observations on the cell masses in the cerebral hemisphere of the new zealand kiwi (apteryx australis). 193217104387
focusing and accommodation in the brown kiwi (apteryx australis).brown kiwis are an endangered species of nocturnal, flightless birds which are native to new zealand. the resting focus of two specimens has previously been studied by retinoscopy in a zoo while the birds were restrained by their keeper (sivak and howland 1987). those birds appeared to be hyperopic (farsighted) by 2-7 d. in this study, examination with infrared photorefraction of the focusing of two unrestrained, feeding birds showed that they could focus objects at infinity and objects in their ...19921432849
ancient dna analyses reveal contrasting phylogeographic patterns amongst kiwi (apteryx spp.) and a recently extinct lineage of spotted kiwi.the little spotted kiwi (apteryx owenii) is a flightless ratite formerly found throughout new zealand but now greatly reduced in distribution. previous phylogeographic studies of the related brown kiwi (a. mantelli, a. rowi and a. australis), with which little spotted kiwi was once sympatric, revealed extremely high levels of genetic structuring, with mitochondrial dna haplotypes often restricted to populations. we surveyed genetic variation throughout the present and pre-human range of little s ...201222876319
the hind limb musculature of the brown kiwi, apteryx australis mantelli.the most complete account of the hind leg muscles of the kiwi was published a century ago by sir richard owen, in his seventy-fifth year. this extensively-cited work has several omissions and errors, and while certain of these were corrected by subsequent authors, sufficient uncertainty remains to warrant a reinvestigation. in the present study a detailed description of the hind leg musculature is given, based upon dissections of two frozen specimens. an indication of the possible function of ea ...1979458856
a new marker based on the avian spindlin gene that is able to sex most birds, including species problematic to sex with chd markers.we have developed a new marker (z43b) that can be successfully used to identify the sex of most birds (69%), including species difficult or impossible to sex with other markers. we utilized the zebra finch taeniopygia guttata est microsatellite sequence (ck309496) which displays sequence homology to the 5' untranslated region (utr) of the avian spindlin gene. this gene is known to be present on the z and w chromosomes. to maximize cross-species utility, the primer set was designed from a consens ...201627801957
description of four new species of coccidia (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from brown kiwi, apteryx mantelli, in new zealand.this study used morphological techniques to describe and name four new species of coccidia from the brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli). four distinct eimerian oocyst species were recovered that we describe as new species. the largest of these, eimeria paraurii n. sp. measured 32.2 × 19.8 μm and is morphologically similar to gametocytes previously described histologically in colorectal polyps (morgan et al. in parasitol res 111(4):1689-1699, 2012). eimeria apteryxii n. sp. measured 23.9 × 14.9 μm and ...201728374109
kiwi genome provides insights into evolution of a nocturnal, comprising five species from the genus apteryx, are endangered, ground-dwelling bird species endemic to new zealand. they are the smallest and only nocturnal representatives of the ratites. the timing of kiwi adaptation to a nocturnal niche and the genomic innovations, which shaped sensory systems and morphology to allow this adaptation, are not yet fully understood.201526201466
the ucsc genome browser database: 2017 update.since its 2001 debut, the university of california, santa cruz (ucsc) genome browser ( team has provided continuous support to the international genomics and biomedical communities through a web-based, open source platform designed for the fast, scalable display of sequence alignments and annotations landscaped against a vast collection of quality reference genome assemblies. the browser's publicly accessible databases are the backbone of a rich, integrated bioinformatics ...201727899642
isolation and identification of aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in new zealand.aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (apteryx spp.). aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. the aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in new zealand to assess the levels of aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. samples were received from 11 nocturnal k ...201424758108
inner-ear morphology of the new zealand kiwi (apteryx mantelli) suggests high-frequency specialization.the sensory systems of the new zealand kiwi appear to be uniquely adapted to occupy a nocturnal ground-dwelling niche. in addition to well-developed tactile and olfactory systems, the auditory system shows specializations of the ear, which are maintained along the central nervous system. here, we provide a detailed description of the auditory nerve, hair cells, and stereovillar bundle orientation of the hair cells in the north island brown kiwi. the auditory nerve of the kiwi contained about 8,0 ...201222772440
