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the amino-acid sequence of alpha a- and beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component of american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber ruber).the complete amino-acid sequence of alpha a- and beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component (hba) of american flamingo ( phoenicopterus ruber ruber) is presented. the minor component (hbd) with alpha d-chains was detected in similar amounts (25%) as in chicken and pheasant hemoglobins. the comparison of american flamingo and greylag goose (anser anser) hemoglobins shows that alpha a-chains differ by 22 exchanges and beta-chains by only 4 exchanges. two substitutions modify alpha 1 beta 1-co ...19846735355
[mycobacteria in the digestive tract of pink flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber roseus, pallas)].cloacal swabs were taken from 37 young wild greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber roseus, pallas) in camargue (south of france). neither pathogenic strain, nor environmental one were found. the absence of the latter could be attributed to the high nacl levels of the ecosystems.19817296738
avian paramyxoviruses serotype 3 isolated from captive birds in israel: clinical signs, pathology, and antigenic characterization.thirteen ha agents were isolated in israel from captive flamingoes (phoenicopterus ruber), egyptian geese (alopochen aegyptiacus) belonging to order anseriformes, and ibis (guara rubra) belonging to order ciconiiformes. the isolation was done from postmortem materials in three cases of severe respiratory disease with high mortality. the isolates were examined serologically and identified as belonging to the serotype 3 of avian paramyxoviruses (apmv-3). the isolates were more close antigenically ...19989645338
investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in hong kong in late 2002.outbreaks of highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza have occurred in hong kong in chickens and other gallinaceous poultry in 1997, 2001, twice in 2002 and 2003. high mortality rates were seen in gallinaceous birds but not in domestic or wild waterfowl or other wild birds until late 2002 when highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza occurred in waterfowl (geese, ducks and swans), captive greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) and other wild birds (little egret egretta garzetta) at two waterfowl pa ...200415545029
antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed west nile virus vaccine.west nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the united states since 1999. five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for west nile virus: black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (eudyptula minor), american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber), chilean flamingos (phoenicopterus chilensis), and attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri). all birds were vaccinated intramusc ...200717679507
passive transfer of maternal antibodies to west nile virus in flamingo chicks (phoenicopterus chilensis and phoenicopterus ruber ruber).passive transfer of maternal antibodies against west nile virus (wnv) was studied in a captive population of chilean (phoenicopterus chilensis) and caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber). transfer of wnv antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. mean half-life of maternal wnv antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.200717679521
newcastle disease in a zoo affecting demoiselle cranes (anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (ducula bicolor).newcastle disease virus could be isolated from demoiselle cranes (anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (ducula bicolor) in chicken embryo fibroblast (cef) cultures. all of these birds died without prominent symptoms and had no typical pathological lesions. identification and characterisation studies of the viruses were performed in cef cultures and embryos. serological cross reactions could be detected between ndv strain b1 and the new isolates ...198118770153
characterization of west nile viruses isolated from captive american flamingoes (phoenicopterus ruber) in medellin, colombia.serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in july of 2008 in medellin (colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. eighteen of 29 samples from american flamingoes (phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for west nile virus (wnv) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. selected positive samples were serially passaged and wnv was confirmed by immunofluorescence. two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. sequence ...201222802436
scanning electron microscopic study on the tongues of seven avian species.the dorsal lingual surface of the grey crowned crane (balearica regulorum), american flamingo (phoenicopterus rubber), great egret (ardea alba), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), himalayan monal (lophophorus impejanus), black-necked stilt (himantopus mexicanus) and green macaw (ara militaris) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. in the grey crowned crane, the surface of the lingual apex was relatively rough. many openings of the lingual glands in both lateral regions of the lingual body we ...201627904021
cytotaxonomy of the ciconiiformes (aves), with karyotypes of eight species new to cytology.somatic karyotypes of 13 species of ciconiiform birds, phoenicopterus ruber chilensis, phoeniconaias minor, cochlearius cochlearius, geronticus eremita, threskiornis molucca, t. spinicollis, balaeniceps rex, ciconia ciconia, c. nigra, euxenura maguari, xenorhynchus asiaticus, ephippiorhynchus senegalensis, and leptoptilos crumeniferus are presented. the chromosomes of eight of these species are described in detail for the first time. of special interest are a case of structural heterozygosity in ...19827151490
