immunodiagnosis of snake of a patient with snake bite is influenced by the nature of the offending snake. species diagnosis based on the patient's history and physical signs is often unreliable and the possibility of making a species diagnosis by immunological means has therefore been investigated. wound aspirates, blister fluids, sera, and urine samples from patients with snake bite were examined for the presence of species-specific venoms using immunodiffusion. a positive species diagnosis was made in 40 ou ...19744216390
precipitation of human blood clotting factors by puff-adder (bitis arietans) venom. 1979112723
cleavage of fibrin-derived d-dimer into monomers by endopeptidase from puff adder venom (bitis arietans) acting at cross-linked sites of the gamma-chain. sequence of carboxy-terminal cyanogen bromide gamma-chain fragments.puff adder venom contains a protease capable of cleaving the gamma-chain of cross-linked d-dimer, derived from the plasmin digestion of fibrin, into apparently symmetrical monomers. the cross-linked gamma-chains are separated in the process without apparent loss of mass and without loss of the substituent at the glutamine cross-link site, if fluorescent d-dimer (the lysine analogue dansylcadaverine used as substituent) is used as substrate [purves, l. r., purves, m., lindsey, g. g., & linton, n. ...19873311151
enhancement of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes by snake venoms.snake venoms contain compound(s) that enhanced cyclic amp content in human mononuclear leukocytes maximally after 5 min of incubation at 37 degrees c. the effect was time- and dose-dependent. the half-maximal stimulation of cyclic amp production by black cobra venom was found at 0.45 micrograms of venom/ml and the value of the hill coefficient was 0.7. the black cobra venom enhanced the cyclic amp content in the cells at 4, 22, and 37 degrees c. similar increase in the cyclic amp content by six ...19846087657
platelet glycoprotein iib-iiia protein antagonists from snake venoms: evidence for a family of platelet-aggregation inhibitors.the purification, complete amino acid sequence, and biological activity are described for several homologous snake venom proteins that are platelet glycoprotein (gp) iib-iiia antagonists and potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation. the primary structures of kistrin (from agkistrodon rhodostoma), bitan (from bitis arietans), three isoforms of trigramin (from trimeresusus gramineus), and an isoform of echistatin (from echis carinatus) were determined by automated sequence analysis and fast atom ...19902320569
bites by puff-adder (bitis arietans) in nigeria, and value of antivenom.ten patients bitten by the puff-adder (bitis arietans) were studied in the north of nigeria. six showed severe local signs, and four also had evidence of systemic envenoming, including spontaneous bleeding with thrombocytopenia, hypotension, and bradycardia. two patients died after developing circulatory collapse and renal failure. antivenom and intravenous fluid restored blood pressure in two hypotensive patients, and antivenom probably prevented the development of local necrosis in four others ...19751203728
effect of venom from bitis nasicornis (rhinoceros horned viper) on isolated rabbit aortic strips.venom from b. nasicornis, but not from bitis arietans, echis carinatus or cerastes cerastes, produced an irreversible contraction of the isolated aortic strip that was slow in onset, increased with time, and reached maximum in about 10-15 min. the contraction was not inhibited by pretreatment with atropine, yohimbine, phentolamine, cyproheptadine or indomethacin, however, it was blocked by incubation in a ca2+-free solution and was partially blocked by incubation with the ca2+ channel blockers v ...19863715900
pharmacological and biochemical studies of puff adder venom.bitis arietans venom made up of six protein fractions was found to be proteolytic, anticoagulant, plasmalytic and cardiotoxic. there were no spasmodic or hemolytic fractions. protamine sulphate in vitro antagonized anticoagulant properties but did not protect mice from toxic envenomation; because venom was also neurotoxic and showed a curare like effect at the neuromuscular junction. results were discussed in terms of pharmacology and biochemistry of african snake venoms.1977602175
characterization of the messenger rna population coding for components of viperid snake polyadenylated messenger rna was prepared from the milked venom glands of the south african puff adder (bitis arietans) and translated in an in vitro translation system. the products of cell free synthesis were immunoprecipitable with puff adder venom antiserum. treatment of these cell free products with a dog pancreas microsomal membrane preparation demonstrated the presence of signal peptides. northern blot hybridization of total puff adder venom gland mrna to its complementary single st ...19854024139
hemorrhagic principles in the venom of bitis arietans, a viperous snake. i. purification and characterization.two hemorrhagic principles (bitis arietans hemorrhagin a and b: abbreviated as bhra and bhrb) were purified from the venom of the viperous snake bitis arietans (puff adder) by gel filtration, ion-exchange and absorption chromatography. a 10-fold purification was achieved for bhra and 7-fold for bhrb with an overall yield of 6.4% of hemorrhagic activity. the hemorrhagins were homogeneous according to disc- and sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunodiffusion. bhra and bhrb consist of 62 ...19957811732
proceedings: pharmacology of bitis arietans venom. 19744470663
purification and characterization of bitiscetin, a novel von willebrand factor modulator protein from bitis arietans snake venom.we have screened 20 snake venoms and purified a novel snake venom protein, named bitiscetin, from bitis arietans venom that specifically binds to human von willebrand factor (vwf) and induces platelet agglutination. bitiscetin showed a heterodimeric structure composed of disulfide-linked alpha (16kda) and beta (13kda) subunits on sds-page and showed a basic nature with pi value of 9.1, in contrast to botrocetin (pi 4.6), a vwf modulator isolated from another snake (bothrops jararaca) venom. biti ...19968806626
evaluation of the venom ex apparatus in the initial treatment of puff adder envenomation. a study in rabbits.the venom ex apparatus has been evaluated for the treatment of puff adder bite. rabbits were injected with double the lethal dose of puff adder venom, followed by treatment with the venom ex cutting and suction apparatus. controls received no treatment. the percentage of venom extracted as determined by radial immunodiffusion was very low after intramuscular injection and significantly higher after subcutaneous injection. however, all treated and control animals injected subcutaneously, recovere ...19863704859