simulating retention of rare alleles in small populations to assess management options for species with different life histories.preserving allelic diversity is important because it provides the capacity for adaptation and thus enables long-term population viability. allele retention is difficult to predict in animals with overlapping generations, so we used a new computer model to simulate retention of rare alleles in small populations of 3 species with contrasting life-history traits: north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli; monogamous, long-lived), north island robins (petroica longipes; monogamous, short-lived), and ...201323330669
description, molecular characterisation, diagnostics and life cycle of plasmodium elongatum (lineage perirub01), the virulent avian malaria parasite.plasmodium elongatum causes severe avian malaria and is distributed worldwide. this parasite is of particular importance due to its ability to develop and cause lethal malaria not only in natural hosts, but also in non-adapted endemic birds such as the brown kiwi and different species of penguins. information on vectors of this infection is available but is contradictory. pcr-based analysis indicated the possible existence of a cluster of closely related p. elongatum lineages which might differ ...201627349510
permanent genetic resources: isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the north island brown kiwi, apteryx mantelli.we report the isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic and five monomorphic microsatellites in north island brown kiwi (nibk, apteryx mantelli), using two polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques employing either short-tandem repeat primers (str method) or random pcr-based isolation of microsatellite arrays (pima method). microsatellite polymorphism was subsequently determined using 65 individuals. there were two to seven alleles for each polymorphic locus with heterozygozity rangin ...200821585802
imaging diagnosis--use of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of a mineralized yolk sac in a brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).a 12-day-old brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. a deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. histopath ...201625199884
characterization of hatch-size and growth rates of captive and wild-reared brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) chicks.avian growth rate patterns represent a trade off between a tissue's functional maturity and its capacity for growth. at the time of hatch, the brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) limb has a high level of maturity in order for the chick to be able to kick its way out of the shell and walk and forage independently from an early age. growth curves of limb segments, bill length and bodyweight are presented for captive-reared, bnz operation nest egg™ chicks over a period of 3 months from the point of hatch ...201324018906
a cluster of avian malaria cases in a kiwi management describe a temporal cluster of avian malaria (plasmodium spp.) at an operation nest egg™ (one) site in rotorua which caused mortality in a juvenile kiwi and had high population prevalence in brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).201323186120
avipoxvirus infections in brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).nodular lesions were found on the skin of two immature brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) less than 6 months of age living freely on ponui island off the north island of new zealand. the lesions were observed during routine external examination undertaken as a part of the management of other research projects, one in 2006 and the other in 2011. apart from the skin lesions, both birds showed no signs of illness and the lesions resolved spontaneously over a 2-month period.201322984886
enteric coccidiosis in the brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).enteric coccidiosis may cause significant morbidity and mortality in juvenile brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli). morphology of sporulated oocysts indicates that at least two eimeria species are able to infect the brown kiwi. a histological study of the endogenous stages of coccidia was undertaken in the intestinal tracts of ten naturally infected young kiwi. sequential sectioning of the entire intestinal tract allowed identification and recording of the distribution of the various coccidial life sta ...201222837099
karaka (corynocarpus laevigatus) toxicosis in north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).from 2001 t0 2004, westshore wildlife reserve observed five incidences of a vestibular syndrome in north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli). these were suspected to be the result of ingesting the karaka berry (corynocarpus laevigatus), which contains a neurotoxin (karakin).200616931372
evidence for an auditory fovea in the new zealand kiwi (apteryx mantelli).kiwi are rare and strictly protected birds of iconic status in new zealand. yet, perhaps due to their unusual, nocturnal lifestyle, surprisingly little is known about their behaviour or physiology. in the present study, we exploited known correlations between morphology and physiology in the avian inner ear and brainstem to predict the frequency range of best hearing in the north island brown kiwi. the mechanosensitive hair bundles of the sensory hair cells in the basilar papilla showed the typi ...201121887317
