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bacteremia and vegetative endocarditis associated with a heart murmur in a blue-and-gold macaw.a 6-year-old male blue-and-gold macaw (ara ararauna) was presented with severe weakness, anorexia, and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. cardiac auscultation revealed a soft systolic murmur. blood cultures collected both antemortem and postmortem yielded pure isolates of enterobacter cloacae. at necropsy, vegetative endocarditis was found involving the left atrioventricular valve. microscopically, the lesion on the valve was characterized by a mixture of necrotic material, colonies of gram-negati ...19921485868
serratia marcescens infection in a blue and gold macaw. 19836358166
surgical correction of ileus in a blue-and-gold macaw (ara ararauna).a blue-and-gold macaw (ara ararauna) was presented with a history of vomiting and production of small amounts of thin feces. a diagnosis of partial obstructive ileus was made following an oral barium-contrast study of the alimentary canal. the ileus proved to be the result of an adhesion of an intestinal loop to the abdominal wall and was successfully corrected by surgical intervention.19968790905
development of monoclonal antibodies for measurement of immunoglobulin g antibody responses in blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna).to produce monoclonal antibodies (mab) with specificity for the heavy chain of macaw igg; to incorporate these mab into an elisa to measure igg responses of macaws inoculated with bovine serum albumin (bsa); and to evaluate the antigenicity of bsa in blue and gold macaws.19968836367
maternal immunoglobulin g antibody transfer and development of immunoglobulin g antibody responses in blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) chicks.to document the maternal transfer of igg antibodies from blue and gold macaw hens to chicks via the egg; to measure serum igg half-life in macaw chicks; and to measure the ability of 2- to 10-week-old macaw chicks to generate primary and secondary igg responses.19968836368
health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (ara spp.) in peru.as part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. all but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical exami ...19979523629
occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a polish zoo.the study was carried out from april 2000-march 2001. during this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the silesian zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. mites were extracted using the berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. for identification, the mites were mounted in hoyer's medium on microscope slides. mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). a total of 5,0 ...200415236495
isolation of a coronavirus from a green-cheeked amazon parrot (amazon viridigenalis cassin).a virus (av71/99) was isolated from a green-cheeked amazon parrot by propagation and passage in both primary embryo liver cells derived from blue and yellow macaw (ara ararauna) embryos and chicken embryo liver cells. electron microscopic examination of cytopathic agents derived from both types of cell cultures suggested that it was a coronavirus. this was confirmed using a pan-coronavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction that amplified part of gene 1 that encodes the rna-dependen ...200616595304
tissue distribution of psittacid herpesviruses in latently infected parrots, repeated sampling of latently infected parrots and prevalence of latency in parrots submitted for necropsy.psittacid herpesvirus-1 (pshv-1) is the cause of an acute fatal disease in parrots and is implicated as the cause of papillomatous lesions of the digestive tract. not all infections cause disease and some parrots are infected asymptomatically. latently infected parrots are potential sources for virus dissemination. tissues from parrots that died spontaneously with a history of coming from flocks where a pshv-1 outbreak had occurred were examined for pshv-1 dna. fourteen of 16 parrots examined we ...200617121080
pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in the blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) after intravenous and oral administration.azithromycin is classified as an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antimicrobials with a broad spectrum of activity in vitro against many potential bacterial pathogens including spirochetes, anaerobes, and chlamydia trachomatis. because of limited data on the use of azithromycin in avian medicine, this study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna), a species commonly seen in clinical practice. azithromycin (10 mg/kg) was administered v ...200517312716
identification and comparison of marbofloxacin metabolites from the plasma of ball pythons (python regius) and blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna).marbofloxacin is a veterinary only, synthetic, broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. in mammals, approximately 40% of the oral dose of marbofloxacin is excreted unchanged in the urine; the remaining is excreted via the bile as unchanged drug in the feces. the vd ranges from 1.1 (cattle) to 1.3 (dog, goat, swine) l/kg. because of extra-label use of marbofloxacin in birds and reptiles, this study was designed to determine the profile of metabolites in plasma and compare the circulati ...200717472658
chlamydophila psittaci genotype e/b transmission from african grey parrots to humans.thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of chlamydophila psittaci. in the relief unit, 5 of 20 african grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. the birds received no antibiotic treatment. birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. they received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. the manager complained of shortness of ...200717644718
