adult and embryo responses to organophosphate pesticides: azodrin.azodrin was applied to adult embryo chickens, chukar partridge, and bobwhite quail. chronic exposure of adult birds to azodrin mixed in their feed indicated that no a priori predictions could be made about one species based on the results of another; each had a different no effect (mact) level. the chickens were between 25 and 100 ppm, the chukar partridge 5 and 25 ppm, and the bobwhite quail less than 1.25 ppm. the chicken adults were most resistant, and the quail were least resistant to chroni ...1979572969
the life cycle of eimeria dispersa tyzzer 1929 from the turkey in gallinaceous birds.the life cycle of a turkey strain of eimeria dispersa was studied in chickens, chukar partridge, ring-necked pheasant, and bobwhite quail. endogenous development in partridge and quail differed from development in chickens and pheasant. in partridge and quail, mature 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-generation schizonts, macrogamets, and oocysts were found in tissue sections at an earlier time interval, mature 1st-generation schizonts were larger, and mature 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-generation schizonts contained ...1978722458
erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in chukar partridge (alectoris graeca).erysipelas was diagnosed in chukar partridges (alectoris graeca) kept as hunting stock. mortality was 265 of 500 (53%) over a period of one week.1976933318
effect of turning and age of egg on hatchability in the pheasant, chukar, and japanese quail.eggs from pheasants, chukar partridge and japanese quail were stored 1 to 28 days in a cold box where temperature and relative humidity were maintained at approximately 16 degrees c. and 70 percent, respectively. half the eggs from each species was turned once daily from a 45 degree angle from the verticle to the opposite angle. turning eggs prior to incubation had no appreciable effect on hatchability of eggs stored up to 28 days. length of storage for eggs from the pheasant and quail was criti ...19751187527
fluoroacetamide (1081) oisoning in wild outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (anser anser) and 35-45 teal (anas crecca) is described. laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white-fronted geese (anser albifrons), mallards (anas platyrhynchos), and chukars (alectoris chukar).19751195498
development of the bursa of fabricius in the partridge and pheasant.development and regression of the bursa of fabricius was measured in chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) and ring-necked pheasant (phasianus colchicus) from hatch to 40 and 34 weeks of age, respectively. testes weights were recorded for 8 to 34-week-old pheasants and 12 to 30-week-old chukars. approximately 12 partridges and 12 pheasants of mixed sex were killed every other week and their bursae measured and weighed. results indicated that chukar bursal weight peaked at about 10 weeks of age in ...19873601851
blood sampling from the venous occipital sinus of birds.venous occipital sinus blood sampling was demonstrated to be an effective nonlethal method in all species tested including ducks, geese, chukar partridge, japanese quail, pea-fowl, pheasants, parakeets, turkeys, and chickens. maximum blood volume obtained from the occipital sinus of 1-day-old chicks equalled the volume obtained by cardiac puncture and exceeded the volume collected by decapitation. venous occipital sinus puncture was successfully used to rapidly collect several successive blood s ...19854070124
an outbreak of erysipelas in chukars.a peracute severe outbreak of erysipelas in chukars (alectoris chukar) caused 55% mortality. pheasants and quails on the same premises were not affected. possible sources of infection and pathogenesis are discussed.19854074250
life cycle and biology of eimeria lettyae sp. n. (protozoa: eimeriidae) from the northern bobwhite, colinus virginianus (l.).a new species of coccidium, eimeria lettyae sp. n. (protozoa: eimeriidae) was recovered from feces of the northern bobwhite, colinus virginianus (l.), from pennsylvania and florida. oocysts measured 21.1 microns (16.4 to 25.8) by 17.2 microns (14.1 to 21.2); index (l/w ratio) = 1.22. oocysts lacked a micropyle, residuum, and polar granules. sporozoites penetrated the upper 1/2 of the villi, then moved to the lamina propria at the base of the villi. there were five asexual generations, all of whi ...19854078970
ascaridia galli (schrank, 1788) from the chukar partridge, alectoris chukar (gray), in nevada. 19695361278
a study of a salmonella infection in a flock of chukar partridges. 19635896513
cutaneous water evaporation--i. its significance in heat-stressed a comparative study on avian cutaneous evaporation, two species of phasianidae, japanese quail coturnix coturnix japonica and chukar partridge alectoris chukar, and three species of columbidae, palm dove streptopelia senegalensis, collared turtle dove streptopelia decaocto and rock pigeon columbia livia, were investigated. the skin resistance to vapor diffusion (rs) and cutaneous water loss (cwl) were studied in these birds exposed to air temperatures (ta) between 20 and 52 degrees c. the ski ...19836136378
cutaneous water evaporation--ii. survival of birds under extreme thermal stress.two birds, the pigeon (columba livia) and the partridge (alectoris chukar), differing in their habits and flight ability were compared with regard to their ability to survive extreme high air temperatures (ta's). during 270 min survival tests birds were exposed to ta's between 45 and 60 degrees c and low relative humidities. the pigeon was observed to be unique in its ability to survive 270 min of exposure to 60 degrees c while regulating tb at 43.8 degrees c. the partridge could not survive 270 ...19836136379
blood parameters of one-year-old and seven-year old partridges (alectoris chukar).several blood parameters were determined for 12 1-year-old and 12 7-year-old partridges to establish base line values on blood chemistry of this species. after taking blood samples, the 7-year-old birds were killed and necropsied for gross examination. with aging, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (got), potassium, cholesterol, uric acid, and albumin. males generally had a significantly lower lactic dehydrogenase (ldh) than females. the 7-year-o ...19836669515
pathogenicity of coccidia in japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica).coccidia were recovered from a field outbreak in commercially raised japanese quail from south carolina. after propagation in unmedicated quail, the culture was identified as a mixture of approximately 65% eimeria uzura, 33% e. tsunodai, and 2% e. taldykurganica. several pure cultures of e. uzura were obtained by single oocyst isolation. a micropyle was not present in all oocysts; thus, it is not a reliable taxonomic characteristic for identification of e. uzura. neither the mixed culture nor th ...19846701143
