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booming territory size and mating success of the greater prairie chicken (tympanuchus cupido pinnatus). 19665956599
plasmodium pedioecetii in greater prairie-chickens, tympanuchus cupido (linné), from colorado. 19846527181
serologic and parasitologic survey of the endangered attwater's prairie chicken.because conservation biologists have postulated that infectious diseases may have potentiated the endangerment of the attwater's prairie chicken (tympanuchus cupido attwateri), free-living prairie chickens were surveyed from all remaining populations for helminthic endoparasites and antibody against the etiological agents of nine infectious diseases. samples from 4 of 27 adult males were positive for anti-pasteurella multocida antibody. all other serologic tests were negative (n = 19). we identi ...19989476235
dynamic disturbance processes create dynamic lek site selection in a prairie grouse.it is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. these selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. to assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993-2012) of greater prairie-chicken (tympanuchus cupido) lek location ...201526394226
wild birds, a source of reticuloendotheliosis virus infection for the endangered attwater's prairie-chicken ( tympanuchus cupido attwateri)?reticuloendotheliosis virus (rev) infects a wide range of avian species. since 1998, when it was first reported in a captive flock of the endangered attwater's prairie-chicken ( tympanuchus cupido attwateri; apc), rev has plagued apc recovery efforts. while rev frequently occurs in captive bird flocks throughout the world, including commercial poultry, the reservoir for initial infection of flocks is poorly understood. from 2008-2016, 412 blood samples and 216 liver samples collected from 32 spe ...201728192047
Drift and selection influence geographic variation at immune loci of prairie-chickens.Previous studies of immunity in wild populations have focused primarily on genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, studies of model species have identified additional immune-related genes that also affect fitness. In this study, we sequenced five non-MHC immune genes in six greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) populations that have experienced varying degrees of genetic drift as a consequence of population bottlenecks and fragmentation. We compared patterns of geogr ...201122008237
rapid loss of mhc class ii variation in a bottlenecked population is explained by drift and loss of copy number variation.population bottlenecks may reduce genetic variation and potentially increase the risk of extinction. here, we present the first study to use historic samples to analyse loss of variation at the major histocompatibility complex (mhc), which plays a central role in vertebrate disease resistance. balancing selection acts on the mhc and could moderate the loss of variation expected from drift; however, in a wisconsin population of greater prairie-chickens (tympanuchus cupido), the number of mhc clas ...201121605219
recent range expansion and divergence among north american prairie grouse.prairie grouse (genus: tympanuchus) once existed throughout much of north america but have recently experienced significant population declines, isolation, and extinction. in previous molecular studies, contrasting patterns or an unresolved polytomy among tympanuchus taxa (tympanuchus phasianellus, tympanuchus pallidicinctus, and tympanuchus cupido) have resulted from traditional phylogenetic methods. as an alternative approach, the timing of expansion and the demographic processes that may have ...200818283050
experimental infection of attwater's/greater prairie chicken hybrids with the reticuloendotheliosis virus.reticuloendotheliosis virus (rev), a common pathogen of poultry, has been associated with runting and neoplasia in an endangered subspecies of grouse, the attwater's prairie chicken. the pathogenesis of rev infection was examined in experimentally infected prairie chickens. three groups of four attwater's/greater prairie chicken hybrids were infected intravenously with varying doses (tissue culture infective dose [tcid50], 200, 1000, and 5000) of a prairie chicken-isolated rev. a fourth group of ...200617274303
enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered attwater's and greater prairie chickens.reticuloendotheliosis (re) in captive greater prairie chickens (gpc, tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and attwater's prairie chickens (apc, tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. re is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (rev), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. during august 2004 through may 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian ...200617274288
full genome sequence and some biological properties of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain apc-566 isolated from endangered attwater's prairie chickens.reticuloendotheliosis virus (rev) causes runting, high mortality, immunosuppression, and chronic neoplasia associated with t and/or b cell lymphomas in a variety of domestic and wild birds, including attwater's prairie chickens (apc) (tympanuchus cupido attwateri). the complete proviral sequence of a recent rev isolate from apc (rev apc-566) was determined. this virus was isolated from an apc maintained in captivity in a reproduction program intended to avoid its extinction. rev apc-566 was dete ...200717098316
genetic evaluation of a proposed introduction: the case of the greater prairie chicken and the extinct heath hen.population introduction is an important tool for ecosystem restoration. however, before introductions should be conducted, it is important to evaluate the genetic, phenotypic and ecological suitability of possible replacement populations. careful genetic analysis is particularly important if it is suspected that the extirpated population was unique or genetically divergent. on the island of martha's vineyard, massachusetts, the introduction of greater prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido pinnatu ...200415189201
contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and microsatellite population structure in fragmented populations of greater prairie-chickens.greater prairie-chickens (tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) were once found throughout the tallgrass prairie of midwestern north america but over the last century these prairies have been lost or fragmented by human land use. as a consequence, many current populations of prairie-chickens have become isolated and small. this fragmentation of populations is expected to lead to reductions in genetic variation as a result of random genetic drift and a decrease in gene flow. as expected, we found that gen ...200314629350
active formation of mixed-species grouse leks: a role for predation in lek evolution?behavioural ecologists have interpreted avian leks as products of sexual selection, in which males display socially to increase their opportunities to mate. however, without invoking reproductive queuing or kin selection, this paradigm does not necessarily explain why many males that fail to mate participate in leks. an alternative solution, that males also aggregate to reduce predation, has previously lacked compelling support. we show that mixed-species leks, comprising two congeneric grouse, ...200212573063
reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater and attwater's prairie chickens.reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater (tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and attwater's (t. cupido attwateri) prairie chickens is reported for the first time. between september 1993 and august 1994, two adult female wild-caught greater prairie chickens housed at texas a&m university (college station, texas, usa) were observed with multiple subcutaneous nodules. both birds were euthanatized. complete necropsy examinations revealed lesions limited to the skin of each bird. histopathologic examinatio ...19989813849
eimeria attwateri n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from endangered attwater's prairie-chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri) in texas, usa.abstract the attwater's prairie-chicken (apc; tympanuchus cupido attwateri bendire 1894) has been a federally listed endangered species since 1967. several captive propagation programs consisting of small populations are being used to keep this species from extinction. fecal samples were collected from apcs in april 2007 and again in august 2008 from two separate captive propagation facilities in texas after clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed. one eimeria species was observed, which we ...201121506827
avoidance behavior by prairie grouse: implications for development of wind energy.new wind-energy facilities and their associated power transmission lines and roads are being constructed at a rapid pace in the great plains of north america. nevertheless, little is known about the possible negative effects these anthropogenic features might have on prairie birds, one of the most threatened groups in north america. we examined radiotelemetry tracking locations of lesser prairie-chickens (tympanuchus pallidicinctus) and greater prairie-chickens (t. cupido) in two locations in ok ...200919500121
the ghost of genetic diversity past: historical dna analysis of the greater prairie chicken.most, if not all, of the "classic," often-cited examples illustrating the genetic effects of a population bottleneck are open to alternative explanations due to the lack of adequate control populations, that is, low levels of genetic variability are often assumed to be the result of a past population bottleneck without having any prebottleneck measures. here we provide the first clear case history where both prebottleneck and postbottleneck measures of genetic variability have been collected fro ...199818811397
effects of recent population bottlenecks on reconstructing the demographic history of prairie-chickens.current methods of dna sequence analysis attempt to reconstruct historical patterns of population structure and growth from contemporary samples. however, these techniques may be influenced by recent population bottlenecks, which have the potential to eliminate lineages that reveal past changes in demography. one way to examine the performance of these demographic methods is to compare samples from populations before and after recent bottlenecks. we compared estimates of demographic history from ...200717561885
pathogenicity and transmission of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolated from endangered prairie chickens.the pathogenicity and transmission of a field isolate of reticuloendotheliosis virus (rev) was studied using an experimental model in japanese quail. oncogenicity was also evaluated after inoculations in chickens and turkeys. the original rev (designated apc-566) was isolated from attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri), an endangered wild avian species of the southern united states. the transmissibility of the rev isolate was studied in young naive japanese quail in contact w ...200717461264
hematology and serum biochemistry values of captive attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri).hematology and serum biochemistry values are reported for 33 attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri) that were captive-reared at the san antonio zoo as part of a federal reintroduction program in texas. hematologic values include packed cell volume, and total and differential white blood cell counts. the biochemical values include concentrations of serum calcium, total protein, albumin, phosphorus, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol. mathematic computation of globulin concent ...200212398300
