thrombocytin, a serine protease from bothrops atrox venom. 2. interaction with platelets and plasma-clotting factors.thrombocytin, a serine protease from bothrops atrox venom, caused platelet aggregation and release of platelet constituents at a concentration of 10(-7) m and clot retraction at a concentration of 2 x 10(-9) m. thrombocytin was slightly more active when tested on platelets in plasma than on washed platelets suspended in tyrode--albumin solution. thrombin was 5 times more active than thrombocytin when tested on platelets in plasma and 50 times more active when tested on washed platelets. the patt ...1979476069
fer de lance virus (fdlv): a probable paramyxovirus isolated from a reptile.a new virus has been isolated by inoculation of lung tissues of diseased snakes into snake embryos. homogenates of infected embryo tissues caused c.p.e. in cell cultures incubated at 30 degrees c. the virus replicates in a wide variety of reptilian or mammalian cell types incubated at 30 degrees c, inducing either syncytium formation or minimal or no cytopathic changes. efficient replication occurs in embryonated hens' eggs at 27 to 30 degrees c. the virus haemagglutinates guinea pig and chick e ...1979521797
adp, thrombin, and bothrops atrox thrombinlike enzyme in platelet-dependent fibrin retraction.clots formed upon the addition of thrombin to human platelet-rich plasma (prp) retracted readily but the clotting enzyme from bothrops atrox venom did not cause retraction in prp unless adp, collagen, epinephrine, or low concentrations of thrombin (0.1 u) were added. the latter type of retraction was inhibited by apyrase and creatine phosphate kinase in the presence of creatine phosphate, but that induced with higher concentration of thrombin (2 u) was not. in a system composed of washed human p ...19751211467
effect of bothrops asper (fer-de-lance) snake venom on erythrocyte membrane. a comparative study.1. the effect of bothrops asper venom on erythrocytes of different species, sheep erythrocyte ghost vesicles and liposomes made of phospholipids from sheep erythrocytes was studied. 2. b. asper venom had a direct hemolytic effect on mouse erythrocytes, but no lytic activity on goat, rabbit, horse, toad and sheep erythrocytes. human erythrocytes were lysed only in the presence of bovine serum albumin and ca2+. 3. although the phospholipase a2 activity in the venom might be involved in the lytic e ...19921354121
the effect of myotoxins isolated from bothrops snake venoms on multilamellar liposomes: relationship to phospholipase a2, anticoagulant and myotoxic activities.the effect of four myotoxins isolated from bothrops snake venoms on the release of peroxidase trapped in large multilamellar liposomes was studied and correlated to their phospholipase a2, myotoxic and anticoagulant activities. the four myotoxins affected negatively-charged liposomes in a dose-dependent way, having no effect on positively-charged liposomes. conditions that inhibited phospholipase a2 activity, i.e., substitution of calcium by edta, reduced liposome-disrupting activity of bothrops ...19911764457
endothelium-dependent relaxant effect of thrombocytin, a serine proteinase from bothrops atrox snake venom, on isolated pig coronary arteries.since thrombin causes an endothelium-dependent relaxation of precontracted pig coronary arteries, the ability of thrombocytin, a serine proteinase from the venom of the common lancehead, bothrops atrox, to induce endothelium-dependent changes in the vascular tone was investigated. relaxation of pig coronary rings did not appear in vessels denuded of the endothelium. thrombocytin (0.1-2.0 micrograms/ml) caused an endothelium-dependent, reversible, transient relaxation of pgf2 alpha-precontracted ...19911926173
an indirect haemolytic assay for assessing antivenoms.dilutions of antivenom, venom, human erythrocytes and a phosphatidylcholine suspension, were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees c. after centrifugation, the liberated haemoglobin was measured spectrophotometrically. the assay was used to assess an ovine antivenom against the venom from the south american rattlesnake, crotalus durissus terrificus, and an equine wyeth antivenin (crotalidae, polyvalent). the ovine antivenom was more than five times as effective as the equine product. it also neutra ...19911949062
non-specific therapy of a hemorrhagic diathesis after a bite by a young bothrops asper (barba amarilla): a case report.hemorrhagic diathesis developed 4 hr after a bite by one fang of a two-month-old specimen of bothrops asper. severe allergy to horse serum contraindicated the use of horse antivenom, and a substitution therapy was started 20 hr after the bite. during the following 4 days the patient was treated with infusions of 8 g human fibrinogen, 2500 u of cryoprecipitate, 1000 ml of human plasma and vitamin k in several portions. by means of plasmapheresis 1800 ml of plasma was exchanged. until plasmapheres ...19902089742
electric shock does not save snakebitten rats.a team of missionary doctors from ecuador recently described striking success in the treatment of venomous snakebites with a series of brief, high-voltage, low-current electric shocks applied to the bit site. we designed a randomized, controlled, blinded test of their methods in laboratory rats. venom of the fer-de-lance, bothrops atrox, was injected subcutaneously into rats in a series of increasing doses. half of each dose group then was shocked with a device used by the ecuadoran group. enven ...19883257850
comparison of the platelet aggregation induced by three thrombin-like enzymes of snake venoms and thrombin.platelet aggregation induced by three thrombin-like enzymes of snake venoms was compared with that by thrombin. acutin was isolated from agkistrodon acutus venom and thrombocytin and batroxobin were from bothrops atrox venom. the fibrinogen-clotting activities were 700, 170 and 7 u/mg for batroxobin, acutin and thrombocytin, respectively. they induced aggregation and atp release of washed rabbit platelets. the aggregating activity of thrombin was 10(2), 10(4) and 10(5) times more potent than tho ...19883291184
on the metabolism of the thrombin-like enzyme from the venom of bothrops atrox. 19744133594
immunogenic response of the venoms of fer-de-lance, bothrops atrox asper, and la cascabella, crotalus durissus durissus, following photooxidative detoxification. 19684170736
coagulant and esterase activities of thrombin and bothrops atrox venom. 19724665360
the effect of temperature on the rigidity modulus of fibrin gels produced by bothrops atrox venom. 19705533656
modification of batroxobin with activated polyethylene glycol: reduction of binding ability towards anti-batroxobin antibody and retention of defibrinogenation activity in circulation of preimmunized dogs.amino groups of batroxobin (bothrops atrox thrombic protease) were modified with 2,4-bis(o-methoxypolyethylene glycol)-6-chloro-s-triazine (activated peg2). the modified batroxobin had the reduced binding ability towards anti-batroxobin antibody but retained its enzymic activity in vitro and in vivo. administration of modified batroxobin in which 29% of the total amino groups in the molecule had been modified, to beagle dogs preimmunized with native batroxobin gave rise to a marked reduction of ...19836353117
