[nematoda of blackbird (turdus merula l.) and mavis (turdus philomelos br.) from the wroclaw district. ii. ecological study]. 1979516737
[nematoda of blackbird (turdus merula l.) and mavis (turdus philomelos br.) from the wroclaw region. i. faunistic studies]. 1979524890
[physaloptera (pseudophysaloptera) soricina (bayliss, 1934) in a blackbird turdus merula l]. 1979574688
effects of consistent to partial reinforcement or partial reinforcement in the amsel frustration effect. 1978663026
[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
loss of lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on european determine whether blackbirds (turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of central europe, may contribute to the transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. european blackbirds experience intense exposure to ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. in nature, subadult i. ricinus ticks found feeding on ...19921740177
[turdus merula l. as a proper host of capillaria ovopunctata (nematoda, capillariidae)].biometrical analysis of four morphometric characters of male and female specimens of capillaria ovopunctata parasitizing in sturnus vulgaris, erithacus rubecula, turdus philomelos and turdus merula, i.e. length of body, oesophagus, number of stichocytes or length of spicula and vulvar appendage respectively was carried out. it has been proved, that characters of females c. ovopunctata parasitizing in t. merula significantly differ from those of the nematodes found in other hosts. the present and ...19911822042
[a case of bringing along mediterranean ticks ixodes (ixodes) festai rondelli, 1926 (acari: ixodida: ixodidae) to poland by migrating birds].a partly fed female of i. festai was collected from turdus merula l. caught in hel peninsula (southern coast of baltic sea). this species (known only as females) is a parasite of birds, and inhabits western part of the mediterranean area. i. festai is a second species after hyalomma marginatum which probably every spring is transferred by migratory bird into territory of poland. this finding is the first recorded case of transfer of i. festai to poland, therefore the description of female is giv ...19911823490
[trematodes of birds from lower silesia. iii. urotocus rossitensis (mühling, 1898)--new for poland species of trematode parasitism in passeriform birds].during the studies on trematode fauna of birds from lower silesia, the rare species--urotocus rossitensis (mühling, 1898)--was found. it parasitized in the bursa fabricii of sylvia borin, erithacus rubecula and turdus philomelos, and in the cloaca of turdus merula. all these birds are new hosts for u. rossitensis which was recorded for the first time in poland. it is worth mentioning that the localization of this trematode in the cloaca of t. merula is nontypical, since the parasite has underdev ...19911844788
changes in learning about aversive nonreward accounts for ontogeny of paradoxical appetitive reward effects in the rat pup: a mathematical model (dmod) integrates rats do not show any paradoxical appetitive reward effects (e.g., faster extinction following partial than continuous reinforcement, contrast effects when large and small rewards are given) until they are at least 12-14 days old, but can learn to pattern when reward and nonreward are alternated (e.g., amsel, 1986). these results have been puzzling, but are now successfully integrated by dmod (daly modification of rescorla and wagner's [1972] mathematical model; daly & daly, 1982). it was as ...19912034754
resistance to extinction following habituation to behaviourally disruptive novel stimuli.three experiments tested the prediction, derived from generalized frustration theory (amsel, 1972), that habituation to behaviourally disruptive stimuli increases resistance to extinction in the runway. in each experiment, rats received initial consistent reinforcement (crf) training and then either continued crf (groups c), partial reinforcement (prf) training (groups p), or crf accompanied by presentations of a novel tactile, tone, or obstacle stimulus (groups d) in experiments 1-3, respective ...19892595008
the hemoglobins of the adult blackbird (turdus merula, passeriformes). the sequence of the major (hba) and minor component (hbd).the blood of the adult blackbird contains one major hemoglobin component (hba = alpha a2, beta 2, ca. 80%) and one minor one (hbd = alpha d2 beta 2, ca. 20%). the hb-components were separated by fplc on a tsk sp-5 pw column, and eluted with a linear nacl gradient, while the globin chains were purified on a cation exchange (cm-cellulose). tryptic peptides from the globin chains were separated by hplc on an rp-2 lichrosorb column. the complete amino acid sequence was determined by automatic edman ...19892757791
sparing of patterned alternation but not partial reinforcement extinction effect after prenatal chronic exposure to ethanol in infant rats.the effects of in utero administration of ethanol on single patterned alternation (pa) and the partial reinforcement extinction effect (pree) were studied in 15-day-old rat pups. this fetal-alcohol treatment had no effect on pa but eliminated the pree by reducing persistence in extinction after partial reinforcement (prf) training to its level after continuous reinforcement (crf) training, which was not affected by the treatment. the results are discussed in terms of prenatal damage to the hippo ...19883355656
the amsel frustration effect: interpretations and research. 19734196467
amobarbital sodium and the effects of reward and nonreward in the amsel double runway. 19676043012
[trematoda of birds of lower silesia. i. euamphimerus pancreaticus baer, 1960 (opisthorchiidae, trematoda) - new parasite of the blackbird (turdus merula l.) in poland and remarks with regard to the systematic position of other species of the genus euamphimerus yamaguti, 1941]. 19827183016
[two filariae of the genus eufilaria in turdus merula; development in culicoides nubeculosus (author's transl)].turdus merula from nevers (france) is infected by two species of microfilariae which both evolve in eight days (26 degrees c) in culicoides nubeculosus. we determine as eufilaria delicata supperer, 1958, the females with the longest microfilariae, the male with slightly unequal spicules and the largest infective larvae. we consider the species with the shorter microfilariae, males with more markedly unequal spicules and a relatively short infective larva as e. bartlettae n. sp. the female of thi ...19807224536