avian malaria in captive psittacine birds: detection by microscopy and 18s rrna gene amplification.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the occurrence of malaria infection among captive psittacine birds (n=127) from three zoological gardens in brazil. malaria infection was evaluated by the association of direct examination of blood smears with amplification of the 18ssu rrna gene of the plasmodium genus, demonstrating an overall occurrence of 36%. most infected bird species were amazona aestiva (28/73), ara ararauna (6/10), and amazona amazonica (3/10). the low parasitemias obse ...200918937986
extrapyramidal side effects in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) treated with haloperidol and clomipramine.a diagnosis of adverse extrapyramidal symptoms (eps) was reached in a 14-year-old female blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) that presented with disseminated dystonia (manifesting as pacing, head bobbing, and circling), intermittent ataxia, and coarse-muscle tremors of 60 hours duration. the patient had been treated 23 days previously with haloperidol decanoate (1.7 mg/kg im once), and for 3 days before hospitalization with clomipramine hcl at a prescribed dosage of 3.9 mg/kg po q12h. the patient ...200819014097
isolation of salmonella typhimurium from dead blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna).two blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) chicks died of fatal salmonellosis in buenos aires province, argentina. the birds were histopathologically and microbiologically examined. salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar typhimurium was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and intestine of both birds. all strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, tetracycline, nitrofu ...200919432017
bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.this study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), ara severa (1 individual) and ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a brazilian zoo. post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. histopathological examination of the organs showed t ...201222902190
molecular detection and genotyping of chlamydia psittaci in captive psittacines from costa rica.oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88) and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29) were collected to determine the prevalence of c. psittaci in captive birds in costa rica. samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with ara macao (33), amazona autumnalis (24), amazona ochrocephala (21), and ara ararauna (8) being the most representative species sampled. c. psittaci was detected in four ...201324163776
clostridium perfringens type a enteritis in blue and yellow macaw (ara ararauna).this study describes an outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by clostridium perfringens type a in captive macaws (ara ararauna). two psittacine birds presented a history of prostration and died 18 hr after manifestation of clinical signs. the necropsy findings and histopathologic lesions were indicative of necrotic enteritis. microbiologic assays resulted in the growth of large gram-positive bacilli that were identified as c. perfringens. pcr was used to identify clostridium toxinotypes and con ...201425619013
chronic dermatitis caused by lactobacillus jensenii infection in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna).a 5-year-old sexually intact female blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) was evaluated because of a swelling on the right side of the face and irritated area on the ventral aspect of the keel.201324050571
development of colour-producing beta-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs.the non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of beta-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. 'channel' nanostructures consist of beta-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. 'spherical' nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by t ...200919336345
multiple tracheal resections and anastomoses in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna).a 1.5-year-old, male blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) was anesthetized for a health examination and blood collection. the following day it was returned for episodes of coughing. the bird was presented again 13 days after the initial presentation with severe dyspnea. a tracheal stenosis was diagnosed by endoscopy and treated by surgical resection of 5 tracheal rings and tracheal anastomosis. the bird was discharged but returned 2 days later with a recurrent stenosis. bougienage and balloon dila ...201021302763
genetic evaluation of the mating system in the blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna, aves, psittacidae) by dna fingerprinting.more than 90% of birds are socially monogamous, although genetic studies indicate that many are often not sexually monogamous. in the present study, dna fingerprinting was used to estimate the genetic relationships between nestlings belonging to the same broods to evaluate the mating system in the socially monogamous macaw, ara ararauna. we found that in 10 of 11 broods investigated, the nestlings showed genetic similarity levels congruent with values expected among full-sibs, suggesting that th ...201121637560
pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna).to determine the pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after single iv and orally administered doses in blue and gold macaws.200616740085