[toxicity and neutralization of venoms from peruvian snakes of the genera bothrops and lachesis (serpentes: viperidae)].the lethal potencies (median lethal dose) of the venoms of peruvian snakes (bothrops atrox, bothrops barnetti, bothrops pictus and lachesis muta muta) were determined in mice by using intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection. in addition, the neutralizing ability of three antivenoms (bothropic polyvalent, bothropic bivalent and lachetic) was studied by preincubation-type experiments. b. pictus venom had the highest lethality by the intraperitoneal route whereas b. atrox venom had the ...19937701074
[effects of lyophilization on four biological activities of bothrops atrox venom (serpentes: viperidae)].fresh venom was obtained by milking both sexes of adult bothrops atrox snakes. four biological activities were studied in both fresh and freeze dried venom: local hemorrhagic in guinea pig skin, proteolytic upon casein (caseinolytic), esterasic upon tame and fibrinogen clotting activity. all activities were detected in fresh venom: hemorrhagic (dhm = 0.93, dhr = 9.75 micrograms protein), caseinolytic (0.25 u kunitz/mg protein), esterasic (0.70 u/mg protein) and clotting activity (75.7 u nih/mg p ...19937886256
inhibition of hemorrhagic activities of various snake venoms by purified antihemorrhagic factor obtained from japanese habu snake.the ability of purified antihemorrhagic factor isolated from the serum of japanese habu (trimeresurus flavoviridis) was tested on 17 snake venoms to inhibit their hemorrhagic activity. the factor strongly inhibited that of the venoms of crotalus horridus horridus and vipera latastei gaditana in addition to that of the homologous (t. flavoviridis) venom. hemorrhagic activity of agkistrodon halys blomhoffi, agkistrodon contortrix contortrix, bothrops atrox asper and crotalus atrox venoms was also ...19948016857
purification and characterization of a coagulant enzyme, okinaxobin i, from the venom of trimeresurus okinavensis (himehabu snake) which releases fibrinopeptide b.a coagulant enzyme, named okinaxobin i, has been purified to homogeneity from the venom of trimeresurus okinavensis (himehabu) by chromatographies on sephadex g-100 and cm-toyopearl 650m columns. the enzyme was a monomer with a molecular weight of 37,000 and its isoelectric point was 5.4. the enzyme acted on fibrinogen to form fibrin clots with a specific activity of 77 nih units/mg. fibrinopeptide b was released at a rate much faster than fibrinopeptide a. the enzyme exhibited 2 to 3 times high ...19901964457
separation of human antihemophilic factor (ahf, factor viii) from fibrinogen by means of defibrase.various attempts have been made in the past to remove fibrinogen from plasma fractions rich in factor viii. present studies indicated the defibrase, a preparation of a thrombin-like enzyme from the venom of bothrops atrox, might be successfully employed for this purpose. addition of defibrase to plasma or low-purity factor viii concentrates allows for the complete removal of fibrinogen without any apparent reduction in the activity. it was also shown that treatment with defibrase neither decreas ...197554318
clottability and cross-linking reactivity of fibrin(ogen) following differential release of fibrinopeptides a and b.human fibrinogen was treated at ph 6.0, 7.3 and 9.0 with thrombin, batroxobin (thrombin-like fraction of bothrops atrox venom) or an extract of the venom from ancistrodon contortrix contortrix. these three enzymes released the nh2-terminal fibrinopeptides a and b at different rates. thrombin-free, preactivated factor xiii (factor xiiia) was added to incubation mixtures to stabilize resulting fibrin(ogen) aggregates. cross-linking of gamma-chains and the size of covalently linked fibrin-fibrinoge ...197614415
purification and variability in thrombin-like activity of bothrops atrox venom from different geographic regions.bothrops atrox snake venoms from two different amazon regions, i.e., manaus, am (3 degrees 0.6'40"s; 60 degrees 0.1'6.0"w) and tucurui, pa (3 degrees 0.42'30"s; 49 degrees 0.41'45"w), were analyzed with respect to the thrombin-like activity component by elution profile on gel-filtration and reverse phase hplc chromatography, electrophoretic mobility on sds-page, and enzymatic activity on fibrinogen. despite some individual discrepancies among venom specimens, the thrombin-like activity present i ...19989620574
comparison of the immunogenicity and antigenic composition of ten central american snake venoms.the immunological reactivity of five crotaline antivenoms for the venoms of ten costa rican snakes was determined. venoms from bothrops asper, b. godmani, b. lateralis, b. nasutus, b. ophryomegas, b. schlegelii, b. nummifer, b. picadoi, crotalus durissus durissus and lachesis muta stenophrys were separated by sds-page, transferred to cellulose nitrate membrane and reacted against five different antivenoms. antisera used in the immunoblotting were prepared in rabbits to the crotaline venoms from ...19938212043
the coagulant enzyme from bothrops atrox venom (batroxobin). 19761011993
properties of nerve growth factor from the venom of bothrops atrox.a glycoprotein fraction islated in poor yield (approx. 0.04%) from the venom of bothrops atrox contained nerve growth factor. the material had biological activity, stability, the property of anomalous adsorption onto surfaces, apparent molecular weight and sub-unit structure that were similar to those for nerve growth factor that had been previously purified from the venom of vipera russelli. antiserum raised against nerve growth factor from vipera russelli showed definite cross-reactivity with ...19751174566
bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom induces oedema formation and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw.the ability of snake venoms to increase vascular permeability and to induce oedema through the release of pharmacologically active substances is well known. we have studied the oedema and vascular permeability induced by bothrops lanceolatus venom in male swiss white mice. paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of b. lanceolatus venom (125-1000 ng/paw) and was quantified as the increase in paw weight. changes in vascular permeability were assessed by measuring the amount of evans blu ...200010665802
suppression of cell-transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in defibrinated lewis rats.the role of coagulation-fibrinolysis system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eae) was studied by using batroxobin, derived from the venom of the south american pit viper bothrops atrox moojeni. batroxobin converts circulating fibrinogen into an insoluble form and causes a profound degree of afibrinogenemia. batroxobin treatment (30 bu/kg/day) suppressed clinical signs of cell transferred eae; the mean cumulative clinical score for batroxobin treated rats was 3.97, while saline treat ...19968982112
an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) that discriminates between bothrops atrox and lachesis muta muta bites by bothrops atrox and lachesis muta muta snakes are frequent in the north of brazil and elicit similar clinical symptoms, an elisa assay was developed to identify objectively the circulating antigen in the serum of accidentally bitten patients. antigens common to the two venoms were removed by immunoaffinity techniques and the 'individual component' of each venom used as immunogen to raise rabbit iggs. each of these antibodies specifically recognized one venom, and they were used to set ...19938503131