mechanism of activation of inactive renin in human plasma by puff adder venom.venom of the puff adder (bitis arietans) contains a potent, basic, mr 24,000 metalloproteinase activity that can destroy all detectable trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity, when venom is incubated with human plasma. we have found that during such incubation, concomitant activation of inactive renin occurs. in an examination of the mechanism involved we now report the activation, in addition, of plasma prekallikrein and serine proteinase activity, but not plasminogen, when human plasma i ...19816452170
immunohistochemical staining of chlamydial antigen in emerald tree boas (corallus caninus).of 120 privately owned captive-bred and wild-collected emerald tree boas (etbs) (corallus caninus), 97 died or were euthanatized. eighteen snakes were necropsied, and tissues were collected from all major organs and processed for light microscopy. histologic examination demonstrated histiocytic granulomas in the small intestine, heart, and esophageal tonsils of one etb, small intestine of a second etb, and in an esophageal tonsil of a third etb. within the center of these granulomas, small, baso ...200212423031
distribution of i-125-labelled bitis arietans venom in the rat. 19744458115
pharmacological studies of snake (bitis arietans) venom. 19744458116
activation of plasma prekallikrein and inactive renin by puff adder venom.the activation of inactive renin during incubation of human plasma with puff adder venom at ph 7.4 was found to be a complex process. gel filtration on sephacryl s-200 indicated that the venom contains a major peak of caseinolytic and renin-activating activity of low molecular weight. this enzyme was a metalloproteinase. during incubation with plasma the metalloproteinase formed a complex with alpha 2-macroglobulin and retained caseinolytic and reninactivation activity. venom metalloproteinase a ...19806450010
site of action of caudoxin, a neurotoxic phospholipase a2 from the horned puff adder (bitis caudalis) venom.caudoxin, a single-chain phospholipase a2 isolated from the venom of bitis caudalis is a toxic polypeptide with a formula weight of 13,332 dalton. the ld50 in mice (i.p.) was 0.18 (0.15-0.22) mg/kg. in the chick biventer cervicis muscle preparation the toxin (1-10 micrograms per ml) caused complete neuromuscular blockade without affecting the response of the muscle to acetylcholine. in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, the toxin abolished the indirectly elicited contraction without ...19827101310
ticks (acarina: ixodidae) of reptiles from central, lusaka and southern provinces of zambia.during the period 1988-1991, reptiles (23 snakes, 36 tortoises, 25 chameleons and 2 monitor lizards) from central, lusaka and southern provinces of zambia were caught and checked for ticks. only 2 snakes, respectively one python sebae (gmelin, 1789) and one bitis arietans (merrem, 1820), 8 tortoises, respectively seven geochelone pardalis (bell, 1828) and one kinixys belliana (gray, 1831) were found infested with a small number of ticks: nymphs and adults of aponomma latum (koch, 1844) and ambly ...19938065818
a cystatin-like cysteine proteinase inhibitor from venom of the african puff adder (bitis arietans).venoms from eight snakes have been screened for inhibitory activity against papain, strong activity being found in that of the african puff adder, bitis arietans. the inhibitor from b. arietans venom has been purified by affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl-papain-sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography. the inhibitor had an apparent mr of 13,000 in sds/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and pi value of 6.5 (major component) or 6.3 (minor component). values of ki for the inhibition of pap ...19873500713
puff adder venom shock: a model of increased vascular permeability.the circulatory, respiratory, metabolic, lethal and tissue permeability effects of an i.v. infusion (30 min; 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg/kg) of puff adder (bitis arietans) venom were studied in sprague-dawley rats (n = 35, 275-325 g). venom (2.5 mg/kg) produced circulatory failure with arterial hypotension, hemodilution, hypoproteinemia, lactacidemia and marked hyperventilation by +4 hr. in a separate test (n = 20, 282-325 g) blood volume was measured at end venom (2.5 mg/kg) infusion (0 time) and ...19853999022
purification and characterization of a new cystatin inhibitor from taiwan cobra (naja naja atra) venom.cobra cystatin, a new cysteine-proteinase inhibitor of the cystatin superfamily, was isolated from the venom of the taiwan cobra (naja naja atra) by affinity chromatography on s-carboxymethylpapain-sepharose and reverse-phase chromatography. the venom contained two forms of the inhibitor, one of 11870 da and the other of 12095 da, as determined by ms, and pi values of 6.2 and 6.1. cobra cystatin strongly inhibits cysteine proteinases of the papain family, but not calpain. papain, cathepsin l, ca ...19989512485
kallidin-releasing enzyme from bitis arietans (puff adder) venom.a kallidin-releasing enzyme with arginine ester hydrolytic activity was isolated from bitis arietans venom by sephadex g-75, deae-cellulose, and sephadex g-100 column chromatography. this enzyme was shown to be homogeneous as demonstrated by a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and nh2-terminal sequence analysis. the molecular weight was determined to be 58,000 da with an isoelectric point of 4.4. kallidin-releasing enzym ...19938274016
poul agerholm christensen md (1912-1991): antivenom production at the south african institute for medical research.dr christensen arrived in cape town in june 1940 as ship's surgeon on a danish cargo-liner. denmark was under german control, and the ship came under command of the south african government for use in war operations. in october 1941, christensen left the ship to become assistant to dr edmond grasset of the south african institute for medical research in johannesburg. later, christensen was head of department and associate director. grasset produced the institute's first concentrated bitis arieta ...200111137532
severe coagulopathy after a bite of a green bush viper (atheris squamiger): case report and biochemical analysis of the venom.a 34 year old male bitten by an adult atheris squamiger snake developed symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea which were followed by drowsiness and impaired breathing. local hemorrhage, edema and pain at the bite-site occurred, but no systemic bleeding or hemorrhagic diathesis developed. all clinical and laboratory parameters were in the normal range except for afibrinogenemia, thrombocytopenia and slight proteinuria. replacement therapy (fibrinogen and platelet concentrates) and treatment of s ...19989723832
activation by puff adder venom of inactive renin in normal and hypertensive rat plasma.inactive renin has been studied extensively in human plasma, but in animal plasma its accurate quantification has proved more difficult, due partly to higher activity of plasma protease inhibitors. such activity in human plasma can be conveniently destroyed by a metalloprotease in bitis arietans venom, with concommitant release of endogenous enzyme activities, such as plasma kallikrein, that then activate inactive renin. it was therefore of interest to look for inactive renin in rat and rabbit p ...19873038443