[ornithofilaria mavis (leiper 1909) gönnert, 1937 in blackbird (turdus merula l.) in poland]. 19817336749
[diagnosis and treatment of bacterial vaginosis by general practitioners].in order to evaluate which diagnostic procedures and treatments general practitioners (gp) used for bacterial vaginosis, and to describe their knowledge of the disease, all the gps in two counties were asked to fill in a questionnaire. two hundred and sixty-six (59%) answered. the gp used the criteria of amsel in 9%, the wet smear criteria in 12%, clue cells in 6%, the amine test in 30%, culture of gardnerella vaginalis in 29%, 8% only used clinical examination and 6% did not use any criteria. m ...19957483026
[bacterial vaginosis. prevention of recurrence].bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the main cause of vaginitis. the condition is characterised by an abundant and odorous vaginal loss, but more than half the patients with demonstrable signs of bv do not report symptoms at all. gardnerella vaginalis (gv) is often associated with bv, but it is not the sole factor responsible, as is shown by the fact that it can be isolated in the vagina of women withbv. in 1992 and 1993, 2630 patients, 1460 of them gynaecological and 1170 obstetric, were admitted to th ...19947885610
midazolam administered to rats induces anterograde amnesia for changes in reward magnitude.l. p. crespi (1942) showed that rats trained to run an alley for a large food reward slowed down when shifted to a small reward. this effect is usually interpreted as an aversive emotional response to reward reduction (a. amsel, 1958). benzodiazepines attenuate the behavioral effects of reward reduction (cf. c. f. flaherty, 1990), but the emphasis has been on their anxiolytic, not memory-impairing, effects. researchers trained rats (175-200 g) to run an alley for food until asymptote was reached ...19947893398
a study of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to air pollution: ultrastructural study.a study was made of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to nox, so2 emissions and particulates from a coal-fired power plant. the results were compared to those of a non-polluted area, very similar in vegetation, relief, and climatology. we studied carduelis carduelis (goldfinch), emberiza cia (rock bunting), parus major (great tit), turdus merula (blackbird), and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse). all animals were captured in the wild. we also used goldf ...19948024317
postnatal high-peak blood ethanol concentration and external cue-based discrimination learning and reversal in the preweanling rat: comparison with memory-based discrimination learning.postnatal exposure to ethanol that produces high-peak blood ethanol concentrations (hp-bec) in artificially reared infant rats affects hippocampal neuroanatomy and discrimination learning based on memorial cues from a patterned (single) alternation (pa) schedule in preweanling rats (p. l. greene, j. l. diaz-granados, & a. amsel, 1992). in the present experiments, discrimination by preweanling rats exposed to ethanol in the same way was tested with nonmemorial, external cues. in this external cue ...19948037877
therapy of bacterial vaginosis using exogenously-applied lactobacilli acidophili and a low dose of estriol: a placebo-controlled multicentric clinical trial.the efficacy of vaginal tablets (gynoflor) containing 50 mg of a lyophilisate of viable, h2o2-producing lactobacillus acidophilus (at least 10(7) colony forming units/tablet) and 0.03 mg estriol (cas 50-27-1) for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (bv) was tested in a multicentric, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-group design. 32 non-menopausal women with positive diagnoses for bv, including intermediate cases, participated in the trial. patients were diagnosed usin ...19968821521
borreliae in immature ixodes ricinus (acari:ixodidae) ticks parasitizing birds in the czech republic.of 411 forest birds of 33 species examined near valtice, czech republic, 29% were infested with ixodes ricinus (l.); 2.2% were parasitized by haemaphysalis concinna koch. borreliae were detected in 5.1 and 11.7% of larval and nymphal i. ricinus, respectively. none of the 13 h. concinna tested was infected. in total, 3.2% of the birds examined were parasitized by i. ricinus immatures infected by borreliae. borreliae-containing ticks parasitized european robin, erithacus rubecula (l.); eurasian bl ...19968840682
estimation of distribution parameters of some avian parasites.occurrence of nematodes (mostly dominating and common species of porrocaecum ensicaudatum and p. semiteres) in host populations of birds (turdus merula, t. philomelos, sturnus vulgaris and scolopax rusticola) was summarized in frequency distributions, and tests of agreement with the poisson model as well as the modified binomial have been computed. comparisons of the observed frequencies with the expected ones showed the high values (3--257) of the coefficient of dispersion, the so-called "overd ...19979374592
an avian reservoir (turdus merula) of the lyme borreliosis spirochetes.the reservoir competence of passerine birds for the lyme borreliosis spirochetes was studied in an enzootic focus in switzerland. skin aspirates and skin biopsies were used to isolate borrelia spirochetes from turdus species. b. burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated and/or pcr-detected in bsk medium containing skin biopsy or skin aspirate from 5 blackbirds (t. merula) and one song thrush (t. philomelos). seven isolates were obtained from 3 different blackbirds. either b. garinii or borrelia from t ...19989638881
effects of mk-801 on vicarious trial-and-error and reversal of olfactory discrimination learning in weanling rats.the effects of dizocilpine maleate (mk-801) on vicarious trial-and-error (vte), and on simultaneous olfactory discrimination learning and its reversal, were observed in weanling rats. the term vte was used by tolman (the determiners of behavior at a choice point. psychol. rev. 1938;46:318-336), who described it as conflict-like behavior at a choice-point in simultaneous discrimination learning. it takes the form of head movements from one stimulus to the other, and has recently been proposed by ...19989867228