evaluation of kits for the detection of fibrin(ogen) degradation products in dogs.the sensitivities and specificities of 3 commercial serum fibrin(ogen) degradation product (fdp) kits and 1 plasma fdp kit for the detection of fdps in dogs were determined. blood was collected for measurement of serum and plasma fdp concentrations from 30 healthy dogs and from 20 dogs that fulfilled clinical and laboratory criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation. to determine the effect of hemolysis on fdp results, blood was collected simultaneously into bothrops atrox venom-based a ...199910499733
purification of an acidic phospholipase a2 from bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom: molecular and enzymatic properties.the acidic phospholipase a2 from bothrops lanceolatus venom has been purified by gel filtration on sephadex g-50 and ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose. analysis by fplc on mono-q column of the purified phospholipase a2 indicated that it is a mixture of several isoenzymes. the two major isoforms consist of a single polypeptide chain with mol. wts of 14,500 and 15,000, which slightly differ in their isoelectric point (4.9 and 5.3) and amino acid composition. however, enzymatic and pharma ...19947801343
ability of six latin american antivenoms to neutralize the venom of mapaná equis (bothrops atrox) from antioquia and chocó (colombia).this investigation compared the ability of six latin american antivenoms (monovalent antibothropic ins, santafé de bogotá; polyvalent ins; polyvalent probiol, santafé de bogotá; antibothropic instituto butantan, ib, são paulo, brazil; polyvalent instituto clodomiro picado, icp, san josé, costa rica; polyvalent myn, mexico) to neutralize various pharmacological and enzymatic effects of bothrops atrox venom from antioquia and chocó, north-west of colombia. our results demonstrated conspicuous diff ...19957676472
a survey of hemoparasite infections in free-ranging mammals and reptiles in french guiana.blood smears of 1,353 free-ranging mammals (35 species) and 112 reptiles (31 species) from french guiana were examined for hemoparasites. parasites from 3 major groups were recorded: apicomplexa (including hemogregarines, piroplasms, and plasmodium spp.), trypanosomatidae, and filaroidea. fifty percent of the individuals (86% of the species) were infected by parasites from at least 1 group. hemogregarines, identified as hepatozoon sp., infected numerous snakes with high prevalences (30-100%); in ...200011128476
[modification of the toxicity of bothrops atrox poison by interventions in the coagulation and kallikrein system of prey].ld50-determinations with venom mixtures from different age groups of bothrops atrox were carried out on differently pretreated mice. no differences were seen in the ld50 when comparing untreated mice with mice previously defibrinogenated with batroxobin. inhibition of the coagulation-, kallikrein-kinin- and fibrinolytic system by pretreatment with batroxobin and aprotinin led to a significantly decreased toxicity of the venom mixtures of all age groups. the age-related difference in toxicity had ...19846083965
characterization of a paramyxovirus from a fer de lance viper (bothrops jararaca): partial nucleotide sequence of the putative fusion protein.during the generation of expressed sequence tags (ests) from the fer de lance viper (bothrops jararaca) venom glands, a partial cdna (clone h8) coding for a protein with all the features of a paramyxovirus fusion protein was characterized. it has 920 bp and codes for a partial protein of 279 amino acids. two potential n-glycosylation sites are present in the sequence which also possesses a typical membrane anchoring domain made of a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids. the polyadenylation signal ...200111266217
in vitro studies of a new synthetic thrombin inhibitor.(2r, 4r)4-methyl-1-[n alpha-(3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-quinoline- sulfonyl)-l-arginyl]-2-piperidine carboxylic acid monohydrate (mci-9038) was found to be a potent synthetic inhibitor of thrombin. in concentrations as low as 1 microm, the thrombin time, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time were more than doubled. the venom (bothrops atrox) time was similarly prolonged. the drug also inhibited the thrombin-induced activation of factors viii and xiii. while mci-9038 in concentrati ...19853983896
blood coagulation induced by the venom of bothrops atrox. 2. identification, purification, and properties of two factor x activators.we have characterized and purified the two components of the venom of bothrops atrox that activate the coagulation factor x. activator 1 and activator 2 were separated by ion-exchange chromatography but otherwise presented similar characteristics. they consist of a heavy polypeptide of mr 59,000 and either one or two light chains forming a doublet of mr 14,000-15,000. they are inactive on synthetic substrates and on prothrombin or fibrinogen and thus appear to act specifically on factor x. they ...19873552032
blood coagulation induced by the venom of bothrops atrox. 1. identification, purification, and properties of a prothrombin this paper, we show that the procoagulant action of bothrops atrox venom is due in part to a protein component that activates prothrombin. the venom prothrombin activator was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. it was separated from a protease by affinity chromatography in a p-aminobenzamidine-ch-sepharose column. it is a protein of about mr 70,000, consisting of a single polypeptide chain. we have studied the kinetics of activation of prothrombin under different exper ...19873552031
amino acid sequence of a coagulant enzyme, flavoxobin, from trimeresurus flavoviridis venom.the amino acid sequence of a coagulant enzyme, named flavoxobin, isolated from the venom of trimeresurus flavoviridis (the habu snake) was determined by sequencing the s-pyridylethylated derivative of the protein and its peptides generated by chemical (cyanogen bromide and hydroxylamine) and enzymatic (clostripain, staphylococcus aureus v8 protease, achromobacter protease i, and elastase) cleavages. hydrazinolysis was also employed to determine the c-terminal amino acid. the enzyme consisted of ...19883170503
the effect of edta on the extent of tissue damage caused by the venoms of bothrops atrox (fer-de-lance) and agkistrodon piscivorus (cottonmouth moccasin). rep 596. 196314131257
clinical trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of bothrops and lachesis bites in the north eastern amazon region of brazil.the efficacies of specific bothrops atrox-lachesis and standard bothrops-lachesis antivenoms were compared in the north eastern amazon region of brazil. the main aim was to investigate whether a specific antivenom raised against the venom of b. atrox, the most important amazon snake species from a medical point of view, was necessary for the treatment of patients in this region. seventy-four patients with local and systemic effects of envenoming by bothrops or lachesis snakes were randomly alloc ...200414702836