tracking the long-term decline and recovery of an isolated populationeffects of small population size and reduced genetic variation on the viability of wild animal populations remain controversial. during a 35-year study of a remnant population of greater prairie chickens, population size decreased from 2000 individuals in 1962 to fewer than 50 by 1994. concurrently, both fitness, as measured by fertility and hatching rates of eggs, and genetic diversity declined significantly. conservation measures initiated in 1992 with translocations of birds from large, genet ...19989831558
causes of mortality in captive attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri) at the san antonio zoo, 1997-2000.necropsy records for 102 attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri) that had been captive-reared and had died at the san antonio zoo over a 4-yr period were evaluated to determine the causes of mortality. gross necropsy, histopathology, and bacterial culture findings are summarized. mortality was highest in young birds (<6 mo) and embryos. husbandry- and gastrointestinal-related diseases were the most common causes of mortality.200212462490
genetic rescue: a safe or risky bet?small and isolated populations face threats from genetic drift and inbreeding. to rescue populations from these threats, conservation biologists can augment gene flow into small populations to increase variation and reduce inbreeding depression. spectacular success stories include greater prairie chickens in illinois (westermeier et al. ), adders in sweden (madsen et al. ) and panthers in florida (johnson et al. ). however, we also know that performing such crosses risks introducing genes that m ...201526013990
genetic rescue, the greater prairie chicken and the problem of conservation reliance in the anthropocene.a central question in conservation is how best to manage biodiversity, despite human domination of global processes (=‚ÄČanthropocene). common responses (i.e. translocations, genetic rescue) forestall potential extirpations, yet have an uncertain duration. a textbook example is the greater prairie chicken (grpc: tympanuchus cupido pinnatus), where translocations (1992-1998) seemingly rescued genetically depauperate illinois populations. we re-evaluated this situation after two decades by genotypin ...201728386428
mhc class ii diversity and balancing selection in greater prairie-chickens.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) of domestic chickens has been characterized as small and relatively simple compared with that of mammals. however, there is growing evidence that the mhc of many bird lineages may be more complex, even within the order galliformes. in this study, we measured genetic variation and balancing selection at mhc loci in another galliform, the greater prairie-chicken. we cloned and sequenced a 239 bp fragment of mhc class ii beta-chain (blb) exon 2 in 14 indiv ...201019851875
spatial microbial composition along the gastrointestinal tract of captive attwater's prairie chicken.gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important component of individual health, and therefore, our ability to quantify its diversity accurately is central for exploring different ways to improve health. non-invasive sampling methods, such as cloaca swabs, are often used to measure gastrointestinal microbiota diversity within an individual. however, few studies have addressed to what degree differences exist in microbial community composition along the gastrointestinal trac ...201727752719
attacks on the endangered attwater's prairie-chicken (tympanuchus cupido attwateri) by black flies (diptera: simuliidae) infected with an avian blood parasite.with fewer than 50 birds remaining in the wild, attwater's prairie-chicken (tympanuchus cupido attwateri) is critically endangered. individuals of this species on the attwater prairie chicken national wildlife refuge, colorado co., tx, have been attacked in successive winters, 2005-2006, by the blood-feeding black fly cnephia ornithophilia. attwater's prairie-chicken is a previously unreported host for cnephia ornithophilia. molecular screening indicated that about 15% of 13 blood-fed flies samp ...200718260522
antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed west nile virus vaccine.west nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the united states since 1999. five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for west nile virus: black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (eudyptula minor), american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber), chilean flamingos (phoenicopterus chilensis), and attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri). all birds were vaccinated intramusc ...200717679507
fine-scale distribution modeling of avian malaria vectors in north-central kansas.infectious diseases increasingly play a role in the decline of wildlife populations. vector-borne diseases, in particular, have been implicated in mass mortality events and localized population declines are threatening some species with extinction. transmission patterns for vector-borne diseases are influenced by the spatial distribution of vectors and are therefore not uniform across the landscape. avian malaria is a globally distributed vector-borne disease that has been shown to affect endemi ...201627232133
indirect effects of red imported fire ants on attwater's prairie-chicken brood survival.the invasive red imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta) has negatively affected a host of taxonomic groups throughout its acquired north american range. many studies have hypothesized indirect trophic impacts, but few documented those impacts. we evaluated invertebrate abundance as a factor limiting juvenile survival of the endangered attwater's prairie-chicken (tympanuchus cupido attwateri), and whether fire ants reduce invertebrate numbers and biomass. from 2009-2013, we monitored survival of ...201526900176
