mycoplasma corogypsi sp. nov., a new species from the footpad abscess of a black vulture, coragyps atratus.strain bv1 was isolated from the exudate of the footpad abscess of a black vulture (coragyps atratus). the colonies had a "fried-egg" appearance consistent with that of mycoplasmal species. electron microscopic examination of the cells revealed irregular elongated or elliptical forms and smaller circular budding processes. profuse growth was observed in frey medium supplemented with 20% swine serum at 37 degrees c in a humidified atmosphere of 10% co2 and air. typical of mycoplasma, strain bv1 r ...19938347515
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in brazil. a total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees c until processing. oocysts were purified in sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic dna. molecular analyses were performed using nested-pcr for amplification of fragments of the 18s subunit of rrna gene and of the actin gene. a ...200919683397
protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in raptor medicine.plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. species studied included bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (tyto alba), great horned owl (bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (cathartes aur ...200011428396
determination of anions in human and animal tear fluid and blood serum by ion important factor contributing to the development of ion chromatography (ic) has been the need for repetitive analyses of samples with high ionic contents and samples available in microvolumes. ic was selected for the determination of cl, no3, so(2-)4 and po(3-)4 anions in tear fluid and serum from ten human volunteers of both sexes, seven young-adult black vultures (coragyps atratus) and three young-adult chickens (gallus gallus domesticus). the samples were analysed on a dionex model 2000i/s ...19957640773
effects of fasting and adrenalectomy on the kinetics of glucose metabolism in granivorous and carnivorous birds.1. [1-(14)c]-glucose was used to estimate the rate of glucose replacement and of hexose recycling via 3-carbon compounds in fed, fasted and fasted-adrenalectomized granivorous (chickens) and carnivorous (black vultures) birds. 2. fed chickens had a larger body glucose mass and 3 to 4-fold higher rates of glucose replacement than fed black vultures. glucose recycling represents a larger fraction of the overall glucose replacement rate in chickens (60%) than in black vultures (25%). 3. following a ...19827150823
[cerebellum of birds: comparative study of the density of the purkinje cells in the anterior lobe (author's transl)].the mean linear density of the purkinje cells in the anterior lobe of the cerebellum of the dung cook, gallus gallus, is significantly higher (16.8 cells/mm) than that observed in the anterior lobe of the cerebellum of the black vulture, coragyps atratus (12 cells/mm). it is formulated the hypothesis that this quantitative difference is concerned with the type of locomotion, the walk, predominant in the dung cook.19761013403
the supracloacal chromolipoid body of the black vulture (coragyps atratus): anatomical, histological and histochemical considerations.during histological and physiological investigations of black vultures (coragyps atratus) dissection revealed the presence of an "organ", the supracloacal chromolipoid body, which has no counterpart among other warm blooded animals. the organ occurs in both sexes and in birds of different ages. it is located in the median sagittal plane dorsal to the cloaca. it is enveloped by a smooth muscle-connective tissue capsule and has a rich blood supply. the supracloacal body is yellow-brown in color be ...19694238567
gluconeogenesis in a carnivorous bird (black vulture). 19734357329
acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds.sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (coragyps atratus), american kestrel (falco sparverius), japanese quail (coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (otus asio), and european starling (sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (nacn) were compared by single dose ld50's. three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (cathartes aura), were dosed with nacn to determine cyanide residues in those that died and a ...19863503141
fasting, adrenalectomy, and gluconeogenesis in the chicken and a carnivorous bird.previous studies showed that livers from carnivorous birds have a higher gluconeogenic capacity and higher levels of gluconeogenic enzymes than livers from granivorous birds. in this work we compare the effects of fasting and adrenalectomy on gluconeogenesis. fasting in the chicken elicited increased rates of incorporation of 14c from alanine into blood glucose, increased gluconeogenesis in liver slices, and increased activities of four gluconeogenic enzymes: glucose-6-phosphatase, phosphoenolpy ...1978204201
taphonomic effects of vulture scavenging.from july through september 2007, three pig carcasses (sus scrofa), weighing between 27 and 63 kg were placed outside in a grassy area in central texas. a surrounding fence prevented entrance by terrestrial scavengers, while allowing avian scavengers unrestricted access. a fourth pig carcass served as a control for the rate of decomposition and was placed in a cage that prevented terrestrial and avian animal access. modification of the carcasses was recorded through the use of two motion-sensing ...200919432736
association of mycoplasma corogypsi and polyarthritis in a black vulture (coragyps atratus) in virginia.on 10 october 2007, a black vulture (coragyps atratus) was presented to the wildlife center of virginia, waynesboro, virginia, usa, because of an inability to fly. examination revealed multiple swollen, fluctuant joints. the bird suffered from lead toxicosis and had a prominent leukocytosis. histopathologic evaluation revealed an acute fibrinoheterophilic polyarthritis, and results of routine aerobic and anaerobic culture of joint fluid were negative, although mycoplasma sp. sequence-specific po ...200919617493
histochemical study of polysaccharides in the aortic arch of some birds.the histochemical study of polysaccharides in the aortic arch of the black vulture, turkey, peking duck, goose and duck, showed that a sialo-mucopolysaccharidic complex is present in the vessel wall and consists of: sialic acid, neutral mucopolysaccharides, hyaluronic acid and chondrotin sulfate. the concentration of mucopolysaccharides, mainly of the acidic ones, decreases from the inner portions of the media towards the adventicia.1977140838
[ticks of genus amblyomma (acari: ixodidae) and their relationship with hosts in endemic area for spotted fever in the state of são paulo].seven species of mammals and 36 of birds were investigated to determine the tick prevalence and intensity of infestation. the study was conducted at the esalq/usp in piracicaba municipality, state of são paulo. it was collected 52 mammals and 158 birds parasitized by 12,418 ticks. adult ticks (n= 7,343) were found on capybaras, while the immature were mainly collected on small mammals and birds. the main hosts for immatures in descending order were opossums (69.1%), capybara (24.4%) and black vu ...200819265580
