mortality in mute swans in southern ontario associated with infestation with the thorny-headed worm, polymorphus boschadis. 1978698906
[structure and blood supply of the heart valves of several domestic and wild birds].by means of a complex technique some structural and blood supply peculiarities of the valve apparatus have been studied in 118 hearts of 8 representatives of domestic (anser domesticus, anas domestica) and wild (cygnus olor, cygnus sygnus, chenopsis atrata, anser anser, anas platyrhynchos, anas strepera) waterfowls. the investigations have demonstrated that in all the waterfowl studied the right atrioventricular ostia have only one cusp consisting mainly of transversal-striated muscular fibers. ...1978718435
a mallophaga, trinoton anserinum, as a cyclodevelopmental vector for a heartworm parasite of waterfowl.the biting louse trinoton anserinum serves as the intermediate host in the life cycle of the filarial heartworm, sarconema eurycerca. microfilariae, second-, and third-stage larvae were dissected from 39 of 89 lice infesting whistling swans, cygnus columbianus columbianus, in north america and mute swans, cygnus olor, in the black sea, u.s.s.r. infective third-stage larvae obtained from lice collected from heartworm-parasitized whistling swans were injected subcutaneously into each of two hand-r ...1976982042
serologic examination of birds from the area of southern moravia for the presence of antibodies against arboviruses of the groups alfa, flavo, uukuniemi, turlock and bunyamwera supergroup. ii. wild living birds.280 specimens of 29 species of wild living birds from 11 families captured in the endemic area of the virus lednice in southern moravia (cssr) were investigated by haemagglutination-inhibition test (hit) on presence of antibodies against 12 arbovirus antigens of the groups alfa-virus (western and eastern equine encephalomyelitis, semliki, sindbis, chikungunya), flavovirus (tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, west nile), the uukuniemi group (poteplí), the turlock group (lednice) and the bunyamwera s ...19761010494
salmonella infection in mute swans (cygnus olor). 19751105952
investigation on the occurrence of salmonellae in mute swans (cygnus olor). 19751131795
influenza viruses in birds of the atlantic flyway.isolation of type a influenza viruses from the feces of 5013 birds of 16 species was attempted during a 33-month study (1977-79). seventy viruses were isolated from the feces of 3403 ring-billed gulls in baltimore, md., during 16 months of sampling. six hemagglutinin (ha) subtypes and seven neuraminidase (na) subtypes in 15 combinations were found. the h13n6 virus was the only subtype found each year and accounted for 40% of the isolates. the rate of isolation from gulls was 0.26% in the cold mo ...19921567297
persistence of clostridium botulinum type c toxin in blow fly (calliphoridae) larvae as a possible cause of avian botulism in spring.diverse samples were examined at a site of water-bird mortality, caused by clostridium botulinum type c toxin in southern moravia (czechoslovakia). the toxin was detected in high concentrations in mute swan (cygnus olor) carcasses (less than or equal to 1 x 10(6) ld50/g) as well as in necrophagous larvae and pupae of the blow flies lucilia sericata and calliphora vomitoria (less than or equal to 1 x 10(5) ld50/g) collected from them. it was detected in lower concentrations (less than or equal to ...19912023331
the lamina propria of vertebrate seminiferous tubules: a comparative light and electron microscopic investigation.the lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules was compared by means of light and electron microscopy in specimens obtained from the following vertebrates: mute swan, northern mallard, blackbird, grey short-tailed opossum, north american opossum, european rabbit, mouse, rat, golden hamster, mini pig, bull, llama, roebuck, horse, coati, cat, dog, java monkey, orang utan. the lamina propria consists of basal lamina, ground substance, collagen fibers, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. myofibroblasts ...19902281881
the inner ear of the common rhea (rhea americana l.).the morphology of the inner ear in rheas was examined by light and electron microscopy. the shape is typically bird-like with very long semicircular canals. the anterior and posterior cristae have small septa cruciata. the vestibular sensory epithelia contain two main types of hair cell innervation; bouton-innervated hair cells and calyceal hair cells characterized by a surrounding nerve calyx. the utricular macula has a single zone of calyceal hair cells, while all other previously examined bir ...19892575429
[comparative studies of paramyxovirus isolates from wild birds].as a result of a surveillance programme in north-germany, paramyxovirus-isolates of serogroup 1 with different pathogenicity were isolated from different species of feral birds (black-headed gull, mallard, tawny owl, tree sparrow, mute swan). in chick embryo fibroblast monolayers these isolates produced plaques exhibiting different plaque morphology. after cloning the isolates, further physicochemical, serological and pathogenicity testings were performed. on the basis of mean death time and int ...19892763760
experimental infections of waterfowl with sphaeridiotrema globulus (digenea).sphaeridiotrema globulus in experimentally infected mute swans (cygnus olor), mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos) and canada geese (branta canadensis) induced ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis. sites of infection include the jejunum and ileum. the digeneans ulcerated the intestine. the inflammatory response was primarily lymphocytic with some eosinophils. severe hemorrhage from damaged submucosal capillaries provided a blood meal for the parasite and caused anemia in the host. extra-medullary hema ...19892783741
[control measures in the mute swan, gray goose and mallard]. 19863522178
disease patterns in the detroit zoo: a study of the avian population from 1973 through 1983.a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate disease patterns in birds at the detroit zoo from 1973 through 1983. data were derived from the zoo's medical and animal census records; the mean (+/- sd) population of birds during the study period was 469 +/- 42. overall annual morbidity rates were 12.5% to 21.5%, with spring months having the highest morbidity rates. annual mortality rates were 3.1% to 15.2%; 23.9% of the deaths were caused by microbial agents (particularly erysipelothrix rhusio ...19853878351
biochemical characterization of lysozymes present in egg white of selected species of anatid birds.the isolation of lysozyme from the egg white of several representative species of waterfowl is described. the purified lysozymes were analyzed to determine the type and molecular weight of each enzyme. all enzymes found in duck egg whites were found to be of the c-type. in contrast all true geese, and the mute swan species as well as the northern blackneck screamer contain lysozyme g in their egg white.19854042624
