multiplying extracellularly and metacyclic trypomastigotes, stages that correspond to the cycle of trypanosoma cruzi in the intestinal lumen of its insect vector, were consistently found in the lumen of the anal glands of opossums didelphis marsupialis inoculated subcutaneously with infective feces of triatomid bugs.19846442753
[didelphis marsupialis: principal reservoir of leishmania spp. in the city of trujillo, venezuela]. 19846443233
chagas' disease in the amazon basin: v. periurban palms as habitats of rhodnius robustus and rhodnius pictipes--triatomine vectors of chagas' disease.trypanosoma cruzi infected rhodnius robustus and/or rhodnius pictipes were commonly found, in large numbers, in the brazilian amazonian palms maximiliana regia ("inajá"), acrocomia sclerocarpa ("mucajá") and orbignya speciosa ("babaçu"). the common opossum, didelphis marsupialis, was the animal most frequently associated with triatomine infested palms. r. pictipes, frequently light-attracted into houses from palm trees, was the probable source of an acute case of chagas' disease in the vicinity ...19836443629
six new leptospiral serovars isolated from wild animals in peru.six new serovars of leptospira interrogans were isolated from opossums (didelphis marsupialis and philander opossum) trapped in the peruvian jungle. the proposed names, type strain designation, and serogroup of the serovars, respectively, were: huallaga, strain m-7, djasiman serogroup; luis, strain m-6, tarassovi serogroup; machiguenga, strain mmd-3, icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup; rioja, strain mr-12, bataviae serogroup; rupa rupa, strain m-3, sejroe serogroup; and tingomaria, strain m-13, cynop ...19846470106
isolation of mycobacterium avium complex from an opossum didelphis marsupialis in brazil. 19846485070
isolation of leptospira from wild forest animals in amazonian brazil.the role of wild, forest animals as reservoirs of leptospira was investigated in pará state, north brazil. 696 animals were examined by culture of kidney tissue; isolates of serovar ballum were made from the rodent proechimys sp. and the opossum didelphis marsupialis; leptospires of the serogroups hebdomadis, grippotyphosa and cynopteri were isolated from the armadillo dasypus novemcinctus, and as yet untyped leptospires were isolated from proechimys and the procyonid carnivore nasua nasua. anti ...19846710564
ascaridoid nematodes of south american mammals, with a definition of a new genus.ascaridoid nematodes occurring in south american mammals are divided into categories based on their possible origin. the affinities are discussed of five species so far known only from the neotropical region. toxocara alienata (rudolphi 1819) is reported from nasua rufa socialis, procyon cancrivorus, and tayassus torquatus. the specimens from t. torquatus are described and found most closely to resemble toxocara mackerrasae from south-east asian and austrialian rodents. anisakis insignis from in ...19826757321
sarcocystis infections in georgia swine.tissues from 168 mature sows obtained at slaughter in northern and southern georgia were examined for infection with sarcocystis spp. digestion techniques revealed zoites in 28 (16.5%) sows. infected meat was fed to laboratory-reared dogs, cats, raccoons (procyon lotor), and opossums (didelphis marsupialis). dogs and raccoons shed sporocysts (8.3 mum x 11.2 mum) 12 to 14 days after infection. cats and opossums were refractory to infection. sarcocystis-free pigs were infected with 50,000 sporocys ...19806782918
mammalian wildlife diseases as hazards to man and livestock in an area of the llanos orientales of colombia.development of the llanos orientales of colombia, and access to underdeveloped areas in the llanos, may create disease hazards to man and domestic animals or introduce exotic pathogens, creating reservoirs of infection for domestic animals and acting as limiting factors on the native wild species. a survey of wild animals common to the llanos revealed a number of parasites indigenous to the area. a total total of 59 mammalian species, representing eight orders were examined. haematozoa were repr ...19816788961
detection of antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi in the south american opossum (didelphis marsupialis).stocks of trypanosoma cruzi belonging to two different zymodemes, one usually associated with silvatic reservoir hosts and the other not normally found in wild reservoir hosts, were used as sources of diagnostic antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies to t. cruzi in didelphis marsupialis. both antigen preparations reacted with antibodies in sera from animals found to be infected by conventional parasitological techniques and also in sera from a proportion o ...19826805104