isolation of mycoplasmas from a buzzard, falcons and vultures.thirteen mycoplasmas were isolated from a peregrine falcon (falco peregrinus), two saker falcons (falco cherrug), a buzzard (buteo buteo), a black vulture (aegypius monachus), and two griffon vultures (gypsfuhus). six of them could be identified: mycoplasma gallinarum (three isolates), m. columborale (two isolates) and m. anatis (one isolate). the remaining seven isolates did not react with antisera against the known avian mycoplasma species in the indirect immunofluorescence and growth inhibiti ...199018679987
[first report of colpocephalum trachelioti (amblycera: menoponidae) on a black vulture (aegypius monachus l.) in turkey].in this study, a black vulture (aegypius monachus) found wounded on türkmen mountain, between eskisehir and kütahya, was inspected for ectoparasites. three lice specimens were collected from the black vulture. they were preserved in a vial containing 70% alcohol. later, they were mounted on slides by faure forte medium and cleared in 10% koh. morphologic characteristics of the lice were inspected and measured under the light microscope. all of them were identified as colpocephalum trachelioti, p ...200818645948
pesticide abuse in europe: effects on the cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus) population in spain.a survey was carried out to investigate incidents of pesticide poisoning of the cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus) in spain during the period 1990-2006. a total of 241 incidents affecting 464 vultures were investigated to establish their causes: approved use, misuse, or deliberate abuse. other factors studied were compounds, other species affected by the incident, the mode of application, spatial and temporal variation and reasons for the pesticide abuse involved. approved use was responsible ...200818274896
a new pentastomid from the black vulture.this article describes a new pentastomid species from the abdominal air sacs of a black vulture (aegypius monachus linnaeus, 1766) from central spain. the parasite's morphological characteristics (as shown by light and scanning electron microscopy) suggest that it should be classified in the new genus. it is the third pentastomid species described in birds and the first for the accipitridae. the mouth is almost terminal, there are 2 pairs of hooks behind the mouth, and the genital pore is immedi ...200415562610
density-dependent productivity in a colonial vulture at two spatial scales.understanding how density dependence modifies demographic parameters in long-lived vertebrates is a challenge for ecologists. two alternative hypotheses have been used to explain the mechanisms behind density-dependent effects on breeding output: habitat heterogeneity and individual adjustment (also known as interference competition). a number of studies have highlighted the importance of habitat heterogeneity in density dependence in territorial species, but less information exists on demograph ...201627145615
road traffic noise impact assessment in a breeding colony of cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) in spain.there is a global and growing concern with regard to anthropogenic noise impact on wildlife and natural habitats, but it is difficult to find consensus regarding scoping and assessment tools. this study adapts noise mapping procedures, common to most european countries, to a low traffic road (below 1000 vehicles per day) noise impact assessment in a breeding colony of the largest bird of prey in europe. results show that nest sites are located avoiding road traffic leq levels higher than 40 db. ...201627036249
assessment of trace element concentrations in birds of prey in korea.this study presents liver concentrations of trace elements of cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus), common buzzards (buteo buteo), common kestrels (falco tinnunculus), and eurasian eagle owls (bubo bubo) collected in korea from 2007 to 2008. iron (fe), manganese (mn), copper (cu), lead (pb), and cadmium (cd) concentrations in common kestrel juveniles were greater than in other juveniles of birds of prey. adult cinereous vultures had greater fe, pb, and cd concentrations than in those of other ...201626662578
the first whole genome and transcriptome of the cinereous vulture reveals adaptation in the gastric and immune defense systems and possible convergent evolution between the old and new world vultures.the cinereous vulture, aegypius monachus, is the largest bird of prey and plays a key role in the ecosystem by removing carcasses, thus preventing the spread of diseases. its feeding habits force it to cope with constant exposure to pathogens, making this species an interesting target for discovering functionally selected genetic variants. furthermore, the presence of two independently evolved vulture groups, old world and new world vultures, provides a natural experiment in which to investigate ...201526486310
complete mitochondrial genome of cinereous vulture aegypius monachus (falconiformes: accipitridae).in this study we report the complete mitochondrial (mt) dna sequence from cinereous vulture aegypius monachus, a large raptorial bird species of falconiformes. the mtdna is a 17,811-bp circular molecule with a total a+t content of 54.03%. the mitochondrial genome contains 37 genes and an extra pseudo-control region. the gene arrangement pattern is identical to buteo and falco, which has remnant cr2 gene order. all protein-coding genes use the standard mitochondrial initiation codon atn, except f ...201524409882
veterinary assessment for free-ranging eurasian black vulture (aegypius monachus) chicks in southeastern mongolia.working as a veterinarian in remote field locations can be physically and intellectually challenging. a collaborative multi-disciplinary approach is often required for successful data collection. technologies and methodologies frequently need to be modified to work in these harsh field environments. this article will describe a collaboration in southeastern mongolia collecting blood for sera analytes and physiologic data from eurasian black vulture (aegypius monachus) chicks during a tagging ope ...201324331554
estimation of normal tear production in free-living eurasian black vultures (aegypius monachus) and griffon vultures (gyps fulvus) in dadia national park, greece.the aim of this study was to record the schirmer tear test i (stt i) measurements in free-living vultures in order to estimate normal values. the eurasian black vulture (aegypius monachus), which breeds in the mediterranean region and asia, is listed as near threatened; it is also classified as vulnerable at the european level and endangered in greece. the griffon vulture (gyps fulvus), once widespread across the continent, has undergone a dramatic decline which has led to its extinction in many ...201323805550