bill impaction in a group of captive caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber).flamingos are filter feeders that only rarely ingest larger food items. their bill anatomy is adapted to the suction, filtration, and ejection of a fluid medium. this case report documents a rare case of bill impaction in a group of caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) that were kept in a mixed exhibit together with roseate spoonbills (platalea ajaja) and scarlet ibis (eudocimus ruber). the latter species received fatty minced meat as part of their diet, which was also accessible to the fl ...200717939357
[artemia sp. (crustacea, anostracea) as intermediate host of eurycestus avoceti clark, 1954 (cestoda, cyclophyllidea) (author's transl)].examination of artemia sp. (crustacé, anostracé) for natural infection by cysticercoids of flamingolepis liguloides, cestode of the flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) shows the presence of three other cysticercoids of cestode parasites of the flamingo in the hemocoele of the branchiopode. a fourth one is reported as the cysticercoid of eurycestus avoceti, clark, 1954, which parasitizes the avocet (recurvirostra avosetta). the systematic position of this cestode is always unknown. this report shows ...20067406422
pharmacokinetics of a single dose of oral and subcutaneous meloxicam in caribbean flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ruber).to determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in caribbean flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ruber), a pilot study was performed first, followed by a complete pharmacokinetic study. four healthy birds were divided into 2 groups and administered 1 mg/kg of either oral (n = 2) or subcutaneous (n = 2) meloxicam. plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. based on the pilot study results, 12 healthy birds were assigned into 2 groups and administered ...201627088740
pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline free acid, a long-acting cephalosporin, in american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber).antibiotic usage is a vital component of veterinary medicine but the unique anatomy of some species can make administration difficult. the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (ccfa), a long-acting cephalosporin antibiotic, after parenteral administration in american flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ). a dose of 10 mg/kg of ccfa was administered intramuscularly to 11 birds and blood was collected at various time points from 0 ...201627468016
coagulation parameters in the american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber).american flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ) are commonly kept in zoologic collections. when presented to veterinarians in states of health and illness, evaluation of selected coagulation parameters can aid in assessment of various coagulopathies, as well as other disease processes such as septicemia, vasculitis, and hepatic disease. sixteen american flamingos (eight males, eight females) were presented for annual health evaluations. a blood sample was collected from the medial metatarsal vein, a ...201627468017
pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intramuscular and oral administration of a single dose to american flamingos (phoenicopertus ruber).objective to determine pharmacokinetics after im and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to american flamingos (phoenicopertus ruber). animals 14 adult flamingos. procedures flamingos were allocated to 2 groups. each group received a dose of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) by the im or oral route. after a 4-week washout period, groups received meloxicam via the other route of administration. plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. data for eac ...201728240949
pharmacokinetics of a single dose of oral and subcutaneous enrofloxacin in caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber).enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial that is widely used in veterinary medicine because of its bactericidal activity and safety in a broad range of species. caribbean flamingos, a member of the order phoenicopteriformes, are popular in zoological collections and suffer from a variety of conditions that can result from or lead to bacterial infection. in this study, two groups of 7 adult captive caribbean flamingos received a single dose of 15 mg/kg enrofloxacin, administered either ora ...201728363047
correction of angular limb deformity in two subspecies of flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) utilizing a transphyseal bridging technique.three hand-raised american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber ruber) chicks and one hand-raised chilean flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) developed valgus angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsal bone. all flamingos underwent surgical correction to unequally retard the growth plate using transphyseal bridging. positive profile pins were placed in the proximal epiphysis and distal to the growth plate in the metaphysis on the convex side of the affected tarsometatarsus. various ...200517312728
complete mitochondrial genome of the american flamingo, phoenicopterus ruber (phoenicopteriformes, phoenicopteridae).the american flamingo, phoenicopterus ruber (p. ruber), is a large species of flamingo closely related to the greater flamingo and chilean flamingo. in this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of p. ruber has been assembled for the first time. it was 17 476 bp in length and consisted of 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 22 trna genes, 2 rrna genes and 2 control regions. coi and nd3 genes used gtg and atc as start codons respectively, but the remaining protein-coding genes ...201626260170