dna sequence analysis to guide the release of blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna, psittaciformes, aves) from the illegal trade back into the wild.the illegal wildlife trade is one of the major threats to brazil's biodiversity. approximately 80 % of illegally captured animals are birds, and 4 % of those are parrots. although many seized birds do not survive, those that are recovered may be returned to the wild. the release of seized individuals into the wild should be conducted with caution, as local populations may suffer adverse effects if genetically different individuals are introduced. in this study, we evaluated the genetic relations ...201323184047
pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metastasis and secondary paresis in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna).a 16-yr-old female blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) was presented with an acute history of lethargy, inappetance, ataxia, and paralysis. the bird had rapidly progressed from a normal state to complete inability to perch or ambulate within a 48-hr period. neurologic examination revealed bilateral hind limb paresis with upper motor neuron signs present in both legs and the vent. radiographs identified multiple nodular soft-tissue opacities within the cranial coelomic cavity and a single nodule s ...201223272361
beak infection by penicillium cyclopium in a macaw (ara ararauna).a case of localized beak infection by penicillium cyclopium in a macaw (ara ararauna) is described. a necrotic lesion, with destruction of the corneous layer, was localized in the upper zone of the beak. diagnosis was carried out on samples of the affected zone by direct microscopic observation, routine fungal culturing techniques, and scanning electron microscopy. results were consistent: p. cyclopium was the only microorganism associated with the lesion site. no previous reports concerning thi ...20037702532
adverse drug reaction to metoclopramide hydrochloride in a macaw with proventricular dilatation syndrome.a 4-year-old female blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) with a history of chronic vomiting was treated with metoclopramide hydrochloride. after the second treatment, ataxia, torticollis, and opisthotonos became evident. these signs resolved with the administration of diphenhydramine hydrochloride. despite supportive care, the bird died several days later. histologic lesions were suggestive of proventricular dilatation syndrome.19938407511
pancreatic atrophy in a blue and gold macaw. 19863505941
gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (git) of blue and yellow macaws (ara ararauna) - oral cavity and pharynx.morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract (git) of blue and yellow macaws (ara ararauna) are scarce. therefore, this study aims to describe the macaw's oropharyngeal cavity in order to supply the deficiency of anatomical data and as part of a broad study of the git of these birds. two male and one female adult blue and yellow macaws were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. the macaw oropharynx was 'v-shaped' and flattened laterally being composed of maxillary and mandibula ...201323410201
gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (git) of blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna) - oesophagus to cloaca.morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract of blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna) are scarce. in view of the paucity of information regarding the digestive tract of macaws, this study aims to describe the gross anatomical features (oesophagus to cloaca) as part of a broad study of the gastrointestinal tract (git) of these birds. three animals (two males and one female) adult macaws were anatomically dissected from the oropharynx to the cloaca to expose the git. the oesophagus was iden ...201323414512
effects of food processing and fibre content on the digestibility, energy intake and biochemical parameters of blue-and-gold macaws (ara ararauna l. - aves, psittacidae).considering the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases in caged psittacines, the effect of fibre and food processing was evaluated in the blue-and-gold macaw. four food formulations (0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of sugarcane fibre) processed by pelleting or extrusion were studied, resulting in eight diets. to study digestibility, 48 macaws housed in pairs in cages was used in a block design. subsequently, diets containing 0% or 21% sugarcane fibre, pelleted or extrude was fed for 4 months ...201423627662
coccidia of new world psittaciform birds (aves: psittaciformes): eimeria ararae n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw ara ararauna (linnaeus).in the new world, the avian order psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of eimeria schneider, 1875 have been described. in this study, a new coccidian species (protozoa: apicomplexa: eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw ara ararauna (linnaeus) is reported from brazil. oöcysts of eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 μm and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μ ...201424832188
motivation and manipulation capacities of the blue and yellow macaw and the tufted capuchin: a comparative approach.this study compared the motivation of the blue and yellow macaw (n=8) and the tufted capuchin (n=3) to manipulate objects that presented different features, their manipulative repertoires, and their ability to solve complex manipulation tasks. results show that both species seem to be more motivated to manipulate objects that look like food items and that manipulative behavior may be considered as play behavior in the blue and yellow macaws, and would improve foraging motor skills. the tufted ca ...201425043567