aspergillus fumigatus infection in two wild eurasian black vultures (aegypius monachus linnaeus) with carbofuran insecticide poisoning: a case report.aspergillus spp. are opportunistic pathogens which cause pulmonary aspergillosis in animals and humans with compromised immune systems. two eurasian black vultures (aegypius monachus linnaeus) were found dead or clinically ill from carbofuran insecticide during the winter of 2004. carbofuran was detected in the stomach contents by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. gross lesions showed severe granulomatous pneumonia and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia in both birds, with most lesions restricted ...200917962054
chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in blood of black and turkey vultures from savannah river site, south carolina, usa.blood of adult and juvenile black and turkey vultures in the savannah river site of south carolina, usa was analyzed for the presence of 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-pcdds), dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-pcdfs), -dioxin-like and -di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls. concentration ranges of 2,3,7,8-pcdd/dfs in blood of black and turkey vultures were 14.2-34.6 and 8.7-56.2 pg/ml wet wt., respectively. dioxin-like pcbs were in the ranges of 815-4627 and 753-3611 p ...200312892680
lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy.lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. this study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive cinereous (aegypius monachus) and egyptian (neophron percnopterus) vultures.201323324224
serosurvey of west nile virus and other flaviviruses of the japanese encephalitis antigenic complex in birds from andalusia, southern spain.abstract flaviviruses of the japanese encephalitis virus (jev) antigenic complex, including west nile virus (wnv), are recognized as emerging and reemerging pathogens. circulation of flaviviruses has been recently detected in different mosquito and vertebrate species in several european countries. a serosurvey study was carried out to evaluate the circulation of wnv and other flaviviruses of the jev antigenic complex in different wild bird species in spain between 2006 and 2009. seropositiviy ag ...201021142954
plasma phenylacetate and 1-naphthyl acetate hydrolyzing activities of wild birds as possible non-invasive biomarkers of exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides.organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides inhibit the carboxylesterases found in plasma. therefore, these carboxylesterases might be used as biomarkers of exposure to these insecticides. this work initiates the characterization of the phenylacetate (pa) and 1-nafthylacetate (na) hydrolyzing activities (paase and naase) in the plasma of 11 different wild bird species and aims to determine their suitability as biomarkers of exposure. paase activity values, expressed as mumol product/30min/ml pla ...200717174487
[the genotyping of the west nile virus in birds in the far eastern region of russia in 2002-2004].samples from 20 species of trapped and dead birds were collected in the far eastern region in 2002-2004 and were analyzed by the anti-wnv mab-modified immunoenzyme assay for antigen detection and rt-pcr for viral rna detection. five positive samples from cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) and two positive samples from cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) were found in both tests. the sequencing of the 322 bp fragments of protein e gene showed 99-99.67% homology with the strain wnv/leiv-vlgoo-27924 o ...200617094656
late neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at fumane cave 44 ky b.p., italy.a large and varied avifaunal bone assemblage from the final mousterian levels of grotta di fumane, northern italy, reveals unusual human modifications on species that are not clearly relatable to feeding or utilitarian uses (i.e., lammergeier, eurasian black vulture, golden eagle, red-footed falcon, common wood pigeon, and alpine chough). cut, peeling, and scrape marks, as well as diagnostic fractures and a breakthrough, are observed exclusively on wings, indicating the intentional removal of la ...201121368129
prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), one (100%) mississippi kites (ictinia misisippiensis), one of two ...19999950339
isolation and characterization of trichinella pseudospiralis garkavi, 1972 from a black vulture (coragyps atratus).a nematode from the genus trichinella was observed in histological sections of breast and tracheal muscles from a black vulture coragyps atratus from alabama. larvae obtained from breast muscle tissue that had been refrigerated for 8 days were infectious for laboratory mice. no nurse cell was observed around larvae in the black vulture or in experimentally infected mice examined 7 or 9 wk postinoculation. the identity of the parasite as trichinella pseudospiralis was confirmed by dna hybridizati ...19958544065
prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in raptors from alabama.little is known about the prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. we examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted t. gondii. all of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, auburn, alabama. tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 13 of ...19938277379
organochlorine residues in blood of cinereous vultures and eurasian griffon vultures in a northeastern mediterranean area of nature the national park of dadia-lefkimi-soufli forest (dadia np, greece), seven "target" pcbs and 16 organochlorine pesticides (ocs) were analysed in blood samples of cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) and eurasian griffon vultures (gyps fulvus). pcb congeners 138, 153 and 180 predominated in both species' blood samples. in both species, no differences were detected in congener levels between successive age classes, but in cinereous vulture, there were significant differences between adult and ...201121336480
cellular and humoral immunodepression in vultures feeding upon medicated livestock carrion.veterinary pharmaceuticals contained in dead livestock may be ingested by avian scavengers and negatively affect their health and consequently their population dynamics and conservation. we evaluated the potential role of antibiotics as immunodepressors using multiple parameters measuring the condition of the cellular and humoral immune system in griffon (gyps fulvus), cinereous (aegypius monachus) and egyptian vultures (neophron percnopterus). we confirmed the presence of circulating antimicrob ...200919324751