the factor v-activating enzyme (rvv-v) from russell's viper venom. identification of isoproteins rvv-v alpha, -v beta, and -v gamma and their complete amino acid sequences.the complete amino acid sequences of two isoproteins of the factor v-activating enzyme (rvv-v) isolated from vipera russelli (russell's viper) venom were determined by sequencing s-pyridylethylated derivatives of the proteins and their peptide fragments generated by either chemical (cyanogen bromide and 2-(2-nitrophenylsulfenyl)-3-methyl-3-bromoindolenine) or enzymatic (trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and lysyl endopeptidase) cleavages. both enzymes, designated rvv-v alpha and rvv-v gamma, consist ...19883053712
platelet-aggregation is stimulated by lactose-inhibitable snake venom lectins.five lactose-specific lectins from snake venoms were tested for the ability to stimulate the aggregation of human platelets. three of the lectins, bushmaster (lachesis muta), cottonmouth (ancistrodon piscivorous leukostoma) and rattlesnake (crotalus atrox) lectins, consistently stimulated secretion and aggregation. thrombolectin (bothrops atrox) occasionally caused aggregation. copperhead (agkistrodon contortrix contortrix) lectin did not by itself cause platelet aggregation. lactose, a specific ...19892530646
comparison of the immunogenicity and antigenic composition of several venoms of snakes in the family crotalidae.crude venoms from the prairie rattlesnake (crotalus viridis viridis), the western diamondback rattlesnake (crotalus atrox), the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (crotalus adamanteus) and the timber rattlesnake (crotalus horridus horridus) were used to prepare monovalent antivenoms in rabbits. each of these four monovalent antivenoms was reacted against six different venoms using the technique of immunoblotting (western blot) to determine the relative immunogenicity of the four venoms and to compa ...19902339435
batroxostatin, an arg-gly-asp-containing peptide from bothrops atrox, is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation and cell interaction with fibronectin.a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation and cell adhesion was isolated from the venom of bothrops atrox. this peptide, referred to as batroxostatin, was composed of 71 amino acids and showed a high degree of homology with other snake venom peptides including trigramin, albolabrin, elegantin and applagin: all 12 cysteines and the rgd sequence (standard one-letter amino acid codes) aligned in the same position. compared on a molar basis, the anti-platelet aggregation activity of batroxostatin w ...19902207176
neutralization of four peruvian bothrops sp. snake venoms by polyvalent antivenoms produced in perú and costa rica: preclinical assessment.envenomations after bites inflicted by snakes of the genus bothrops constitute a public health hazard in perú, and the intravenous administration of equine-derived antivenoms represents the only scientifically validated treatment. this study presents a preclinical assessment of the efficacy of two whole igg antivenoms, prepared in perú and costa rica, to neutralize the most relevant toxic effects induced by the venoms of bothrops atrox, b. brazili, b. barnetti and b. pictus from perú. peruvian a ...200515589801
isolation of basic myotoxins from bothrops moojeni and bothrops atrox snake venoms.three myotoxins, one from the venom of bothrops atrox and two from the venom of b. moojeni, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex c-25. the three toxins are basic proteins with an estimated mol. wt of about 13,500, and similar amino acid compositions. when injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of mice, the three toxins induce drastic myonecrosis of rapid onset, as judged by histological observation and quantitation of plasma creatine kinase levels. b. atrox myotoxin also h ...19902124735
specific identification of lachesis muta muta snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme, lv-pa.sandwich-type enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) were developed to detect lachesis muta muta (bushmaster) snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme (lv-pa). antibodies to lv-pa were obtained by immunization of one rabbit with the purified enzyme. the igg fraction was purified from rabbit blood in a single step on a column of sepharose-l. m. muta venom and used to coat the microtiter plates. the specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its capacity to corre ...200515804530
a randomized double-blind clinical trial of two antivenoms in patients bitten by bothrops atrox in colombia. the regional group on antivenom therapy research (regather).a randomized double-blind clinical trial in 39 patients envenomed by bothrops atrox in antioquia and chocó, colombia, was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 equine-derived antivenoms prepared at instituto clodomiro picado, university of costa rica. twenty patients received a monovalent anti-b. atrox antivenom (group a) and 19 patients were treated with a polyvalent (crotalinae) antivenom (group b). both antivenoms were equally efficient in the neutralization of the most relevant s ...19969015522
[hemolytic activity of venoms from snakes of the genera bothrop, lachesis, crotalus, and micrurus (serpentes: viperidae and elapidae].hemolytic activity of eight peruvian snake venoms from the families viperidae and elapidae (bothrops atrox, b. pictus, b. hyoprorus, b. bilineatus, b. neuwedii, lachesis m. muta, crotalus d. terrificus, micrurus tschudi), and three brazilian viperids (b. jararacussu, b. alternatus and c. d. collilineatus) is described. none of the venoms caused direct lysis on washed human erythrocytes. however, all of them caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contains an exogenous sourc ...19911844159
[pharmacologic and enzymatic effects of snake venoms from antioquia and choco (colombia)].we compared several pharmacological and enzymatic effects induced by 11 snake venoms from seven species, six of them from different geographic areas of antioquia and choco, north-west of colombia, south america (bothrops atrox, b. nasutus, b. schlegelii, b. punctatus, lachesis muta, micrurus mipartitus), and crotalus durissus terrificus venom, from specimens captured in other provinces of the country (tolima, huila, meta and atlantico). differences were observed in edema-forming, hemorrhage, def ...19921519252
isolation and characterization of a serine protease, ba iii-4, from peruvian bothrops atrox venom.a serine protease from bothrops atrox (peruvian specimen's venom) was isolated in two chromatographic steps in lc molecular exclusion and reverse phase-hplc. this protein was denominated ba iii-4 (33,080.265 da determinated by maldi-tof mass spectrometry) and showed pi of 5.06, km 0.2 x 10(-1 ) m and the v (máx) 4.1 x 10(-1 )nmoles p-na/lt/min on the synthetic substrate bapna. ba iii-4 also showed ability to coagulate bovine fibrinogen. the serine protease was inhibited by soyben trypsin inhibit ...200717522968