a novel nonhemorragic protease from the african puff adder (bitis arietans) venom.a nonhemorrhagic proteinase b-20 from the venom of bitis arietans has been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity by chromatography on sephadex g-100, q-sepharose, and cm-cellulose. it has a molecular weight of 20 k da as determined by size exclusion chromatography on sephadex g-100 and migrated as a single 20-k da band on sds polyacrylamide. it has an optimum ph of 6-8 and is inactive at ph 4.0. edta and 1,10-phenanthroline strongly inhibited the enzyme suggesting it is a metalloenzym ...200111673850
antibacterial properties of kwazulu natal snake venoms.the objective was to ascertain whether local snake venoms have antibacterial properties. the venoms of the common night adder (causus rhombeatus), gaboon adder (bitis gabonica), puff adder (bitis arietans), black mamba (dendroaspis polylepis), eastern green mamba (dendroaspis augusticeps), forest cobra (naja melanoleuca), snouted cobra (naja annulifera) and mozambique spitting cobra (naja mossambica) were collected and, by gel diffusion, tested against the bacteria staphylococcus aureus, escheri ...200010775753
evolution of proteins of the cystatin superfamily.we have examined the amino acid sequences of a number of proteins that have been suggested to be related to chicken cystatin, a protein from chicken egg white that inhibits cysteine proteinases. on the basis of statistical analysis, the following proteins were found to be members of the cystatin superfamily: human cystatin a, rat cystatin a(alpha), human cystatin b, rat cystatin b(beta), rice cystatin, human cystatin c, ox colostrum cystatin, human cystatin s, human cystatin sa, human cystatin s ...19902107324
effects of puff adder venom on the coagulation mechanism. i. in vivo. 19734755095
characterization and platelet inhibitory activity of bitistatin, a potent arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptide from the venom of the viper bitis arietans.a platelet aggregation inhibitory protein, bitistatin, was isolated from the venom of the puff adder bitis arietans. this protein is a single-chain peptide containing 83 amino acids and 7 disulfide bonds. bitistatin contains the sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid and shows considerable homology to two previously described snake venom platelet aggregation inhibitors, trigramin and echistatin. bitistatin inhibited human and canine platelet aggregation initiated by 10 microm adp in vitro with ...19892600082
activation of inactive renin during the selective destruction of proteinase inhibitors in human plasma by a metalloproteinase in bitis arietans venom.puff adder venom, which has been pretreated with phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride and extensively dialysed, is capable of destroying selectively proteinase inhibitory activity in human plasma by an action of an edta-sensitive venom proteinase. we found that incubation of 1/5 vol. of such venom with human plasma at 25 degrees c leads to a concomitant increase in renin to 4.4 times control by 5 h. the activation of inactive renin was abolished by 10 mm edta and the rate of activation was reduced by ...19806988010
purification and characterization of an antiplatelet peptide, arietin, from bitis arietans means of fractogel tsk-50, cm-sephadex c-50 column chromatography, gel filtrations on sephadex g-75 and sephacryl s-200 columns and reverse-phase hplc, an antiplatelet peptide, arietin, was purified from venom of bitis arietans. arietin was shown to be an arg-gly-asp-containing peptide with a nh2-terminus, ser-pro-pro-val-cys-gly-asn-lys- (mr 8500). arietin dose-dependently inhibited aggregation of human platelet suspension stimulated by adp, thrombin, collagen and u46619 with ic50, 1.3-2.7.1 ...19912043663
comparative blood coagulation studies in the ostrich.blood coagulation of the ostrich was compared to that of mammalian (man and sheep), avian (chicken) and reptilian (puff adder) systems. the international normalised ratio (inr), partial thromboplastin time (ptt), thrombin time and fibrin degradation were determined, as well as the various coagulation factors in venous ostrich plasma, using human physiological substrates. thromboplastin was isolated from fresh brain tissue with the exception of the reptile for which lung tissue was used. the leve ...199910614993
imaging pulmonary emboli and deep venous thrombi with 99mtc-bitistatin, a platelet-binding polypeptide from viper imaging test that could locate both pulmonary emboli (pe) and their source, active deep venous thrombi (dvt), would be valuable in patient management. bitistatin, an 83-amino-acid polypeptide isolated from bitis arietans venom, binds avidly to the glycoprotein iib/iiia receptor on platelets. the goal of this study was to label bitistatin with 99mtc and assess its potential for imaging thrombi and emboli in vivo.200010855635
a check-list of the nematode parasites of south african serpentes (snakes) and sauria (lizards).published records, in combination with own data have been brought together to provide data on parasite/host relationships of reptiles that occur in the republic of south africa. a total of 62 nematode species belonging to 23 genera and 11 families are recorded from 20 snake and 21 lizard species. the genera kalicephalus, spauligodon, ophidascaris and abbreviata are especially well represented with between five and eight species per genus. the most nematode species were recorded from the flap-nec ...200010843317
properties of ca++ release induced by puff adder lectin, a novel lectin from the snake bitis arietans, in sarcoplasmic reticulum.puff adder lectin (pal), a novel lectin venom purified from bitis arietans, induced ca++ release from the heavy fraction (hsr) but not from the light fraction of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum with ec50 congruent to 10 microm. the potency of pal was approximately 200-fold higher than that of caffeine. the bell-shaped profile of ca++ dependence for pal was almost the same as that for myotoxin a (mytx), a peptide ca++ releaser, but was different from that for caffeine. typical blockers of ...19968627515
retrospective study of snake envenomation in 155 dogs from the onderstepoort area of south africa.a retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence, signalment, haematological and biochemical changes, therapy, and outcome of dogs presented to the outpatients section of the onderstepoort veterinary academic hospital for confirmed snake envenomation. three hundred and seventy-six records of dogs presented for snake envenomation from 1998 to 2002 were reviewed and 155 were selected on the basis of there being a positively identified snake. the 2 most commonly encountered snake enve ...200415830600
