an anatomical investigation of the muscles of the pelvic outlet in iguanas (iguanidae iguana iguana) and varanus (varanidae varanus (dumerillii)) with special reference to their nerve supply.five pelvic halves from three male iguanas (iguanidae iguana iguana) and two pelvic halves from one male varanus (varanidae varanus (dumerillii)), were dissected in order to obtain detailed data on the relationship of the lumbosacral plexus and the muscles of the pelvic outlet. according to the positions of the passage of the metazonal nerves, the nerves can be divided into three groups: 1) the nerves passing dorsal to the caudofemoralis muscle, 2) the nerves passing between the caudofemoralis a ...19921616132
exogenous gnrh overrides the endogenous annual reproductive rhythm in green iguanas, iguana iguana.female green iguanas, iguana iguana, were caught in belize, central america (17 degrees n), in december, at the onset of seasonal gonadal activity. the animals were immediately transferred to san diego (32 degrees n). ovarian follicular development continued, with peak plasma hormone levels measured in january and february; 200 pg/ml for progesterone (p) and 800 pg/ml for total estrogens (et = estradiol [e2] + estrone [e1]). e2 was the predominant estrogen throughout the cycle. follicular atroph ...19873549969
thermal patterns in the heating and cooling of iguana iguana and ctenosaura hemilopha. 19734146630
the pathogenicity for mice of two species of salmonella isolated from the green iguana (iguana iguana). 19704916230
[e. coli serotype 078:k80 (b):h--in a green iguana (iguana iguana l.)]. 19714935883
conservation of functionally important epitopes on myelin associated glycoprotein (mag).phylogenetic conservation of protein domains often points to functionally important regions. as a step toward mapping these sites on myelin associated glycoprotein (mag) we have determined the species distribution of epitopes recognized by a panel of anti-mag antibodies (ab). monoclonal antibodies (mab) b11f7, gens3 and 28 recognized mag only in mammalian species. however, the mab 513 which inhibits mag binding recognized a conformational epitope in a wider distribution of species including, hum ...19957584863
prevalence of fecal shedding of salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health determine prevalence of fecal shedding of salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (iguana iguana).19989656023
population genetic structure of a three-host tick, amblyomma dissimile, in eastern venezuela.patterns of genetic variation for the tick amblyomma dissimile were analyzed from a total of 200 ticks collected on 12 toads (bufo marinus), 14 snakes (boa constrictor), and 8 lizards (iguana iguana) at 11 localities. the analyses were performed on electrophoretic data from 8 isozyme loci. mean heterozygosity per locus was 6% (+/-3.1) per population. differences in allelic frequencies among ticks from different individual hosts were the major source of genetic variability in this study. host spe ...19989920303
preliminary findings of salmonella spp. in captive green iguanas (iguana iguana) and their environment.captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of salmonella spp. and green iguanas. we did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in el salvador to identify sources of salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. a limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their en ...200010821967
[demography and nesting ecology of green iguana, iguana iguana (squamata: iguanidae), in 2 exploited populations in depresión momposina, colombia].we studied the demography and nesting ecology of two populations of iguana iguana that face heavy exploitation and habitat modification in the momposina depression, colombia. lineal transect data was analyzed using the fourier model to provide estimates of social group densities, which was found to differ both within and among populations (1.05-6.0 groups/ha). mean group size and overall iguana density estimates varied between populations as well (1.5-13.7 iguanas/ha). the density estimates were ...200315162698
reptilian neurohypophyseal hormones: the active peptides of a saurian, iguana iguana. 19724635466
gene expression and tissue distribution of cytoglobin and myoglobin in the amphibia and reptilia: possible compensation of myoglobin with cytoglobin in skeletal muscle cells of anurans that lack the myoglobin gene.cytoglobin (cygb), a recently discovered vertebrate cytoplasmic heme-binding globin, is considered to be in a clade with vertebrate myoglobin (mb), which is exclusively distributed in the cytoplasm of cardiac and skeletal muscles as an oxygen storage protein. genbank databases (ncbi and jgi) and gene synteny analyses showed the absence of the mb gene (mb) in two anuran amphibians, xenopus laevis and x. tropicalis. here we conducted comparative studies on the gene expression and tissue distributi ...200717560742