fatal diffuse thrombotic microangiopathy after a bite by the "fer-de-lance" pit viper (bothrops lanceolatus) of martinique, a man bitten two days earlier by a pit viper (bothrops lanceolatus) was hospitalized with impaired consciousness and tetraplegia. investigations confirmed cerebral and myocardial infarctions. resolving thrombocytopenia was associated with virtually normal blood prothrombin time/activated partial thromboplastin time but increasing hyperfibrinogenemia. despite specific antivenom treatment, he developed fatal left ventricular failure six days after the bite. at autopsy, multiple cere ...200818541759
interaction of viper venom serine peptidases with thrombin receptors on human platelets.the serine peptidases, thrombocytin and pa-bj, isolated from the venom of bothrops atrox and bothrops jararaca, respectively, induce platelet aggregation and granule secretion without clotting fibrinogen. the specific platelet aggregation activity of each enzyme was about 15 times lower than that of thrombin. this activity was blocked by monoclonal antibodies recognizing protease activated receptor 1 (par1) and by heparin, but not by hirudin nor thrombomodulin. both enzymes induced calcium mobil ...200010908720
the contribution of residues 192 and 193 to the specificity of snake venom serine proteinases.snake venom serine proteinases, which belong to the subfamily of trypsin-like serine proteinases, exhibit a high degree of sequence identity (60-66%). their stringent macromolecular substrate specificity contrasts with that of the less specific enzyme trypsin. one of them, the plasminogen activator from trimeresurus stejnegeri venom (tsv-pa), which shares 63% sequence identity with batroxobin, a fibrinogen clotting enzyme from bothrops atrox venom, specifically activates plasminogen to plasmin l ...200010636881
trimeresurus stejnegeri snake venom plasminogen activator. site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling.the specific plasminogen activator from trimeresurus stejnegeri venom (tsv-pa) is a serine proteinase presenting 23% sequence identity with the proteinase domain of tissue type plasminogen activator, and 63% with batroxobin, a fibrinogen clotting enzyme from bothrops atrox venom that does not activate plasminogen. tsv-pa contains six disulfide bonds and has been successfully overexpressed in escherichia coli (zhang, y., wisner, a., xiong, y. l., and bon, c. (1995) j. biol. chem. 270, 10246-10255 ...19979252366
purification from bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom of a fibrino(geno)lytic enzyme with esterolytic activity.bothrops lanceolatus venom has high caseinolytic, phospholipasic, esterolytic and hemorrhagic activities. in spite of having no coagulant effect on plasma, this venom contains a thrombin-like enzyme. using gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatographies, we have purified an esterolytic fraction (f-ii-1a) from this venom with a protein yield of 4% and a 58% recovery in enzyme activity. sds-page in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol showed that the enzyme is a single chain polypeptide with a mw ...19989655635
isolation, functional, and partial biochemical characterization of galatrox, an acidic lectin from bothrops atrox snake venom.snake venom lectins have been studied in regard to their chemical structure and biological functions. however, little is known about lectins isolated from bothrops atrox snake venom. we report here the isolation and partial functional and biochemical characterization of an acidic glycan-binding protein called galatrox from this venom. this lectin was purified by affinity chromatography using a lactosyl-sepharose column, and its homogeneity and molecular mass were evaluated by high-performance li ...201121297119
cell cycle arrest evidence, parasiticidal and bactericidal properties induced by l-amino acid oxidase from bothrops atrox snake venom.the present article describes an l-amino acid oxidase from bothrops atrox snake venom as with antiprotozoal activities in trypanosoma cruzi and in different species of leishmania (leishmania braziliensis, leishmania donovani and leishmania major). leishmanicidal effects were inhibited by catalase, suggesting that they are mediated by h(2)o(2) production. leishmania spp. cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging from self-healing ulcers to disseminated and often fatal infections, depending on the spe ...201121300133
coagulant and anticoagulant activities of bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom.bothrops lanceolatus venom contains caseinolytic, phospholipase, esterase and haemorrhagic activities. we have investigated the coagulant and anticoagulant actions of b. lanceolatus venom on human citrated plasma and on purified plasma components. although b. lanceolatus venom up to 50 microg/ml was unable to clot citrated plasma, at concentrations > or = 5 microg/ml the venom dose-dependently clotted purified human fibrinogen, indicating the presence of a thrombin-like enzyme. human plasma (fin ...200110978756
bothrops lanceolatus bites: guidelines for severity assessment and emergent management.approximately 20-30 declared snakebite cases occurin martinique each year. bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the crotalidae family, is considered to be the only involved snake. b. lanceolatus, commonly named "fer-de-lance", is endemic and only found on this caribbean island. envenomation local features include the presence of fang marks, swelling, pain, bleeding from punctures, and ecchymosis. severe envenomation is associated with multiple systemic thromboses appearing within 48 h of the bite a ...201022069552
screening of snake venoms for neurotoxic and myotoxic effects using simple in vitro preparations from rodents and chicks.eight snake venoms designated by the who as international reference venoms, and one additional venom were assessed for neurotoxic and myotoxic effects in vitro using the chick biventer cervicis and the rat and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. the objective was to determine whether any of the preparations could be used to detect evidence of neurotoxic or myotoxic activity prior to a more detailed examination. bungarus multicinctus venom at concentrations above 1 microgram ml-1 selectiv ...19948016848
pharmacological characterization of the rat paw edema induced by bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom.the inflammatory response induced by bothrops lanceolatus venom (blv) in the rat hind-paw was studied measuring paw edema. non-heated blv (75microg/paw) caused a marked paw edema accompanied by intense haemorrhage whereas heated venom (97 degrees c, 30s; 12.5-100microg/paw) produced a dose- and time-dependent non-haemorrhagic edema. the response with heated blv was maximal within 15min disappearing over 24h. heated venom was then routinely used at the dose of 75microg/paw. the prostacyclin analo ...200111137542
evaluation of the antichagasic activity of batroxicidin, a cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide found in bothrops atrox venom gland.antimicrobial peptides (amps) are potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as they have a fast mode of action, a low likelihood of resistance development and can act in conjunction with existing drug regimens. we report in this study the effects of batroxicidin (batxc), a cathelicidin-related amp from bothrops atrox venom gland, over trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan that causes chagas' disease. batxc inhibited all t. cruzi (y strain: benznidazole-resistant) developmental forms, with sel ...201728246023