abnormal lead exposure in globally threatened cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) wintering in south korea.globally threatened cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) regularly over-winter in south korea, and they have frequently been found dead in their natural habitats. as one possible factor for their mortality, we investigated tissues for heavy metal contaminants along with necropsies on 20 dead cinereous vultures. severe emaciation was found in the survey, being associated with 19 of the deaths. two of the 19 showed lesions suggestive of lead poisoning in the tissues; there was no indication of t ...200918982447
minimum anesthetic concentration and cardiovascular dose-response relationship of isoflurane in cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus).this study aimed to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (mac) and dose-related cardiovascular effects of isoflurane during controlled ventilation in cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus). the mac was determined for 10 cinereous vultures as the midpoint between the end-tidal isoflurane concentration that allows gross purposeful movement and that which prevents the movement in response to clamping a pedal digit. immediately after the mac was determined, the cardiovascular effects of is ...201122950326
high-altitude respiration of birds. the primary structures of the major and minor hemoglobin component of adult goshawk (accipiter gentilis, accipitrinae).the primary structures of the hemoglobin components hb a and hb d of the adult goshawk (accipiter gentilis) are presented. the globin chains were separated on cm-cellulose in 8m urea buffer. component separation was achieved by fplc-chromatography on a tsk sp-5pw column in phosphate-buffers with a linear gradient of nacl. the amino-acid sequences were established by automated edman degradation of the globin chains and of the tryptic peptides in liquid-phase and gas-phase sequenators. the sequenc ...19873606820
antibiotics threaten wildlife: circulating quinolone residues and disease in avian scavengers.antibiotic residues that may be present in carcasses of medicated livestock could pass to and greatly reduce scavenger wildlife populations. we surveyed residues of the quinolones enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics (amoxicillin and oxytetracycline) in nestling griffon gyps fulvus, cinereous aegypius monachus and egyptian neophron percnopterus vultures in central spain. we found high concentrations of antibiotics in the plasma of many nestling cinereous (57%) and ...200818197254
blood chemistry and haematocrit of the black vulture (aegypius monachus).we determined the values of haematocrit and blood chemistry of the black vulture (aegypius monachus) in extremadura (spain). we analysed 57 nestlings, five feral adults, seven captive individuals in their first year and five captive adults. free-living adults had a higher haematocrit and lower calcium and alkaline phosphatases concentrations than captive birds. there were differences in haematocrit and in the concentrations of glucose, uric acid, total proteins, alkaline phosphatases, phosphorus ...200212020665
high altitude respiration of birds. the primary structures of the major and minor hemoglobin component of adult european black vulture (aegypius monachus, aegypiinae).the primary structures of the hemoglobin components hb a and hb d of the european black vulture (aegypius monachus) are presented. the globin chains were separated on cm-cellulose in 8m urea buffer. the amino-acid sequences were established by automatic edman degradation of the globin chains and the tryptic peptides in liquid phase and gas-phase sequenators. the sequences are compared with those of the golden eagle, and with those of the andean condor, a new world vulture. the possible evolution ...19873828077
histochemical study of polysaccharides in some arteries of the region of the heart of black vulture (coragyps atratus).a comparative histochemical study of polysaccharides in some arteries of the region of the heart of black vulture was performed. with some exceptions, no variation in polysaccharides composition in all arteries studied were shown. arterial walls present a sialo-mucopolysaccharidic complex and it is composed of: sialic acid, neutral mucopolysaccharides, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfates. the concentration of these carbohydrates, mainly of the acidic ones, decrease from the inner portions o ...19816455339
effect of methodological and ecological approaches on heterogeneity of nest-site selection of a long-lived vulture.the application of scientific-based conservation measures requires that sampling methodologies in studies modelling similar ecological aspects produce comparable results making easier their interpretation. we aimed to show how the choice of different methodological and ecological approaches can affect conclusions in nest-site selection studies along different palearctic meta-populations of an indicator species. first, a multivariate analysis of the variables affecting nest-site selection in a br ...201222413023
high altitude and hemoglobin function in the vultures gyps rueppellii and aegypius monachus.functional characteristics of the stripped composite hemoglobins (hbs) of the vultures gyps rueppellii and aegypius monachus that can fly at extremely high altitudes, and of component hbs of g. rueppellii are reported, in relation to influences of ph, temperature and inositol hexaphosphate. g. rueppellii hbs a, a' and d represent a sequence of increasing oxygen affinity, which is opposite to earlier results on avian hb components, but correlates with two alpha-chain substitutions that predictabl ...20123401328
behavioral studies with a black vulture, coragyps atratus. 196314055960
reproductive success of south american terns (sterna hirundinacea) from cardos islands, florianópolis, sc, brazil.sterna hirundinacea (lesson, 1831) is a migratory seabird that breeds in the pacific coast (from peru to chile) and along the atlantic coast of south america from espírito santo (brazil) to terra del fuego (argentina). this paper describes the reproductive success of south american terns on cardos island, florianopolis, brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. the colony was formed in mid-may in 2003 and early april in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 ...201222499260
comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of new world vultures (aves: cathartidae).vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. in this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of new world vultures (cathartidae), turkey vultures (cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. we found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both specie ...201324249399