tazonomy of toxoplasma.after reviewing reports of the hosts, structure and life cycle of toxoplasma, the genus is placed in the apicomplexan family eimeriidae and the folllowing 7 species are recognized: toxoplasma gondii (nicolle & manceaux) (type species) from about 200 species of mammals and birds, with oocysts in felids; toxoplasma alencari (da costa & pereira) from the frog leptodactylus ocellatus; toxoplasma brumpti coutelen from the iguana iguana tuberculata; toxoplasma colubri tibaldi from the snakes coluber m ...1977325203
cytopathic herpesvirus infection in a green iguana (iguana iguana).a juvenile male green iguana (iguana iguana) died 5 days following movement to a room 3-5 degrees c cooler than its previous housing. gross necropsy lesions were limited to thin body condition. histologically the animal had multifocal, random, moderate to severe, acute hepatocellular necrosis with intranuclear inclusion bodies at the periphery of the necrotic areas. electron microscopy of the liver revealed icosahedral viral particles approximately 110 nm in diameter, consistent with a herpesvir ...200517312736
identification and characterization of a squamate reptilian amelogenin gene: iguana the principal components of the developing tooth enamel matrix, amelogenins play a significant role in tooth enamel formation and organization. in order to elucidate the structure and function of amelogenins in the evolution of enamel, we have selected the iguana iguana as a squamate model organism. here we report the first complete squamate amelogenin sequence available as of yet and document unique features of iguana amelogenins and enamel. transmission electron microscopy documented random ...200616506230
characterization of a ribonuclease gene and encoded protein from the reptile, iguana this work we identify an intronless open reading frame encoding an rnase a ribonuclease from genomic dna from the iguana iguana igh2 cell line. the iguana rnase is expressed primarily in pancreas, and represents the majority of the specific enzymatic activity in this tissue. the encoded sequence shares many features with its better-known mammalian counterparts including the crucial his12, lys40 and his114 catalytic residues and efficient hydrolytic activity against yeast trna substrate (k(cat ...200515893436
poor replication of west nile virus (new york 1999 strain) in three reptilian and one amphibian species.because west nile (wn) virus primarily cycles between mosquitoes and birds, north american reptiles and amphibians have not been evaluated as reservoir hosts of this virus. we infected three species of reptiles and one species of amphibian: iguana iguana (green iguana), thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (florida garter snake), trachymes scripta elegans (red-ear slider), and rana catesbeiana (north american bullfrog). after inoculation with wn virus, some of the green iguanas, bullfrogs, and garter sn ...200314628941
diagnosis and surgical treatment of thyroid adenoma-induced hyperthyroidism in a green iguana (iguana iguana).an adult female green iguana (iguana iguana) presented with polyphagia, loss of the dorsal spines, hyperactivity, increased aggression, tachycardia, and a bilobate mass palpable anterior to the thoracic inlet. diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was based on a total t4 (30.0 nmol/l) elevated above that of clinically healthy iguanas (3.81 +/- 0.84 nmol/l), and histopathology confirmed a functional thyroid adenoma. surgical thyroidectomy safely returned the lizard to a euthyroid state.200112785702
scaling of rotational inertia in murine rodents and two species of lizard.because the force required to rotate a body about an axis is directly proportional to its rotational inertia about the axis, it is likely that animals with high rotational inertia would be constrained in their turning abilities. given that rotational inertia scales with mass(1.67) in geometrically similar animals, whereas the ability to apply torque scales with mass(1.00), larger animals would be expected to have more difficulty turning than smaller animals of similar shape. to determine how rot ...200212089217
cloaca prolapse and cystitis in green iguana (iguana iguana) caused by a novel cryptosporidium species.cryptosporidium infection was associated with colitis and cystitis in 2 green iguanas (iguana iguana). the disease was characterized by a chronic clinical course of cloacal prolapses and cystitis. histological examination of the gut and urinary bladder showed numerous cryptosporidium developmental stages on the surface of the epithelium with mixed inflammatory response in the lamina propria. cryptosporidium oocysts were visualised in a cytological preparation of the faeces. based on the small su ...201021036480
[comparative proximal and mineral analysis of iguana,poultry and beef meats].raw meat samples from iguana, poultry and beef cattle specimens were used to compare proximal (g/100 g) and mineral (mg/100 g) composition. iguana meat was obtained by dissecting whole specimens (iguana iguana) captured at a ranch (n = 20). thighs and breasts were separated from broiler (either chilled or frozen) carcasses (n = 20), and deboned to represent chicken meat samples, whereas 2.5-cm-thick longissimus (ribeyes) steaks were removed from carcasses and frozen to represent beef of several ...200011464675