identification and molecular characterization of 18 paramyxoviruses isolated from snakes.viral agents from 18 different snake species (families colubridae, viperidae, and crotalidae) showing respiratory symptoms and neuronal disease were identified as paramyxoviruses by typical cytopathogenic effect (cpe), electron microscopy, and hemagglutination inhibition. detailed molecular characterization of the viruses was performed by partial l- and f-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and sequencing, nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment, and phylo ...200111597749
snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of colombia: part ii: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of bothrops atrox venom.twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of colombia, were active against lethal effect of bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). after preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (ld50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. these were the stem barks of brownea rosademonte (caesalpiniaceae) ...200010940590
snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of colombia. part iii: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of bothrops atrox venom.thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of bothrops atrox venom from antioquia and chocó, north-western colombia. after preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). these were the stem barks of ...200011025161
vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of south american pit vipers.cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (amps)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. more recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serv ...201425100358
lachesis muta muta venom: immunological differences compared with bothrops atrox venom and importance of specific antivenom therapy.lachesis muta muta and bothrops atrox snakes are responsible for most accidents occurring in the amazon. the clinical features of the accidents are similar; however, there are still controversies about the efficacy of bothrops antivenoms for treating l. m. muta accidents. in this work, we evaluated the antigenic cross-reactivity between these venoms using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and the efficacy of b. atrox and l. m. muta experimental antivenoms in cross-neutralizing the main toxic ...200111072051
ontogenetic variation of metalloproteinases and plasma coagulant activity in venoms of wild bothrops atrox specimens from amazonian rain forest.a comparative study of venoms from juvenile, sub-adult and adult wild bothrops atrox specimens captured in manaus region (brazil) was performed. all venoms tested had acidic ph (5.5) and the human plasma coagulant activity was higher in venoms from juvenile and sub-adult specimens than in adults. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) showed that the most intense bands in adult venoms corresponded to polypeptides of 23 and 50kda. the 23kda protein was not detected i ...200212076654
neuromuscular action of bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom and a caseinolytic fraction.a protein capable of inducing neuromuscular blockade in avian preparations and of depolarizing mouse diaphragm muscle was isolated from bothrops lanceolatus venom using gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. the purified protein was a single chain polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 27.5 kda by sds-page and had caseinolytic activity (13.3 units/mg), but no phospholipase a(2). b.lanceolatus venom (50 micro g/ml) and the caseinolytic protein (20 micro g/ml) produced contractur ...200212220713
complete genome sequence of fer-de-lance virus reveals a novel gene in reptilian paramyxoviruses.the complete rna genome sequence of the archetype reptilian paramyxovirus, fer-de-lance virus (fdlv), has been determined. the genome is 15,378 nucleotides in length and consists of seven nonoverlapping genes in the order 3' n-u-p-m-f-hn-l 5', coding for the nucleocapsid, unknown, phospho-, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, and large polymerase proteins, respectively. the gene junctions contain highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences and tri-nucleotide intergeni ...200414747569
the complement system is involved in acute inflammation but not in the hemorrhage produced by a bothrops atrox snake venom low molecular mass proteinase.low molecular weight hemorrhagins were purified from crude bothrops atrox snake venom by gel filtration followed by ionic strength chromatography. the protein fractions obtained, designated hi-1 to hi-8, contained proteins with molecular masses lower than 30 kda. hi-5, the most representative among of these fractions, exhibited, in vitro, proteolytic and c inactivating properties, as analyzed by proteolysis of a protein substrate, and c system consumptive activities as assayed by reduction of th ...200415104120
pharmacological and histopathological characterization of bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom-induced edema.bothrops venoms cause local edema, pain, hemorrhage and necrosis. in this study, we investigated the ability of bothrops lanceolatus venom to cause edema in rat hind paws and examined the mediators involved.200415241562
purification and characterization of a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from bothrops lanceolatus (fer-de-lance) snake venom.bothrops snake venoms contain metalloproteinases that contribute to the local effects seen after envenoming. in this work, a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (blah1) was purified from the venom of the snake bothrops lanceolatus by a combination of gel filtration, affinity (metal chelating) and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. the hemorrhagin was homogeneous by sds-page and had a molecular mass of 28 kda that was unaltered by treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol. blah1 gave a single band in ...200515733562
myotoxin ii from bothrops asper (terciopelo) venom is a lysine-49 phospholipase a2.a basic, dimeric myotoxic protein, myotoxin ii, purified from bothrops asper venom has a similar molecular weight and is immunologically cross-reactive with antibodies raised to previously isolated b. asper phospholipases a2, except that it shows only 0.1% of the phospholipase activity against l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine in the presence of triton x-100. its 121 amino acid sequence, determined by automated edman degradation, clearly identifies it as a lys-49 phospholipase a2. key amino acid diffe ...19911899180
snake venomics and antivenomics of bothrops atrox venoms from colombia and the amazon regions of brazil, perú and ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.the venom proteomes of bothrops atrox from colombia, brazil, ecuador, and perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. the venom from colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. pi-metalloproteinases and k49-pla(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. on the other hand, the venoms from brazilian, ecuadorian, and peruvian b. atrox ...200919665598