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chukar partridges, pheasants, and peafowl.mycoplasma gallisepticum infection was diagnosed in a group of chukar partridges, pheasants, and peafowl based on serology and isolation techniques. the farm also had quail, chickens, and ducks. clinical signs in growing birds consisted of foamy eyes, swollen infraorbital sinuses, respiratory distress, and death. breeding birds experienced a severe drop in egg production. histologically, the growing birds exhibited lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the conjunctiva, sinus, and trachea. the most l ...19947702531
highlands j virus-associated mortality in chukar partridges. 19948011789
experimental reproduction of mycoplasma gallisepticum disease in chukar partridges (alectoris graeca).an outbreak of conjunctivitis and severe respiratory disease occurred in an integrated chukar partridge (alectoris graeca) operation that involved about 8000 birds. the main clinical features were conjunctivitis and sinusitis and frequent mouth breathing, but almost no gasping or coughing. in 1000 breeders, egg production declined from 73% to 20%. morbidity reached 100%, and losses from mortality and culling approached 60%. at necropsy, a conjunctivitis (often bilateral) and extensive caseated s ...19968790893
chlamydiosis in pen-raised bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus) and chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) with high a flock of 12,000 bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus) and 7200 chukar partridge (alectoris chukar), the owner had 100% morbidity and 40%-50% mortality in birds between the ages of 2 and 4 wk. affected birds were stunted and anorexic and had yellow/green diarrhea. two- and 4-wk-old birds submitted for necropsy all had slight nasal discharge. histopathologic examination revealed mild (bobwhite) to severe (chukar) rhinitis. immunohistochemistry was positive for chlamydia psittaci in all birds. ...199910611999
relationship between heterozygosity and asymmetry: a test across the distribution range.the genetic basis of developmental stability, as measured by bilateral asymmetry, has been debated for over 50 years among developmental and evolutionary biologists. one of the central theories dealing with this relationship suggests that higher levels of genetic diversity, as reflected in heterozygosity, result in increased stability during development and thus in lower asymmetry. in this study, we aimed to test the relationship between asymmetry and heterozygosity at two levels: (1) the popula ...200111380656
shifts in bilateral asymmetry within a distribution range: the case of the chukar partridge.three major types of bilateral asymmetry (fluctuating asymmetry, directional asymmetry, and antisymmetry) have long been recognized in the literature. little, however, is known about transitions between asymmetry types, especially in natural populations. it is often assumed that directional asymmetry and antisymmetry have a larger genetic basis than fluctuating asymmetry. this leads many scientists to exclude traits or populations showing either directional asymmetry or antisymmetry from develop ...200111761067
epidemiology, production losses, and control measures associated with an outbreak of avian influenza subtype h7n2 in pennsylvania (1996-98).an outbreak of h7n2 low-pathogenicity (lp) avian influenza (ai) occurred in a two-county area in pennsylvania from december of 1996 through april of 1998. the outbreak resulted in infection of 2,623,116 commercial birds on 25 premises encompassing 47 flocks. twenty-one (one premise with infection twice) of the twenty-five infected premises housed egg-laying chickens and one premise each had turkeys, layer pullets, quail, and a mixed backyard dealer flock. despite dose proximity of infected flock ...200314575105
hexamita meleagridis (spironucleus meleagridis) infection in chukar partridges associated with high mortality and intracellular outbreak of infectious catarrhal enteritis, associated with the flagellated protozoan spironucleus meleagridis (syn. hexamita meleagridis), is reported from a commercial flock of chukar partridges in california. the disease affected birds between the ages of 4 and 6 wk and resulted in diarrhea, listlessness, depression, and high mortality. concurrent infection with other intestinal pathogens, including cryptosporidia, group e salmonella, long-segmented filamentous microorganisms (lsfmos), and ...200415529998
a comparative study of genetic diversity of peripheral and central populations of chukar partridge from northwestern china.although it has long been presumed that peripheral populations tend to exhibit low genetic diversity because of isolation and genetic drift, results of empirical investigation remain ambiguous. some chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) populations have expanded their ranges, resulting in several peripheral populations, due to recent deforestation by human beings in the longdong loess plateau of northwestern china. on the basis of mitochondrial dna control-region data, we compare the genetic diver ...200516382366
comparison of the replication of influenza a viruses in chinese ring-necked pheasants and chukar partridges.we investigated the replication and transmission of avian influenza a viruses in two species thought to be intermediate hosts in the spread of influenza a viruses in live poultry markets: chinese ring-necked pheasants and chukar partridges. all 15 hemagglutinin subtypes replicated in pheasants, and most subtypes transmitted to naïve contact pheasants, primarily via the fecal-oral route. many viruses were shed from the gastrointestinal tract of experimentally inoculated pheasants for 14 days or l ...200616474123
west nile virus-associated mortality events in domestic chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) and domestic impeyan pheasants (lophophorus impeyanus).west nile virus (wnv) infection was diagnosed in captive juvenile chukars (alectoris chukar), and captive juvenile impeyan pheasants (lophophorus impeyanus) on the basis of necropsy, histopathology, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. the chukars were kept in a game bird farm that experienced two outbreaks with approximately 25% mortality in hundreds of chukars between september and october 2002 and during the same months in 2003. the submitted pheasants were part of a group of ...200617039851
ascaridia numidae (leiper, 1908; travassos, 1913) in rock partridge (alectoris chukar) in turkey.this report present first case of ascaridia numidae isolated from three dead rock partridges (alectoris chukar) with stressing morphological characteristics and its responsiveness to the medical treatment. a. numidae was confirmed by presence of one papilla on the posterior region of the preanal sucker and a total of 10 pairs of the caudal papillae. in necropsy, a total of 680 (282 male and 3,988 female) a. numidae and 289 (147 male and 142 female) heterakis dispar were isolated from all partrid ...200818040718