dna barcodes reveal female dimorphism in syringophilid mites (actinotrichida: prostigmata: cheyletoidea): stibarokris phoeniconaias and ciconichenophilus phoeniconaias are conspecific.here we present the first evidence of female dimorphism in ectoparasitic quill mites of the family syringophilidae (actinotrichida: prostigmata: cheyletoidea). stibarokris phoeniconaias skoracki et oconnor, 2010 and ciconichenophilus phoeniconaias skoracki et oconnor, 2010 so far have been treated as two distinct species cohabiting inside the quills of feathers of the lesser flamingo phoeniconaias minor (geoffroy saint-hilaire) and the american flamingo phoenicopterus ruber linnaeus. although fe ...201425065134
some hepatic neoplasms in non-domesticated birds.a metastasising hepatocellular carcinoma in a lesser flamingo (phoeniconaias minor), a metastasising bile duct carcinoma in a chilean flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) and a liver cell adenoma in a luzon hornbill (buceros hydrocerox hydrocerox) are described. hepatic neoplasia in birds is discussed.197818770409
the ecology of lake nakuru (kenya) : v. production and consumption of consumer organisms.consumer production and consumption were studied in the equatorial alkaline-saline lake nakuru from 1972 to 1976. together with earlier reports (including a study of the dominant consumer, the lesser flamingo phoeniconaias minor), the data provide the basis for estimating the major pathways of energy flow. detritus food chains were not included in this project.production and consumption rates were estimated from the distribution of numbers and size classes in the lake and laboratory experiments ...198428311389
the ecology of lake nakuru : vi. synopsis of production and energy flow.the major pathways of energy flow in lake nakuru (east africa) are presented. the trophic structure of this equatorial alkaline-saline lake shows no predictable long term continuity. during the five years of this study it had a bloom of spirulina platensis that persisted at least two years, it had periods with low algal densities and in addition it had various transitional phases with dramatic fluctuations of species composition and density.the spirulina platensis bloom is characterized by a ric ...198528310447
avian poxvirus infection in a flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) of the lisbon zoo.avian poxviruses (apv) are very large viruses spread worldwide in a variety of hosts. they are responsible for a disease usually referred to as pox, mainly characterized by nodular lesions on feather-free regions of the body. on may 2010, a young american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) of the lisbon zoo (portugal) developed a nodular lesion suggestive of poxvirus infection on its right foot. avipoxvirus was isolated from the lesion and a fragment of the p4b-encoding gene was amplified by polyme ...201627010277
validation of lactate measurement in american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) plasma and correlation with duration and difficulty of capture.capture myopathy and associated death have been reported with capture and restraint of greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and lesser flamingos (phoeniconaias minor). in chickens (gallus gallus), blood lactate concentration levels have been used as indicators of muscle damage. lactate has also been used to predict survival in humans and dogs. the goals of this study were to validate two common methods for measuring lactate (i-stat and vettest analyzers) in flamingo plasma by comparin ...201223082507
thromboelastography in selected avian species.currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. recently, thromboelastography (teg), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. to evaluate teg in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian teg protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samp ...201526771317
high prevalence of cestodes in artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts.brine shrimp, artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. these parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. we present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. over a 12-month period, clonal artemia parthenogenetica were sampled ...201323463137
pair bonding and lateral neck-resting preferences in captive caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber).when flamingos rest, they typically lay their head on their back and curve their neck to either the right or left of their body, with both individual and population-level lateral preferences for rightward neck resting when preferences are tracked over time (anderson, williams, & o'brien, 2009). the present study attempted to replicate these previous neck-resting preferences, to examine how they changed over time, and to examine the possibility of a relationship between lateral neck-resting prefe ...201122973810
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2009-30 september 2009.this article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) sequencing primers to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: adelges tsugae, artemisia tridentata, astroides calycularis, azorella selago, botryllus schlosseri, botrylloides violaceus, cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, campylopterus curvipennis, colocasia esculenta, cynomys ludovicianus, cynomys leucurus, cynomys gunnisoni, ...201021565018
spontaneous appearance of tay-sachs disease in an animal model.tay-sachs disease (tsd) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase a (hex a). deficiency of hex a in tsd is caused by a defect of the alpha-subunit resulting from mutations of the hexa gene. to date, there is no effective treatment for tsd. animal models of genetic diseases, similar to those known to exist in humans, are valuable and essential research tools for the study of potentially effective therapies. however, the ...200818693054