snake bite in nigeria.four families of venomous snakes are found in nigeria--viperidae, elapidae, colubridae and actraspididae but three species carpet viper (echis ocellatus), black-necked spitting cobra (naja nigricollis) and puff adder (bitis arietans), belonging to the first two families, are the most important snakes associated with envenoming in nigeria. the incidence of bites has been reported as 497 per 100,000 population per year with a 12 percent natural mortality, with echis ocellatus accounting for at lea ...200114510123
the diagnosis and management of snakebite in dogs--a southern african perspective.cases of snakebite envenomation are frequently presented to veterinary practitioners in southern africa. despite this, no published guidelines exist on how this medical emergency should be managed. southern african snake venoms can be classified into 3 main types based on the main mechanism of venom action and clinical presentation. a polyvalent antivenom is manufactured in south africa and contains antibodies against the most important southern african snake venoms. the cytotoxic venoms are rep ...200415214688
a novel 25 kda protein from the venom of bitis arietans with similarity to c-type lectins causes fibrinogen-dependent platelet agglutination.snake venoms affect blood coagulation and platelet functions in various ways. venom from the viperidae and crotalidae family of snakes contains biologically active proteins that possess coagulant and anticoagulant activities, as well as platelet aggregating and inhibitory activities. many of these proteins belong to the c-type lectin family. c-type lectins from viper venoms can act by prohibiting the interaction between platelet receptors, such as gpiibiiia and the gpib/v/ix complex, and their l ...200516168448
pan-african polyspecific antivenom produced by caprylic acid purification of horse igg: an alternative to the antivenom crisis in africa.a polyspecific pan-african antivenom has been produced from the plasma of horses immunized with a mixture of the venoms of echis ocellatus, bitis arietans and naja nigricollis, the three most medically important snakes in sub-saharan africa. the antivenom is a whole igg preparation, obtained by caprylic acid precipitation of non-igg plasma proteins. the antivenom effectively neutralizes the most important toxic activities of the three venoms used in the immunization in standard assays involving ...200515837359
pentastomes (pentastomida, armillifer armillatus wyman, 1848) in snakes from zambia.twenty-three snakes, belonging to eight different species, were collected from rural areas of zambia and inspected for the presence of pentastomes. pentastomid parasites were found in four snakes: one african rock python (python sebae), one puff adder (bitis arietans) and two mozambique spitting cobras (naja mossambica) were infested with a small number of armillifer armillatus, respectively five, two and one adult parasites. as humans can be incidental/intermediate hosts for reptilian pentastom ...199910870563
[envenomation accidents caused by snakebites in the surgical emergency unit of gabriel-touré hospital, bamako, mali (1998-1999)].this study aimed at assessing envenomations caused by snakebite in the gabriel touré hospital between january 1998 and december 1999. we included in total 112 victims of snakebites proved by the identification of the snake, the fangs traces and envenomation signs. the bites concerned 34 women (30.36%) versus 78 men (69.64%) from the bamako district, while 66.7% were from a rural environment. the farmers were the most affected category (35.1%). the bite concerned the lower limb in 83.3% of the ca ...200516402577
binding site on human von willebrand factor of bitiscetin, a snake venom-derived platelet aggregation inducer.bitiscetin, a c-type lectin-like heterodimeric snake venom protein purified from bitis arietans, binds to human von willebrand factor (vwf) and induces the platelet membrane glycoprotein (gp) ib-dependent platelet agglutination in vitro similar to botrocetin. in contrast with botrocetin which binds to the a1 domain of vwf, the a3 domain, a major collagen-binding site of vwf, was proposed to be a bitiscetin-binding site. in the competitive binding assay, neither bitiscetin nor botrocetin had an i ...200212069583
[study of the action of black stone (also known as snakestone or serpent stone) on experimental envenomation].black stone has been used since antiquity to treat snake bites and local infections. its efficacy is debated. since no clinical trial has been performed, we conducted a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments in a murine model. after determining the ld50 of batches of venoms of bitis arietans, echis ocellatus and naja nigricollis according to the spearman-kärber's method, we used four separate methods. first, we injected a fixed lethal amount of venom (triple the ld50) im to the shaved thighs ...200718180213
inhibition of the myotoxic activities of three african bitis venoms (b. rhinoceros, b. arietans and b. nasicornis) by a polyvalent antivenom.a murine model of venom-induced myotoxicity was used to assess the antimyotoxic capacity of a polyvalent antivenom (pav), rich in f(ab')2 fragments, obtained from horses immunized with bitis venoms. intramuscular (i.m.) injection of bitis rhinoceros, bitis arietans or bitis nasicornis into mice induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in plasma ck activity. the area under the plasma ck activity vs. time curve (auc) between 0 and 48 h was used to quantify the data. pre-incubation with pav neut ...201019857507
epidemiology of snakebite in eshowe, kwazulu-natal, south africa.three hundred and thirty-three patients admitted to eshowe hospital with snakebite were analysed. forty-one were non-envenomed, 282 exhibited painful progressive swelling (pps), seven showed progressive weakness (pw), and there were three cases of minor envenomations that were unclassifiable. offending dead venomous snakes included naja mossambica (mozambique spitting cobra), bitis arietans (puff adder), atractaspis bibronii (stiletto snake), causus rhombeatus (common night adder) and dendroaspi ...200415019475
leaf extract of caesalpinia bonduc roxb. (caesalpiniaceae) induces an increase of contractile force in rat skeletal muscle in situ.the pharmacological properties of caesalpinia bonduc roxb. (caesalpiniaceae) are not well known, but it is used traditionally to treat snake bite (bellomaria and kacou, 1995; schaffner, 1997). in the present study, the mechanism through which caesalpinia bonduc extract (cebo) affects gallamine-induced relaxation in rat tibial muscle contractility were studied via measurement of isometric-tension-anesthetized, 10-12-week-old, male rats. isometric twitch contractions of the indirectly-stimulated a ...200415070178
analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: neutralisation of venom-induced pathology.camelid igg has been reported to be less immunogenic, less able to activate the complement cascade and more thermostable than igg from other mammals, and has the ability to bind antigens that are unreactive with other mammalian iggs. we are investigating whether these attributes of camelid igg translate into antivenom with immunological and venom-neutralising efficacy advantages over conventional equine and ovine antivenoms. the objective of this study was to determine the preclinical venom-neut ...201020412814