trichomonas gypaetinii n. sp., a new trichomonad from the upper gastrointestinal tract of scavenging birds of the context of an epidemiological study carried out by several wildlife recovery centers in spain, trichomonads resembling trichomonas gallinae were found in the oropharyngeal cavity of 2 egyptian vultures (neophron percnopterus) and 14 cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) which did not show any symptoms of trichomonosis. in order to characterize them, these isolates along with seven other t. gallinae isolates obtained from different hosts and from different geographical origin were analyze ...201525273632
a balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) in south-eastern europe.wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. such improper planning may often occur. numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern europe. we combined range use modelling and a collision risk model (crm) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vul ...201728231316
food safety in scavenger conservation: diet-associated exposure to livestock pharmaceuticals and opportunist mycoses in threatened cinereous and egyptian vultures.pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing f ...201727750097
cardiorespiratory dose-response relationship of isoflurane in cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus) during spontaneous ventilation.anesthesia is an inevitably important component of diagnosis and treatments examining the health condition of wild animals. not only does anesthesia become an essential tool in minimizing stress of the patients and providing an opportunity to deliver accurate and safe procedures, but it also ensures the safety of the medical crew members. this study was conducted to investigate the dose-response cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane during spontaneous ventilation in ten cinereous vultures. eac ...201727725351
topography and morphology of retinal ganglion cells in falconiforms: a study on predatory and carrion-eating birds.the topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells and their cell body size have been studied in five falconiform species, including predatory (chilean eagle buteo fuscenses australis, and sparrow hawk falco sparverius) and carrion-eating (chimango caracara milvago chimango; condor vultur gryphus, and black vulture coragyps atratus) birds. all these species had a well defined nasal fovea and a horizontal streak. instead of a temporal fovea as in eagles and hawks, an afoveate temporal area is ...19912012314
an ectopic wing in a wild black vulture (coragyps atratus).an approximately 5-month-old black vulture (coragyps atratus) was presented with the chief complaint of cervicomelia. a full-sized ectopic wing, with its own pectoral girdle, was found attached to the dorsal surface of the last few cervical vertebrae. there was deformation (right dorsolateral narrowing) of the spinal canal at the point of attachment with a corresponding compression of the spinal cord.20162241705
serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza a virus.serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza a virus. samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the united states. in addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. only bald eagles were notab ...201222856203
exposure of threatened accipitridae to mycobacterium bovis calls for active surveillance.anthropogenic activities have cumulatively led to the dramatic decline of world populations of vultures that currently face serious survival challenges in several regions of the world. in portugal, the three resident species qualify as endangered and are under conservation efforts, mainly in the central east and south-east regions, where habitat protection and artificial feeding stations were implemented. concurrently, the areas under protection are highly affected by tuberculosis (tb) in cattle ...201728258525
mycoplasma corogypsi-associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (coragyps atratus).three wild american black vultures (coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. prolonged ...201322903399
chronic lead exposure is epidemic in obligate scavenger populations in eastern north america.lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. to understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within american black vultures (coragyps atratus; blvu) and turkey vultures (cathartes aura; tuvu), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern north america. every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (blvu: x¯=36.99 ± 55. ...201525795925
contaminants in the southern tip of south america: analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from argentinean patagonia.the aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (oc) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, turkey vulture (cathartes aura), american black vulture (coragyps atratus) and southern crested caracaras (polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of south america, in the argentinean patagonia. we analyzed for a series of oc including hexachlorocyclohexane (hch) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-ddt), dichlorodiphe ...201525682585
ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in yucatan, mexico.domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. it is estimated that in mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the ixodidae and argasidae families. information is lacking on tick species that affect human ...201626790745
multi-locus phylogenetic inference among new world vultures (aves: cathartidae).new world vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in north and south america. no study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. in this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) dna loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup ta ...201627601346
the presence of black vultures at the calving sites and its effects on cows' and calves' behaviour immediately following vultures (coragyps atratus) are often present near calving sites, and under this situation they may play a positive role by removing animal carcasses and afterbirth or a negative role by attacking neonate calves or disturbing cow-calf behaviours following parturition. cow-calf behaviour was recorded over a 4-year study period from a total of 300 births involving 200 nellore, 54 guzerat, 20 gyr and 26 caracu cows. the calving site in relation to the location of the herd, considering cow-cal ...201323031159
effects of attitudes and demography on public support for endangered species is critical for managers to understand how attitudes and demography affect public's preferences for species protection for designing successful conservation projects. 1080 adults in greece were asked to rate pictures of 12 endangered species on aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and intention to support their conservation. factor analysis identified a group of animals for which respondents indicated high levels of support for their conservation (red deer, loggerhead sea turtle, brown bear, ...201728376425