monoclonal hyperglobulinemia in lymphosarcoma in a cockatiel (nymphicus hollandicus) and a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna).a 15-yr-old cockatiel (nymphicus hollandicus) presented with decreased activity and appetite. a presumptive diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease was made because of a monoclonal band observed on plasma protein electrophoresis. the owner declined further diagnostics or treatment, and the bird died 2 yr later. in a second case, a 4-yr-old blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) presented with lethargy and anorexia. despite supportive treatment, the bird died 7 days later. blood studies also demonst ...201425055643
central vestibular disease in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage.a 24-year-old female blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) was presented for an acute onset of left head tilt. on examination, the macaw was dehydrated and had a 120-degree left head tilt, decreased proprioception of the left pelvic limb, and intermittent vertical nystagmus. results of hematologic testing and biochemical analysis revealed severe leukocytosis with lymphopenia and heterophilia and a high uric acid concentration. radiographs showed bilateral intertarsal joint osteoarthritis and a heal ...201425115042
coding-complete sequencing classifies parrot bornavirus 5 into a novel virus species.in this study, we determined the sequence of the coding region of an avian bornavirus detected in a blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna) with pathological/histopathological changes characteristic of proventricular dilatation disease. the genomic organization of the macaw bornavirus is similar to that of other bornaviruses, and its nucleotide sequence is nearly identical to the available partial parrot bornavirus 5 (pabv-5) sequences. phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains formed a monop ...201526282234
comparative analysis of tear composition in humans, domestic mammals, reptiles, and birds.tears are an important component of the ocular surface protection mechanism and are in close contact with the corneal epithelium and the environment. their composition is well-known in humans; however, there are few investigations on the composition and function of tears in reptiles, birds and others mammals, which would elucidate the mechanisms governing the maintenance of ocular homeostasis. in this work, electrophoretic profiles and an evaluation of total protein, albumin, urea, glucose, and ...202032528986
seed dispersal and predation of buchenavia tomentosa eichler (combretaceae) in a cerrado sensu stricto, midwest brazil.the ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. we investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of buchenavia tomentosa in the serra azul state park (pesa). we estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. we carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha-1. b. ...201526602355
complete mitochondrial genome of blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna): the species morphologically similar to blue-throated macaw (ara glaucogularis).six genera of the arini tribe form morphologically diverse group termed as macaws. the presence of bare facial area distinguishes them from other members of the tribe. genera and species of macaw group differ in pattern of this bare skin as well as in body size. the genus ara contains eight extant species. two of them are classified as medium-sized macaws and other six species are classified as large macaws. based on morphological similarities and differences, large macaw species can be segregat ...201726714066
first record of paratanaisia bragai (digenea: eucotylidae) in blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna).the aim of this study was to provide the first report on a new host for the digenean paratanaisia bragai in the caninde macaw ara ararauna along with the pathological aspects of the infection in the new host. the microscopic findings revealed the presence of granulomatous interstitial nephritis. this study contributes towards knowledge of parasitism by p. bragai in a. ararauna, and emphasizes the need to use best practices in wildlife conservation parks.201626982561
pelvic limb amputation for the treatment of a soft-tissue sarcoma of the tibiotarso-tarsometatarsal joint in a blue-and-gold macaw (ara ararauna).an unsexed, 16-year-old blue-and-gold macaw (ara ararauna) was presented for evaluation of rapidly growing subcutaneous masses at the left tibiotarso-tarsometatarsal joint. results of incisional biopsy were diagnostic for an intermediate-grade soft-tissue sarcoma. a distal-femoral amputation was performed and the leg was submitted for histopathology. histopathologic examination confirmed the biopsy diagnosis and revealed neoplastic spread into the bone marrow cavity of the tibiotarsus. excisiona ...201627315384
bilateral uveitis and hyphema in a catalina macaw (ara ararauna × ara macao ) with multicentric lymphoma.a 20-year-old, female catalina macaw (ara ararauna × ara macao ) was presented with bilateral uveitis and hyphema. the hyphema initially improved with 0.12% prednisolone acetate ophthalmic drops (1 drop ou q4h for 7 days), but the hyphema recurred after the drops were tapered. the bird subsequently developed inappetance, weight loss, regurgitation, and lethargy and was euthanatized 24 days after initial presentation. necropsy revealed marked splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with significant mucosa ...201627315386
normal computed tomographic features and reference values for the coelomic cavity in pet parrots.the increasing popularity gained by pet birds over recent decades has highlighted the role of avian medicine and surgery in the global veterinary scenario; such a need for speciality avian medical practice reflects the rising expectation for high-standard diagnostic imaging procedures. the aim of this study is to provide an atlas of matched anatomical cross-sections and contrast-enhanced ct images of the coelomic cavity in three highly diffused psittacine species.201627596377
computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of blue-and-gold macaws (ara ararauna), african grey parrots (psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (myiopsitta monachus).objective to create an atlas of the normal ct anatomy of the head of blue-and-gold macaws (ara ararauna), african grey parrots (psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (myiopsitta monachus). animals 3 blue-and-gold macaws, 5 african grey parrots, and 6 monk parakeets and cadavers of 4 adult blue-and-gold macaws, 4 adult african grey parrots, and 7 monk parakeets. procedures contrast-enhanced ct imaging of the head of the live birds was performed with a 4-multidetector-row ct scanner. cadaveric ...201627901394
radiation therapy of periorbital lymphoma in a blue-and-gold macaw (ara ararauna).an adult male blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) was presented for evaluation of a right periorbital mass. results of diagnostic tests, including periorbital ultrasound, fine-needle aspirate, and cytologic examination, confirmed a diagnosis of periocular lymphoma. radiographs were suggestive of disseminated disease but because of concerns about the patient's quality of life, localized radiation therapy to address the periorbital disease was pursued. coarse-fractionated radiation therapy was init ...201728358607
psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. to provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (ct) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (ara ararauna, ara chloroptera, ara macao, and anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the ct scans. new morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some ...200112785700
dna barcoding identifies illegal parrot trade.illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. among these questions is the identity of the species involved. here we report a case of a man who was caught in a brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. he claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. the embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them bas ...201526245790
conjunctival xanthoma in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna).a 17-year-old female blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) presented for evaluation of a discreet, conjunctival mass of the od. no other abnormalities were found on ophthalmic or physical examination. a heterophilic leukocytosis was present on the complete blood count, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity, creatinine kinase activity and cholesterol were present on the plasma biochemistry panel. surgical removal of the mass was complete and no recurrence has occurred by six months after ...200919152599
granulomatous nephritis in psittacines associated with parasitism by the trematode paratanaisia spp.trematodes belonging to the family eucotylidae are parasites of the kidney and ureter, and affect several bird species. however, psittacines have not been identified as hosts of these parasites. three birds, an adult female blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna), an adult female blue-winged macaw (propyrrhura maracana) and an adult male white-eared parakeet (pyrrhura leucotis) were admitted at the veterinary hospital of the fundação zoo-botânica de belo horizonte, brazil (fzb/bh). all three birds ha ...200717418949
loss of the gene for the alpha subunit of atp synthase (atp5a1) from the w chromosome in the african grey parrot (psittacus erithacus).this study describes the results of an analysis using southern blotting, the polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing which shows that the african grey parrot (psittacus erithacus) lacks the w-chromosomal gene for the alpha subunit of mitochondrial atp synthase (atp5a1w). additional evidence shows that in other psittacines a fragment of the atp5a1w gene contains five times as many nonsynonymous nucleotide replacements as the homologous fragment of the z gene. therefore, whereas in these other p ...200111479684
polyuria and polydipsia due to vitamin and mineral oversupplementation of the diet of a salmon crested cockatoo (cacatua moluccensis) and a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna).this paper describes a salmon-crested cockatoo (cacatua moluccensis) and a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) of one owner, both presented with polyuria/polydipsia and weight loss. a tentative diagnosis of hypervitaminosis d(3) was based on the condition of hypercalcaemia, radiological findings and dietary history. on postmortem examination of the cockatoo, metastatic calcifications in the kidneys, lungs and proventriculus were seen. the diet was found to be oversupplemented with vitamin and min ...199718483902
the primary structure of alpha a- and beta-chains from blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna, psittaci) hemoglobin. no evidence for expression of alpha d-chains.the hemoglobin a of the blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna) was isolated and characterized. the complete amino-acid sequence of alpha a- and beta-chains is presented. in contrast to some adult avian hemoglobins already investigated, blue-and-yellow macaw hemoglobin is homogenous and contains only one component: hba. the minor component, hbd, which is usually present in the hemolysate of avian erythrocytes, could not be detected. there is no evidence for the expression of the alpha d-globin gene ...19854005049
plant food resources exploited by blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna, linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in central brazil.in this study, we described the food plants available to blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. we established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of três lagoas (mato grosso do sul, brazil). during all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly syagrus oleracea and acrocomia ac ...201425166327