lead poisoning in wild birds from southern spain: a comparative study of wetland areas and species affected, and trends over time.we studied lead (pb) shot contamination in sediments from the guadalquivir marshes and six other closed-basin lagoons in southern spain that are of major importance for threatened species of waterbirds. shot densities were relatively low in doñana, ranging from 0 to 25 shot/m(2) in the top 10 cm of sediments. the density at medina lagoon (ramsar site) was 148 shot/m(2), making it the most contaminated wetland known in europe. densities in the other five lagoons ranged from 9 to 59 shot/m(2). we ...200716483652
levels of persistent organochlorine residues in eggs of greater flamingos from the guadalquivir marshes (doñana), spain.organochlorine pesticides (ocps) and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) residue levels were determined in 53 unhatched eggs from greater roseus flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber). eggs were collected in 1996 from the national park of doñana (guadalquivir marshes, southwest spain), immediately after one breeding colony abandoned the nesting site due to predator attacks. the main metabolite of p,p'-ddt, p,p'-dde, was the ocp residue found at higher concentrations, with a geometric mean of 721 ng/g wet ...200516190019
what parameters can be used for individual acoustic recognition by the greater flamingo?the greater flamingo phoenicopterus ruber is a colonial bird for which acoustic communication plays a great role, in particular during the mating period. the study of contact calls emitted by the adults allow enables identification of some acoustic parameters which may be used for individual recognition. it appears that the frequential values of the harmonics, the distribution of energy in the spectrum as well as beats (mimicking amplitude modulations) are susceptible to represent individual mar ...19968673616
total eclipse of the zoo: animal behavior during a total solar eclipse.the infrequency of a total solar eclipse renders the event novel to those animals that experience its effects and, consequently, may induce anomalous behavioral responses. however, historical information on the responses of animals to eclipses is scant and often conflicting. in this study, we qualitatively document the responses of 17 vertebrate taxa (including mammals, birds, and reptiles) to the 2017 total solar eclipse as it passed over riverbanks zoo and garden in columbia, south carolina. i ...202032244374
cutaneous geotrichosis in the red flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber).in three flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber), which died showing extensive necrotic inflammation of the skin of the webs and the legs, the presence of abundant mycelium and arthrospores was shown in the altered dermis and epidermis. from all the lesions geotrichum candidum was isolated in pure culture. inoculation of suspensions of the fungus into domestic chickens and mice produced granulomas or more purulent nodules with central growth of abundant mycelium. from 20 of 28 experimental animals, g. ...19761265572
telomere shortening rate predicts species life span.telomere shortening to a critical length can trigger aging and shorter life spans in mice and humans by a mechanism that involves induction of a persistent dna damage response at chromosome ends and loss of cellular viability. however, whether telomere length is a universal determinant of species longevity is not known. to determine whether telomere shortening can be a single parameter to predict species longevities, here we measured in parallel the telomere length of a wide variety of species ( ...201931285335
determination of seasonal changes in wetlands using chris/proba hyperspectral satellite images: a case study from acigöl (denizli), turkey.the changes in wetlands that occur through natural processes, as well as through industrialization and agricultural activities, are decreasing and even annihilating the living spaces of endemic species. acigöl (denizli, turkey), which is a suitable habitat for flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber), is a lake that is affected by seasonal anomalies as a result of being shallow. acigöl, which is fed by precipitation, groundwater and the springs that occur along tectonic faults, has no water output other ...201526591885
ophthalmic diagnostic tests and ocular findings in a flock of captive american flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ruber).seventeen adult captive american flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ruber) (34 eyes) underwent a complete ocular examination, including assessment of menace response, pupillary light reflexes, dazzle reflex, palpebral and corneal reflexes, fluorescein staining, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and direct ophthalmoscopy. birds were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups for tear production and intraocular pressure measurements. tear production was measured by modified schirmer tear test i (n = 9 birds) or ph ...201526115208
stability of social behavior in captive american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber): a quantitative case study.over a three-year period a captive american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) group showed recurring seasonal changes in the pattern of agonistic behavior. in spite of seasonal changes in the rates of agonistic behavior, dominance relations were generally stable across seasons. males had significantly higher dominance status than females, and birds in long-term male-female pair bonds had significantly higher dominance than others. unresolved agonistic encounters (uri), those with no clear winner o ...201525884784