case report: hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of puff adder (bitis arietans) bite.the puff adder (bitis arietans) is a venomous viper mainly found in sub-saharan africa. due to its common occurrence and potent venom, it is considered to be the most dangerous snake in africa, responsible for most snakebite fatalities there. puff adder bites outside africa are rare and involve captive vipers. we present the unusual case of puff adder envenomation in an austrian man.201021226389
analysis of camelid igg for antivenom development: serological responses of venom-immunised camels to prepare either monospecific or polyspecific antivenoms for west africa.snake envenoming is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-saharan africa. the only effective treatment, antivenom, has been in short supply since the 1990s. whilst the humanitarian response by some antivenom producers has significantly improved the situation, strategies to ensure the long term stability of antivenom supply are still necessary. we are investigating whether the potential safety and logistic advantages of camel igg antivenom can be exploited to improve antivenom pro ...201020362604
novel sequences encoding venom c-type lectins are conserved in phylogenetically and geographically distinct echis and bitis viper species.envenoming by echis saw scaled vipers and bitis arietans puff adders is the leading cause of death and morbidity in africa due to snake bite. despite their medical importance, the composition and constituent functionality of venoms from these vipers remains poorly understood. here, we report the cloning of cdna sequences encoding seven clusters or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive c-type lectin (ctl) proteins from the venom glands of echis ocellatus, e. pyramidum leakeyi, e. carinatus sochu ...200314557069
an unusual phospholipase a2 from puff adder bitis arietans venom--a novel blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.the venoms of snakes from viperidae family mainly influence the function of various blood components. however, the published data indicate that these venoms contain also neuroactive components, the most studied being neurotoxic phospholipases a2 (pla2s). earlier we have shown (gorbacheva et al., 2008) that several viperidae venoms blocked nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nachrs) and voltage-gated ca²+ channels in isolated identified neurons of the fresh-water snail lymnaea stagnalis. in this p ...201121333664
neutralization of bitis parviocula (ethiopian mountain adder) venom by the south african institute of medical research (saimr) antivenom.the ethiopian mountain adder (bitis parviocula) is a viperid known only from a few locations in southwestern ethiopia.201121915465
public health aspects of snakebite care in west africa: perspectives from nigeria.snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the nigerian savanna. the saw-scaled or carpet viper (echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the african cobras (naja spp.) and puff adders (bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. the main clinical features of e. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. bites may be complicated by ...201324134780
snakebite admissions in zimbabwe: pattern, clinical presentation and describe the toxicoepidemiology of snakebite admissions to eight major referral hospitals in zimbabwe.201424968657
snakes and snakebite envenoming in northern tanzania: a neglected tropical health problem.snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-saharan africa. generating a basic platform of information on the characteristics of snakes and snakebites in various countries is relevant for designing and implementing public health interventions.201526309444
new proline-rich oligopeptides from the venom of african adders: insights into the hypotensive effect of the venoms.the snakes from the bitis genus are some of the most medically important venomous snakes in sub saharan africa, however little is known about the composition and effects of these snake venom peptides. considering that the victims with bitis genus snakes have exacerbate hypotension and cardiovascular disorders, we investigated here the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme modulators on four different species of venoms.201525688758
an ambusher's arsenal: chemical crypsis in the puff adder (bitis arietans).ambush foragers use a hunting strategy that places them at risk of predation by both visual and olfaction-oriented predators. resulting selective pressures have driven the evolution of impressive visual crypsis in many ambushing species, and may have led to the development of chemical crypsis. however, unlike for visual crypsis, few studies have attempted to demonstrate chemical crypsis. field observations of puff adders (bitis arietans) going undetected by several scent-orientated predator and ...201526674950
african adders: partial characterization of snake venoms from three bitis species of medical importance and their neutralization by experimental equine alarming number of fatal accidents involving snakes are annually reported in africa and most of the victims suffer from permanent local tissue damage and chronic disabilities. envenomation by snakes belonging to the genus bitis, viperidae family, are common in sub-saharan africa. the accidents are severe and the victims often have a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective specific therapies. in this study we have biochemically characterized venoms from three different species of bitis, i. ...201525643358
inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a novel facet in the pleiotropic activities of snake venom phospholipases a2.phospholipases a2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. they manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. we have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and with the acetylcholine-binding protein. to check if this property is characteristic to all venom phospholipases a2, w ...201425522251
vtbuilder: a tool for the assembly of multi isoform transcriptomes.within many research areas, such as transcriptomics, the millions of short dna fragments (reads) produced by current sequencing platforms need to be assembled into transcript sequences before they can be utilized. despite recent advances in assembly software, creating such transcripts from read data harboring isoform variation remains challenging. this is because current approaches fail to identify all variants present or they create chimeric transcripts within which relationships between co-evo ...201425465054