pre- and postnatal energetics of the north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).in four eggs and four chicks of the north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) we measured pre- and postnatal oxygen consumption rate (vo(2)) daily from day (d)-75 (prior to hatching) until d+25 (after hatching). the increase of embryonic vo(2) reaches a plateau phase between d-22 and d-5 (0.113 ml o(2)/g/h=59.6% of allometrically expected value of a typical 416-g egg). mean total o(2) uptake per egg (43.01 l o(2)) corresponds to an energy turnover rate of 2.04 kj/g during embryonic development. ...200211897183
ancient dna recovers the origins of māori feather cloaks.feather cloaks ("kakahu"), particularly those adorned with kiwi feathers, are treasured items or "taonga" to the māori people of "aotearoa"/new zealand. they are considered iconic expression of māori culture. despite their status, much of our knowledge of the materials used to construct cloaks, the provenance of cloaks, and the origins of cloak making itself, has been lost. we used ancient dna methods to recover mitochondrial dna sequences from 849 feather samples taken from 109 cloaks. we show ...201121558445
flightless brown kiwis of new zealand possess extremely subdivided population structure and cryptic species like small mammals.using allozymes and mtdna sequences from the cytochrome b gene, we report that the brown kiwi has the highest levels of genetic structuring observed in birds. moreover, the mtdna sequences are, with two minor exceptions, diagnostic genetic markers for each population investigated, even though they are among the more slowly evolving coding regions in this genome. a major unexpected finding was the concordant split in molecular phylogenies between brown kiwis in the southern south island and elsew ...19957667277
evidence for adaptive evolution of olfactory receptor genes in 9 bird has been suggested that positive selection, in particular selection favoring a change in the protein sequence, plays a role in the evolution of olfactory receptor (or) gene repertoires in fish and mammals. ors are 7-transmembrane domain (tm) proteins, members of the g-protein-coupled receptor superfamily in vertebrate genomes, and responsible for odorant binding and discrimination. or gene repertoires in birds are surprisingly large and diverse, suggesting that birds have a keen olfactory sen ...201019965911
timing of seasonal breeding in birds, with particular reference to new zealand birds.a model to explain the timing of seasonal breeding in birds is presented. it is assumed that, despite the wide range in egg-laying seasons, there are common physiological mechanisms which underlie seasonality in birds and that most, if not all, birds are photoperiodic. birds are considered to possess an internal rhythm of reproduction which is synchronized with seasonal changes in the environment by external factors, particularly the annual cycle of daylength. the rhythm consists, at least in pa ...19957569047
evidence for increased olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in two nocturnal bird species with well-developed olfactory vertebrates, the molecular basis of the sense of smell is encoded by members of a large gene family, namely olfactory receptor (or) genes. both the total number of or genes and the proportion of intact or genes in a genome may indicate the importance of the sense of smell for an animal. there is behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence that some bird species, in particular nocturnal birds, have a well developed sense of smell. therefore, we hypothesized that nocturnal birds with goo ...200919467156
interspecies differences in plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 and dermal vitamin d synthesis of kiwi (apteryx mantelli), tuatara (sphenodon punctatus), and new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri).vitamin d plays a central role in calcium homeostasis of most vertebrates, and is obtained in different species through diet, dermal synthesis, or a combination of both. the aim of this study was to determine the predominant routes of vitamin d synthesis in three disparate species, brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli), tuatara (sphenodon punctatus), and new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri). we surveyed plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin d2 and d3, analysed environmental conditions and lif ...201728755031
malaria parasites (plasmodium spp.) infecting introduced, native and endemic new zealand birds.avian malaria is caused by intracellular mosquito-transmitted protist parasites in the order haemosporida, genus plasmodium. although plasmodium species have been diagnosed as causing death in several threatened species in new zealand, little is known about their ecology and epidemiology. in this study, we examined the presence, microscopic characterization and sequence homology of plasmodium spp. isolates collected from a small number of new zealand introduced, native and endemic bird species. ...201121842389
facial bristle feather histology and morphology in new zealand birds: implications for function.knowledge of structure in biology may help inform hypotheses about function. little is known about the histological structure or the function of avian facial bristle feathers. here we provide information on morphology and histology, with inferences for function, of bristles in five predominantly insectivorous birds from new zealand. we chose species with differing ecologies, including: brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli), morepork (ninox novaezealandae), hihi (notiomystis cincta), new zealand robin (p ...201121069752