intraocular pressure in captive american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) as measured by rebound tonometry.intraocular pressure was measured using rebound tonometry in american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber), with the head in an upright standing position and when lowered in a feeding position, to establish a reference range. mean +/- standard deviation (sd) (range) intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was right eye (od)= 10.9 +/- 1.8 mm hg (7-15 mm hg) and left eye (os) = 11.1 +/- 2.3 mm hg (8-21 mm hg). median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a ...201425314839
comparison of plasma vitamin a and e, copper and zinc levels in free-ranging and captive greater flamingos (phoenicopterus roseus) and their relation to pododermatitis.pododermatitis is a worldwide problem in captive flamingos. studies in domestic poultry showed that nutrition is a possible influencing factor for pododermatitis. vitamin a and e, copper and zinc levels were analysed in two different diets (diet 1 = in-house mix and diet 2 = commercial diet) and in plasma of captive greater flamingos fed these diets and compared to those of free-ranging greater flamingos. results were analysed with respect to type and severity of foot lesions of the individuals ...201424661548
patterns of aggression among captive american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber).many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. we studied a captive group of american flamingos at the audubon zoo in new orleans, la to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding ...201323757121
behavioral correlates of post-breeding weight change in a captive flock of american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber).in a captive flock of american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber), a pattern of weight loss after the breeding season was observed in the majority of individuals of both sexes, but weights eventually stabilized after several months. social dominance (as determined by a 6-month behavioral study) was a highly significant predictor of early post-breeding weight loss, with dominant individuals undergoing less severe weight loss over this period; and behavioral observations supported the hypothes ...201323575868
behavioural laterality as a predictor of health in captive caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber): an exploratory analysis.the present study sought to explore the possibility that lateral behaviour in captive caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) housed at the philadelphia zoo (philadelphia, pa) could be used to predict a variety of physiological measures of health obtained via complete blood counts (cbc) and plasma biochemistry analyses that were performed as part of the flock's annual physical examination. consistent with previous research, evidence of rightward lateral neck-resting preferences were obtained, ...201423414333
preferred neck-resting position predicts aggression in caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber).when flamingos rest, they typically lay their heads along their backs. in order to achieve this positioning they curve their necks to either the right or left of their midline. previously we have shown both individual and flock-level laterality of preferred neck-resting direction, with most birds preferring to rest their necks to their right (anderson, williams, & o'brien, 2009). as laterality has been shown to play a role in social cohesion (e.g., rogers & workman, 1989) and aggression (e.g., v ...201019657953
inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber).because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. for example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) at the audubon zoo, ...201626882002
acute phase protein and electrophoresis protein fraction values for captive american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber).protein electrophoresis has recognized applications in determining the health status of various species. while reference intervals for electrophoresis have been determined for psittacine and raptor species, there are none reported for phoenicopteriformes species. reference intervals for haptoglobin and protein fractions obtained by electrophoresis were determined for the american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) based on plasma samples from 39 captive birds. the reference intervals were as follow ...201526667554
new data on the morphology of species of leptotaenia cohn, 1901 (cestoda: progynotaeniidae).leptotaenia ischnorhyncha (lühe, 1898) is redescribed on the basis of a specimen from phoenicopterus ruber in cuba. in contrast to previous descriptions, the presence of two rows of rostellar hooks, a secondary female copulatory organ and four types of cirrus spines are observed. leptotaenia sp. from p. minor from kenya, identified as l. ischnorhyncha and figured by khalil (1994), is described on the basis of poorly preserved specimens. the synonymy of l. skrjabini shakhtakhtinskaya, 1953 from p ...200415084829
why do flamingos stand on one leg?a series of observational studies of captive caribbean flamingos phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. while frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or ...201319637281
management of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber).a 32-year-old female american flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) was presented with a squamous cell carcinoma of the middle digit of the right foot. no clinical, hematologic, or radiologic evidence of metastasis was present. salvage amputation of the digit resulted in complete cure, whereas previous electrosurgery and radiation therapy were unsuccessful. three years later, another squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in the middle digit of the left foot. the digit was also amputated. seven months ...200919530406