need and seek for dietary micronutrients: endogenous regulation, external signalling and food sources of carotenoids in new world vultures.among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. we recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the andean condor (vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. we compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to te ...201323785435
first isolation of tandemly repeated dna sequences in new world vultures and phylogenetic implications.a highly repeated dna sequence composed of closely related subunits that ranged from 171 to 176 base pairs has been cloned and characterized in the king vulture (sarcoramphus papa). related sequences were also isolated in the black vulture (coragyps atratus). this new family of avian repetitive dna elements is here termed the "haeiii family." genomic dnas from a number of avian species were probed with one of the king vulture restriction fragments. in the cathartids, the hybridization patterns s ...19968851796
molecular sexing of threatened gyps vultures: an important strategy for conservation breeding and ecological studies.during the last two decades populations of three resident species of gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in south asia. sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, othe ...201223316450
clostridium vulturis sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of the cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus).a gram-stain positive, strict anaerobe, spore-forming, motile rod-shaped bacterial strain with peritrichous flagella, designated ymb-57(t), was isolated from the intestine of a cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus) in korea. strain ymb-57(t) was found to show optimal growth at 37 °c, ph 7.5 and 1.0 % (w/v) nacl. phylogenetic analysis based on the 16s rrna gene sequence showed that strain ymb-57(t) belongs to the genus clostridium and is most closely related to the type strains of clostridium sub ...201425063360
use of black vulture (coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in colombia: a qualitative study.although coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice.201222651097
oral mycoses in avian scavengers exposed to antibiotics from livestock farming.the exposure to antimicrobial pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants can exert direct and indirect detrimental effects on health of wildlife. fungal infections pose a major threat to domestic, captive-housed wild and free-ranging wild animals worldwide. however, little is known about their role in disease in birds in the wild. here, we evaluated the incidence of thrush-like lesions in the oral cavity of wild nestling cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus), griffon vultures (gyps fulvus), ...201728662427
feeding ecology drives lead exposure of facultative and obligate avian scavengers in the eastern united states.lead poisoning of scavenging birds is a global issue. however, the drivers of lead exposure of avian scavengers have been understood from the perspective of individual species, not cross-taxa assemblages. we analyzed blood (n = 285) and liver (n = 226) lead concentrations of 5 facultative (american crows [corvus brachyrhynchos], bald eagles [haliaeetus leucocephalus], golden eagles [aquila chrysaetos], red-shouldered hawks [buteo lineatus], and red-tailed hawks [buteo jamaicensis]) and 2 obligat ...202032022303
urban waste disposal explains the distribution of black vultures (coragyps atratus) in an amazonian metropolis: management implications for birdstrikes and urban planning.collision rates between aircraft and birds have been rising worldwide. the increases in both air traffic and population sizes of large-bodied birds in cities lacking urban planning result in human-wildlife conflicts, economic loss and even lethal casualties. black vultures (coragyps atratus) represent the most hazardous bird to brazilian civil and military aviation on the basis of their flight behavior, body mass and consequently physical damage to aircraft following collisions. this study inves ...201830233993
gulper, ripper and scrapper: anatomy of the neck in three species of vultures.the head-neck system of birds is a highly complex structure that performs a variety of demanding and competing tasks. morphofunctional adaptations to feeding specializations have previously been identified in the head and neck, but performance is also influenced by other factors such as its phylogenetic history. in order to minimize the effects of this factor, we here analyzed the anatomy of three closely related vultures that distinctly differ in feeding strategy. vultures, as obligate scavenge ...202031885086
assessing multi-tissue lead burdens in free-flying obligate scavengers in eastern north america.avian scavengers are regularly exposed to anthropogenic lead. although many studies evaluate lead concentrations of either blood or tissues of lead-poisoned birds, there is comparatively less research on lead burdens of free-flying, apparently healthy individuals and populations. here, we address this lack of information by assessing lead levels of multiple tissues (femur, liver, kidney, breast muscle, thigh muscle) in free-flying black vultures (n = 98) and turkey vultures (n = 10) collected ou ...201728251454
ophthalmic findings in cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus).the aim of the present study was to provide ophthalmic reference values under normal physiological conditions for aegypius monachus (cinereous vulture).202031774216
evidence of niche differentiation for two sympatric vulture species in the southeastern united obligate scavengers utilizing similar habitats, interspecific competition undoubtedly occurs between resident black (coragyps atratus) and turkey (cathartes aura) vultures. in the interest of exploring how sympatric species coexist through habitat segregation, we examined resource selection of resident black and turkey vultures in the southeastern united states (us) for evidence of niche differentiation.201931695917
from daily movements to population distributions: weather affects competitive ability in a guild of soaring birds.the ability of many animals to access and exploit food is dependent on the ability to move. in the case of scavenging birds, which use soaring flight to locate and exploit ephemeral resources, the cost and speed of movement vary with meteorological factors. these factors are likely to modify the nature of interspecific interactions, as well as individual movement capacity, although the former are less well understood. we used aeronautical models to examine how soaring performance varies with wea ...201324026471