biochemical characterization of lysozymes present in egg white of selected species of anatid birds.the isolation of lysozyme from the egg white of several representative species of waterfowl is described. the purified lysozymes were analyzed in order to determine the type and molecular weight of each enzyme. all enzymes found in duck egg whites were found to be of the c-type. in contrast all true geese, the mute swan as well as the northern blackneck screamer contain lysozyme g in their egg white.19854085215
comparative pathologic features and development of sphaeridiotrema globulus (trematoda) infections in the mute swan and domestic chicken and chicken chorioallantois.the natural infection of sphaeridiotrema globulus in the mute swan and the experimental infection in the chicken resulted in an ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis. swans and chickens died from the resultant blood loss. culturing of the parasite on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chicken egg resulted in hemorrhage and a cellular response of the chorioallantois to the trematode. experimental infections in the domestic chicken and chicken embryo can be of use for the study of ulcerative hemorrhag ...19846608888
the amino acid sequence of canada goose (branta canadensis) and mute swan (cygnus olor) hemoglobins. two different species with identical beta-chains.the amino acid sequences of the alpha- and beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component (hba) of canada goose (branta canadensis) and mute swan (cygnus olor) are given. the alpha-chains are of the alpha a-type, since alpha d-type was expressed but only found in low concentrations. by homologous comparison, greylag goose hemoglobin (anser anser) and canada goose hemoglobin alpha-chains differ by two exchanges, and beta-chains by three exchanges. a valine substitution for threonine was found at ...19827118073
the incidence of salmonella bacteria in wild-living animals from denmark and in imported a 6 year examination (1975-80) of 3036 game mammals and 3004 game birds from denmark, and of 684 warm-blooded animals of foreign origin, salmonella was found in 0.2% of danish mammals, 0.8% of danish game birds, and 0.1% of the animals of foreign origin. furthermore, salmonella was isolated from 16% of 605 mute swans which died from starvation during the winter 1978-79, and from 2.4% of 296 faeces samples from hooded crows. even though the occurrence of salmonella among danish cattle has been ...19817329784
rhinosporidiosis: a description of an unprecedented outbreak in captive swans (cygnus spp.) and a proposal for revision of the ontogenic nomenclature of rhinosporidium seeberi.rhinosporidiosis is a mucocutaneous zooanthroponotic disease caused by rhinosporidium seeberi, a fungal-like organism of uncertain classification with an unknown mode of transmission. over a 3 year period, 41 captive swans (cygnus olor and c. atratus) developed conjunctival and cutaneous polypoid lesions diagnosed as rhinosporidiosis by histopathological examination including light and electron microscopy. investigation of this avian outbreak, the first of its kind, provides additional insight i ...19957666295
newcastle disease viruses in birds in the atlantic flyway: isolations, haemagglutination-inhibition and elution-inhibition antibody profiles.the study involved 15 avian species with 5,012 attempts to isolate newcastle disease viruses (ndv) from their faeces over a three-year period (1977-1979). ndv were isolated from asymptomatic adult canada geese, nestling royal terms, a juvenile european mute swan, and adult tundra swans on the eastern flyway. ring-billed gulls were negative for haemagglutination-inhibition (hi), elution-inhibition (ei) (anti-neuraminidase) antibodies, and ndv despite 3,403 isolation attempts. the ei antibody assa ...19968767883
[helminth fauna anseriformes (aves) in the lodz zoological garden].in the years 1959-1990 429 birds on 30 species of anseriformes were examined post mortem at zoo lódź. the helminths were found in 108 birds (25.17%) of 19 species. in infected birds there were found 4 species of trematodes: one of them, catatropis verrucosa is in poland new for cygnus olor; 9 species of cestodes--7 of them are in poland new for examined hosts; namely: drepanidotaenia lanceolata for dendrocygna viduata, cygnus atratus, branta bernicla, and anas platyrhynchos; microsomacanthus par ...19979424942
lead poisoning and parasitism in a flock of mute swans (cygnus olor) in scotland.increased mortality in a flock of non-breeding mute swans (cygnus olor) on a scottish loch was investigated. postmortem examinations were carried out on eight adult and six immature swans. the commonest cause of death, found in eight birds, was lead poisoning associated with the ingestion of large lead fishing weights. heavy parasitic burdens were found in five immature birds, involving combinations of the gizzard worm amidostomum species, the thornyheaded worms polymorphus minutus and profilico ...19989460217
acute toxicity and sublethal effects of white phosphorus in mute swans, cygnus olor.among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (p4) at a military base in alaska are tundra (cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (c. buccinator) swans. to estimate the toxicity of p4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (c. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg p4/kg body weight. the calculated ld50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% ci: 1.40 to 4. 68 mg/kg). however, many of the swans still had p4 in their gizzards after dying, as determined by "s ...199910047600
organochlorine contamination in bird's eggs from the danube this study we report the levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of aquatic birds from the danube delta, a major european wetland. the eggs were collected in 1997 and belonged to the following species: the mallard (anas platyrhynchos), the greylag goose (anser anser), the mute swan (cygnus olor), the coot (fulica atra), the glossy ibis (plegadis falcinellus), the spoonbill (platalea leucorodia), the little egret (egretta garzetta), the night heron (nycticorax nycticorax), the grey heron (a ...200015092913
necrotic enteritis in mute swans associated with cyanobacterial toxins. 200415144011
highly pathogenic avian influenza (h7n7): vaccination of zoo birds and transmission to non-poultry 2003 an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h7n7) struck poultry in the netherlands. a european commission directive made vaccination of valuable species in zoo collections possible under strict conditions. we determined pre- and post-vaccination antibody titres in 211 birds by haemagglutination inhibition test as a measure of vaccine efficacy. after booster vaccination, 81.5% of vaccinated birds developed a titre of > or =40, while overall geometric mean titre (gmt) was 190 ...200516298028
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 subtype in mute swans in italy. 200616603559