the papanicolaou smear: inadequate screening test for bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy.our purpose was to evaluate the ability of the papanicolaou smear to identify bacterial vaginosis in comparison with the amsel clinical criteria.200010819823
relationship of bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasmas to the risk of spontaneous abortion.this study was undertaken to investigate a possible link between first-trimester diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and cessation of pregnancy at < or =20 weeks' gestation.200010942482
improving gram-stained reproducible result by further adding clue cells in diagnosing bacterial vaginosis.the reproducibility of interpretation in diagnosing bacterial vaginosis may be enhanced by adding pus cells and clue cells into two different criteria, developed by spiegel et al. and nugent et al. the purpose of study was designed to find out which parameter was more reproducible. 100 patients were collected with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis as an experimental group, while the other 100 patients who were with routine papanicolaou smears in gynecologic clinic the collected as a control g ...200212164009
diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis on self-collected vaginal tampon specimens.a vaginal tampon specimen was previously shown to be suitable for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (stis). different tampon fluid preparations were evaluated for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv). women with pregnancy related problems were enrolled. two observers evaluated the different tampon fluid preparations and vaginal smears collected during speculum examination using the nugent score. using the amsel criteria, 21% of the 84 women enrolled w ...200212194740
leukorrhea and bacterial vaginosis as in-office predictors of cervical infection in high-risk evaluate 1) whether microscopic detection of leukorrhea or bacterial vaginosis identifies patients at high risk for cervical infection with chlamydia trachomatis or neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 2) if pregnancy alters the predictive value of these findings.200212383553
detection of bacterial vaginosis-related organisms by real-time pcr for lactobacilli, gardnerella vaginalis and mycoplasma hominis.the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of detecting bacterial vaginosis (bv)-related organisms in stored genital tract specimens using real-time pcr. frozen cervicovaginal lavage (cvl) samples from 21 women were analyzed by real-time pcr for the numbers of mycoplasma hominis, gardnerella vaginalis and lactobacilli. lactobacilli organisms were detected in all cvl samples, g. vaginalis was detected in all but one sample, while m. hominis was detected in only six samples. using the ...200212443827
bvblue test for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a disorder of the vaginal ecosystem characterized by a shift in the vaginal flora from the normally predominant lactobacillus to one dominated by sialidase enzyme-producing mixed flora. it is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in adult women. the bvblue system (gryphus diagnostics, l.l.c.) is a chromogenic diagnostic test based on the presence of elevated sialidase enzyme in vaginal fluid samples. bvblue was compared to the standard method for diagnos ...200312734228
cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds in the central european carpathians.the occurrence of cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds was monitored in the central european carpathians from 1996 to 2001. a total of 5,414 birds, representing 86 species, was examined. collyriclum faba was found at 7 sites (5 in slovakia, 1 in poland, and 1 in the czech republic), and prevalences at the sites varied from 1 to 16%. ten species of passerine birds were infected: blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) (16 positive/622 tested, 2% prevalence), black redstart (phoenicurus ochrur ...200312760670
frequency of bacterial vaginosis among women attending for intrauterine device insertion at an inner-city family planning clinic.the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of bacterial vaginosis in women attending an inner-city family planning clinic for intrauterine device (iud) insertion. in a population of 86 women, eight (9.3%) and 20 (23.2%) were found to have bacterial vaginosis according to the criteria of amsel and nugent, respectively. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated in relation to bacterial vaginosis for amsel's criteria. the detection of clue cells demons ...200314667323
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in passerine birds from the mazurian lake region (northeastern poland).the aim of the present study was to evaluate a potential role of different passerine birds species in mazurian lake region (northeast poland) in the spread of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochaete that causes lyme disease. a total number of 1254 birds (representing 42 species) were captured during the 3-year study period. blood samples were collected from birds and analyzed with a nested polymerase chain reaction technique in order to detect fragments of the pathogen dna. positive res ...200414681070
diversities and similarities in pfge profiles of campylobacter jejuni isolated from migrating birds and genetically sub-type campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from migratory birds, and to compare these with clinical strains collected in the same area and corresponding time period, with the aim to increase our knowledge on sub-types occurring among wild birds and their possible impact on human disease.200415012823
[importance of the vaginal ecosystem examination in the first trimester of pregnancy].vaginal ecosystem disturbances especially bacterial vaginosis are strongly associated with infectious complication during the course of pregnancy.200315029744