nmr structure of bitistatin – a missing piece in the evolutionary pathway of snake venom disintegrins.extant disintegrins, as found in the venoms of viperidae and crotalidae snakes (vipers and rattlesnakes, represent a family of polypeptides that block the function of β1 and β3 integrin receptors, both potently and with a high degree of selectivity. this toxin family owes its origin to the neofunctionalization of the extracellular region of an adam (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) molecule recruited into the snake venom gland proteome in the jurassic. the evolutionary structural diversificati ...201525363287
hemostatic analysis of dogs naturally envenomed by the african puffadder (bitis arietans) and snouted cobra (naja annulifera).to investigate hemostatic changes in dogs envenomed by cytotoxic (african puffadder) and neurotoxic snakes (snouted cobra) using thromboelastography (teg) and plasma-based coagulation assays.201425351524
identification and phylogeny of arabian snakes: comparison of venom chromatographic profiles versus 16s rrna gene sequences.identification of snake species is important for various reasons including the emergency treatment of snake bite victims. we present a simple method for identification of six snake species using the gel filtration chromatographic profiles of their venoms. the venoms of echis coloratus, echis pyramidum, cerastes gasperettii, bitis arietans, naja arabica, and walterinnesia aegyptia were milked, lyophilized, diluted and centrifuged to separate the mucus from the venom. the clear supernatants were f ...201425313278
hyaluronidase, phospholipase a2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in mali, dr congo and south africa.snakebite envenomation, every year, causes estimated 5-10,000 mortalities and results in more than 5-15,000 amputations in sub-saharan africa alone. antiserum is not easily accessible in these regions or doctors are simply not available, thus more than 80% of all patients seek traditional practitioners as first-choice. therefore it is important to investigate whether the plants used in traditional medicine systems contain compounds against the necrosis-inducing enzymes of snake venom.201425256691
evaluation of the lethal potency of scorpion and snake venoms and comparison between intraperitoneal and intravenous injection routes.scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. in north africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. an appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (ld₅₀) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. such ld₅₀ values are als ...201424926799
in vitro toxic effects of puff adder (bitis arietans) venom, and their neutralization by antivenom.this study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the south african institute of medical research (saimr) to neutralize these effects. the venom (50 µg/ml) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19% ± 2% of initial magnitude (n = 4) within 2 h. this inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with saimr antivenom (0.864 µg/µl; 67% ± 4%; p < 0.05; n = 3-5, unpa ...201424854547
[which antivenom for cerastes envenoming?].during echis viper envenoming, the administration of a single fav-afrique(®) antivenin vial generally corrects hemostasis disorders in less than twelve hours. the correction of hemostasis after 36 hours by 4 vials of fav-afrique(®) is thus not in favor of the usefulness of this antivenin for cerastes envenoming . mortality due to viper envenoming in africa is high, but more than 90 % of poisoned patients survive despite the absence of appropriate antivenom. the severity of poisoning depends on s ...201624736220
myocardial injury in dogs with snake envenomation and its relation to systemic investigate the presence of myocardial injury in dogs hospitalized for snake envenomation and to examine its relationship with systemic inflammation.201424304906
morbidity and mortality following envenomation by the common night adder (causus rhombeatus) in three south africa dogs are frequently presented to veterinarians following snakebite. the offending snakes are usually puff adders (bitis arietans), cobras (naja spp.) and mambas (dendroaspis spp.). night adder (causus rhombeatus) bites in dogs have not yet been reported in south africa. this article deals with three cases of dogs bitten by night adders in which extensive tissue damage was noted and one fatality occurred. night adder bites may be indistinguishable from puff adder bites. non-specif ...201223327143
phylogeography of the widespread african puff adder (bitis arietans) reveals multiple pleistocene refugia in southern africa.evidence from numerous pan-african savannah mammals indicates that open-habitat refugia existed in africa during the pleistocene, isolated by expanding tropical forests during warm and humid interglacial periods. however, comparative data from other taxonomic groups are currently lacking. we present a phylogeographic investigation of the african puff adder (bitis arietans), a snake that occurs in open-habitat formations throughout sub-saharan africa. multiple parapatric mitochondrial clades occu ...201323286376
effect of geographical variation of echis ocellatus, naja nigricollis and bitis arietans venoms on their neutralization by homologous and heterologous antivenoms.two antivenoms prepared by using echis ocellatus, bitis arietans and naja nigricollis venoms from different locations in sub-saharan africa were compared for their neutralizing ability. both antivenoms were similarly effective in the neutralization of the venoms of the three species from different locations. however in the case of e. ocellatus venom, antivenom prepared using venom from nigerian specimens was more effective than antivenom prepared with venom from cameroon specimens in the neutral ...201526450770
second generation snake antivenomics: comparing immunoaffinity and immunodepletion protocols.a second generation antivenomics protocol, based on affinity chromatography, was compared with a previously (first generation) immunodepletion protocol using as a proof of principle the pan-african echitab-plus-icp(®) igg antivenom and the venoms of echis ocellatus, bitis arietans, and african spitting cobras. the antivenom showed qualitatively similar immunoreactivity patterns using either antivenomic approach. quantitative departures were noticed between both methods, which may be ascribed to ...201222561422
no evidence for proteolytic venom resistance in southern african ground squirrels.many mammalian species that interact with venomous snakes show resistances to venoms. the family sciuridae has several north american members that harass venomous snakes and show proteolytic resistances in their sera. we examined sera collected from an african ground squirrel (xerus inauris) against two sympatric venomous snakes (bitis arietans and naja annulifera) and found no support for proteolytic resistance. our results add to our understanding of the risks in predator defense within the fa ...201222728461
kinin-releasing enzyme from the venom of bitis arietans (puff adder).a kinin-releasing enzyme was isolated from bitis arietans (puff adder) venom by sephadex g-100 and deae-cellulose column chromatographies. the kinin-releasing enzyme was shown to be homogeneous as demonstrated by a single band on acrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunodiffusion. its molecular mass is approximately 45 kda with an isoelectric point of 6.5. kinin-releasing enzyme possesses proteolytic activity which ...20133535900