temporal changes in allele frequencies and low effective population size in greater prairie-chickens.the number of greater prairie-chickens in wisconsin has decreased by 91% since 1932. the current population of approximately 1500 birds exists primarily in four isolated management areas. in previous studies of the wisconsin populations we documented low levels of genetic variation at microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial dna control region. here we investigate changes in genetic structure between the four management areas in wisconsin over the last 50 years. we estimated the harmonic mean e ...200415315675
predicting greater prairie-chicken lek site suitability to inform conservation actions.the demands of a growing human population dictates that expansion of energy infrastructure, roads, and other development frequently takes place in native rangelands. particularly, transmission lines and roads commonly divide rural landscapes and increase fragmentation. this has direct and indirect consequences on native wildlife that can be mitigated through thoughtful planning and proactive approaches to identifying areas of high conservation priority. we used nine years (2003-2011) of greater ...201526317349
effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of greater prairie-chicken.partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. however, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. in addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. we studied trophic niche variation in greater prairie-chicken ...201324244588
specific alleles at immune genes, rather than genome-wide heterozygosity, are related to immunity and survival in the critically endangered attwater's prairie-chicken.the negative effects of inbreeding on fitness are serious concerns for populations of endangered species. reduced fitness has been associated with lower genome-wide heterozygosity and immune gene diversity in the wild; however, it is rare that both types of genetic measures are included in the same study. thus, it is often unclear whether the variation in fitness is due to the general effects of inbreeding, immunity-related genes or both. here, we tested whether genome-wide heterozygosity (20 99 ...201627485035
the importance of control populations for the identification and management of genetic diversity.a fundamental criterion for recognizing species or populations as potentially endangered is the presence/absence of genetic diversity. however, the lack of control populations in many studies of natural systems deprives one from unambiguous criteria for evaluating the genetic effects of small population size and its potential effects on fitness. in this study, i present an example of how the lack of adequate controls may lead to erroneous conclusions for understanding the role that population si ...200011678501
contrasting patterns of selection and drift between two categories of immune genes in prairie-chickens.immune-receptor genes of the adaptive immune system, such as the major histocompatibility complex (mhc), are involved in recognizing specific pathogens and are known to have high rates of adaptive evolution, presumably as a consequence of rapid co-evolution between hosts and pathogens. in contrast, many 'mediating' genes of the immune system do not interact directly with specific pathogens and are involved in signalling (e.g. cytokines) or controlling immune cell growth. as a consequence, we mig ...201526547898
northern bobwhites as disease indicators for the endangered attwater's prairie chicken.because of limited access to the endangered attwater's prairie chicken (tympanuchus cupido attwateri), we used a related species, the northern bobwhite (colinus virginianus), as a surrogate for disease evaluation. free-living northern bobwhites (n = 62) on the attwater prairie chicken national wildlife refuge (near eagle lake, texas, usa) were examined during spring and fall 1993 for helminthic endoparasites and specific antibodies against the infectious agents responsible for nine infectious di ...19989577783
a comparison of pedigree- and dna-based measures for identifying inbreeding depression in the critically endangered attwater's prairie-chicken.the primary goal of captive breeding programmes for endangered species is to prevent extinction, a component of which includes the preservation of genetic diversity and avoidance of inbreeding. this is typically accomplished by minimizing mean kinship in the population, thereby maintaining equal representation of the genetic founders used to initiate the captive population. if errors in the pedigree do exist, such an approach becomes less effective for minimizing inbreeding depression. in this s ...201324118220
effects of wind energy development on nesting ecology of greater prairie-chickens in fragmented grasslands.wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of u.s. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. greater prairie-chickens (tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. we used a modified before-after control-impact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year ...201424628394
greater prairie chickens have a compact mhc-b with a single class ia locus.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) plays a central role in innate and adaptive immunity, but relatively little is known about the evolution of the number and arrangement of mhc genes in birds. insights into the evolution of the mhc in birds can be gained by comparing the genetic architecture of the mhc between closely related species. we used a fosmid dna library to sequence a 60.9-kb region of the mhc of the greater prairie chicken (tympanuchus cupido), one of five species of galliforme ...201323179555
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