pathology and viral distribution in fatal usutu virus infections of birds from the 2001 and 2002 outbreaks in the summer of 2001, usutu virus (usuv) was isolated for the first time in europe, from an episode of mass mortality in eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula). in the present study, 40 of the birds (representing three species), confirmed as cases of usuv infection, were examined by four methods (histopathology, immunohistochemistry [ihc], in-situ hybridization [ish] and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [rt-pcr]). the major macroscopical finding was hepatosplenomegaly; histologicall ...200415276857
complete genome analysis and molecular characterization of usutu virus that emerged in austria in 2001: comparison with the south african strain saar-1776 and other we describe the complete genome sequences of two strains of usutu virus (usuv), a mosquito-borne member of the genus flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis virus (jev) serogroup. usuv was detected in austria in 2001 causing a high mortality rate in blackbirds; the reference strain (saar-1776) was isolated in 1958 from mosquitoes in south africa and has never been associated with avian mortality. the austrian and south african isolates exhibited 97% nucleotide and 99% amino acid identity. p ...200415464850
[prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in a group of women at a family planning clinic].to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among family planning users and the relationship between clinical symptoms and gynecologic signs.200211885127
management of vaginitis.common infectious forms of vaginitis include bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. vaginitis also can occur because of atrophic changes. bacterial vaginosis is caused by proliferation of gardnerella vaginalis, mycoplasma hominis, and anaerobes. the diagnosis is based primarily on the amsel criteria (milky discharge, ph greater than 4.5, positive whiff test, clue cells in a wet-mount preparation). the standard treatment is oral metronidazole in a dosage of 500 mg twic ...200415606061
low-dose secnidazole in the treatment of bacterial determine whether bacterial vaginosis could be cured with a single 1-g oral dose of secnidazole.200515733882
evaluation of a point-of-care test, bvblue, and clinical and laboratory criteria for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) remains the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age and is associated with increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections and preterm delivery. present diagnostic methods require access to microscopy and laboratory expertise; however, the majority of women, particularly those in populations with a high prevalence of bv, do not have access to clinical services with on-site microscopy capabi ...200515750100
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in larval ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) feeding on blackbirds in northwestern italy.birds belonging to 59 species (n = 1,206) were live captured in piemonte, northwestern italy, in 2001. ixodes ricinus (l.) larvae were collected from 59 birds belonging to nine species, and nymphs were recovered on 79 birds belonging to 10 species. eurasian blackbirds, turdus merula l., had significantly higher levels of infestation by ticks than other passerine species. larval i. ricinus of blackbirds peaked in summer, when prevalence was 39% (95% confidence interval 24.2-55.5) and mean number ...200515799526
second intermediate host land snails and definitive host animals of brachylaima cribbi in southern australia.this study of infection of southern australian land snails with brachylaima cribbi metacercariae has shown that all commonly encountered native and introduced snails are susceptible second intermediate hosts. the range of infected snails is extensive with metacercariae-infected snails being present in all districts across southern australia. c. virgata has the highest average natural metacercarial infection intensity of 6.1 metacercariae per infected snail. the susceptibility of birds, mammals a ...200515828579
why do different criteria for 'cure' yield different conclusions in comparing two treatments for bacterial vaginosis?the objective of this study was to determine why different criteria for response to treatment of bacterial vaginosis (bv) led to markedly different conclusions about treatment efficacy in a randomized trial comparing metronidazole gel versus metronidazole/nystatin ovules.200516118599
utility of amsel criteria, nugent score, and quantitative pcr for gardnerella vaginalis, mycoplasma hominis, and lactobacillus spp. for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a clinical syndrome presenting with a malodorous vaginal discharge and increased vaginal ph. diagnosis has been based on clinical amsel criteria and direct gram stain of vaginal secretions. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected participants in the women's interagency hiv study contributed cervicovaginal lavage (cvl) samples. lactobacilli, gardnerella vaginalis, and mycoplasma hominis in cervicovaginal lavage samples were quantified by pcr. gynecologic evaluation ...200516145114
limited pathogenicity of usutu virus for the domestic chicken (gallus domesticus).in summer 2001, usutu virus (usuv), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was isolated for the first time in europe during a mortality incident among eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula) in austria. chickens are frequently used as sentinel animals for arbovirus surveillance systems. in the present study, the pathogenicity of usuv for specific pathogen free chickens was investigated. ten 2-week-old chickens were inoculated intravenously with 0.1 ml inoculum containing 10(3) median (50%) tissue culture infe ...200516236570
throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. this may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential.200616503990
role of birds in thuringia, germany, in the natural cycle of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the lyme disease spirochaete.three hundred and twenty-two birds belonging to 35 species were live-captured in reifenstein, middle germany, from march to october 2004, to investigate their role as hosts of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and its vector ticks. a total of 141 ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 53 birds belonging to eight species was investigated for the prevalence of b. burgdorferi by a pcr-rflp analysis of the ospa gene. three of these bird species, the blackbird (turdus merula), the song thrush (t. philomel ...200616530003