experimental toxoplasmosis in chukar partridges(alectoris graeca).thirty battery-hatched chukar partridges (alectorts graeca) were inoculated orally with oocysts of the me 49 or the gt-1 strain of toxoplasma gondii. all six chukars given 10,000 gt-1 strain oocysts died or were euthanized between postinoculation day (p.i.d.) 3 and 6. fifteen of 24 chukars given 10,000, 1000, 100 or 10 me 49 strain oocysts died or were euthanized between p.i.d. 6 and 14. nine chukars that were not ill by p.i.d. 14 remained clinically normal until euthanized in good health p.i.d. ...199518645768
adenovirus group ii-like infection in chukar partridges (alectoris chukar).seven live 5-to-6-wk-old chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) were examined because of increased lacrimation, swollen eyelids, and increased mortality. gross lesions consisted of mildly enlarged and mottled white spleens, swollen eyelids with external scab formation, and watery intestinal contents. microscopically, there were increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytic system cells in the spleen, some of which contained faintly staining basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, blepharoconjuncti ...200818646470
high susceptibility of partridges ( perdix perdix ) to toxoplasmosis compared with other gallinaceous birds.partridges ( perdix perdix ), chukars ( alectoris chukar ), wild guineafowl ( numida meleagris ), wild turkeys ( meleagris gallopavo ) and chickens ( gallus domesticus ) were inoculated per os with 103 or 105 toxoplasma gondii oocysts (k7 strain). two of five partridges fed 103 oocysts and six of eight partridges fed 105 oocysts died between day 6 and 16 post-inoculation (p.i.); no clinical symptoms were observed in surviving birds. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in the birds by the indir ...200019184852
identification of raw and heat-processed meats from game bird species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mitochondrial d-loop region.polymerase chain reaction-rflp analysis has been applied to the identification of meats from quail (coturnix coturnix), pheasant (phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridge (alectoris rufa), chukar partridge (alectoris chukar), guinea fowl (numida meleagris), capercaillie (tetrao urogallus), eurasian woodcock (scolopax rusticola), and woodpigeon (columba palumbus). polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out using a set of primers flanking a conserved region of approximately 310 bp f ...200919211540
histomonas meleagridis and capillarid infection in a captive chukar (alectoris chukar).a female, adult, pen-raised chukar (alectoris chukar) was submitted for postmortem examination. the main gross findings were severe emaciation, coelomic cavity and pericardial edema, and a large, sharply demarcated area of necrosis in the liver. histologically, the liver lesions were characterized by areas of severe necrosis and inflammation containing numerous protozoal organisms morphologically consistent with histomonas meleagridis. there was necrotizing typhlitis, with few histomonads and sc ...200920095170
when hatchlings outperform adults: locomotor development in australian brush turkeys (alectura lathami, galliformes).within galliformes, megapods (brush turkey, malleefowl, scrubfowl) exhibit unique forms of parental care and growth. hatchlings receive no post-hatching parental care and exhibit the most exaggerated precocial development of all extant birds, hatching with fully developed, flight-capable forelimbs. rather than flying up to safety, young birds preferentially employ wing-assisted incline running. newly hatched australian brush turkeys (alectura lathami) are extraordinarily proficient at negotiatin ...201021047855
new single nucleotide polymorphisms in alectoris identified using chicken genome information allow alectoris introgression detection.using the chicken genome, 114 polymorphisms (109 snps and 5 indels) were identified in the alectoris genus by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism. using these, a panel of snps is described, which allows easy detection of introgression of alectoris chukar in wild alectoris rufa populations, when used with a primer extension protocol. the selected polymorphisms were genotyped and their allelic frequencies estimated on 98 a. rufa partridges sampled from nonrestocking s ...201021565012
Immunization of chukar partridges against coccidia (Eimeria kofoidi and Eimeria legionensis) with low doses of live oocysts.Experiments were conducted to determine whether chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) chicks would develop protective immunity after inoculation with coccidia. Young chukar chicks in battery cages inoculated with 100 or more oocysts of Eimeria kofoidi or Eimeria legionensis had significant protection at challenge 4 wk later, as measured by greatly reduced oocyst shedding and improved weight gain as compared with unvaccinated, challenged controls. However, when birds were housed in litter pens and ...201122017029
pathogenesis of h9n2 virus in chukar partridges.low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (h9n2) is circulating in the poultry industry of many countries in the middle east and asia, causing serious economic damage. in this study the clinical signs, antibody response, viral shedding and efficacy of oil emulsion vaccines in chukar partridges were investigated until 9 days post inoculation (d.p.i.). seventy-five chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) were divided randomly in three groups of challenged (group c), vaccinated and challenged (group vc) an ...201323631735
induced systemic listeriosis in alectoris chukar chicks: clinical, histopathological and microbiological findings.1. systemic listeriosis was induced in 14-d-old chukar partridge chicks, alectoris chukar, by intravenous injection of a suspension containing 10(6) cfu/ml of viable listeria monocytogenes organisms to study the course of infection. 2. septicaemic and encephalitic forms of listeriosis were observed in all birds. infection resulted in a fever response 8-h post-inoculation. disease rapidly developed over a 24-h period with decreased activity, lethargy, ruffled feathers, huddling, listlessness, ina ...201526551997
diagnostic exercise: high mortality in a flock of chukar partridge chicks (alectoris chukar) in california.mortality of 20% of a flock of 1000 chukar partridge chicks occurred over a 6-week period in northern california from august to september 2012. affected birds were 2 to 42 days old and died without premonitory clinical signs or after showing ruffled feathers and anorexia for 24 to 72 hours. three carcasses were submitted for necropsy, 2 birds had hemorrhagic tracheitis grossly, and all 3 had lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic myocarditis with myocardial necrosis microscopically. the differential ...201524686386