comparative morphology of the osteocyte lacunocanalicular system in various vertebrates.osteocytes are embedded in the bone matrix, and they communicate with adjacent osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts through the osteocyte lacunocanalicular system. osteocytes are believed to be essential for the maintenance of bone homeostasis because they regulate mechanical sensing and mineral metabolism in mammalian bones; however, osteocyte morphology in other vertebrates has not been well documented. we conducted a comparative study on the morphology of osteocytes and the lacunocanalicu ...201121499992
simultaneous occurrence of salmonella arizonae in a sulfur crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita galerita) and iguanas.a case of fatal hepatitis in a captive sulfur crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita galerita) in which salmonella arizonae was microbiologically and immunohistochemically detected is described. the death of the cockatoo was closely related to the arrival of a group of 10 green iguanas (iguana iguana) at a pet shop, and no previous clinical signs were observed in the cockatoo. the most important lesion observed at necropsy of the cockatoo was a multifocal necrotic hepatitis. salmonella arizonae was ...19989876856
paramyxoviral and reoviral infections of iguanas on honduran islands.thirty-five free-ranging healthy spiny-tailed iguanas (31 ctenosaura bakeri, 4 c. similis) and 14 green iguanas (iguana iguana rhinolopha) were caught and held in captivity for 2 days. blood was collected from all animals and their sera were evaluated for antibody titres against reptilian reoviruses, reptilian paramyxoviruses, and avian paramyxovirus-1 (pmv-1). cloacal and pharyngeal swabs also were collected and examined for viral content by incubation on chicken embryo fibroblasts (cef) and te ...19989476223
calcitonin gene-related peptide relaxes cholecystokinin-induced tension in iguana iguana gallbladder strips.the presence of a calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp)-like material was demonstrated in the iguana, iguana iguana, gallbladder using immunocytochemistry. an intense reaction was observed in nerves located in the smooth muscle layers and associated blood vessels but no immunoreactive cell bodies were found. in vitro tension studies using gallbladder strips showed that chicken cgrp was more potent in relaxing cholecystokinin-induced tension than either human or rat cgrp. the use of glibenclamid ...19947821775
some corrections of coccidian (apicomplexa: protozoa) nomenclature.the following nomenclatural corrections and changes are introduced for the coccidia. new species: cryptosporidium rhesi from the rhesus monkey macaca mulatta; cryptosporidium serpentis from the snakes elaphe guttata, elapha subocularis, crotalus horridus, and sanzinia madagascarensis; eimeria perazae from the lizard cnemidophorus l. lemniscatus; and eimeria tarichae from the salamander taricha toirosa. new combinations: orcheobius carinii for cariniella carinii from the frog leptodactylus ocella ...19807463253
function of muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the galápagos marine iguana, amblyrhynchus cristatus, in relation to temperature.the galápagos marine iguana, amblyrhynchus cristatus, is unique among lizards in foraging subtidally, leading to activity across a broad range of ambient temperatures ( approximately 14-40 degrees c). to determine whether the marine iguana shows any biochemical changes consistent with maintaining enzyme function at both warm and cold body temperatures, we examined the function of the aerobic enzyme citrate synthase (cs) and the muscle isoform of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (a(4)-l ...200818313960
mycoplasmosis in green iguanas (iguana iguana).mycoplasma iguanae was the suspected etiology of spinal disease in feral iguanas (iguana iguana) from florida. in an experimental infection study, juvenile iguanas were inoculated with m. iguanae intravenously or by instillation into the nares. blood samples obtained at intervals postinoculation were all culture negative for mycoplasma. gross anatomic and histologic findings at necropsy 12 wk postinoculation were unremarkable. mycoplasmas were cultured in high numbers from the posterior choanae ...200717679524
determination of calcitonin in reptilian serum by heterologous radioimmunoassay.a heterologous radioimmunoassay for reptilian calcitonin using a commercially available kit for human calcitonin was used to determine circulating levels and brain levels of calcitonin in the green iguana, iguana iguana. cross-reactivity between anti-human calcitonin antibodies and iguana plasma was demonstrated. removal of reptilian calcitonin from the plasma with affinity chromatography eliminated the cross-reactivity. assays on blood samples indicated normal circulating levels of calcitonin t ...19863940923
disease patterns in the detroit zoo: a study of reptilian and amphibian populations from 1973 through 1983.a retrospective study was conducted to determine disease patterns in reptilian and amphibian populations at the detroit zoo from 1973 through 1983. in the reptilian population (mean +/- sd = 285.2 +/- 28), overall annual mortality rates were 1% to 40%. mortality rates were highest in the fall months (20%) and lowest in the winter months (6%). the most frequently affected reptiles were iguana (iguana iguana), reticulated python (python reticulatus), rattlesnakes (crotalus spp), common boa (constr ...19853878352