limited pathogenicity of usutu virus for the domestic goose (anser anser f. domestica) following experimental inoculation.usutu virus (usuv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis virus group, which has been associated with avian mortality in austria since 2001. the affected birds are predominantly eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula). in the present study, the pathogenicity of usuv for domestic geese (anser anser f. domestica) was investigated. eleven 2-week-old geese were inoculated intramuscularly with 5 x 10(4) 50% tissue culture infectious dose of usuv strain vienna-2001 blackbird. no clini ...200616629984
the vi-sense-vaginal discharge self-test to facilitate management of vaginal symptoms.this study was undertaken to evaluate a diagnostic panty liner (vi-sense) (common sense, caesarea, israel) developed to facilitate diagnosis of vaginal infections by detecting disordered acidity level.200616769019
association of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, and vaginal acidity with outcome of pregnancy.bacterial vaginosis and trichomons vaginalis are believed to be the risk factors for preterm labor birth and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. the objective of this study was to investigate the association between bacterial vaginosis, t.vaginalis, and vaginal ph with preterm labor birth and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes after excluding other known risk factors.200616859053
the association of atopobium vaginae and gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis and recurrence after oral metronidazole therapy.we investigated associations between atopobium vaginae and bacterial vaginosis (bv) and the role that a. vaginae plays in recurrent bv after oral metronidazole therapy.200616941351
sensitive measure of prevalence and parasitaemia of haemosporidia from european blackbird (turdus merula) populations: value of pcr-rflp and quantitative pcr.haemosporidian parasites are common in birds in which they act as an important selective pressure. while most studies so far have focused on the effect of their prevalence on host life-history traits, no study has measured the effect of parasitaemia. we developed molecular methods to detect, identify and quantify haemosporidia in 2 natural populations of the blackbird turdus merula. three different parasite genotypes were found - 1 haemoproteus and 2 plasmodium. a pcr-rflp screening revealed tha ...200616948874
ticks (ixodidae) from passerine birds in the carpathian region.birds have been found to be a reservoir host of borrelia. in order to assess the situation in slovakia ticks were collected from a total of 3057 mist-netted, ringed and released passerine birds in two locations at 500 m (in 2001) and 1000 m (in 2003) above sea level in the bukovské vrchy hills, part of the carpathian region in the north-east of slovakia. a total of 75 birds of 16 species were infested with subadult ticks of ixodes ricinus species (prevalence of parasitization 5%). sixty-two larv ...200617186172
distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey from switzerland.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and the structurally related polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) have been associated with chronic neurotoxicity involving reduced motor activity and impaired attentiveness. such neurobehavioral effects indicate that the central nervous system may represent an important target organ for the action of these persistent contaminants in wildlife. as a consequence, the brain of different terrestrial and aquatic birds collected in switzerland was analysed for pcbs a ...200717307228
monitoring of usutu virus activity and spread by using dead bird surveillance in austria, 2003-2005.usutu virus has been causing avian mortality in austria since its emergence in 2001. between 2003 and 2005 a total of 504 dead birds were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for the presence of usutu virus nucleic acid and antigen, respectively. in 2003, 92 birds (out of 177 birds) belonging to five different species were positive, while in 2004, only 11 (of 224) birds, and in 2005, 4 (of 103) birds proved positive, all of which were blackbirds (t ...200717346908
prevalence and clinical significance of ureaplasma urealyticum and mycoplasma hominis in the lower genital tract of hiv-1-infected women.mycoplasma hominis and ureaplasma urealyticum are frequently isolated from the cervical and vaginal tracts of hiv-negative asymptomatic women. published data lack indisputable conclusions and doubts still exist as to whether these mycoplasmas are pathogens or mere co-factors associated with genital infections. we therefore conducted a surveillance study to investigate the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in hiv-1 positive women (110 patients), attending the outpatient infectious diseases clinic ...200617380088
borrelia lusitaniae in immature ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) feeding on common wall lizards in tuscany, central italy.lizards and small rodents were live captured in tuscany, central italy, from may through august 2005. prevalence of infestation by larval ixodes ricinus l. (acari: ixodidae) and mean numbers of larvae per host were not significantly different for common wall lizards, podarcis muralis laurenti, and apodemus spp. mice, whereas infestation levels by nymphs were significantly greater on lizards. borrelia lusitaniae, which was previously shown to be dominant in host-seeking i. ricinus in the same stu ...200717427701
organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis in nigerian women as determined by pcr-dgge and 16s rrna gene sequence.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a condition with diverse etiology. this condition predisposes women to increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infections and preterm birth. the diagnostic methods currently adopted in the evaluation of patient samples for bv are arguably amsel criteria, and nugent score that require microscopy and expert interpretation. these two methods are still subjective.200717594282