the effect of physiological levels of south african puff adder (bitis arietans) snake venom on blood cells: an in vitro model.a significant burden of illness is caused globally by snakebites particularly by the puff adder, bitis arietans. presently there is no reliable and rapid method to confirm envenomation on blood chemistry; although coagulation parameters like prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio and also serum electrolytes are tested. here, we found that direct in vitro exposure of physiological relevant whole venom levels to human healthy blood (n = 32), caused significan ...201627775063
expanding the neutralization scope of the echitab-plus-icp antivenom to include venoms of elapids from southern africa.echitab-plus-icp is an antivenom prepared from plasma of horses hyperimmunized with the venoms of the carpet viper (echis ocellatus), the puff adder (bitis arietans) and the black-necked spitting cobra (naja nigricollis). therefore, the use of this antivenom has been limited to western africa. in order to expand the neutralization scope of echitab-plus-icp, we supplemented the immunogenic mixture with the venoms of b. arietans, the black mamba (dendroaspis polylepis), the mozambique spitting cob ...201727890775
peptides from puff adder bitis arietans venom, novel inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.phospholipase a2 (named bitanarin) possessing capability to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nachrs) was isolated earlier (vulfius et al., 2011) from puff adder bitis arietans venom. further studies indicated that low molecular weight fractions of puff adder venom inhibit nachrs as well. in this paper, we report on isolation from this venom and characterization of three novel peptides called baptides 1, 2 and 3 that reversibly block nachrs. to isolate the peptides, the venom of b. arieta ...201627576061
snakebites notified to the poison control center of morocco between 2009 and 2013.snakebites cause considerable death and injury throughout the globe, particularly in tropical regions, and pose an important yet neglected threat to public health. in 2008, the centre anti poison et de parmacovigilance du maroc (capm) started to set up a specific strategy for the control of snakebites that was formalized in 2012. the aim of the present study is to describe and update the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites notified to capm between 2009 and 2013.201626985186
management of snakebites by the staff of a rural clinic: the impact of providing free antivenom in a nurse-led clinic in meserani, tanzania, the impact, on clinical outcomes and treatment-seeking behaviour, of a rural, nurse-led clinic that provides free, antivenom-based treatment of snakebite envenomation was recently assessed. data on all 85 patients who, between april 2007 and the end of 2009, received treatment for snakebite envenomation at the snake park clinic in meserani, tanzania, were collected prospectively. although only four cases of snakebite envenomation were treated in the last 9 months of 2007, 34 such ca ...201020819312
antivenomic assessment of the immunological reactivity of echitab-plus-icp, an antivenom for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-saharan africa.the immunoreactivity of echitab-plus-icp, an antivenom developed for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-saharan africa, to venoms of seven echis and bitis species, was assessed by "antivenomics." this proteomic approach is based on the ability of an antivenom to immunodeplete homologous or heterologous venom proteins. our results show an extensive cross-reactivity of this antivenom against all echis and bitis venoms studied, as revealed by the complete immunodepletion of the majority o ...201020519622
rosmarinic acid in argusia argentea inhibits snake venom-induced hemorrhage.a methanolic extract of argusia (or messerschmidia or tournefortia) argentea (boraginaceae) significantly inhibited hemorrhage induced by crude venom of trimeresurus flavoviridis. the extract was then separated according to antivenom activity by using silica gel column chromatography and hplc equipped with an octadecylsilanized silica gel (ods) column to afford rosmarinic acid (ra) (1) as an active principle. ra (1) significantly inhibited the hemorrhagic effect of crude venoms of t. flavoviridi ...201020512530
structure and function of snake venom proteins affecting platelet plug formation.many snake venom proteins have been isolated that affect platelet plug formation by interacting either with platelet integrins, membrane glycoprotein ib (gpib), or plasma von willebrand factor (vwf). among them, disintegrins purified from various snake venoms are strong inhibitors of platelet aggregation. botrocetin and bitiscetin derived from bothrops jararaca and bitis arietans venom, respectively, induce vwf-dependent platelet agglutination in vitro. several gpib-binding proteins have also be ...201022069544
how a heavy-bodied snake strikes quickly: high-power axial musculature in the puff adder (bitis arietans).despite being large, heavy-bodied snakes, puff adders (bitis arietans) are capable of achieving strike velocities and accelerations similar to, or greater than, those of much smaller snakes (means of 2.6 and 72 m/sec(2), respectively). the mechanistic basis of the strike was examined using high-speed digital videography, coupled with electromyographic (emg) analysis, of the two main extensors of the vertebral column, the semispinalis and longissimus. although the strike involves the rapid extens ...201020039332
exploring the venom proteome of the african puff adder, bitis arietans, using a combinatorial peptide ligand library approach at different phs.we report the 2de-based proteomic characterization of the venom of the medically important african puff adder, bitis arietans, after prefractionation by incubation with a solid-phase combinatorial hexapeptide ligand library (cpll) at three different ph values. this approach yielded partially overlapping yet clearly distinct sets of proteins. the b. arietans venom proteome, merged from the four sets of proteins comprises at least 43 distinct proteins from 9 toxin families. in line with a previous ...201020026262
intra-specific variation in venom of the african puff adder (bitis arietans): differential expression and activity of snake venom metalloproteinases (svmps).bitis arietans is considered one of the most medically significant snakes in africa, primarily due to a combination of its extensive geographical distribution, common occurrence and highly potent haemorrhagic and cytotoxic venom. our investigation has revealed a remarkable degree of intra-species variation between pooled venom samples from different geographical origins across sub-saharan africa and arabia, and within a group of individual specimens from the same origin in nigeria as determined ...201020026155