cryptosporidium baileyi in wild captive psittacines in brazil.cryptosporidiosis in birds manifests as an acute or chronic disease of the respiratory or digestive tracts. the objective of our study was to perform the molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in wild psittacines kept in captivity at the araçatuba municipal zoo, são paulo, brazil. a total of 47 fecal samples were collected from amazona aestiva, psittacara leucophthalma, and ara ararauna. all samples were collected at the time the birds defecated. dna extraction was performed using th ...201731014590
necrotic enteritis caused by clostridium perfringens in blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna).clostridium perfringens types a and c, which are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria, can cause necrotic enteritis in birds. although clostridium perfringens is considered a commensal organism in the avian intestinal tract, in association with severe stress, other infectious agents, or immunosuppressive conditions, it can cause disease outbreaks. this report describes a disease occurrence of necrotic enteritis caused by c perfringens in macaws (ara ararauna). two adult male blue and ...202032237684
modified tail amputation technique in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) with uropygial gland adenocarcinoma.a 33-year-old male blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) presented with a 5-month history of an ulcerated lesion and feather loss at the tail base. two 4-mm biopsies obtained by the primary care veterinarian were consistent with uropygial gland adenocarcinoma. the bird was examined at the veterinary medical teaching hospital, university of california, and on physical evaluation, the dorsal and ventral surface of the tail base were devoid of feathers, ulcerated and crusted without an identifiable ur ...202032237683
gastrointestinal disease associated with non-albicans candida species in six birds.a non-albicans candida species was identified in 6 birds exhibiting clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal disease. the clinical disease signs noted in these 6 birds included diarrhea, regurgitation, and melena, and were considered concurrent or identified secondary to other comorbidities. candida glabrata was identified in a yellow-naped amazon parrot (amazona auropalliata), a ring-necked dove (streptopelia capicola), a blue-and-gold macaw (ara ararauna), and 2 cockatiels (nymphicus ho ...201931833310
key ring fixator: a novel external fixation technique for avian long bone stabilization.a 12-year-old blue-fronted amazon parrot (amazona aestiva) of unknown sex (case 1) and a 14-year-old female hybrid catalina macaw (ara ararauna × ara macao) (case 2) were evaluated and treated for an open tarsometatarsal fracture and a tibiotarsal fracture, respectively. in case 1, 1 month of external coaptation resulted in a delayed union, significant osteolysis, and presumptive osteomyelitis, which led to the decision to treat with a key ring fixator. in case 2, a key ring fixator was chosen f ...201931251504
in silico identification and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for the blue-and-yellow macaw ara ararauna (linnaeus, 1758) (psittaciformes, psittacidae).the illegal trade is a major threat to many bird species, and parrots are common victims of this activity. domestic and international pet markets are interested on different parrot species, such as the blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna). this south american macaw is not globally threatened, but is under protection from over-exploitation. this study aimed to identify and characterize novel microsatellite loci for population and parentage analysis of a. ararauna. scaffold sequences of ara macao ...202030730527
facial display and blushing: means of visual communication in blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna)?mainly recognized for their cognitive performance, the visual communication system and, particularly, the potential function of facial displays in parrots remain thus far unexplored. here, we provide the first descriptive study of facial display use in captive blue-and-yellow macaws. we observed the feather position (sleeked or ruffled) on the crown, nape and cheek at the group level during the macaws' daily routine and individually while interacting with a familiar animal caretaker. in the latt ...201830133471
antemortem diagnosis of coxiellosis in a blue and gold macaw ( ara ararauna).a 15-year-old female blue and gold macaw ( ara ararauna) was presented for evaluation after being found laterally recumbent, reluctant to move, and lethargic. results of a complete blood count showed an increased number of immature heterophils with increased cytoplasmic basophilia and degranulation and the presence of a left shift. radiographs and a computed tomography scan were performed and revealed a markedly enlarged spleen. an ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate of the spleen was submitt ...201729327963
cross-species amplification and optimization of microsatellite markers for use in six neotropical parrots.short amplicon primers were redesigned for 17 microsatellite loci developed in st. vincent's amazon and six loci developed in blue-and-yellow macaw and tested using six species of neotropical parrot. polymorphism was observed at 12 loci in blue-and-yellow macaw, 10 in red-and-green macaw, 11 in scarlet macaw, 10 in chestnut-fronted macaw, 11 in red-bellied macaw and 16 in mealy parrot. number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 23 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.95. the res ...200821585906