targeted pcr for detection of vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis.several novel bacterial species have been detected in subjects with bacterial vaginosis (bv) by using broad-range pcr assays, but this approach is insensitive for detecting minority species. we developed a series of taxon-directed 16s rrna gene pcr assays for more sensitive detection of key vaginal bacteria. we sought to determine the prevalence of each species in the vagina, its association with bv, and the utility of pcr for the microbiological diagnosis of bv. targeted pcr assays were develop ...200717687006
birdsong and anthropogenic noise: implications and applications for conservation.the dramatic increase in human activities all over the world has caused, on an evolutionary time scale, a sudden rise in especially low-pitched noise levels. ambient noise may be detrimental to birds through direct stress, masking of predator arrival or associated alarm calls, and by interference of acoustic signals in general. two of the most important functions of avian acoustic signals are territory defence and mate attraction. both of these functions are hampered when signal efficiency is re ...200817784917
emergence of usutu virus in 2001, usutu virus (usuv), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis virus serogroup related to west nile virus and previously restricted to sub-saharan africa, emerged in wild and zoo birds in and around vienna, austria. in order to monitor the spread of the infection, a dead bird surveillance program was established in austria and in neighboring hungary. in hungary, 332 dead birds belonging to 52 species were tested for usuv infection between 2003 and 2006. in the first 2 year ...200717913929
analysis of standard methods for diagnosing vaginitis: hiv infection does not complicate the diagnosis of vaginitis.we sought to determine whether the standard diagnostic methods for vaginitis behave similarly among hiv-infected and at-risk seronegative women.200717917568
[co-occurence of indol-producing bacterial strains in the vagina of women infected with chlamydia trachomatis].the aim of this study was to determine if cervicitis, caused by chlamydia trachomatis (c. trachomatis), has an influence on the frequency of occurrence of selected aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, connected with etiology of aerobic vaginitis (av) and bacterial vaginosis (bv). indole-producing bacteria have received particular attention due to their possibly inductive role in chronic cervicitis caused by c. trachomatis.200718050609
blackbirds and song thrushes constitute a key reservoir of borrelia garinii, the causative agent of borreliosis in central europe.blackbirds (turdus merula) and song thrushes (turdus philomelos) were found to carry 95% of all spirochete-infected tick larvae among 40 bird species captured in central europe. more than 90% of the infections were typed as borrelia garinii and borrelia valaisiana. we conclude that thrushes are key players in the maintenance of these spirochete species in this region of central europe.200818156328
human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.the primary objective of this study was to investigate if supplementary lactobacilli treatment could improve the initial cure rate after vaginal clindamycin therapy, and secondly, if lactobacilli as repeated adjunct treatment during 3 menstrual cycles could lengthen the time to relapse after initial cure.200818197974
explaining usutu virus dynamics in austria: model development and calibration.usutu virus (usuv), a flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis virus complex, was for the first time detected outside africa in the region around vienna (austria) in 2001 by weissenböck et al. [weissenböck, h., kolodziejek, j., url, a., lussy, h., rebel-bauder, b., nowotny, n., 2002. emergence of usutu virus, an african mosquito-borne flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis virus group, central europe. emerg. infect. dis. 8, 652-656]. usuv is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) circulating betwe ...200818314208
ixodes ricinus immatures on birds in a focus of lyme borreliosis.the infestation of birds by immature ixodes ricinus was studied during 6 months in a swiss woodland, where lyme borreliosis is endemic. thirteen passerine species were found to be parasitized by i. ricinus subadults and specially turdus merula, t. philomelos and erithacus rubecula. overall, 300 larvae and 162 nymphs were collected on 95 avian hosts. prevalence of infestation of nymphs on birds was higher in spring; larvae peaked in summer. the infection of birds by borrelia burgdorferi was also ...19938314179
risk factors for bacterial vaginosis incidence in young adult thai determine risk factors for incident bacterial vaginosis (bv) in young thai women.200818580455
changes in the predominant human lactobacillus flora during in vitro fertilisation.signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the v1 and v3 regions 16s rrna genes using pyrosequencing technology is a powerful tool for typing vaginal lactobacilli to the species level and has been used for investigating the vaginal microbial niche.200818590533
simulation of climate-change scenarios to explain usutu-virus dynamics in austria.the emergence and spread of infectious diseases in mid-latitudes, so far mainly observed in the tropics, considerably increase under the current situation of climate change. a recent example is the usutu virus (usuv) outbreak in austria. usuv is closely related to the west nile virus in the u.s. and caused mass mortalities mainly of blackbirds (turdus merula). the usuv flavivirus persists in a natural transmission cycle between vectors (mosquitoes) and host reservoirs (birds) and leads - once en ...200918715663
importance of isolation and biotypization of gardnerella vaginalis in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.the natural habitat of gardnerella vaginalis is a vagina since it could be located among 69% of women who have no signs of vaginal infection and in the vagina of as many as 13.5% girls. g. vaginalis is almost certainly identified among women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as well as in the urethra of their sexual partner. the increase in prevalence and concentration of g. vaginalis among patients diagnosed with this syndrome confirms that g. vaginalis plays a significant role in its pathogen ...200818816262