[highly pathogenic influenza a/h5n1 virus-caused epizooty among mute swans (cygnus olor) in the lower estuary of the volga river (november 2005)].molecular virological studies of the field material collected in the epicenter of epizooty with high mortality among mute swans (cygnus olor) in the area of the lower estuary of the volga river (november 2005) could establish the etiological role of highly pathogenic influenza a (hpai) virus of the subtype h5n1. ten hpai/h5n1 strains deposited at the state collection of viruses of the russian federation with the priority dated december 1, 2005 were isolated from the cloacal/tracheal swabs and vi ...200616826750
seasonal morphological variations in bird schistosomes.the present work is a contribution to the systematics of bilhorziello and dendritobilharzio. wildfowl was killed in hunting seasons or found dead in champagne-ardenne region, france, and autopsied with focus on schistosomes. seven anas plotyrhynchos (mallards), one ardeo cinerea (grey heron) and two cygnus olor (mute swans) were parasitized by bilharziella. one c. olor was parasitized by dendritobilharzia. depending on season and hosts, various morphological forms of bilharziello suggesting seve ...200617007212
highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype h5n1 in mute swans in the czech order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (aiv) in wild birds in the czech republic extensive surveillance was carried out between january and april 2006. a total of 2101 samples representing 61 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza a by using pcr, sequencing and cultivation on chicken embryos. aiv subtype h5n1 was detected in 12 mute swans (cygnus olor). the viruses were determined as hpai (highly pathogenic avian influenza) and the hemagglutinin ...200717113249
hindcasting of nutrient loadings from its catchment on a highly valuable coastal lagoon: the example of the fleet, dorset, uk, 1866-2004.nutrient loadings from its catchment upon the fleet, a highly valuable coastal lagoon in southern england, were hindcast for the period ad 1866-2004, using a catchment model, export coefficients, and historical data on land use changes, livestock numbers, and human population. agriculture was the main nutrient source throughout, other inputs representing minor contributions. permanent pasture was historically the main land use, with temporary grassland and cereals increasing during the mid-20th ...200617196108
pathology of natural infections by h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mute (cygnus olor) and whooper (cygnus cygnus) swans.mortality in wild aquatic birds due to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaiv) is a rare event. during the recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in germany, mortality due to h5n1 hpaiv was observed among mute and whooper swans as part of a rapid spread of this virus. in contrast to earlier reports, swans appeared to be highly susceptible and represented the mainly affected species. we report gross and histopathology and distribution of influenza virus anti ...200717317790
pathobiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1) infection in mute swans (cygnus olor).the results of pathological, virological and polymerase chain reaction examinations carried out on 35 mute swans (cygnus olor) that succumbed to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1) infection during an outbreak in southern hungary are reported. the most frequently observed macroscopic lesions included: haemorrhages under the epicardium, in the proventricular and duodenal mucosa and pancreas; focal necrosis in the pancreas; myocardial degeneration; acute mucous enteritis; congestion o ...200717497339
detection of a novel circovirus in mute swans (cygnus olor) by using nested broad-spectrum pcr.circoviruses are the causative agents of acute and chronic diseases in several animal species. clinical symptoms of circovirus infections range from depression and diarrhoea to immunosuppression and feather disorders in birds. eleven different members of the genus circovirus are known so far, which infect pigs and birds in a species-specific manner. here, a nested pcr was developed for the detection of a broad range of different circoviruses in clinical samples. using this assay, a novel circovi ...200818082907
enhanced c-type lysozyme content of wood duck (aix sponsa) egg white: an adaptation to cavity nesting?abstract wild waterfowl species often nest in conditions where high humidity and microbial contamination may influence egg survival and quality. albumen is traditionally regarded as the major impediment to microbial contamination of eggs, and its composition and activity may be selected by environmental pressures. egg white protein from the eggs of wood duck (aix sponsa), hooded merganser (lophodytes cucullatus), canada goose (branta canadensis), and mute swan (cygnus olor) was evaluated in orde ...200818190286
improving interactions between animal rights groups and conservation biologists.invasive species are often considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, leading conservation biologists to often recommend their complete eradication. animal rights groups typically categorically oppose killing animals, and their opposition has brought eradication attempts of gray squirrels in northern italy (europe) and mute swans in vermont to a halt. as a result native red squirrels may disappear from europe and ecosystem-wide impacts are expected to be caused by the swan. in contrast, co ...200818254850
susceptibility of canada geese (branta canadensis) to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1).migratory birds have been implicated in the long-range spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a virus (h5n1) from asia to europe and africa. although sampling of healthy wild birds representing a large number of species has not identified possible carriers of influenza virus (h5n1) into europe, surveillance of dead and sick birds has demonstrated mute (cygnus olor) and whooper (c. cygnus) swans as potential sentinels. because of concerns that migratory birds could spread h5n1 subtype ...200718258030
h5n1 avian influenza re-emergence of lake qinghai: phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the newly isolated viruses and roles of migratory birds in virus circulation.highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 virus has swept west across the globe and caused serious debates on the roles of migratory birds in virus circulation since the first large-scale outbreak in migratory birds of lake qinghai, 2005. in may 2006, another outbreak struck lake qinghai and six novel strains were isolated. to elucidate these qh06 viruses, the six isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. phylogenetic analyses show that qh06 viruses are derived from the lineages of lake q ...200818272760