chagas's disease in the amazon basin: ii. the distribution of trypanosoma cruzi zymodemes 1 and 3 in pará state, north brazil.in pará state, brazil, 123 trypanosoma cruzi stocks were isolated from 12 silvatic mammal species, five silvatic triatomine species and individuals with acute chagas's disease. 100 t. cruzi stocks were identified as zymodeme (z) 1, 17 as z3 and 6 as z3 with z1 asat character, but none were t. cruzi z2. z1 was predominantly isolated from arboreal mammals, especially didelphis marsupialis; z3 was mainly found in terrestrial or burrowing mammals, particularly dasypus novemcinctus and monodelphis br ...19817036428
leishmaniasis in brazil: xvi. isolation and identification of leishmania species from sandflies, wild mammals and man in north para state, with particular reference to l. braziliensis guyanensis causative agent of "pian-bois".a total of 125 wild mammals (14 different species) were examined for evidence of infection with leishmania in an area of primary forest highly endemic for "pian-bois", due to leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, in north pará state, brazil. parasites isolated were characterized biologically, and biochemically on enzymic profiles. l. b. guyanensis was isolated from the viscera of one lesser anteater (tamandua tetradactyla) and one opossum (didelphis marsupialis), and the skin of one rodent (proech ...19817324128
the opossum, didelphis marsupialis (marsupialia: didelphidae), as a reservoir host of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the amazon basin of brazil.a total of 52 opossums (six species) were examined for evidence of infection with leishmania in three different areas of forest near manaus, amazonas state, brazil. no infections were detected in 27 opossums from a region of relatively undisturbed forest, including specimens of didelphis marsupialis (18); metachirus nudicaudatus (four); monodelphis brevicaudata (one); marmosa cinerea (two); m. murina (one) and m. parvidens (one). of 15 d. marsupialis captured from a biological reserve, much dist ...19817324129
leishmania donovani in the oppossum (didelphis marsupialis). 19807420255
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of missouri and east central kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmission.sera from 273 wild mammals from missouri and kansas (usa), collected between december 1974 and december 1987, were tested for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii using the sabin-feldman dye test. sixty-five (24%) had antibodies at titers of > or = 1:8, including 38 (66%) of 58 carnivores, 14 (15%) of 94 omnivores, 13 (11%) of 117 herbivores, and none of four insectivores. the prevalence of antibodies in mice (mus musculus and peromyscus spp.) and rats (rattus norvegicus and sigmodon ...19957563419
distribution of nadph-diaphorase-positive neurons in the opossum neocortex.the distribution of nadph-diaphorase reactive cells were evaluated both in horizontal sections of a flattened cortex and in transversal sections of the opossum (didelphis marsupialis) neocortex. the tangential distribution of labeled cells behind the orbitalis fissure was denser in the rostral vs caudal regions and in the lateral vs medial regions. transversal sections revealed that most of the positive neurons are in the grey matter, although 1/4 of this population is located in the underlying ...19947640634
trypanosoma cruzi infection in the opossum didelphis marsupialis: absence of neonatal transmission and protection by maternal antibodies in experimental infections.the high rate of natural trypanosoma cruzi infection found in opossums does not always correlate with appreciable densities of local triatomid populations. one alternative method which might bypass the invertebrate vector is direct transmission from mother to offspring. this possibility was investigated in five t. cruzi infected females and their litters (24 young). the influence of maternal antibodies transferred via lactation, on the course of experimental infection, was also examined. our res ...19947823818
natural resistance of opossum (didelphis marsupialis) to the mapanare (bothrops lanceolatus) snake venom.the inactivation of local and general effects of the mapanare (bothrops lanceolatus) venom by opossum's (didelphis marsupialis) serum fractions was tested using an in vivo assay and an in vitro preincubation experiment. a serum fraction of the opossum serum has been obtained by immunochemical purification. it is only present in opossum's protective opossum serum fraction (f-0.1).19938186456