functional analysis and treatment of self-injurious feather plucking in a black vulture (coragyps atratus).the etiology and maintenance of self-injurious feather plucking (fp) have been attributed to biological and environmental processes, yet a definitive solution has not been found. the current study investigated the application of a functional analysis and function-based treatment to reduce the fp of a black vulture (coragyps atratus). fp was found to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of contingent attention. a treatment consisting of noncontingent reinforcement decreased fp, and ...201931523815
high-altitude respiration of falconiformes. the primary structures and functional properties of the major and minor hemoglobin components of the adult white-headed vulture (trigonoceps occipitalis, aegypiinae).the primary structures of the hemoglobin components hb a and hb d of white-headed vulture (trigonoceps occipitalis) are presented. the globin chains were separated on cm-cellulose in 8m urea buffer, the components by fplc in phosphate buffers. the amino-acid sequences were established by automatic edman degradation of the globin chains and of the tryptic peptides in liquid phase and gas-phase sequenators. the sequences differ from those of european black vulture by only one mutation in the alpha ...19892775491
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the himalayan griffon, gyps himalayensis (accipitriformes: accipitridae): sequence, structure, and phylogenetic analyses.this is the first study to describe the mitochondrial genome of the himalayan griffon, gyps himalayensis, which is an old world vulture belonging to the family accipitridae and occurring along the himalayas and the adjoining tibetan plateau. its mitogenome is a closed circular molecule 17,381 bp in size containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 trna coding genes, two rrna-coding genes, a control region (cr), and an extra pseudo-control region (ccr) that are conserved in most accipitridae mitogenome ...201931410282
evaluation of allometric scaling as a tool for extrapolation of the enrofloxacin dose in american black vultures (coragyps atratus).to determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after iv administration in american black vultures (coragyps atratus), to compare clearance of enrofloxacin in american black vultures with clearance of this fluoroquinolone in other avian species, and to evaluate whether allometric scaling is an appropriate tool for dose extrapolation in avian species.201931339763
a mathematical model to describe the demographic dynamics of long-lived raptor species.population viability analysis of threatened large and long-lived raptor species has strong limitations due to the restricted demographic information available for these species. in this work, we mathematically model the demographic dynamics of these raptor species through time-indexed branching processes. by assuming the more general non-parametric statistical setting, we determine accurate estimates for the most relevant reproductive parameters involved in the model. to this end, we propose an ...201930885688
the irvingtonian avifauna of cumberland bone cave, maryland.the early and mid-pleistocene avian communities of north america are best known from the rocky mountain region and peninsular florida. in the appalachian mountain region, only a small number of avian bones from mid-latitude cave deposits have been attributed to this time period. here, i enlarge this record by reporting on bird bones from cumberland bone cave in western maryland, a well-known locality for large and small irvingtonian mammals and other vertebrates. the taxa identified encompass gr ...202033055625
heavy-metal concentrations in feathers of cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus l.) as an endangered species in turkey.the aim of this study is to find out the certain heavy-metal levels in the feathers of cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus l.), which is a threatened species. the feathers of the cinereous vultures were collected from the breeding areas in sündiken and türkmenbaba mountains. to avoid misleading results, vanes and calamuses of the rectrices were evaluated separately in terms of their as, cd, cr, cu, hg, ni, pb and zn contents. icp-oes was used to analyse the metal levels in feathers which belong ...201930415366
actinomyces tangfeifanii sp. nov., isolated from the vulture aegypius monachus.a novel, gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped strain (vul4_3t) was isolated from rectal swabs of old world vultures (aegypius monachus) from the tibet-qinghai plateau, china. based on the results of biochemical tests and 16s rrna gene sequence comparison, strain vul4_3t was determined to be a member of the genus actinomyces that is closely related to the type strains of actinomyces liubingyangii (97.7 % 16s rrna gene sequence similarity) and actinomyces mar ...201830351263
protective role of the vulture facial skin and gut microbiomes aid adaptation to scavenging.vultures have adapted the remarkable ability to feed on carcasses that may contain microorganisms that would be pathogenic to most other animals. the holobiont concept suggests that the genetic basis of such adaptation may not only lie within their genomes, but additionally in their associated microbes. to explore this, we generated shotgun dna sequencing datasets of the facial skin and large intestine microbiomes of the black vulture (coragyps atratus) and the turkey vulture (cathartes aura). w ...201830309375
oropharyngeal trichomonosis due to trichomonas gypaetinii in a cinereous vulture ( aegypius monachus) fledgling in spain.a juvenile cinereous vulture ( aegypius monachus) fledgling was found disorientated on the roof of a building in madrid city, spain, in october 2016. a veterinary examination revealed multiple plaques distributed throughout the oropharyngeal cavity. lesions were located under the tongue and at the choanal slit, hard palate, and esophagus opening and ranged from 2 to 7 mm, coalescing in areas up to 2 cm, with a yellowish color of the surface. motile trichomonad trophozoites were detected in fresh ...201930235086
can variability in corticosterone levels be related to pops and opes in feathers from nestling cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus)?persistent organic pollutants (pops) are still globally distributed and some have been shown to interact with the endocrine system of birds. however, the relationship between pops and the stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) axis is still poorly understood. raising concerns are now focused on the toxic properties of emergent organophosphate ester flame retardants (opes), but whether opes interact with the hpa axis response has not yet been investigated. we measure ...201930196218