nucleotide sequence of 5 s ribosomal ribonucleic acid of iguana iguana.cell cultures of the reptile iguana iguana have been labeled with 32po4(3-) and the resulting radioactive 5 s rrna isolated. enzymatic digests of the radioactive rna were fractionated by standard procedures, and the products of the digestions sequenced. from the sequences of the oligonucleotides produced by enzymatic digestion of the iguana 5 s rrna it is possible to propose a primary sequence for this rna which differs in only two positions (2 and 25) from the sequence known for mammalian 5 s r ...1976977575
cellular and extracellular dehydration, and angiotensin as stimuli to drinking in the common iguana iguana iguana.1. after water deprivation, the iguana promptly drank slightly more than enough water to restore the body fluids to isotonicity even under conditions of hypervolaemia. 2. in response to systemic injections of hypertonic solutions of nacl and sucrose, the iguana drank and retained enough water to dilute the injected load to isotonicity irrespective of whether water was offered immediately or after 3 hr, and irrespective of whether the solute was administered i.v. or i.p. 3. hypertonic solutions t ...1977850202
a taxonomic revision of small neotropical saurian malarias allied to plasmodium minasense.saurian malaria species which produce schizonts smaller than normal erythrocyte nuclei, with 4-8 merozoietes and gametocytes equal to or smaller than erythrocyte nuclei in size, parasitizing hosts of the lizard families scincidae, iguanidae and teiidae in the neotropics are considered to be plasmodium minasense carini and rudolph, 1912. subspecific designations are given to distinctive populations parasitizing different host species: p. minasense minasense is recognized from the type host, mabuy ...1979533109
the use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of cubati, paraíba state, brazil.the present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) by the residents of the municipal district of cubati, microregion of seridó, paraíba state, brazil. it sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge.200717825094
plasma lipid concentrations for some brazilian lizards.1. plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of brazilian lizards, iguana iguana, tropidurus torquatos and t. semitaeniatus (iguanidae), tupinambis teguixin, ameiva ameiva and cnemidophorus ocellifer (teiidae), mabuya maculata (scincidae), hemidactylus mabouia (gekkonidae), amphisbaenia vermicularis and leposternon polystegum (amphisbaenidae). 2. considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concen ...1979318307
cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by a chrysosporium species related to nannizziopsis vriesii in two green iguanas (iguana iguana).this report describes the first isolation of a chrysosporium species as the etiological agent of dermatomycosis in two green iguanas (iguana iguana). the its-5.8s rrna gene of the two strains was sequenced and a search on the genbank database revealed that the closest match was nannizziopsis vriesii. treatment with oral ketoconazole, in combination with topical 2% chlorhexidine solution and terbinafine resulted in clinical cure.200818415842
chrysosporium guarroi sp. nov. a new emerging pathogen of pet green iguanas (iguana iguana).chrysosporium guarroi sp. nov. represented by five strains isolated from cases of dermatomycosis in pet green iguanas (iguana iguana) in spain, is described and illustrated. this taxon is characterized by its ability to grow at temperatures from 15 to 37 degrees c and by the presence of arthroconidia and aleurioconidia. the latter are unicellular, smooth, pyriform or clavate, sessile or borne at the ends of narrow stalks. the analysis of the sequences of the d1/d2 and its regions confirm the sep ...201019675967
in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of mycoplasma iguanae proposed sp. nov. isolated from vertebral lesions of green iguanas (iguana iguana).mycoplasma iguanae proposed species nova was isolated from vertebral abscesses of two feral iguanas (iguana iguana) from florida. three strains were evaluated for sensitivity to a variety of antibiotics. the minimum inhibitory concentrations for m. iguanae, assessed by broth dilution methods, of clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin (all <1 microg/ml) were lower than those of chloramphenicol (32 micro/ml) and erythromycin (64 microg/ml). the profile was identical t ...200617312804
molecular identification of food sources in triatomines in the brazilian northeast: roles of goats and rodents in chagas disease epidemiology.we used the gut contents of triatomines collected from rural areas of ceará state, northeastern brazil, to identify their putative hosts via vertebrate cytb gene sequencing. successful direct sequencing was obtained for 48% of insects, comprising 50 triatoma brasiliensis, 7 triatoma pseudomaculata, and 1 rhodnius nasutus. basic local alignment search tool (blast) procedure revealed that domestic animals, such as chickens (gallus gallus) and goats (capra hircus), are the main food source, includi ...201526350453