the bird species of kumasir lake (kahramanmaras-turkey) and a view of environmental ethics on sustainable wetland management.kumasir lake is located next to towns of donuklu and fatih, nine km west of kahramanmaras city center the region of east mediterranean, turkey this lake is of crucial importance from the point of native and immigrant birds. we located 17 birdspecies in this area during our observations carried out in the spring and autumn of 2005-2006. these were ciconia ciconia l., anas platyrhynchos l., accipiter nisus l., accipiter brevipes l., fulica atra l., columba palumbus l., merops apiaster l., upupa ep ...200818972701
differential role of passerine birds in distribution of borrelia spirochetes, based on data from ticks collected from birds during the postbreeding migration period in central europe.borrelia spirochetes in bird-feeding ticks were studied in the czech republic. during the postbreeding period (july to september 2005), 1,080 passerine birds infested by 2,240 ixodes ricinus subadult ticks were examined. borrelia garinii was detected in 22.2% of the ticks, borrelia valaisiana was detected in 12.8% of the ticks, borrelia afzelii was detected in 1.6% of the ticks, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 0.3% of the ticks. after analysis of infections in which the bl ...200919060160
bacterial vaginosis presence in sexually active women in tuzla canton area.the goal of our research was to determine the presence of bacterial vaginosis in sexually active women in tuzla canton area. diagnosis determination for bacterial vaginosis was conducted on the basis of three out of four internationally accepted criteria according to amsel and isolation and identification of gardnerella vaginalis (g. vaginalis) by standard microbiological procedures. bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 20,5 % (41/200) women who asked for gynaecologist's help due to their person ...200819125702
changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations with intravaginal metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis as assessed by quantitative pcr.several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (bv) using broad-range bacterial pcr methods such as consensus sequence 16s rrna gene pcr, but their role in bv remains poorly defined. we describe changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations following metronidazole therapy for bv. vaginal swabs were collected from women with bv diagnosed using amsel clinical criteria, and vaginal fluid was assessed by gram stain to generate nugent scores. follow-up swabs were collected 1 ...200919144794
bacterial vaginosis - more questions than answers.bacterial vaginosis is the commonest cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age and is associated with serious pregnancy related sequelae and increased transmission of sexually transmissible infections, including hiv. the aetiology, pathology, microbiology and transmission of bacterial vaginosis remain poorly understood.200919521581
predator-prey relationships in a changing environment: the case of the sparrowhawk and its avian prey community in a rural area.1. changes in community composition are expected to entail cascading effects at different trophic levels within a food web. however, empirical evidence on the impact of changes in prey communities on the population dynamics of generalist predators, and on the extent of possible feedback processes, remains scarce. 2. we analysed the dynamics of a generalist predator, the european sparrowhawk accipiter nisus l., in a rural area of northern denmark. over a 20-year period, the diet of the predator h ...200919558613
transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to norway.ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. during the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of norway were examined for ticks. altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. the highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (prunella modularis). the degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localitie ...200919658452
the use of lactobacillus rhamnosus in the therapy of bacterial vaginosis. evaluation of clinical efficacy in a population of 40 women treated for 24 months.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the most prevalent vaginal disorder in adult women worldwide. a number of clinical studies indicate that re-establishment of the physiological ecosystem by re-colonization of vaginal mucosa by lactobacilli may be an effective therapy for bv both after initial antimicrobial therapy or when given alone. a vaginal ph <4.5 is considered physiological and its measurement has been reported as an objective parameter, very sensitive to alterations of vaginal microflora and co ...201020012637
effectiveness of a varied assemblage of seed dispersers of a fleshy-fruited plant.disperser effectiveness is the number of new plants resulting from the activity of one disperser relative to other dispersers or to nondispersed seeds. effectiveness remains largely uninvestigated due to the complexity of its measurement. we measured the effectiveness of seed dispersers (larus michahellis, turdus merula, and oryctolagus cuniculus) of the shrub corema album (empetraceae) using a simulation model of the recruitment process that was parameterized with field data of seed dispersal, ...200920120817
a conceptual framework for the colonisation of urban areas: the blackbird turdus merula as a case study.despite increasing interest in urban ecology the factors limiting the colonisation of towns and cities by species from rural areas are poorly understood. this is largely due to the lack of a detailed conceptual framework for this urbanisation process, and of sufficient case studies. here, we develop such a framework. this draws upon a wide range of ecological and evolutionary theory and the increasing number of studies of how the markedly divergent conditions in urban and rural areas influence t ...201020128785
a wet smear criterion for bacterial evaluate a simpler criterion for bacterial vaginosis than the recommended criterion of amsel.19947863139
[clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis].to study the clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis participating in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, which compared the vaginal use of preparations from red pepper tree and metronidazole for the treatment of genital discharge.201020305946
new records of digenean flukes (trematoda) in birds in poland.eleven new records of digenean species are reported in birds in poland, i.e. tylodelphys immer found in gavia stellata, strigea vanderbrokae in pernis apivorus, echinostoma academica in numenius arquata, echinochasmus euryporus in buteo buteo, patagifer parvispinosus and petasiger grandivesicularis in tachybaptus ruficollis, notocotyloides petasatus in calidris alpina, plagiorchis arcuatus in corvus cornix, leyogonimus polyoon in gallinula chloropus and fulica atra, lyperosomum alaudae in sylvia ...201020450011
ultrastructure of erythrocytic stages of avian plasmodium spp. of the sub-genus novyella and its "globule".a globule frequently refractory, appearing blue, pale blue, or white with giemsa stain, is characteristic of the intraerythrocytic stages of the type species and of most of the other species included at present in the subgenus novyella. this globule is absent from the other plasmodium sub-genera. an ultrastructural study has been performed on schizogonic stages of plasmodium merulae from the blood of the blackbird, turdus merula. in section the globule contains a finely granular substance sugges ...201020597438
sexual violence, hsv-2 and hiv are important predictors for infertility in order to formulate cost-effective health interventions aimed at preventing infertility it is necessary to identify modifiable risk factors for infertility in sub-saharan africa. this case-control study examined potential predictors and their population attributable fraction (paf%) for various infertility types including lifestyle factors, sexual behaviour and reproductive tract infections (rtis).201020685757
diagnostic accuracy of quantitative real-time pcr assay versus clinical and gram stain identification of bacterial vaginosis.the purpose of this investigation was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay in diagnosing bacterial vaginosis versus the standard methods, the amsel criteria and the nugent score. the amsel criteria, the nugent score, and results from the molecular tool were obtained independently from vaginal samples of 163 pregnant women who reported abnormal vaginal symptoms before 20 weeks gestation. to determine the performance of the molecular ...201020814710
carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each ...201020845023
response of gardnerella vaginalis biofilm to 5 days of moxifloxacin treatment.polymicrobial communities are often recalcitrant to antibiotics. we tested whether the polymicrobial gardnerella vaginalis biofilm can be eradicated with moxifloxacin. twenty women with bacterial vaginosis were treated with 400 mg moxifloxacin for 5 days. the changes in the occurrence and proportions of gardnerella, atopobium and lactobacillus spp. were assessed using fish. the bacterial biofilm was investigated using desquamated epithelial cells of spontaneously voided urine and sections of vag ...201020955467
accuracy of clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by human immunodeficiency virus infection status.objective:: to assess the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) by using amsel criteria, overall and by human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection status. methods:: women with hiv, or at risk for hiv, participated in the hiv epidemiology research study, a prospective study conducted in 4 us sites. at enrollment and follow-up visits, scheduled at 6-month intervals for ≤5 years, participants received gynecologic examinations, had specimens collected, and underwent standardiz ...201021042232
synanthropic birds influence the distribution of borrelia species: analysis of ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds.ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 835 birds and from vegetation in the czech republic were analyzed. host-seeking ticks (n = 427) were infected predominantly by borrelia afzelii (25%). ticks (n = 1,012) from songbirds (passeriformes) were infected commonly by borrelia garinii (12.1%) and borrelia valaisiana (13.4%). juveniles of synanthropic birds, eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula) and song thrushes (turdus philomelos), were major reservoir hosts of b. garinii.201021148704
vertical transmission of feather lice between adult blackbirds turdus merula and their nestlings: a lousy perspective.there is limited information about the natural history of the transmission of feather lice (phthiraptera) from parent birds to their young. this article therefore examines the transmission of 4 species of feather lice from parent blackbirds to their nestlings in an english population, and addresses questions formulated from the perspective of the lice. the lice that disperse onto the several young in the nest were mostly found on the larger chicks, those with higher survival prospects. the lice ...201021158613
hormonal response of nestlings to predator calls.chicks of altricial birds may perceive predation risk by acoustic cues produced by predators. this capacity involves changes to a less conspicuous behavior to avoid being detected and predated. however, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying this capacity. potential mechanisms may involve corticosterone and testosterone, two hormones related to begging, an acoustic signal, which could be used by predators to locate and predate the nest. however, given the species-specifici ...201121295574
eurasian blackbird predated by wild rhinopithecus roxellana in the qinling mountains, china.although there are some reports that have described primates eating animals, it is unknown whether predation on vertebrates exists in herbivorous leaf-eating primates. we have witnessed firsthand wild sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana) preying on and consuming eurasian blackbirds (turdus meruld) in the qinling mountains of china. this event suggests that r. roxellana, which has previously been described as a herbivorous leaf-eating primate, may be partially carnivorous and the ...200821396066
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 341