antigenic cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of bothrops venoms from snakes of the amazon region.snakebites are still a critical public health problem in developing countries or isolated areas. in brazil, the north region has a high distribution coefficient worsened by the significant number of eventually unreported cases, due to difficulties in access to health services, to the natural geographic barriers and the vast territory. in the rio negro area, the species bothrops atrox, bothrops brazili, lachesis muta muta and bothriopsis taeniata are thought to be the major species responsible fo ...201020036275
thrombotic stroke following snake bites by the "fer-de-lance"bothrops lanceolatus in martinique despite antivenom treatment: a report of three recent cases.the severity of envenoming from bothrops lanceolatus is determined by the development of cerebral, myocardial or pulmonary infarctions, and occasionnaly by serious local envenoming. introduction of specific antivenom has resulted in a dramatic improvement in the prognosis of this envenoming. against this background, we report 3 recent cases of patients bitten by b. lanceolatus who developed cerebral infarctions despite early administration of antivenom.200616750232
evidence of caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by l-amino acid oxidase isolated from bothrops atrox snake venom.the aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of caspases in apoptosis induced by l-amino acid oxidase isolated from bothrops atrox snake venom. the isolation of laao involved three chromatographic steps: molecular exclusion on a g-75 column; ion exchange column by hplc and affinity chromatography on a lentil lectin column. sds-page was used to confirm the expected high purity level of batroxlaao. it is a glycoprotein with 12% sugar and an acidic character, as confirmed by its amino ac ...200818804547
osteopontin, a chemotactic protein with cytokine-like properties, is up-regulated in muscle injury caused by bothrops lanceolatus (fer-de-lance) snake venom.osteopontin (opn) is a chemotactic, adhesive protein whose receptors include some integrins and matrix proteins known to have role in inflammatory and repair processes. we examined the time course of opn expression at acute and chronic stages after intramuscular injection of bothrops lanceolatus venom in rats. additionally, we examined the expression of cd68 (a marker for phagocytic macrophages) and the myogenic factors, myod and myogenin. there was a biphasic upregulation of opn (6-48-áh and 3- ...201121839764
antihemorrhagic, antinucleolytic and other antiophidian properties of the aqueous extract from pentaclethra macroloba.several brazilian plants have been utilized in folk medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snake venoms. the inhabitants of the amazon region use, among others, the macerated bark of a plant popularly named "pracaxi" (pentaclethra macroloba willd) to combat these effects. we report now the antihemorrhagic properties against snake venoms of the aqueous extract of pentaclethra macroloba (epema). epema exhibited full inhibition of hemorrhagic and nucleolytic activities induced ...200516054531
fluorometric assay using naphthylamide substrates for assessing novel venom peptidase the present study we examined the feasibility of using the fluorometry of naphthylamine derivatives for revealing peptidase activities in venoms of the snakes bothrops jararaca, bothrops alternatus, bothrops atrox, bothrops moojeni, bothrops insularis, crotalus durissus terrificus and bitis arietans, of the scorpions tityus serrulatus and tityus bahiensis, and of the spiders phoneutria nigriventer and loxosceles intermedia. neutral aminopeptidase (apn) and prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase iv ...200212419513
inhibition of mutalysin ii, a metalloproteinase from bushmaster snake venom by human alpha2-macroglobulin and rabbit immunoglobulin.mutalysin ii is a 22.5-kda zinc endopeptidase isolated from lachesis muta muta snake venom. in order to determine whether the inhibitors human alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) and rabbit antibody to mutalysin ii share a common mechanism, we have investigated the inhibition of mutalysin ii by these two different glycoproteins. the proteolytic activity of mutalysin ii with dimethylcasein as substrate was completely inhibited by human alpha2-m and by a purified rabbit antibody to mutalysin ii. the p ...200111544086
crotaline snake bite in the ecuadorian amazon: randomised double blind comparative trial of three south american polyspecific compare the efficacy and safety of three polyspecific antivenoms for bites by pit vipers.200415539665
low-molecular-mass peptides from the venom of the amazonian viper bothrops atrox protect against brain mitochondrial swelling in rat: potential for neuroprotection.the neurodegenerative diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in western countries. common mechanisms of toxicity involving mitochondrial damage have been suggested; however, a definitive treatment has not yet been found. therefore, there has been great interest in the development of mitochondria-targeted protective compounds for the treatment of neuropathies. animal toxins represent a promising source of new molecules with neuroprotective activity and potential to originate new ...201020338188
muscle extract of hedgehog, erinaceus europaeus, inhibits hemorrhagic activity of snake venoms.the antihemorrhagic activity of muscle extract of hedgehog, erinaceus europaeus, was tested on various snake venoms with hemorrhagic activity. the extract inhibited strongly hemorrhagic activity of venoms from bitis arietans, bothrops jararaca and vipera latastei gaditana, and remarkably that of venoms from agkistrodon halys blomhoffi, bitis gabonica rhinoceros, bitis nasicornis, bothrops atrox asper, crotalus horridus horridus and vipera berus. the antihemorrhagic activity against eight other s ...19947846699
antigenic relationship between the venom of the night adder causus maculatus and venoms of other viperids.monovalent antivenoms were raised in mice against the venoms of causus maculatus, vipera ammodytes, echis carinatus, cerastes cerastes, bitis arietans, agkistrodon rhodostoma and bothrops atrox. these antivenoms as well as four commercially available antivenoms were tested against the venoms of 15 viperid species by means of immunoelectrophoresis and/or elisa. cross-reactive protein bands were determined by immunoblot. elisa cross-reactions of c. maculatus antivenom were low with all heterologou ...19901706897
neutrophils regulate the expression of cytokines, chemokines and nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide in mice injected with bothrops atrox venom.bothrops atrox crude venom injected intraperitoneal (i.p.) into balb/c mice induced local afflux of inflammatory cells, one neutrophil-rich peak after 6h and another macrophage-rich peak after 48 h. a similar pattern of local cell afflux plus edema, delta lesions of some skeletal muscle cells, and hemorrhage were observed in mice intramuscular (i.m.) injected with the venom. measurement of serum cytokines in neutrophil-depleted (by anti-mouse rat monoclonal antibody (mab) rb6-8c5) and non-deplet ...200616446169