antimicrobial activity of the anseriform outer eggshell and cuticle.the avian eggshell is a complex, multifunctional biomineral composed of a calcium carbonate mineral phase and an organic phase of lipids and proteins. the outermost layer of the eggshell, the eggshell cuticle, is an organic layer of variable thickness composed of polysaccharides, hydroxyapatite crystals, lipids and glycoprotein. in addition to regulating gas exchanges, the eggshell cuticle may contain antimicrobial elements. in this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of eggshell c ...200818289902
serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for west nile virus in poland.a survey for antibodies to west nile virus (wnv; genus ,flavivirus) was carried out by plaque-re-duction neutralization microtesting in 78 horses, 20 domestic chickens, and 97 wild birds belonging to 10 species from different areas in poland. specific antibodies were detected in five juvenile (hatching-year) birds collected in 2006: three white storks (ciconia ciconia) in a wildlife rehabilitation center (5.4% of all examined storks; the antibody titers in each bird were 1:320, 1:160, and 1:20), ...200818433332
evaluation of newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light the present study a monoclonal antibody (mab 14a3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin y (igy) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum igy light chain of different duck species: muscovy duck (cairina moschata), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (dafila acuta). ...200818568660
pathological study on amyloidosis in cygnus olor (mute swan) and other waterfowl.between 2004 and 2007, we examined a total of 70 waterfowl. forty of 51 (78.4%) mute swans (cygnus olor) had amyloidosis. amyloid deposits were detected in the spleen of 39 of 49 birds (79.6%), liver of 37 of 47 birds (78.7%), intestine of 38 of 50 birds (76.0%), pancreas of 30 of 42 birds (71.4%), kidney of 32 of 47 birds (68.1%), thyroid gland of 20 of 30 birds (66.7%), heart of 26 of 49 birds (53.1%), and lung of 5 of 45 birds (11.1%). in some birds, there was a globular pattern of amyloid de ...200818592164
highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1) in experimentally infected adult mute, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus a/cygnus cygnus/germany/r65/2006 subtype h5n1. immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.200818680652
duck virus enteritis (anatid herpesvirus infection) in mute swans (cygnus olor).an outbreak of duck virus enteritis (dve) in mute swans (cygnus olor) is described. ninety-nine captive swans in a flock of 440 died within 3 months. the origin was obscure. the infection did not spread to other species on the same premises. clinical signs included polydypsia, photophobia, inappetance, drooping wings, watery nasal discharge and yellowish diarrhoea. necropsies were made on eight swans. all showed a diphtheritic oesophagitis especially near the oesophageal-proventricular junction. ...198618766514
the epidemiology of the highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza in mute swan (cygnus olor) and other anatidae in the dombes region (france), february 2006, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus was isolated from common pochards (aythia ferina) in the dombes region of france, an important migrating and wintering waterfowl area. thereafter, hpai h5n1 virus was isolated from 39 swab pools collected from dead waterfowl found in the dombes, but only from three pooled samples collected outside of this area but located on the same migration flyway. a single turkey farm was infected in the dombes. the epizootic lasted 2 mo ...200818957637
avian schistosomes in french aquatic birds: a molecular approach.the prevalence of human cercarial dermatitis (hcd) caused by bird schistosomes appears to be increasing in france, in light of the impact of tourism combined with high densities of wild aquatic hosts in freshwater areas. the present work expands our knowledge of schistosome systematics by including samples of bird schistosomes collected from their natural hosts in france. heads (318) and viscera (81) of aquatic birds belonging to 16 species from five orders, collecting during the hunting seasons ...200919356266
four different sublineages of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 introduced in hungary in 2006-2007.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 viruses were introduced to hungary during 2006-2007 in three separate waves. this study aimed at determining the full-length genomic coding regions of the index strains from these epizootics in order to: (i) understand the phylogenetic relationship to other european h5n1 isolates, (ii) elucidate the possible connection between the different outbreaks and (iii) determine the putative origin and way of introduction of the different virus variants. mole ...200919520524
replication and pathogenesis associated with h5n1, h5n2, and h5n3 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens and ducks.a comparative study examining replication and disease pathogenesis associated with low-pathogenic h5n1, h5n2, or h5n3 avian influenza virus (aiv) infection of chickens and ducks was performed. the replication and pathogenesis of highly pathogenic aiv (hpaiv) has received substantial attention; however, the behavior of low-pathogenic aivs, which serve as precursors to hpaivs, has received less attention. thus, chickens or ducks were inoculated with an isolate from a wild bird [a/mute swan/mi/4510 ...200919575275
[animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].the main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis, e. hellem, e. cuniculi, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in poland in animal faecal using the fish (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and multiplex fish techniques. additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite i ...200919579789
compensatory growth in an aquatic plant mediates exploitative competition between seasonally tied herbivores.the degree to which vertebrate herbivores exploitatively compete for the same food plant may depend on the level of compensatory plant growth. such compensation is higher when there is reduced density-dependent competition in plants after herbivore damage. whether there is relief from competition may largely be determined by the life-history stage of plants under herbivory. such stage-specific compensation may apply to seasonal herbivory on the clonal aquatic plant sago pondweed (potamogeton pec ...200919694137
no evidence of transmission of h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza to humans after unprotected contact with infected wild swans.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) subtype h5n1 remains a public health threat as long as it circulates in wild and domestic birds. information on the transmissibility of h5n1 hpai from wild birds is needed for evidence-based public health advice. we investigated if transmission of h5n1 hpai had taken place in people that had unprotected contact with infected wild mute swans during an incident at the abbotsbury swannery in dorset, england. thirteen people who had been exposed to infected s ...201019765331
[surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza a virus (aiv) in bavaria in the years 2007 and 2008].a monitoring programme has been initiated in bavaria to continuously control wild birds for the presence of avian influenza a virus (aiv) and to monitor the possible occurrence and accumulation of notifiable aiv subtypes as an early-warning system. in addition information about the regional, seasonal and species-specific distribution of aiv could be obtained. between july 2007 and december 2008 samples from 5864 wild birds of twelve different zoological orders had been collected (cloacal- and tr ...200919999383
heartworm in a mute swan (cygnus olor).a severely emaciated female adult mute swan (cygnus olor) was euthanized after a period of intensive supportive care in a wild bird rehabilitation centre. necropsy revealed severe myocardial haemorrhages in the right ventricular free wall associated with the presence of adult heartworm (sarconema eurycerca). on histological examination, multifocal randomly scattered blood-filled cavities without endothelial or epithelial lining (migration tracts) and surrounded by necrotic debris mixed with fibr ...200920088254
geographical spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus h5n1 during the 2006 outbreak in spring 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) of subtype h5n1 was detected in austria in 119 dead wild birds. the hemagglutinin cleavage site showed that the amino acid sequence motif was identical to that of the qinghai lineage. for detailed analysis, the hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase (na) genes of 27 selected austrian h5n1 viruses originating from different regions and wild bird species were analyzed phylogenetically, which revealed two clearly separated austrian subcl ...201020335251
characterization of two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated in hungary in 2007.two low pathogenic (lp) avian influenza virus strains, a/mallard/hungary/19616/07 (h3n8) and a/mute swan/hungary/5973/07 (h7n7), isolated as part of the national surveillance program in hungary, were fully sequenced and characterized. the two viruses showed the closest phylogenetic relationship regarding their acidic polymerase genes. the h7n7 hungarian virus and some h5n2 influenza viruses isolated from korean pigs appeared to have their basic polymerase gene 1 from a relatively recent common a ...201020363081
multiple introduction of asian h5n1 avian influenza virus in croatia by wild birds during 2005-2006 and isolation of the virus from apparently healthy black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus).this study describes the introduction and spread of avian influenza a (h5n1) subtype in croatia. seventeen isolates were identified during the period from october 2005 to march 2006, all originating from wild birds. the full-length nucleotide sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (ha) gene of seven representative isolates revealed that three distinct genetic strains involved in the outbreaks, implicating at least three independent introductions of the virus into croatia during a relatively shor ...201020370426
variability in pathobiology of south korean h5n1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection for 5 species of migratory waterfowl.the pathobiology of h5n1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (hpai) virus infection in wild waterfowl is poorly understood. this study examined the pathobiology of a/chicken/korea/is/06 (h5n1) hpai in 5 migratory waterfowl species--mute swans (cygnus olor), greylag geese (anser anser), ruddy shelducks (tadorna ferruginea), mandarin ducks (aix galericulata), and mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos)--following intranasal inoculation or contact exposure, from which all birds became infected. in mute s ...201020382820
evaluation of effectiveness and efficiency of wild bird surveillance for avian influenza.this study aimed to assess which method of wild waterbird surveillance had the greatest probability of detecting highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 during a period of surveillance activity, the cost of each method was also considered. lake constance is a major wintering centre for migratory waterbirds and in 2006 it was the site of an hpai h5n1 epidemic in wild birds. avian influenza surveillance was conducted using harmonised approaches in the three countries around the lake, austria ...201020409452
tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype h5n1 in naturally infected mute swans (cygnus olor ), domestic geese (aser anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).the 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) subtype h5n1 in hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. the presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (ihc) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = ...201020514747
overview of incursions of asian h5n1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus into great britain, 2005-2008.since 2005 there have been five incursions into great britain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses of subtype h5n1 related to the ongoing global epizootic. the first incursion occurred in october 2005 in birds held in quarantine after importation from taiwan. two incursions related to wild birds: one involved a single dead whooper swan found in march 2006 in the sea off the east coast of scotland, and the other involved 10 mute swans and a canada goose found dead over the period e ...201020521632
highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype h5n1 in mute swans (cygnus olor) in central order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (aivs) in wild birds in bosnia and herzegovina, extensive surveillance was carried out between october 2005 and april 2006. a total of 394 samples representing 41 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza a virus using virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs, pcr, and nucleotide sequencing. aiv subtype h5n1 was detected in two mute swans (cygnus olor). the isolates were determined to be highly pathogenic av ...201020521684
presence of serum antibodies to influenza a subtypes h5 and n1 in swans and ibises in french wetlands, irrespective of highly pathogenic h5n1 natural infection.highly pathogenic (hp) avian influenza a viruses (aivs) subtype h5n1 (subclade 2.2) were detected in wild birds during outbreaks in france during winter 2006 and summer 2007 in la dombes wetlands (eastern france) and in moselle wetlands (northeastern france), respectively. blood samples from apparently healthy wild birds were collected in 2006 and 2007 from the end of the outbreak to several weeks after the influenza a outbreak inside and outside the contaminated areas, and in 2008 outside the c ...201020521685