didelphis marsupialis, an important reservoir of trypanosoma (schizotrypanum) cruzi and leishmania (leishmania) chagasi in colombia.the role of didelphis marsupialis as a reservoir of zoonotic hemoflagellates was examined in two ecologically distinct settings in colombia. while 72% (12 of 18) of the opossums collected in the tropical rain forest harbored trypanosoma cruzi, other mammals in the area had lower infection rates: 1.3% (proechymis semispinosus [spiny rat]; 13% tylomys mirae [climbing rat]; and 6% rattus rattus). trypanosoma cruzi isolates from d. marsupialis were similar to zymodeme 1 (z1), and two of four phenoty ...19948203703
characterization of a marsupial sperm protamine gene and its transcripts from the north american opossum (didelphis marsupialis).a synthetic oligonucleotide primer, designed from marsupial protamine protein-sequence data [balhorn, r., corzett, m., matrimas, j. a., cummins, j. & faden, b. (1989) analysis of protamines isolated from two marsupials, the ring-tailed wallaby and gray short-tailed opossum, j. cell. biol. 107] was used to amplify, via the polymerase chain reaction, protamine sequences from a north american opossum (didelphis marsupialis) cdna. using the amplified sequences as probes, several protamine cdna clone ...19938344286
genetic exchange as a possible source of genomic diversity in sylvatic populations of trypanosoma cruzi.thirty six stocks of trypanosoma cruzi isolated from sylvatic mammals (32 didelphis marsupialis and one philander opossum) and triatomine bugs (rhodnius robustus and one unidentified bug) in the amazonian forest by carajas, brazil were characterized by isoenzyme and random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis as belonging to principal zymodeme '1 (z1). two different homozygous phenotypes and the corresponding heterozygous phenotype were found for phosphoglucomutase with an observed frequenc ...19968615458
[trypanosoma cruzi in french guinea: review of accumulated data since 1940].between 1939 and 1994, nine cases of chagas disease have been reported in french guiana: seven in the acute phase including two that were fatal and two in the chronic phase with cardiac sequellae. a tenth case of transient parasitemia was described but the patient's clinical status was not mentioned. screening by xenodiagnosis revealed one subclinical infection. heart disease is a highly specific manifestation of trypanosoma cruzi infection, this being consistent with the known presence of zymod ...19968767800
biological and isoenzymatic characterization of trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from sylvatic reservoirs and vectors from the state of santa catarina, southern brazil.sixty eight trypanosoma cruzi strains were isolated in the state of santa catarina, southern brazil, from sylvatic reservoirs or naturally infected vectors and characterized by their biological behaviour in mice, morphology of bloodstream forms and isoenzyme profiles. twenty eight strains were isolated from the triatomine bug (panstrongylus megistus), 2 from rodents (echimys dasythrix and akodon sp) and 38 from opossums (didelphis marsupialis). the infectivity in mice of 48 t. cruzi strains show ...19958907395
trypanosoma cruzi in the anal glands of urban opossums. i--isolation and experimental infections.opossums (didelphis marsupialis) captured in intensely urbanized areas of the city of caracas, venezuela, were found infected with trypanosoma cruzi. the developmental cycle of trypomastigote-epimastigote-metacyclic infective trypomastigote, usually occurring in the intestine of the triatomine vector, was taking place in the anal odoriferous glands of the opossums. material from the glands, inoculated in young, healthy opossums and white mice by different routes, subcutaneously, intraperitoneall ...19969070398
histopathological study of experimental and natural infections by trypanosoma cruzi in didelphis marsupialis.didelphis marsupialis, the most important sylvatic reservoir of trypanosoma cruzi, can also maintain in their anal scent glands the multiplicative forms only described in the intestinal tract of triatomine bugs. a study of 21 experimentally and 10 naturally infected opossums with t. cruzi was undertaken in order to establish the histopathological pattern under different conditions. our results showed that the inflammation was predominantly lymphomacrophagic and more severe in the naturally infec ...19969137746
trypanosoma cruzi in the opossum didelphis marsupialis: a study of the correlations and kinetics of the systemic and scent gland infections in naturally and experimentally infected animals.the genus didelphis (marsupialia, didelphidae) has the unique capacity of supporting both multiplication cycles of trypanosoma cruzi simultaneously; besides the intracellular forms, the epimastigotes can be found multiplying and differentiating abundantly in the lumen of the scent glands. the biological significance of the life cycle of t. cruzi within the scent glands of didelphis marsupialis, as well as its contribution to the epidemiology of the disease, is presently unclear. in order to clar ...19979149239