a comparison of fat-soluble antioxidants in wild and farm-reared chukar partridges (alectoris chukar).this study assessed differences in antioxidant (carotenoid, retinol, retinol-ester, vitamin e and coenzyme q10) composition of egg yolk and tissue in chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) newly hatched from eggs of birds maintained in captivity on commercial maize-soybean based diets and birds from the wild whose diet was obtained from the natural environment. all eggs were incubated in a commercial hatchery. day-old chicks from both groups were sacrificed and dissected for antioxidant analysis. ...201728359879
phylogeography of chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) in china based on mtdna control region.the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) is distributed in north and northwest of china, in mountainous areas that were heavily affected by cyclic climate and landscape changes during the last pleistocene glaciations. some partridge populations have colonized and expanded their present ranges only after deglaciation and recent deforestation by human. consequently, partridges from different areas could be genetically differentiated. in this study, a 1152-1154 bp portion of the mitochondrial dna co ...201627159688
flapping before flight: high resolution, three-dimensional skeletal kinematics of wings and legs during avian development.some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. however, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs a ...201627100994
asymmetrical introgression patterns between rusty-necklaced partridge (alectoris magna) and chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) in china.the rusty-necklaced partridge (alectoris magna) and the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) are the most common gamebirds in northern china. previous comparisons of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) have revealed an introgression phenomenon between 2 species of partridge in the liupan mountain region of china. mtdna is maternally inherited, making it difficult to determine the origin of parental genes. we assessed the genetic variation and gene flow between these 2 species of partridges using 8 microsat ...201626923908
histochemical study of the oesophagus in the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) of the histogenesis of different organs is a useful laboratory method which helps us achieve accurate basic information about organ development during the embryonic period. it also reveals histological differences of each organ in different species. this research was carried out to study the histogenesis of the oesophagus of chukar partridge. for this purpose, the embryonated eggs were placed in the incubator and the embryos were collected between the 5th to 24th days of incubation period. ...201626916205
the effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (alectoris chukar).1. a total of 400 alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (l*, a* and b* meat colour and ph). 2. production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. partr ...201626813778
prevalence and morphological characterization of cheilospirura hamulosa, diesing, 1861 (nematoda: acuarioidea), from partridges in iran.this study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (alectoris chukar) from taleqan county in alborz province, iran. the prevalence of c. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1-12. the mean length and width of females were 17.5 ± 2.14 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mm, w ...201526693346
inconsistencies among secondary sources of chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) introductions to the united states.the propagule pressure hypothesis asserts that the number of individuals released is the key determinant of whether an introduction will succeed or not. it remains to be shown whether propagule pressure is more important than either species-level or site-level factors in determining the fate of an introduction. studies claiming to show that propagule pressure is the primary determinant of introduction success must assume that the historical record as reported by secondary sources is complete and ...201526644981
functional characteristics of the growth factor receptor family and some ligands in the oropharyngeal cavity of the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar).1. the aim of the present study is to describe, immunohistochemically, the expression and cell type localisation of growth factor receptors and some of their ligands in the oropharyngeal organs of the chukar partridge. 2. the tissue samples from 10 healthy adult partridges were dissected under ether anaesthesia and then embedded in paraffin following routine histological procedures. the immunoreaction for receptors and ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr)/ligand system was loca ...201526569385
coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in brazil.coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in north america, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. virtually no research has been conducted in south america on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. the aim of this work was to make first observations on eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge alectoris chukar and the grey quail coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in brazil. fecal and tissue samples ...201526154966
characterization of red-legged partridge (alectoris rufa) sperm: seasonal changes and influence of genetic purity.the general decline in wild iberian populations of the red-legged partridge (alectoris rufa) has been accompanied by an increase in game-farm facilities producing hybrids with chukar partridges (alectoris chukar). genetic introgression from chukar partridges is thought to modify male red-legged partridge reproductive indicators. the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of such genetic introgression on seasonal reproductive patterns by comparing the sperm and plasma testosterone ...201525577796
functional anatomy of the syrinx of the chukar partridge (galliformes: alectoris chukar) as a model for phonation research.the phonation process of vertebrates is influenced by the material characteristics of the participating structures, ranging from molecular to macroscopic dimensions. good animal models for phonation research are still lacking. due to easy availability and relatively simple structure, the syrinx of birds might serve as a good animal model for this purpose. our aim was therefore to determine structural features of the syrinx and obtain insights into its mucus layer characteristics. epithelium and ...201525178267
ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds.mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. ontogenetically, the use ...201425165451