preclinical assessment of the efficacy of a new antivenom (echitab-plus-icp) for the treatment of viper envenoming in sub-saharan africa.a preclinical assessment was performed on the neutralizing efficacy of a whole igg polyspecific antivenom (echitab-plus-icp), designed for the treatment of snakebite envenomings in nigeria. it was generated by immunizing horses with the venoms of echis ocellatus, bitis arietans and naja nigricollis, the most medically important species in nigeria. antivenom was tested against the venoms of e. ocellatus, echis leucogaster, echis pyramidum leakeyi, b. arietans, bitis gabonica, bitis rhinoceros and ...201019699756
snake venom vascular endothelial growth factors (vegf-fs) exclusively vary their structures and functions among species.vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) and its family proteins are crucial regulators of blood vessel formation and vascular permeability. snake venom has recently been shown to be an exogenous source of unique vegf (known as vegf-f), and now, two types of vegf-f with distinct biochemical properties have been reported. here, we show that vegf-fs (venom-type vegfs) are highly variable in structure and function among species, in contrast to endogenous tissue-type vegfs (vegf-as) of snakes. al ...200919208624
snake venomics of bitis species reveals large intragenus venom toxin composition variation: application to taxonomy of congeneric taxa.the protein composition of the venoms of the west african gaboon viper (bitis gabonica rhinoceros), the rhinoceros viper (bitis nasicornis), and the horned puff adder (bitis caudalis) were analyzed by rp-hplc, n-terminal sequencing, sds-page, maldi-tof peptide mass fingerprinting, and cid-ms/ms. in line with previous proteomic and transcriptomic analyses showing that snake venom proteins belong to only a few major protein families, the venom proteomes of bitis gabonica rhinoceros, bitis nasicorn ...200717559253
study of the efficacy of the black stone on envenomation by snake bite in the murine model.the black stone (bs) has been used since antiquity to treat envenomations. since no actual clinical trial has ever been performed we used an experimental approach to evaluate its efficacy against the venoms of bitis arietans, echis ocellatus and naja nigricollis. local application of bs after intramuscular venom injection had no demonstrable effect on the outcome of envenomationa and it did not change the ld(50) of b. arietans venom. our results show that, contrary to widespread belief, no effic ...200717174999
characterization of bitiscetin-2, a second form of bitiscetin from the venom of bitis arietans : comparison of its binding site with the collagen-binding site on the von willebrand factor a3-domain.bitiscetin, a heterodimeric snake venom protein purified from bitis arietans, binds to the a1 domain of von willebrand factor (vwf) and induces binding of this domain to platelet glycoprotein (gp) ib. we previously purified a distinct form of dimeric bitiscetin (herein called bitiscetin-2) that also induces the vwf a1 domain-gpib interaction, but does not bind to the a1 domain. instead, it interacts with the collagen-binding a3 domain of vwf.200616839359
molecular cloning of disintegrin-like transcript ba-5a from a bitis arietans venom gland cdna library: a putative intermediate in the evolution of the long-chain disintegrin bitistatin.we report the cloning and sequence analysis of ba-5a from a venom gland cdna library of the puff adder, bitis arietans, that encodes a novel ecd-disintegrin-like domain. ba-5a is a unique pii disintegrin. it contains the 16 cysteine residues that are conserved in all known disintegrin-like domains of adam proteins and snake venom metalloproteinases but lacks the cysteine-rich domain. these features suggest that ba-5a may represent an intermediate in the evolutionary pathway of the long disintegr ...200616786436
adenosine in the venoms from viperinae snakes of the genus bitis: identification and quantitation using lc/ms and ce/ms.snake venoms are rich sources of toxic proteins and small molecules. this study was directed at molecules of molecular mass below 1 kda. thirty different venoms, of either neurotoxic or haemorrhagic type, were fractionated using size-exclusion chromatography. only venoms of the puff adder (bitis arietans), gaboon viper (bitis gabonica), and rhinoceros viper (bitis nasicornis) exhibited large absorbance peaks at lambda(280 nm) in the total volume range of the chromatographic column indicating the ...200515935989
n-acetyl alpha-d-glucosaminidase from the venom of african puff adder (bitis arietans).the activity of n-acetyl-alpha-d-glucosaminidase from venom of the african puff adder (bitis arietans) has been detected. the enzyme from the venom was purified by chromatography on q-sepharose, cm-cellulose, and n-acetyl-alpha-d-glucosamine-agarose affinity column. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 102 kda determined by size exclusion chromatography on sephacryl 200. it migrated as a 51-kda band on sds polyacrylamide gels. the enzyme is maximally active at ph 5.5 and 40 degrees c. the b. ari ...200111673851
chemical studies on protease a of bitis arietans (puff adder) venom.protease a of bitis arietans venom is probably a metalloprotease, since it is inhibited by o-phenanthroline and contains 0.77 moles of zinc per mole protein. the enzyme comprises 213 amino acids, including 9 methionine residues and one free sulphydryl group. it contains one polypeptide chain, which is terminated at the carboxyl end by serine. the amino terminal sequence of protease a is: arg-ser-ser-asp-pro-asn-lys-tyr-phe-asn-val-ile-val-val-val-asp-asn-arg- met-val-asn-tyr-tyr-lys-gly-glu-leu- ...19863520956
the mechanics of sound production in the puff adder bitis arietans (serpentes: viperidae) and the information content of the snake hisspuff adders (bitis arietans), like many other snakes, hiss as part of their defensive repertoire. in b. arietans, the hisses have a clear quadraphasic pattern consisting of an initial exhalatory hiss, a brief transitional pause, an inhalatory hiss and a rest or breath-holding phase. simultaneous recordings of body diameter, electrical activity in the intrinsic laryngeal musculature, airflow through the nasal passageway and sound production revealed that the anterior respiratory tract plays a pas ...199910441081
purification and properties of arginine esterases from bitis arietans (puff adder) arginine esterase (ft1) was purified from b. arietans venom by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. the purified enzyme contains 21.6% of carbohydrate, 240 amino acids including 12 half-cystine residues and has a mol. wt of approximately 43,000. the purified enzyme has a high esterolytic activity towards n-alpha-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester but shows no proteolytic activity against azocoll and no clotting activity with fibrinogen. the n-terminal sequence of the arginine esterase ...19854092814
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