individual differences in the preferred neck-resting position of caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber).when resting, flamingos often lay their heads along their backs. while in this position they must curve their necks to either the right or left of their midline. observations of captive caribbean flamingos at the philadelphia zoo (philadelphia, pa, usa) were conducted in order to determine if individual birds would display consistent preferences in neck-resting position over multiple observations. while individual birds were shown to vary greatly in regards to the strength and direction of their ...200918629741
heavy metals in flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) from italian wetlands: the problem of ingestion of lead shot.waterbirds are exposed to many contaminants, including lead from ingestion of shot and fishing sinkers. lead poisoning had never been reported in flamingos wintering in italian wetlands. our investigation stems from a case of four flamingos found dead in tuscany in 2002 with numerous lead shot in their gizzards. we therefore considered other specimens found dead in different italian wetlands. many lead shot found in gizzards and lead tissue concentrations confirmed the hypothesis of lead poisoni ...200818359016
alkaline bohr effect of bird hemoglobins: the case of the flamingo.the hemoglobin (hb) substitution his-->gln at position alpha89, very common in avian hbs, is considered to be responsible for the weak bohr effect of avian hbs. phoenicopterus ruber ruber is one of the few avian hbs that possesses his at alpha89, but it has not been functionally characterized yet. in the present study the hb system of the greater flamingo (p. ruber roseus), a bird that lives in mediterranean areas, has been investigated to obtain further insight into the role played by the alpha ...200717655497
cephalic vascular anatomy in flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) based on novel vascular injection and computed tomographic imaging analyses.head vascular anatomy of the greater (or caribbean) flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) is investigated and illustrated through the use of a differential contrast, dual vascular injection technique, and high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (ct), allowing arteries and veins to be differentiated radiographically. vessels were digitally isolated with segmentation tools and reconstructed in 3d to facilitate topographical visualization of the cephalic vascular tree. major vessels of the temporal, or ...200616964609
an epizootic of lead poisoning in greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber roseus) in spain.during november 1992 to march 1993, and november 1993 to february 1994, 106 greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber) were collected dead or moribund in the wetlands of el fondo and salinas de santa pola, eastern spain. birds still alive were emaciated and had a bile-stained diarrhea. on necropsy, they had liquid in the upper digestive tract and the walls of their gizzards were stained dark green. fifty-three (93%) of 57 gizzards examined contained lead shot (range one to 277 shot), and fifty-fiv ...19979027700
temporal and spatial variation in dispersal in the greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber roseus).we studied movements of individually marked greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber roseus) born in the camargue, southern france, between their two most important breeding colonies in the western mediterranean (camargue and fuente de piedra, spain) from 1986 to 1992. the two sites differ in the frequency with which they offer suitable conditions for breeding. flamingos have bred each year in the camargue since 1974, but in only 12 of the past 22 years at fuente de piedra. higher colony fidelity ...199628307306
amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, and atherosclerosis in a roseate flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber).an aged male roseate flamingo, in a private collection in the british virgin islands, was found acutely "down." after four days of supportive therapy, the flamingo succumbed. at necropsy gross lesions included emaciation; collapsed and thickened, yellow abdominal air sac; dark red liver, partially covered by friable yellow material; and a raised, intimal plaque in the aorta near the iliac trifurcation. histologic examination revealed severe, diffuse, pyogranulomatous air sacculitis with associat ...19921626869
haematological findings in healthy and sick captive rosy flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber).full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 36 clinically normal adult rosy flamingos (21 males, 15 females) and six juveniles (sex uncertain). no significant sex differences were found but the haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were lower and the white cell counts higher in juveniles than in adults. reference values obtained from the normal birds were used as a basis for assessing the results of blood counts on ...198418766834
molecular characterization of a poxvirus isolated from an american flamingo (phoeniconais ruber rubber).an avian poxvirus from the beak scab of an american flamingo (phoeniconais ruber rubber) was isolated by inoculation on the chorioallantoic membrane (cam) of specific-pathogen-free (spf) chicken embryos. the virus produced multifocal areas of epithelial hyperplasia along with foci of inflammation in the cam, and rare cells contained small eosinophilic intracytoplasmic bodies. chickens inoculated with the isolated virus in the feather follicle of the leg did not develop significant lesions. nucle ...200818939646