chromosome size-correlated and chromosome size-uncorrelated homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences in new world quails.many families of centromeric repetitive dna sequences isolated from struthioniformes, galliformes, falconiformes, and passeriformes are localized primarily to microchromosomes. however, it is unclear whether chromosome size-correlated homogenization is a common characteristic of centromeric repetitive sequences in aves. new world and old world quails have the typical avian karyotype comprising chromosomes of two distinct sizes, and c-positive heterochromatin is distributed in centromeric regions ...201424532185
effect of a prebiotic on performance of experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a prebiotic on performance of partridge. the experiment was carried out with a total of eighty-day-old male chukar partridge (alectoris chukar chukar) chicks in a completely randomized design. the dietary treatments consisted of a control and an experimental treatment, and each treatment was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate. the experimental period lasted 16 weeks with a starter period (0-8 weeks) and a grower period (9-1 ...201424033541
three-dimensional, high-resolution skeletal kinematics of the avian wing and shoulder during ascending flapping flight and uphill flap-running.past studies have shown that birds use their wings not only for flight, but also when ascending steep inclines. uphill flap-running or wing-assisted incline running (wair) is used by both flight-incapable fledglings and flight-capable adults to retreat to an elevated refuge. despite the broadly varying direction of travel during wair, level, and descending flight, recent studies have found that the basic wing path remains relatively invariant with reference to gravity. if so, joints undergo disp ...201323691132
parasitosis of the chukar partridge, alectoris chukar in north iraq.the aim of this study was to establish the identity of the parasitic communities of the chukar partridge from iraq as well as reporting on the prevalence and intensity of various infections from several localities and comprising both sexes.201223339947
anatomical and histological structure of the tongue and histochemical characteristics of the lingual salivary glands in the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar, gray 1830).1. the aim of the study was to examine the morphology of the tongue and the histochemical features of the lingual salivary glands in this species. 2. the tongue was elongated, terminating in a rather sharp, dagger-like apex. on the surface of the tongue and situated between the body and root of the tongue, two rows of conical papillae, the sharp apices of which pointed towards the posterior part of the tongue, were observed. the keratinised epithelium lining the dorsal surface lacked typical gus ...201222978586
comparison of the metal concentrations in the feathers of three bird species from southern iran.this study was conducted to determine the concentration of metals, namely cadmium, lead, cobalt and copper, in the feathers of chukar (alectoris chukar), see-see partridge (ammoperdix griseogularis) and rock dove (columba livia) in order to: examine the species, gender and age related variations in trace metal accumulation, and identify any relationships between species. bird samples were collected in february 2012 from the hormod protected area, southern iran and the concentration of metals wer ...201222933174
ontogeny of lift and drag production in ground birds.the juvenile period is often a crucial interval for selective pressure on locomotor ability. although flight is central to avian biology, little is known about factors that limit flight performance during development. to improve understanding of flight ontogeny, we used a propeller (revolving wing) model to test how wing shape and feather structure influence aerodynamic performance during development in the precocial chukar partridge (alectoris chukar, 4 to >100 days post hatching). we spun wing ...201121307057
dna barcodes of arabian partridge and philby's rock partridge: implications for phylogeny and species identification.recently, dna barcoding based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) has gained wide attention because of simplicity and robustness of these barcodes for species identification including birds. the current genbank records show the coi barcodes of only one species, chukar partridge (alectoris chukar), of the alectoris genus. in this study, we sequenced the 694 bp segment of coi gene of the two species including, arabian partridge (alectoris melanocephala) and philby's rock partridg ...201021151586
mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor mrna expression in the brain of translocated chukar (alectoris chukar).although translocation is an important conservation tool in the effort to create self-sustaining wild populations of threatened species, avian translocations have a high failure rate and causes for failure are poorly understood. while "stress" is considered to play a major role in translocation failure, the physiological changes associated with chronic stress resulting from translocation have been investigated only recently. translocation results in chronic stress-induced alterations of stress r ...201121118689
analysis of genetic diversity of chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) populations in khorasan-e-razavi province of iran by rapd-pcr.rapd markers were used to investigate population genetic parameters of an endangered partridge, alectoris chukar, in four areas of iran, as a part of a genetic conservation program. the aim of this study was to analyze the genetic similarity among these populations. blood samples from 75 birds were used for dna extraction and rapd-pcr analysis of 67 loci, with 28 polymorphic bands (41.79%). the populations of kalat-e-nader and mashhad were found to be closely related, as were the torbat-e-jaam a ...201020820903
genetic structure of mediterranean chukar (alectoris chukar, galliformes) populations: conservation and management implications.the chukar (alectoris chukar, galliformes) is a species hunted throughout its native range from the east mediterranean to manchuria and in the usa, which hosts the world's largest introduced population. this study aims to investigate the genetic structure of mediterranean chukar populations to aid management decisions. we genotyped 143 specimens at two regions of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna: cytochrome b, control region) and eight loci of the microsatellite dna. samples were collected in northe ...200919621211
precocial development of locomotor performance in a ground-dwelling bird (alectoris chukar): negotiating a three-dimensional terrestrial environment.developing animals are particularly vulnerable to predation. hence, precocial young of many taxa develop predator escape performance that rivals that of adults. ontogenetically unique among vertebrates, birds transition from hind limb to forelimb dependence for escape behaviours, so developmental investment for immediate gains in running performance may impair flight performance later. here, in a three-dimensional kinematic study of developing birds performing pre-flight flapping locomotor behav ...200919570787