experimental infection of muscovy ducks with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1) belonging to clade 2.2.highly pathogenic (hp) h5n1 avian influenza (ai) is enzootic in several countries of asia and africa and constitutes a major threat, at the world level, for both animal and public health. ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ai, including hp h5n1 ai. although vaccination can be a useful tool to control ai, duck vaccination has not proved very efficient in the field, indicating a need to develop new vaccines and a challenge model to evaluate the protection for duck species. althoug ...201020521691
final hosts and variability of trichobilharzia regenti under natural europe, despite of intensive work on avian schistosomes in the past, only one representative of nasal schistosomes has been detected so far, trichobilharzia regenti, a species that remained undescribed to the scientific community until 1998. since then, however, t. regenti has gained a considerable attention, not only due to the induction of serious lesions concomitant with the migration of the schistosomulae through the central nervous system of their natural hosts (birds) but also due to th ...201020556426
the cold european winter of 2005-2006 assisted the spread and persistence of h5n1 influenza virus in wild january 2006, a major cold spell affected europe, coinciding with an increase of h5n1 influenza virus detected in wild birds, mostly dead mute swans, starting along the river danube and the mediterranean coast line. subsequently h5n1 detections in wild birds were concentrated in central and western parts of europe, reaching a peak in mid february. we tested the hypothesis that the geographic distribution of these h5n1 infections was modulated by the long-term wintering line, the 0 °c isotherm ...201020686815
necrotic dermatitis in waterfowl associated with consumption of perennial rye grass (lolium perenne).mute swans (cygnus olor), whooper swans (cygnus cygnus), and mixed-breed domestic geese (anser anser domesticus) were presented for necrotic lesions on the feet, eyelids, and beak. individuals from the same collection of birds had developed identical lesions during march-september of each of the previous 3 years. vesicular and necrotic dermatitis involved only nonfeathered and nonpigmented areas of the integument. no abnormal clinical signs were seen on either carnivorous species or birds with p ...201121657187
evaluation of four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the serologic survey of avian influenza in wild bird species.wild birds that reside in aquatic environments are the major reservoir of avian influenza viruses (aivs). since this reservoir of aivs forms a constant threat for poultry, many countries have engaged in aiv surveillance. more and more commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) are available for serologic surveillance, but these tests are often developed and validated for use in domestic poultry. however, for a correct interpretation of elisa test results from wild bird sera, more info ...201223402117
heavy metals in tissues of the mute swan (cygnus olor). 1995228541
residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb) and organochlorine insecticides in eggs from mute swan (cygnus olor) and pochard (aythya ferina). 20154629899
short report: antibody prevalence of select arboviruses in mute swans (cygnus olor) in the great lakes region and atlantic coast of the united states.mute swans (cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the united states. the dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. however, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. to learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted ...201425266351
understanding plant community responses to combinations of biotic and abiotic factors in different phases of the plant growth cycle.understanding plant community responses to combinations of biotic and abiotic factors is critical for predicting ecosystem response to environmental change. however, studies of plant community regulation have seldom considered how responses to such factors vary with the different phases of the plant growth cycle. to address this deficit we studied an aquatic plant community in an ecosystem subject to gradients in mute swan (cygnus olor) herbivory, riparian shading, water temperature and distance ...201223166777
aerobic cloacal and pharyngeal bacterial flora in six species of free-living birds.the purpose of this study was to investigate the culturable aerobic pharyngeal and cloacal bacterial flora of free-living birds, to determine the physiological bacterial microbiota, to identify possible interactions between feeding behaviour and the composition of the pharyngeal and cloacal microflora and to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria.201425176477
aspergillus fumigatus and other thermophilic fungi in nests of wetland birds.a study was performed on the numbers and species diversity of thermophilic fungi (growing at 45 °c in vitro) in 38 nests of 9 species of wetland birds, taking into account the physicochemical properties of the nests and the bird species. it was found that in nests with the maximum weight (nests of mute swan), the number and diversity of thermophilic fungi were significantly greater than in other nests, with lower weight. the diversity of the thermophilic biota was positively correlated with the ...201323054328
virulence genes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of escherichia coli, isolated from wild waterbirds, in the netherlands and poland.affiliation to four phylogroups (a, b1, b2, and d) was examined, among 190 escherichia coli strains, collected from five, wild waterbird species, including the following: the greylag goose-anser anser (61) and the canada goose-branta canadensis (33) obtained in the netherlands, and the mallard-anas platyrhynchos (38), the mute swan-cygnus olor (37), and the great cormorant-phalacrocorax carbo (21) obtained in poland. moreover, the prevalence of 10 virulence factors: asta, iss, iucd, irp2, papc, ...201627348207
anti-hemagglutinin antibody derived lead peptides for inhibitors of influenza virus binding.antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. however, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. to circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza a spike glycoprotein. their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. two peptide ...201627415624
antibody responses to avian influenza viruses in wild birds broaden with age.for viruses such as avian influenza, immunity within a host population can drive the emergence of new strains by selecting for viruses with novel antigens that avoid immune recognition. the accumulation of acquired immunity with age is hypothesized to affect how influenza viruses emerge and spread in species of different lifespans. despite its importance for understanding the behaviour of avian influenza viruses, little is known about age-related accumulation of immunity in the virus's primary r ...201628003449