new records of histoplasma capsulatum from wild animals in the brazilian amazon.twenty-eight isolates of histoplasma capsulatum were obtained from eight species of forest mammals from the states of amazonas, pará and rondônia in the amazon region of brazil. primary isolates were obtained by inoculating triturated liver and spleen tissue intradermally and intraperitoneally in hamsters. mycological diagnosis in hamsters presenting lesions was confirmed by histopathology and culture on sabouraud dextrose-agar. infected hamsters developed signs of disease within two to nine mon ...19969216108
infection by trypanosoma cruzi in mammals in yucatan, mexico: a serological and parasitological study.in order to determine trypanosoma cruzi infection among mammals in yucatan, mexico, 372 animals, both wild and synanthropic including carnivores, marsupials and rodents were studied. serological studies by indirect haemagglutination (iha) were carried out to detect antibodies to t. cruzi and a parasitological study was also performed (blood smear and histopathology). of all the animals tested 18.54% were serologically positive, with a significantly higher frequency among the wild ones (33.33%) c ...19969216111
trypanosoma (schizotrypanum) cruzi: histopathology in mice infected with strains isolated from didelphis marsupialis from the valley of caracas (venezuela).the histopathological alterations produced in nmri strain mice by isolates of trypanosoma cruzi from didelphis marsupialis captured near human dwellings in the valley of caracas, venezuela are described. the donor opossums showed pseudocysts and amastigotes and trypomastigotes only in the heart muscle, and few areas of discrete inflammations and lysis of some muscle cells. mice were parasitized in the heart, skeletal muscle, jejunum, colon, liver, lung, urinary bladder, penis, seminal vesicle, p ...19969460250
some bacterial enteropathogens in wildlife and racing pigeons from trinidad.fecal and cloacal swabs or feces of wild mammalian, avian and reptilian species, either farmed or free-ranging, and of racing pigeons (columba livia) kept in lofts were cultured for salmonella spp., campylobacter spp., and yersinia spp. of 291 free-ranging mammals tested, 6 (2%) and 1 (< 1%) yielded positive cultures of salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp., respectively. salmonella newport was the predominant serotype isolated and the opossum (didelphis marsupialis insularis) had the significa ...19989476228
leishmania (leishmania) chagasi: clinical and parasitological observations in experimentally infected didelphis marsupialis, reservoir of new world visceral leishmaniasis. 19989501852
dynamics of leishmania chagasi infection in small mammals of the undisturbed and degraded tropical dry forests of northern colombia.the infection rate with leishmania chagasi and the population dynamics of small mammals were studied in an undisturbed forest reserve (colosó) and an area of highly degraded forest (san andrés de sotavento [sas]) in northern colombia, both endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. live trapping of mammals was done every month, and species, age, sex and reproductive status determined. l. chagasi was detected in samples of skin or spleen by the polymerase chain reaction, after extraction of deoxyribonuc ...19989861395
an investigation on the ecology of triatoma vitticeps (stal, 1859) and its possible role in the transmission of trypanosoma cruzi, in the locality of triunfo, santa maria madalena municipal district, state of rio de janeiro, brazil.from january 1989 to april 1995, 465 specimens of triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of triunfo, 2nd district of santa maria madalena municipal district, state of rio de janeiro. the bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. the flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead) were examined for trypanosoma cruzi infection. this was detected in 31 of the dead bugs ...19989921289
the complexity of the sylvatic cycle of trypanosoma cruzi in rio de janeiro state (brazil) revealed by the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene.american trypanosamiasis occurs in nature as a sylvatic cycle, where trypanosoma cruzi interacts with wild triatomines and mammalian reservoirs, such as marsupials, rodents, armadillos and other animals. due to difficulties in trying to isolate t. cruzi stocks from the sylvatic cycle, very few studies have been performed in order to understand the parasite infection in natural environments. traditionally t. cruzi has been considered to be composed of a highly heterogeneous population of parasite ...199910028530