stress and translocation: alterations in the stress physiology of translocated birds.translocation and reintroduction have become major conservation actions in attempts to create self-sustaining wild populations of threatened species. however, avian translocations have a high failure rate and causes for failure are poorly understood. while 'stress' is often cited as an important factor in translocation failure, empirical evidence of physiological stress is lacking. here we show that experimental translocation leads to changes in the physiological stress response in chukar partri ...200919324794
sunflower oil supplementation alters meat quality but not performance of growing partridges (alectoris chukar).this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil supplementation (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) to partridge chicks (alectoris chukar) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. feed consumption and live weight gain were responsive to dietary sunflower oil inclusion during the starter period, but not during the grower period. increasing sunflower oil level linearly increased crude protein and fat digestibilities. except for abdominal fat, weights of inedible ...201019175454
initial transference of wild birds to captivity alters stress physiology.maintaining wild animals in captivity has long been used for conservation and research. while often suggested that captivity causes chronic stress, impacts on the underlying stress physiology are poorly understood. we used wild-caught chukar (alectoris chukar) as a model avian species to assess how the initial 10 days of captivity alters the corticosterone (cort) secretory pathway. in the first few days of captivity, birds lost weight, had lower hematocrit and demonstrated changes in cort concen ...200919026651
aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds.wing-assisted incline running (wair) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. wair is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. to begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (dpiv) and measured air velocity, vorticity, ci ...200717488937
introgression of alectoris chukar genes into a spanish wild alectoris rufa order to detect introgression of other alectoris genus species into wild populations of spanish alectoris rufa, we studied a sample of 93 red-legged partridges (supposed to be a. rufa) captured in the island of majorca. a set of 31 chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) from cyprus and 33 red-legged partridges (a. rufa) from one spanish farm were also studied to provide suitable populations for comparison. factorial correspondence analysis on microsatellite genotypes supported a clear distincti ...200717395601
genetic insight into mediterranean chukar (alectoris chukar, galliformes) populations inferred from mitochondrial dna and rapd markers.the chukar (alectoris chukar, galliformes) is one of the most important game birds as it is widely distributed and hunted over the whole of its range. the aim of this work was to assess the genetic differentiation as well as the possible presence of hybrid specimens in a. chukar populations from italy, greece and cyprus. to provide phylogenetic context, conspecific, allopatric specimens from israel, georgia, armenia, kazakhstan, afghanistan, pakistan, mongolia, china and usa were compared. seque ...200717286187
electrocardiography of rock partridges (alectoris graeca) and chukar partridges (alectoris chukar).standard limb, six lead (i, ii, iii, avr, avl, and avf) electrocardiograms (ecgs) were recorded in 10 awake mature rock partridges (alectoris graeca) and 10 chukar partridges (alectoris chukar). durations and amplitudes of p and t waves and qrs complexes, durations of p-q and q-t intervals, and mean heart rates were calculated from the lead ii ecgs. all observable p and t waves were negative in avr and avl, whereas they were positive in all remaining leads. the most frequent forms of qrs complex ...200415732592
effects of sex and protein and energy levels in the diet on the blood parameters of the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar).1. the effects of sex and dietary composition were investigated in 48 male and 48 female 16-week old chukar partridges. 2. sixteen starter and 16 grower diets were arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial design with 4 concentration of crude protein (cp) and 4 concentration of metabolizable energy (me). 3. blood samples were collected at 16 weeks of age and analysed for total protein, triglycerides, uric acid, total cholesterol, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and chlorine. 4. there were no ...200415222427
energy metabolism and thermoregulation in hand-reared chukars (alectoris chukar).metabolic rate and colonic temperature were measured in chukars between 1st and 108th day of life (divided into six age groups: 1-3-days old, 1, 2, 3, and 4-weeks old and 3.5-months old) in ambient temperatures set separately for each group and ranging from -12 to 41 degrees c. the gompertz growth constant for growing chukars (0.042) was close to the value obtained in earlier study for the grey partridge. similarly as in other species of galliformes, newly hatched chukar chicks had lower t(b) at ...200314613803
mechanics of wing-assisted incline running (wair).a recently discovered locomotor behavior, wing-assisted incline running (wair), allows fully volant animals to 'run' up vertical obstacles. such a task would appear to be especially formidable for bipeds, yet wair is used preferentially by ground-dwelling birds, specifically chukar partridge alectoris chukar, to reach refugia. the basic locomotor mechanics that enable this behavior are not fully understood. for instance, are there functional differences at the level of the wing during wair and f ...200314610039
effects of dietary protein and energy concentrations on performance and carcase characteristics of chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) raised in captivity.1. this study was conducted to determine the effects of starter and grower diets with differing crude protein (cp) and metabolisable energy (me) concentrations on the body weight (bw), live weight gain (lwg), feed consumption (fc), feed conversion ratio (fcr), and carcase, breast+back, rump, wing, neck and abdominal fat weights of chukar partridge raised in captivity. 2. chukar partridges were fed on starter diets containing 4 concentrations of cp (160, 200, 240, 280 g/kg) and 4 concentrations o ...200312964626