colonization with enterobacteriaceae-producing esbls, ampcs, and oxa-48 in wild avian species, spain 2015-2016.antibiotic resistance is a global threat of complex and changeable epidemiology. the role of wild birds in the dissemination of antibacterial resistance might be underestimated. we studied the cloacal colonization by cefotaxime-resistant enterobacteriaceae in 668 wild birds in spain. eighty-eight wild birds (13.2%) of 28 species carried cefotaxime-resistant isolates; 58 of them (8.7%) carried extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls) and 15 (2.5%) plasmid-mediated ampcs of the blacit family. the 58 ...201829782210
oceanisphaera avium sp. nov., isolated from the gut of the cinereous vulture, aegypius monachus.a gram-stain-negative, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped, flagellated bacterial strain, designated amac2203t, was isolated from the gut of the cinereous vulture, aegypiusmonachus, collected from the seoul grand park zoo, republic of korea. strain amac2203t grew optimally at 15-25 °c, ph 7-8 and in the presence of 3-5 % (w/v) nacl. phylogenetic analysis revealed 97.4-97.9 % and 96.9-97.3 % sequence similarities of the 16s rrna genes to its counterparts in oceanisphaera profunda ...201829722644
more massive but potentially less healthy: black vultures feeding in rubbish dumps differed in clinical and biochemical parameters with wild feeding waste is one of the most important anthropogenic food subsidies used by different species. however, there is little information about the health impact that rubbish dumps produce on species foraging in these sites.201829686945
first evaluation of the use of down feathers for monitoring persistent organic pollutants and organophosphate ester flame retardants: a pilot study using nestlings of the endangered cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus).raptor feathers have been increasingly used to assess pollutants in ecotoxicological monitoring studies. however, the suitability of down feathers to detect pollutants has not yet been investigated. in this study, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (pops) and organophosphate ester flame retardants (opes) were assessed in down and juvenile contour feathers of spanish cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus) nestlings (circa 73 days old) and contaminant concentrations were compared betwe ...201829587212
incorporating acoustic objectives into forest management planning when sensitive bird species are relevant.the potentially negative effects of timber harvesting on biodiversity and habitat conservation leads to the consideration of a wide range of restrictions to forest logging in natural areas. in particular, high noise levels produced by forest machinery present a challenge to developing sustainable forest management plans. the cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus), the largest bird of prey whose nests are located in mature trees, is considered to be appropriate as an indicator species for environm ...201931143544
ocular ultrasonography and biometry in the cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus).to establish reference standards for ocular ultrasound and biometry, 24 cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) (45 eyes) underwent b-mode and a-mode ultrasonographic examination using a 12.5-mhz probe. the vultures were manually restrained without sedation, and the eyes were topically anesthetized. biometry was performed in the sagittal plane for axial length of the globe (agl), anterior chamber depth (acd), lens thickness (lt), and vitreous chamber depth (vcd). biometry of the pecten oculi (lp) ...201831112644
development of microsatellite loci for two new world vultures (cathartidae).use next-generation sequencing to develop microsatellite loci that will provide the variability necessary for studies of genetic diversity and population connectivity of two new world vulture species.201931072404
plastic ingestion and dispersion by vultures may produce plastic islands in natural areas.rubbish dumps can become an important environmental source of plastic. several species feed on organic waste from these sites, but at the same time are exposed to non-organic materials. species that can gather food in these sites might at the same time disperse waste consumed, but this has rarely been evaluated. we compare the occurrence of plastic debris in regurgitated pellets of three sympatric vultures from northwest patagonia, andean condors (vultur gryphus), black vultures (coragyps atratu ...202033035984
tumebacillus avium sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a cinereous vulture, aegypius monachus.a gram-stain-positive, facultatively aerobic, spore-forming, oxidase-positive, catalase- and dnase-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, ar23208t, was isolated from the gut of a cinereous vulture (aegypius monachus), collected at seoul grand park zoo (republic of korea). strain ar23208t grew optimally at 25-30 °c, at ph 7 and in the absence of nacl. phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain ar23208t shared 98.2 and 97.1 % 16s rrna gene sequence similarity with tumebacillus algifaeci ...201829561257
development of a quechers method for simultaneous analysis of antibiotics in carcasses for supplementary feeding of endangered vultures.antibiotics have been beneficial for human and animal health. however, an excessive use in livestock and a deficient management of the carcasses can lead to adverse effects in the scavengers that ingest them, especially in "supplementary feeding sites" (sfs). the aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of exposure to antibiotics for an endangered population of cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) from southeastern portugal. hence, a multi-residue method based on quechers was adapted ...201829353780
parasitaemia data and molecular characterization of haemoproteus catharti from new world vultures (cathartidae) reveals a novel clade of world vultures (cathartiformes: cathartidae) are obligate scavengers comprised of seven species in five genera throughout the americas. of these, turkey vultures (cathartes aura) and black vultures (coragyps atratus) are the most widespread and, although ecologically similar, have evolved differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour. three species of haemosporidians have been reported in new world vultures to date: haemoproteus catharti, leucocytozoon toddi and plasmodium elongatum, ...201829310650
anatomical evidence for scent guided foraging in the turkey vulture.the turkey vulture (cathartes aura) is a widespread, scavenging species in the western hemisphere that locates carrion by smell. scent guided foraging is associated with an expansion of the olfactory bulbs of the brain in vertebrates, but no such neuroanatomical data exists for vultures. we provide the first measurements of turkey vulture brains, including the size of their olfactory bulbs and numbers of mitral cells, which provide the primary output of the olfactory bulbs. comparative analyses ...201729234134
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