the response of mute swans (cygnus olor, gm. 1789) to vaccination against avian influenza with an inactivated h5n2 vaccine.recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (cygnus olor) in european countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the h5n1 virus. the hpai outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. after preventive vaccination had been approved in the european union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild ...201627770803
impact of age, season, and flowing vs. stagnant water habitat on avian influenza prevalence in mute swan (cygnus olor) in belgium.due to their probable role in the spread of asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus, and in order to explore its implication in the low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) virus epidemiology, mute swans represent one particular wild bird species specifically targeted in the avian influenza (ai) surveillance elaborated in belgium. a total of 640 individual mute swans have been sampled during a 4-yr ai surveillance program (2007-2010) to determine the ai seroprevalence and viroprev ...201627309074
serial passage in ducks of a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a chicken reveals a high mutation rate in the hemagglutinin that is likely due to selection in the host.a comparative study of the ability of three low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (lpaiv) isolates to be transmitted from duck to duck was performed. pekin ducks were inoculated with two lpaiv isolates from chickens (a/ck/pa/13609/93 [h5n2], h5n2-ck; a/ck/tx/167280-4/02 [h5n3], h5n3-ck) and one isolate from a wild bird (a/mute swan/ mi/451072/06 [h5n1], h5n1-wb). during the establishment of the passage model, only two viruses (h5n1, h5n2) were able to be transmitted from duck to duck. transmissio ...201526179620
influenza a virus h5-specific antibodies in mute swans (cygnus olor) in the usa.the use of serologic assays for influenza a virus (iav) surveillance in wild birds has increased because of the availability of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas). recently, an h5-specific blocking elisa (belisa) was shown to reliably detect h5-specific antibodies to low- and high-pathogenic h5 viruses in experimentally infected waterfowl. mute swans (cygnus olor) were frequently associated with highly pathogenic h5n1 outbreaks in europe and may have a similar role if highly ...201525647600
avian influenza in poland.poland has experienced four episodes of avian influenza (ai) outbreaks over the past two decades. the first epidemic was caused by a low pathogenicity (lpaiv) h7n7 subtype and occurred in fattening and breeder turkeys in 1995. two waves of h5n1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (hpai) took place in 2006 and 2007. in spring 2006, 64 cases of the h5n1 virus were detected, mostly in mute swans. in december 2007, ten outbreaks of h5n1 hpai were detected in commercial poultry (n = 9) and wild birds ...201425180221
the ecology and age structure of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus outbreak in wild mute swans.the first uk epizootic of highly pathogenic (hp) h5n1 influenza in wild birds occurred in 2008, in a population of mute swans that had been the subject of ornithological study for decades. here we use an innovative combination of ornithological, phylogenetic and immunological approaches to investigate the ecology and age structure of hp h5n1 in nature. we screened samples from swans and waterbirds using pcr and sequenced hp h5n1-positive samples. the outbreak's origin was investigated by linking ...201222339986
epidemiological and molecular analysis of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n8 clade in a german zoo: effective disease control with minimal culling.outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza a virus (hpaiv) subtype h5n8, clade, were first reported in january 2014 from south korea. these viruses spread rapidly to europe and the north american continent during autumn 2014 and caused, in germany, five outbreaks in poultry holdings until february 2015. in addition, birds kept in a zoo in north-eastern germany were affected. only a few individual white storks (ciconia ciconia) showed clinical symptoms and eventually died in the cours ...201627860371
avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (newcastle disease virus), avian influenza virus, and salmonella spp. in mute swans (cygnus olor) in the great lakes region and atlantic coast of the united states.since their introduction to the united states in the late 19th century, mute swans (cygnus olor) have become a nuisance species by causing damage to aquatic habitats, acting aggressively toward humans, competing with native waterfowl, and potentially transmitting or serving as a reservoir of infectious diseases to humans and poultry. in an effort to investigate their potential role as a disease reservoir and to establish avian health baselines for pathogens that threaten agricultural species or ...201424758125
isolation and genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from mute swan (cygnus olor) from the usa.little is known of the genetic diversity of toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. in the present study, antibodies to t. gondii were determined in serum samples from 632 mute swans (cygnus olor) collected from different areas of the usa. sera were tested by t. gondii modified agglutination test; 54 (8.5%) of 632 samples were seropositive with titers of 25 in 28 sera, 50 in 22 sera, 100 in three samples, and 200 or higher in one swan. hearts from 14 seropositive swans were bioassayed in mice ...201323394800
monitoring west nile virus (wnv) infection in wild birds in serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of wnv strains from serbia.west nile virus (wnv), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in europe, including serbia from august until october 2012. although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural wnv reservoir. to assess wnv circulation in northern serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. these comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between january and september 2012 in the vojvodina province. the birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. blood se ...201324176657
surveillance for avian influenza virus in wild birds in poland, 2008-15.we tested wild birds in poland during 2008-15 for avian influenza virus (aiv). we took 10,312 swabs and feces samples from 6,314 live birds representing 12 orders and 84 bird species, mostly from orders anseriformes and charadriiformes, for testing and characterization by various pcr methods. from pcr-positive samples, we attempted to isolate and subtype the virus. the rna of aiv was detected in 1.8% (95% confidence interval [ci], 1.5-2.1%) of birds represented by 48 mallards ( anas platyrhyncho ...201728094608
avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl: prevalence of antibodies and cloacal shedding of viral rna.we surveyed free-ranging canada geese (branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (cygnus buccinator), mute swans (cygnus olor), and mallards (anas platyrhynchos) to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to avian bornavirus (abv) and of cloacal shedding of abv rna in southern ontario, canada. blood samples and cloacal swabs were collected from 206 free-ranging canada geese, 135 trumpeter swans, 75 mute swans, and 208 mallards at 10 main capture sites between october 2010 and may 2012. sera were assesse ...201424779463
first survey of the occurrence of duck enteritis virus (dev) in free-ranging polish water plague (dp) caused by anatid herpesvirus 1, also called duck enteritis virus (dev), presents one of the most important concerns in mass waterfowl production. apart from geese and ducks, free-ranging water birds are the most notorious infection carriers. the epidemiology of dev in western europe remains unknown. therefore, it was reasonable to conduct a study on its occurrence using modern but simple real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp). analysis of 132 field isolates show ...201424327092
complete mitochondrial genome of cygnus olor (aves, anseriformes, anatidae).the complete mitochondrial genome of cygnus olor (aves, anseriformes, anatidae) was revealed in this study. total 16 739 base pairs (bp) of this mitogenome encoded genes for 13 protein coding genes (pcgs), two ribosomal rnas (rrnas), 22 transfer rnas (trnas) and a d-loop (control region). the 12s rrna and 16s rrna genes are located between trna-phe and trna-leu (uur) and segmentalized by the trna-val. d-loop is located between trna-glu and trna-phe. the overall base composition of c. olor is g + ...201626153738
pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild canada geese (branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (cygnus olor) in canada: a retrospective study.nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (abv) infection. cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of abv infection. the proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly ...201323581438
morphological and molecular genetic characterization of three capillaria spp. (capillaria anatis, capillaria pudendotecta, and capillaria madseni) and baruscapillaria obsignata (nematoda: trichuridae: capillariinae) in avians.morphological and genetic analyses were performed on four avian species of the subfamily capillariinae (nematoda: trichuridae), i.e., capillaria anatis from chickens (gallus gallus domesticus) in japan and the philippines, baruscapillaria obsignata from chickens and captive swans (cygnus olor and cygnus atratus) in japan, capillaria pudendotecta from captive swans in japan, and capillaria madseni from carrion and jungle crows (corvus corone and corvus macrorhynchos) in japan. although morphometr ...201526204803
lead isotope ratio measurements as indicators for the source of lead poisoning in mute swans (cygnus olor) wintering in puck bay (northern poland).lead (pb) poisoning is most commonly linked amongst anthropogenically-caused deaths in waterfowl and this is often associated with hunting and fishing activities. however, the exact identification of the source may be difficult with commonly-used techniques. we have studied isotope ratios using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (icp-ms) to investigate the source of pb in the blood of mute swans (n = 49) wintering in northern poland. we compared the values of isotopic ratios from blood ...201627599010
phylogenetic analysis supports horizontal transmission as a driving force of the spread of avian bornaviruses.avian bornaviruses are a genetically diverse group of viruses initially discovered in 2008. they are known to infect several avian orders. bornaviruses of parrots and related species (psittaciformes) are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, a chronic and often fatal neurologic disease widely distributed in captive psittacine populations. although knowledge has considerably increased in the past years, many aspects of the biology of avian bornaviruses are still undiscovered. in ...201627537693
distraction osteogenesis correction of mandibular ramis fracture malunion in a juvenile mute swan ( cygnus olor ).a juvenile mute swan (cygnus olor) was presented with right lateral deviation of the mandible. radiographs demonstrated a healed fracture of the right mandibular ramis, which had compromised osteogenesis. a corrective osteotomy was performed and an osteogenic distractor was inserted over the lateral aspect of the right mandible. dental acrylic implants were fixed to the rhinotheca to correct rotational alignment. a pharyngostomy tube was placed to facilitate administration of nutrition and medic ...201627088742
non-adaptive territory selection by a bird with exceptionally long parental care.high-quality territories are expected to provide greater fitness return for breeding individuals and, thus, are likely to have higher long-term occupation rate in comparison to low-quality territories. however, if environmental and ecological cues used for territory selection cannot reliably predict true territory quality, a mismatch between preferences and fitness may occur. we suggest that this kind of non-adaptive territory selection is more likely in species with long reproductive cycles, as ...201627042397
monitoring of heavy metal burden in mute swan (cygnus olor).concentrations of heavy metals (especially arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and lead) were measured in the contour (body) feathers of mute swans (cygnus olor) and in its nutrients (fragile stonewort [chara globularis], clasping leaf pondweed [potamogeton perfoliatus], eurasian watermilfoil [myriophyllum spicatum], fennel pondweed [potamogeton pectinatus]) to investigate the accumulation of metals during the food chain. the samples (17 feathers, 8 plants) were collected at keszthely ba ...201526044143
nanomechanical properties of bird feather rachises: exploring naturally occurring fibre reinforced laminar composites.flight feathers have evolved under selective pressures to be sufficiently light and strong enough to cope with the stresses of flight. the feather shaft (rachis) must resist these stresses and is fundamental to this mode of locomotion. relatively little work has been done on rachis morphology, especially from a mechanical perspective and never at the nanoscale. nano-indentation is a cornerstone technique in materials testing. here we use this technique to make use of differentially oriented fibr ...201425339689
can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. however, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. new methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. we used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damag ...201425077615
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