next generation sequencing and analysis of a conserved transcriptome of new zealand's is a highly distinctive, flightless and endangered ratite bird endemic to new zealand. to understand the patterns of molecular evolution of the nuclear protein-coding genes in brown kiwi (apteryx australis mantelli) and to determine the timescale of avian history we sequenced a transcriptome obtained from a kiwi embryo using next generation sequencing methods. we then assembled the conserved protein-coding regions using the chicken proteome as a scaffold.201021156082
the circadian variation of oocyst shedding of eimeria spp. affecting brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).captive rearing of wild brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) is widely carried out to assist in the recovery of this declining species. as a consequence, high densities of immunologically naïve kiwi are commonly housed in semi-captive conditions, with the potential to result in substantial morbidity and mortality from coccidiosis caused by multiple species of eimeria. previous research has described circadian variation in oocyst shedding across multiple avian host species. the aim of this research was ...201829948203
factors affecting abundance of different stages of the endophilic tick ixodes anatis in brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) shelters.ixodes anatis is a species of endophilic (nidicolous) tick species parasitizing brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli). even though they are endemic to new zealand like their host, very little is known about these ticks or their population dynamics and relationships with their hosts. we conducted a study from may 2013 to june 2014 to evaluate the effect of shelter location (one of three gullies), habitat (forest, scrub and pasture) and type (tree, soil and surface) on the abundance of the different life ...201931031164
ancient dna and conservation: lessons from the endangered kiwi of new zealand.conservation genetics typically seeks to map the distribution of contemporary genetic variation across space, and to use the resulting genetic parameters to infer any likely short-term evolutionary consequences for rare and endangered species. recent developments in the study of ancient dna now enable the extension of genetic variation studies backwards in time and provide a context by which to interpret contemporary levels of genetic variation, in addition to any patterns of genetic change over ...200818410293
serum prolactin and testosterone levels in captive and wild brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) during the prebreeding, breeding, and incubation brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli), the male is the primary incubator, a trait that is relatively rare among birds. the maintenance of avian incubation behavior is controlled by the protein hormone prolactin (prl). although steroid hormone concentrations in both wild and captive kiwi have previously been reported, this study is the first to report levels of prl in captive and wild male and female kiwi through the prebreeding and breeding seasons, and to directly compare testosterone (t) concentrat ...201930937977
comparing the mini-flotac and centrifugal faecal flotation for the detection of coccidia (eimeria spp.) in kiwi (apteryx mantelli).coccidia (eimeria spp.) in brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive rearing facilities. monitoring the abundance of this parasite in individual birds is crucial for successful management of kiwi. this research compares the abilities of centrifugal faecal flotations (cff) and a modified mini-flotac protocol to detect oocysts. we hypothesised that the mini-flotac would detect higher oocyst counts. kiwi dropping samples (n = 10) were homogenized in mgso4 (s ...202033043419
molecular characterization of babesia kiwiensis from the brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).to further investigate the recently described avian piroplasm, babesia kiwiensis, blood samples were collected from 13 wild-caught and 8 zoo-captive brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) and screened for the presence of piroplasm dna using a nested-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting the 18s rrna gene of most members of piroplasmida. all captive birds gave a negative pcr result, while 12 wild-caught birds were pcr positive. the nearly full-length 18s rrna gene for b. kiwiensis was sequenced. upon ...200818564765
avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: evidence for a well-developed sense of smell in birds?among vertebrates, the sense of smell is mediated by olfactory receptors (ors) expressed in sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium. comparative genomic studies suggest that the olfactory acuity of mammalian species correlates positively with both the total number and the proportion of functional or genes encoded in their genomes. in contrast to mammals, avian olfaction is poorly understood, with birds widely regarded as relying primarily on visual and auditory inputs. here, we show that ...200818628122