effect of halofuginone (stenorol) on chukar partridge (alectoris chukar).this study was conducted to assess the effect of the coccidiostat halofuginone (stenorol) on growth, feed consumption, and survival of chukar partridge. halofuginone was fed to three replicates (14 chicks per replicate) of chukar chicks from 2 to 7 d of age at levels of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 12 ppm. mortality from 2 to 7 d was 0, 0, 0, 11, and 21 birds, respectively, by treatment. seven-day body weight showed a significant linear decrease with increasing halofuginone level (p < 0.01). on the 7th ...19969000272
prevention of coccidiosis in the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) by medication with sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim (rofenaid).rofenaid (a 5:3 mixture of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim) was effective in preventing coccidiosis of chukar partridges. levels of .0100 or .0125% sulfadimethoxine, with the corresponding level of ormetoprim in the ration, gave the best results. these levels markedly reduced mortality in severe infections (over 75% mortality in unmedicated chukars) and eliminated mortality in medicated groups when infections produced 52% mortality or less in unmedicated controls. in the latter infections, rofen ...19902263542
primary feather molt and serum luteinizing hormone concentration in chukar partridge (alectoris chukar) during a photoperiodically induced molt with or without two experiments, 135 adult chukar partridge of two genetic lines, one selected for high egg production and a random-bred control line, were induced to molt by reducing photoperiod from 16 hr light/day to 8 hr light/day on day 0. in experiment 1, feed was removed from approximately half the birds on day 0 and returned on day 7. birds in experiment 2 were not fasted. photoperiod was increased to 16 hr light/day on day 56. primary feather molt scores, body weights, and, in experiment 2, serum lu ...19863588482
shank length for determining sex in chukars.shank length measurement of greater than or equal to 60 mm for males and less than 60 mm for females was used to predict sexes in male and female chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) at 8, 10, 12, 20, 32, and 64 weeks of age. growth of the shank is nearly complete at 10 weeks of age, whereas growth of body tissue continues to about 20 weeks of age. the best prediction of sexes was made at 10 weeks of age with an accuracy of about 95%. at 10 weeks of age, the accuracy for predicting males was hig ...19863737504
heat balance of the partridge alectoris chukar exposed to moderate, high and extreme thermal stress.1. the capacity of the chukar partridge, alectoris chukar to withstand extreme environmental temperatures (up to 52 degrees c) was investigated. under moderate conditions average resting values were: body temperature 40.7 degrees c, oxygen consumption (smr) 0.74 ml o2 stp/g hr, evaporative water loss (ewl) between 1.28-4.02 mg h2o/g/hr and tidal volume (calculated) was 4.6-6.7 ml per breath. 2. at high air temperatures a rapid (582/min) shallow panting resulted in minute volume increase of about ...19836130877
tritiated water for estimating total body water and water turnover rate in birds.the use of tritiated water (toh) to estimate total body water (tbw) and total water turnover rate was validated in chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) and sand partridges (ammoperdix heyi). for six chukar partridges weighing between 315 to 475 g, toh equilibration with body fluids was less than 45 min after intramuscular or intravenous injections. mean toh space in eight chukar partridges was 99.8% of the mean tbw measured by desiccation with individuals ranging between 97.9 and 103.2%. toh spa ...19817298458
environmental temperature selection by the chukar partridge, alectoris chukar. 1977613347
noninvasive genotyping of the red-legged partridge (alectoris rufa, phasianidae): semi-nested pcr of mitochondrial dna from feces.dna-based studies using avian feces are scarce and deal only with large-sized species. the red-legged partridge, alectoris rufa, is a medium-sized member of the order galliformes. our goal was to set up a fast, noninvasive procedure for mitochondrial dna (mtdna) genotyping of a. rufa fecal samples. we focused on the protected population from elba island (tuscan archipelago national park, italy). dry a. rufa fecal samples (n = 30) were collected in winter. both the cytochrome b gene (1,092 bp) an ...200919714459
mitochondrial and nuclear markers for the authentication of partridge meat and the specific identification of red-legged partridge meat products by polymerase chain reaction.two pcr assays for the identification of partridge meat (red-legged partridge, chukar partridge, barbary partridge, and gray partridge species) and the specific identification of red-legged partridge meat products were developed based on species-specific primers targeting the 12s ribosomal rna mitochondrial gene. moreover, various pcr techniques based on the use of random amplified polymorphic dna markers and nuclear growth hormone and rhodopsin genes were tested to find a method for the differe ...201121177462
repair of tibiotarsal rotation in 7 chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) and 12 domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) with type-2 external skeletal fixator intramedullary pin tie-in.rotational deformities of the long bones affect various avian species. tibiotarsal rotation may cause the leg to deviate up to 180° from the dorsoplantar axis in a matter of days, thus preventing the birds from walking freely and leading to the inability to stand. in this study, tibiotarsal rotation observed in pigeons and partridges was managed by creating a closed fracture in the tibiotarsus and then, following reduction, stabilizing it with an intramedullary tie-in type 2 external skeletal fi ...201728891696
pathobiology of clade h5nx high pathogenicity avian influenza virus infections in minor gallinaceous poultry supports early backyard flock introductions in western u.s., 2014-2015, the u.s. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of eurasian clade h5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus. initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. the pathogenesis, transmission, and intra-host evolutionary dynamics of initial eurasian h5n8 and reassortant h5n2 clade hpai viruses in the u.s. were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i.e ...201728794040
ontogeny of flight capacity and pectoralis function in a precocial ground bird (alectoris chukar).flight is the defining characteristic of birds, yet the mechanisms through which flight ability develops are only beginning to be understood. wing-assisted incline running (wair) and controlled flapping descent (cfd) are behaviors that may offer significant adaptive benefits to developing birds. recent research into these forms of locomotion has focused on species with precocial development, with a particularly rich data set from chukar partridge (alectoris chukar). here we briefly review the ki ...201728662566