seed dispersal by macaws shapes the landscape of an amazonian ecosystem.seed dispersal is one of the most studied plant-animal mutualisms. it has been proposed that the dispersal of many large-seeded plants from neotropical forests was primarily conducted by extinct megafauna, and currently by livestock. parrots can transport large fruits using their beaks, but have been overlooked as seed dispersers. we demonstrate that three macaws (ara ararauna, a. glaucogularis and a. severus) are the main dispersers of the large-seeded motacú palm attalea princeps, which is the ...201728785083
coelomic teratoma in a blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna).a 2-mo-old, female blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna) presented with severe abdominal distension, pain, and respiratory distress. ultrasonographic examination detected a heterogeneous mass with multiple anechoic areas, compatible with a multilocular cyst, occupying most of the coelomic cavity. postmortem examination revealed a mass of 12.0 × 8.5 × 5.0 cm, which had an irregular surface and was connected by a pedicle to the ileum. this mass compressed and displaced the liver, proventriculus, gi ...201728749258
massive attack of honeybee on macaws (ara ararauna and ara chloropterus) in brazil - a case report.three adult birds of the species ara chloropterus and five of the species ara ararauna from a conservation breeding facility suffered a massive attack by honeybees. the a. chloropterus birds presented swollen puncture lesions with stingers (mainly in the facial regions without feathers), swelling of the eyelids and subcutaneous tissue, and respiratory distress, and they were treated with intramuscular injections of 1.67 mg/kg of promethazine and 10 mg/kg of hydrocortisone followed by removal of ...201728625889
intranasal administration of midazolam in blue-and-yellow macaws (ara araruana): evaluation of sedative effects. 201626871416
avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in south africa.the occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (abv) in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in south africa. this report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of abv from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (pdd) in captive bred blue and gold macaws (araara rauna) resident in this country. lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyositis wer ...201223327145
thyrotropin stimulation test for evaluation of thyroid function in psittacine birds.serum thyroid hormone concentrations were determined before and after thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [tsh]) stimulation in caged psittacine birds to determine whether the tsh stimulation test could be used to evaluate thyroid function in this class of birds. the mean (+/- sd) resting thyroxine concentrations (ng/ml) for the species studied were: cockatoos, 13.63 +/- 6.53 (n = 6); amazon parrots, 8.19 +/- 6.90 (n = 8); scarlet macaws, 1.34 +/- 0.51 (n = 9); blue and gold macaws, 3.41 +/ ...19853965424
yeasts and filamentous fungi in psittacidae and birds of prey droppings in midwest region of brazil: a potential hazard to human health.birds of prey and from psittacidae family are host to fungal microbiota and play an important role in the epidemiology of zoonoses. few studies in the literature have characterized mycelial and yeast fungi in the droppings of these birds and correlated the isolates with the zoonotic potential of the microorganisms. droppings from 149 birds were evaluated and divided into two groups: captive: rhea americana araneipes, primolius maracana, ara ararauna, ara chloropterus, anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, ...201930304251
development and validation of 2 probe-hybridization quantitative pcr assays for rapid detection of a pathogenic coxiella species in captive psittacines.avian coxiellosis is an emerging cause of morbidity and mortality among captive psittacines, and the utility of a rapid detection test using easily obtained samples is paramount in a clinical setting. new sequences were obtained from 3 genes: groel, dnak, and rpob. we developed probe-hybridization quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays using groel and dnak genes. samples, including splenic aspirates, liver aspirates, whole blood, and choanal, conjunctival, and cloacal swabs, were collected from 4 psitta ...202032188352
comparison of four anti-avian igy secondary antibodies used in western blot and dot-blot elisa to detect avian bornavirus antibodies in four different bird species.this study evaluated the specificity of different avian secondary antibodies used in western blot and dot-blot elisa to detect avian bornavirus antibodies in bird plasma.201931815098
comparison of electrolyte composition and crystallization patterns in bird and reptile tears.to compare tear electrolytes and tear crystallization patterns in birds and reptiles, tears were sampled by schirmer tear test from 10 animals each of ara ararauna, amazona aestiva, tyto alba, rupornis magnirostris, chelonoidis carbonaria, and caiman latirostris, and 5 of caretta caretta. the aliquots were pooled to assess concentrations of total protein, chloride, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, calcium, and urea. for the tear ferning test, samples of each species were observed under a pol ...202032903625
salmonella spp. infection in psittacidae at a wildlife rehabilitation center in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.the growing interest in wild birds as pets and the increasingly complex interspecific relationships due to human activities in wild environments underscore the need for better knowledge about the health of these animals. salmonella stands out among the infectious agents of considerable importance to both animal and human health. the importance of these enterobacteria to the health of humans and livestock animals has long been known. in wild birds in countries such as brazil, however, little is k ...202031880987
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