an exploratory analysis of the suitability of diets fed to a flightless insectivore, the north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli), in new zealand.the ingredients and the macro- and micro-nutrient contents of diets that are fed to captive kiwi at seven new zealand holding facilities were subject to analysis. the nutrient compositions were compared across facilities and with an estimate of the nutrient composition of the diets of wild kiwi based on the intake of various dietary ingredients reported in the literature. a total of 20 ingredients were used, the number and proportion of these ingredients varied greatly between facilities. six of ...201019816904
response of the north island brown kiwi, apteryx australis mantelli and the lesser short-tailed bat, mystacina tuberculata to a measured dose of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.four north island brown kiwis and six lesser short-tailed bats were inoculated intramuscularly with 300 000 rabbit lethal doses of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd) virus. no clinical abnormalities were observed in the kiwis and bats throughout the study period. although no viraemia was detected in any of the kiwis, all four birds produced a serological response to rhd virus above the positive cut-off by 14 days after inoculation, and in two of the birds, antibodies persisted for over 5 months. ...199716031964
avian cryptococcosis.clinical and laboratory findings in 15 unreported cases of avian cryptococcosis from australia were collated and contrasted with 11 cases recorded in the literature. cryptococcus species produced localized invasive disease of the upper respiratory tract of captive parrots living in australia. this resulted in signs referable to mycotic rhinitis or to involvement of structures contiguous with the nasal cavity, such as the beak, sinuses, choana, retrobulbar space and palate. parrots of widely diff ...200312964843
isolation and genotyping of campylobacter species from kiwi (apteryx spp.) in captivity: implications for transmission to and from investigate the presence of campylobacter spp. in captive kiwi (apteryx spp.) and compare their genotypic profiles with those of human and animal origin, in order to assess their potential for zoonotic or zooanthroponotic transmission.201930731043
genetic factors for short life span associated with evolution of the loss of flight ability.acquisition or loss of flying ability is evolutionarily linked with maximum life span (mls) in mammals and birds. although ecological factors, such as extrinsic mortality, may lead to either shortened or extended life spans through natural selection, mls is influenced by complex molecular and metabolic processes, and the genetic changes associated with flying ability that have led to either a longer or shorter mls are unknown. here, we examine the parallel evolution of flight in mammals and bird ...202032607209
apparent lack of efficacy of toltrazuril against eimeria species affecting brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) at a captive rearing assess the efficacy of toltrazuril against the eimeria spp. affecting brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).201930369301
cryptococcosis in a north island brown kiwi (apteryx australis mantelli) in new zealand.a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a north island kiwi (apteryx australis mantelli) caused by cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (serotype b) is reported. this is the first case of cryptococcosis to be reported in a kiwi and is also the first isolation of c. neoformans var. gattii from a veterinary source in new zealand. the kiwi is an example of a ratite bird and as such has a lower body temperature approximating that of a mammal. as a consequence, the kiwi and other ratitis (e.g. emus) ...19958544083
nematode larva migrans caused by toxocara cati in the north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli).sporadic cases of visceral and neural nematode larva migrans have been diagnosed at necropsy in the endangered new zealand kiwi (apteryx spp.), but the causative organisms have not yet been definitively identified. from an initial group of five affected kiwi, pcr was performed on dna extracted from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections in which larval nematodes had been histologically identified. sequencing of positive results from four out of the five kiwi aligned with seque ...202032181127
plasma levels of sex steroids in the north island brown kiwi (apteryx australis mantelli) in relation to time of year and stages of breeding.north island brown kiwi (apteryx australis mantelli) have a seasonal pattern of egg laying with a peak in mid to late winter. this study is the first description of changes in plasma steroid concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of this species. blood samples were collected at intervals over a 2 1/2-year period from a population of kiwi at tangiteroria, northland, new zealand. male kiwi had annual cycles of plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol. mean testosterone levels were ...19921426944
four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic new zealand birds.four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic new zealand avian species are reported. between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli), and one north island kaka (nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. on gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of ...201424758132
north island kiwi, apteryx australis mantelli (apterygiformes: aves): a new host for toxocara cati (nematoda: ascaridoidea) in new zealand. 19827077446
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