expression of mrnas coding for vap1/crotastatin-like metalloproteases in the venom glands of three south american pit vipers assessed by quantitative real-time pcr.snake venom metalloproteases encompass a large family of toxins, with approximately 200 members already catalogued, which exhibit a diversity of structures and biological functions. from this relatively large number, only a dozen examples of apoptosis-inducing metalloproteases, like vap1 and 2 from the venom of crotalus atrox, are known. since most vap1-like toxins ever characterized were purified from the venom of viperidae species inhabiting diverse places on earth, we investigate the expressi ...200818926840
crotalidae polyvalent immune fab (ovine) antivenom is effective in the neutralization of south american viperidae venoms in a murine model.crotalidae polyvalent immune fab (ovine) (crofab; fabav) is used in the treatment of symptomatic crotaline envenomations in north america. unlike antivenin (crotalidae) polyvalent, which is approved for treatment of crotaline envenomation in north and south america, fabav is manufactured using only venoms from crotaline snakes native to the united states. this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of fabav in the neutralization of venom from 2 south american crotaline snakes: crotalus duri ...200515940091
snake venomics and antivenomics of bothrops colombiensis, a medically important pitviper of the bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to venezuela: contributing to its taxonomy and snakebite management.the taxonomic status of the medically important pitviper of the bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to venezuela, which has been classified as bothrops colombiensis, remains incertae cedis. to help resolving this question, the venom proteome of b. colombiensis was characterized by reverse-phase hplc fractionation followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by sds-page, n-terminal sequencing, maldi-tof mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of ...200919457355
[experimental efficacy of igy antibodies produced in eggs against the venom of the peruvian snake bothrops atrox].to develop an immunization protocol in order to produce avian igy immunoglobulins against bothrops atrox peruvian snake venom and to evaluate its neutralizing capacity.201222510909
purification and characterization of phosphodiesterase i from bothrops atrox.phosphodiesterase i from the venom of bothrops atrox has been purified by successive chromatography on phosphocellulose p-11, hydroxyapatite, and deae-cellulose de 52. the final product gave a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gels and was free of endonuclease, 5' -nucleotidase, and unspecific alkaline phosphatase activity. it was concentrated in an amicon ultrafiltrator without loss of activity and could be stored in 10 mm magnesium acetate and 10% glycerol at 4 degrees c for ...1996178376
biochemical and biological properties of phospholipases a(2) from bothrops atrox snake venom.phospholipases a(2) (pla(2)s), of molecular mass 13-15kda, are commonly isolated from snake venom. two myotoxins with pla(2) activity, bapla(2)i and bapla(2)iii, with estimated molecular masses of 15kda were isolated from the venom of bothrops atrox using sephacryl s-100-hr and reverse-phase chromatography. bapla(2)i was basic, with a pi of 9.1, while bapla(2)iii was neutral with a pi of 6.9. on a molecular basis, bapla(2)iii exhibited higher catalytic activity on synthetic substrates than bapla ...200212234622
two related thrombin-like enzymes present in bothrops atrox venom.this article describes the presence of two new forms of a thrombin-like enzyme, both with apparent molecular masses of 38 kda, in bothrops atrox venom. both share the ability to cleave fibrinogen into fibrin and to digest casein. both present identical k(m) on the substrate bapna. their n-terminal amino acid sequences are identical for 26 residues, sharing 80% homology with batroxobin and flavoxobin. two groups of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against the purified enzyme forms recognized d ...200011050658
inhibition of venom serine proteinase and metalloproteinase activities by renealmia alpinia (zingiberaceae) extracts: comparison of wild and in vitro propagated plants.the plant renealmia alpinia has been used in folk medicine to treat snakebites in the northwest region of colombia. in addition, it has been shown to neutralize edema-forming, hemorrhagic, lethal, and defibrin(ogen)ating activities of bothrops asper venom. in this work, extracts of renealmia alpinia obtained by micropropagation (in vitro) and from specimens collected in the wild were tested and compared in their capacity to inhibit enzymatic and toxic activities of a snake venom metalloproteinas ...201323916793
effects of bothrops atrox venom and two isolated toxins on the human complement system: modulation of pathways and generation of anaphylatoxins.the complement system plays important biological roles, including the activation of inflammatory processes in response to the generation of proteolytic fragments of its components. here we evaluated the effects of bothrops atrox venom and two of its toxins (the p-i metalloprotease batroxase and the acidic phospholipase a2 batroxpla2) on the human complement system, evaluating their effects on the classical (cp), lectin (lp) and alternative (ap) pathways, as well as on different complement compon ...201627846429
description of serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (nematoda: rhabdiasidae), a parasite of bothrops atrox (linnaeus) (reptilia: serpentes: viperidae) in brazilian amazonia.a new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead bothrops atrox (linnaeus) in the brazilian amazon region. the species is assigned to the genus serpentirhabdias tkach, kuzmin & snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularis ...201626739285
immune cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory responses induced by a p-i metalloprotease and a phospholipase a2 from bothrops atrox venom.bothrops envenomations can promote severe inflammatory responses by inducing edema, pain, leukocyte recruitment and release of chemical mediators by local cells. in the present study, two toxins from bothrops atrox venom (the p-i metalloprotease batroxase and the acidic phospholipase a2 batroxpla2) were evaluated in relation to their inflammatory effects induced in vivo and in vitro, mainly focusing on the participation of different immune cells and inflammatory mediators. both toxins mainly pro ...201728327442
functional proteomic analyses of bothrops atrox venom reveals phenotypes associated with habitat variation in the amazon.venom variability is commonly reported for venomous snakes including bothrops atrox. here, we compared the composition of venoms from b. atrox snakes collected at amazonian conserved habitats (terra-firme upland forest and várzea) and human modified areas (pasture and degraded areas). venom samples were submitted to shotgun proteomic analysis as a whole or compared after fractionation by reversed-phase chromatography. whole venom proteomes revealed a similar composition among the venoms with pre ...201728274896
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