intestinal microflora of young greater flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber roseus pallas) in the camargue. 19836842737
an ovarian adenocarcinoma in a greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber roseus).an ovarian adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in a greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber roseus) which had been maintained in captivity for over 32 years. neoplastic epithelial cells showed both solid and tubular patterns of growth. metastases were found in the lung, liver and on the peritoneal surface of the pancreas.198118770127
astaxanthin in the american flamingo. 195514383774
slower rates of accumulation of dna damage in leukocytes correlate with longer lifespans across several species of birds and mammals.although there is previous evidence showing an increase in various types of dna damage with aging in mice and humans, a comparative study determining accumulation rates of dna double strand breaks, as determined by presence of phosphorylated histone h2ax (γh2ax), in leukocytes of individuals of different ages from phylogenetically distinct species from birds to mammals was lacking. here, we demonstrate that the rate of accumulation of dna damage as measured by the dna damage marker γh2ax correla ...201931730540
pharmacokinetics of oral mavacoxib in caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber).mavacoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been used for management of osteoarthritis and other inflammatory conditions in dogs. the main advantage of mavacoxib over other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is its longer plasma half-life, leading to decreased dosing frequency. this study determined the pharmacokinetics of mavacoxib in caribbean flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber ruber) after a single-dose oral administration of 6 mg/kg (n = 6). plasma m ...202032212546
retinal topography in two species of flamingo (phoenicopteriformes: phoenicopteridae).in this study, we assessed eye morphology and retinal topography in two flamingo species, the caribbean flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) and the chilean flamingo (p. chilensis). eye morphology is similar in both species and cornea size relative to eye size (c:a ratio) is intermediate between those previously reported for diurnal and nocturnal birds. using stereology and retinal whole mounts, we estimate that the total number of nissl-stained neurons in the retinal ganglion cell (rgc) layer in the ...202032154931
first report of cestode infection in the crustacean artemia persimilis from southern chilean patagonia and its relation with the neotropical aquatic birds.the brine shrimp genus artemia leach (crustacea, branchiopoda), a keystone group in hipersaline wetlands all over the world, offers an excellent model to study species interactions (parasitism) and to explore "hidden fauna" (avian endoparasites). the present study is the first report on the parasite infection of the south american species artemia persimilis from the southern chilean patagonia (50°s-53°s). samples were collected in los cisnes and amarga lagoons, the two most austral populations o ...201931403003
wound myiasis in a flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) caused by calliphora spp. larvae from northwest of iran: a case report.myiasis is the infestation of animals or man tissues by parasitic dipterous fly larvae. wound myiasis is the result of fly egg deposition on decaying flesh or pus discharging wounds. this case report describes a type of wound myiasis caused by calliphora spp. in a flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) from east azerbaijan province, iran. a 3-yr-old female flamingo was suffering in its left wing leading to an extensive discharging wound, which was heavily infested by maggots (fly larvae). the examinati ...202030697325
pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to american flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber).meloxicam is commonly used in avian medicine to relieve pain and inflammation, but the recommended dosing frequency can be multiple times per day, which can contribute to stress during convalescence. in this study, the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam were determined after subcutaneous administration of a single 3-mg/kg dose to eight healthy adult american flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber). blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, ...201830592922
pharmacokinetics of oral gabapentin in caribbean flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ruber).gabapentin is a first-line treatment for neuropathic pain and adjunct anticonvulsant medication in humans and other species. gabapentin may have advantages over other analgesics because of its broad therapeutic range with limited adverse effects and wide availability as an oral formulation. this study determined the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in caribbean flamingos ( phoenicopterus ruber ruber) after a single-dose oral administration of either 15 mg/kg ( n = 6) or 25 mg/kg ( n = 6). plasma g ...201830212356
can scalar timing explain variability in scanning patterns?why are scanning patterns so variable? theory predicts that for prey species facing non-stalking predators scans to monitor predators should occur at fixed rather than unpredictable times. yet, empirical distributions of inter-scan intervals (isis) are very variable. one hypothesis to explain variability is that animals initiate several of their scans in response to external disturbances that occur at random times. i propose, instead, that animals actually aim to initiate scans at fixed times, w ...201930448385
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