humoral immune response kinetics in philander opossum and didelphis marsupialis infected and immunized by trypanosoma cruzi employing an immunofluorescence antibody test.philander opossum and didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. in order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with t. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence a ...199910348985
trypanosoma cruzi: correlations of biological aspects of the life cycle in mice and triatomines.the infection pattern in swiss mice and triatomine bugs (rhodnius neglectus) of eleven clones and the original stock of a trypanosoma cruzi isolate, derived from a naturally infected didelphis marsupialis, were biochemically and biologically characterized. the clones and the original isolate were in the same zymodeme (z1) except that two clones were found to be in zymodeme 2 when tested with g6pdh. although infective, neither the original isolate nor the clones were highly virulent for the mice ...199910348990
new methodology for the obtainment of antibothropic factors from the south american opossum (didelphis marsupialis) and jararaca snake (bothrops jararaca).the antibothropic factor (abf) from d. marsupialis was collected from perforated hollow plastic golf balls which were surgically implanted subcutaneously in anesthetized opossums, a technique originally described for the production of polyclonal antibodies. two months after the implantation of the balls, approximately 15 ml of seromatous fluid from d. marsupialis (sfdm-50 mg total protein/ml) could be recovered monthly. opossum serum as well as sfdm showed similar sds-page profiles and antihemor ...199910414866
epidemiologic aspects of american visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic focus in eastern venezuela.an endemic focus of american visceral leishmaniasis (avl) in eastern venezuela has been evaluated in terms of patients (n = 48), immunologic reactivity to leishmania in household contacts (n = 187) and neighborhood controls (n = 170), detection of leishmania (l. donovani complex) in dogs and wild animals by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and characteristics of the sandfly population. the male:female ratio of patients was 1.18:1; 89.6% were < or =12 years old. serologic reactivity was signif ...199910674675
genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of colombian trypanosoma cruzi populations as determined by schizodeme and isoenzyme markers.twenty-four trypanosoma cruzi stocks isolated from vectors and from human and didelphis marsupialis hosts from highly separated sylvatic localities in colombia were characterized by isoenzyme and schizodeme analyses. the stocks were collected primarily from sylvatic ecotopes representing areas of low, moderate, and high endemicity for chagas' diseases in colombia. parasites were characterized mainly by schizodeme analysis with the restriction enzyme eco ri and the isoenzyme analysis was performe ...199910674683
nitric oxide synthase expression in the opossum superior colliculus: a histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nnos) in the superior colliculus (sc) of the opossum didelphis marsupialis was studied by nadph diaphorase (nadph-d) histochemistry and nnos immunohistochemistry. in addition, the activity of nnos was quantified by measurement of [(3)h]-l-arginine conversion to [(3)h]-l-citrulline in tissue extracts from sc superficial layers in opossums and rats. our results show that the number of nadph-d stained cells was small and virtually identical in strat ...199910681601
life cycle of ixodes (ixodes) loricatus (acari: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.the life cycle of ixodes (ixodes) loricatus neumann, reared in the laboratory, is described. engorged females collected from opossums trapped in the states of minas gerais and são paulo, brazil, which were used to start the laboratory colonies, were designated as bmg and csp, respectively. larval and nymphal ticks from both colonies fed separately on rattus norvergicus berkenhout or calomys callosus rengger, whereas didelphis marsupialis l and didelphis albiventris lund were used as hosts for bm ...200011004783
trypanosoma cruzi infection in didelphis marsupialis in santa catarina and arvoredo islands, southern brazil.between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (didelphis marsupialis) was studied in santa catarina and arvoredo islands, state of santa catarina, brazil. the association of the triatomine bug panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by t. cruzi was also studied. thirteen different locations were studied in santa catarina island (sci), in which 137 d. marsupialis were collected. sixty two opossums were collected ...200011080763
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