comparison of growth curve models in partridge.this study was conducted in order to determine the goodness of fit of brody, gompertz, logistic, and von bertalanffy growth curve models in partridge (alectoris chukar). the growth curve parameters a (upper asymptote or mature weight parameter), b (scale parameter related to initial weight), and k (instantaneous growth rate parameter) were determined as 623.4, 1.05, and 0.075 for females and 723.8, 1.06, and 0.073 for males in the brody model, respectively, 472.9, 3.47, and 0.207 for females and ...201728204676
characterization of the toxicity of the mycotoxins aflatoxin, ochratoxin, and t-2 toxin in game birds. i. chukar partridge.chukar partridges were fed diets containing 1.25, 2.5, or 5 ppm aflatoxin; 1, 2, or 4 ppm ochratoxin a (oa); or 4, 8, or 16 ppm t-2 toxin. toxin-induced mortality was seen during the third week with 4 ppm oa (12.5%) and 16 ppm t-2 toxin (15%), compared with the mortality in control chukars fed no toxin (2.5%). body weights were significantly decreased by the highest level of aflatoxin at 3 weeks of age, by the highest level of oa by 2 weeks of age, and by 8 and 16 ppm t-2 toxin by 1 week of age. ...20132241700
effects of light conditioning on reproduction in partridge.reproductive response was measured in two lines of chukar partridge given conditioning light treatments of either 8 hr light:16 hr dark (8l:16d) at 50 lx or 16l:8d at .1 lx for 4, 6, or 8 weeks, respectively. birds were recycled to lay using the same conditioning light treatments. during both lay cycles, all birds received 16l:8d at 100 lx. the results indicate that both conditioning light regimens were effective in terminating postjuvenile and postlay refractoriness. hens given a conditioning l ...19863822980
physalopterine larvae in muscles of blue grouse and a chukar partridge. 19863505945
can tritiated water-dilution space accurately predict total body water in chukar partridges?total body water (tbw) volumes determined from the dilution space of injected tritiated water have consistently overestimated actual water volumes (determined by desiccation to constant mass) in reptiles and mammals, but results for birds are controversial. we investigated potential errors in both the dilution method and the desiccation method in an attempt to resolve this controversy. tritiated water dilution yielded an accurate measurement of water mass in vitro. however, in vivo, this method ...19853905754
cerebral nematodiasis in a chukar partridge. 1978738961
the effect of intensity and duration of light on photorefractoriness and subsequent egg production of chukar partridge. 1978630017
anti-predator behavior in pure and hybrid red-legged partridges.the purpose of this study was to examine the anti-predator behavior in pure red-legged partridges (alectoris rufa) and hybrids with chukar partridges (a. rufa × (a. rufa × a. chukar)). a total of 117 birds (66 pure and 51 hybrid partridges; 74 females and 43 males) maintained in outdoor cages were used at a range of 52 to 55 wk of age. four active fear tests were performed (novel object test, fear of humans test, emergence test, and restraint test) in order to analyze differences between pure an ...201930778564
histological and histochemical studies of the gall bladder of the graylag goose (anser anser).we investigated the histological structure of the graylag goose (anser anser) gall bladder. sections of the gall bladder were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (h & e), alcian blue (ph 2.5) for acid mucopolysaccharides, gomori's method for reticular fibers, masson's trichrome, periodic acid-schiff (pas) and verhoeff's elastin stain. the goose gall bladder was composed of a tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica adventitia or tunica serosa. the tunica mucosa formed regularly distributed sim ...201930829549
surveillance for heterakis spp. in game birds and cage-free, floor-raised poultry in pennsylvania.histomoniasis is a significant disease of gallinaceous birds caused by histomonas meleagridis. transmission of this parasite is dependent on use of the cecal nematode heterakis gallinarum. to define the host range of this nematode, cecal contents from 399 game birds and poultry, representing eight species, were examined for heterakis spp. the majority of these species (five of eight) were infected with heterakis nematodes. heterakis gallinarum was detected in free-ranging wild turkeys (meleagrid ...202032550622
pathobiology and innate immune responses of gallinaceous poultry to clade h5nx highly pathogenic avian influenza virus the 2014-2015 eurasian lineage clade h5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) outbreak in the u.s., backyard flocks with minor gallinaceous poultry and large commercial poultry (chickens and turkeys) operations were affected. the pathogenesis of the first h5n8 and reassortant h5n2 clade hpai u.s. isolates was investigated in six gallinaceous species: chickens, japanese quail, bobwhite quail, pearl guinea fowl, chukar partridges, and ring-necked pheasants. both viruses cau ...201931675983
application of high-resolution melting-curve analysis on pvpa gene for detection and classification of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) is an avian species pathogen which causes heavy economic losses in the poultry industry. the purpose of this study was to determine genomic diversity of 14 mg field strains from chicken, chuker partridge and peacock collected during 2009-2012 in iran by polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of the pvpa gene. a high-resolution melting (hrm) technique was also developed and applied to differentiate between field and vaccine strains. sequencing of the pvpa g ...201829959042
banding cytogenetics of the barbary partridge alectoris barbara and the chukar partridge alectoris chukar (phasianidae): a large conservation with domestic fowl gallus domesticus revealed by high resolution chromosomes.the development of avian cytogenetics is significantly behind that of mammals. in fact, since the advent of cytogenetic techniques, fewer than 1500 karyotypes have been established. the barbary partridge alectoris barbara bonnaterre, 1790 is a bird of economic interest but its genome has not been studied so far. this species is endemic to north africa and globally declining. the chukar partridge alectoris chukar gray, 1830 is an introduced species which shares the same habitat area as the barbar ...201829896323
an open platform system based on snp type genetic markers for discrimination between alectoris rufa and alectoris chukar.the red-legged partridge (alectoris rufa) is one of the most emblematic game species in southern europe. for the conservation of its natural populations against hybridization with chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) a public and agreed control system able to detect genetic introgression between the two species should be established. as the already available method has not been implemented yet, this paper presents an improvement of the genetic analysis technique by using an open platform system ...202033166632
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