hemoglobins of reptiles. the primary structures of the alpha i- and beta i-chains of common iguana (iguana iguana) hemoglobin.the primary structures of alpha i- and beta i-chains from the hemoglobins of the common iguana (iguana iguana) are presented. the globin chains were separated on cm-cellulose in 8 m urea buffer. the amino-acid sequences were established by automatic edman degradation of the native chains, the tryptic peptides and a peptide obtained by cyanogen bromide cleavage. the sequences are compared with human hemoglobin. amino-acid replacements at positions critical for structure and function of the hemogl ...19883242545
in vivo locomotor strain in the hindlimb bones of alligator mississippiensis and iguana iguana: implications for the evolution of limb bone safety factor and non-sprawling limb posturelimb postures of terrestrial tetrapods span a continuum from sprawling to fully upright; however, most experimental investigations of locomotor mechanics have focused on mammals and ground-dwelling birds that employ parasagittal limb kinematics, leaving much of the diversity of tetrapod locomotor mechanics unexplored. this study reports measurements of in vivo locomotor strain from the limb bones of lizard (iguana iguana) and crocodilian (alligator mississippiensis) species, animals from previou ...199910101104
the complete mitochondrial genomes of the galápagos iguanas, amblyrhynchus cristatus and conolophus subcristatus.the galápagos iguanas are among the oldest vertebrate lineages on the galápagos archipelago, and the evolutionary history of this clade is of great interest to biologists. we describe here the complete mitochondrial genomes of the marine iguana, amblyrhynchus cristatus (genbank accession number: kt277937) and the land iguana conolophus subcristatus (genbank accession number: kt277936). the genomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rnas, and two ribosomal rnas genes, as well as a contr ...201626357924
conjunctival flora of clinically normal captive green iguanas (iguana iguana). 201020605958
alfred russel wallace and the destruction of island life: the iguana tragedy.the galápagos islands (ecuador) are usually associated with the explorations and theoretical deductions of charles robert darwin (1809-1882), but alfred russel wallace (1823-1913) also investigated these islands and published several reports on the living world of this unique archipelago. in contrast to darwin, wallace described the destruction of natural ecosystems by humans and foresaw the resulting extinction of species. here, we outline two case studies pertinent to wallace's prediction. fir ...201323975644
mechanics of limb bone loading during terrestrial locomotion in the green iguana (iguana iguana) and american alligator (alligator mississippiensis).in vivo measurements of strain in the femur and tibia of iguana iguana (linnaeus) and alligator mississippiensis (daudin) have indicated three ways in which limb bone loading in these species differs from patterns observed in most birds and mammals: (i) the limb bones of i. iguana and a. mississippiensis experience substantial torsion, (ii) the limb bones of i. iguana and a. mississippiensis have higher safety factors than those of birds or mammals, and (iii) load magnitudes in the limb bones of ...200111222128
[generalized amoebiasis without intestinal symptoms in an iguana (iguana iguana) (reptilia, iguanidae), caused by entamoeba invadens (protozoa, amoebozoa)]. 19666011419
mycoplasma insons sp. nov., a twisted mycoplasma from green iguanas (iguana iguana).mycoplasma insons sp. nov., first cultured from the choanae and tracheae of healthy green iguanas (iguana iguana) from el salvador, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes and assigned to the mycoplasma fastidiosum phylogenetic cluster by 16s rrna gene sequence comparisons. growth inhibition assays distinguished the isolates serologically from the other two members of that cluster. many m. insons cells exhibit a remarkable twisted rod morphology despite lacking a cell ...200717697083
iguana virus, a herpes-like virus isolated from cultured cells of a lizard, iguana agent cytopathic for terrapene and iguana cell cultures was isolated from spontaneously degenerating cell cultures prepared from a green iguana (iguana iguana). the agent, designated iguana virus, caused a cytopathic effect (cpe) of a giant cell type, with eosinophilic inclusions commonly observed within giant cell nuclei. incubation temperature had a marked effect on cpe and on virus release from infected cells. within the range of 23 to 36 c, low temperatures favored cpe characterized by cy ...19724344303
first reports of ectoparasites collected from wild-caught exotic reptiles in florida.we collected ectoparasites from 27 of 51 wild-caught, free-ranging exotic reptiles examined in florida from 2003 to 2008. sampled animals represented eight species, five of which yielded ectoparasites. reported new parasite distribution records for the united states include the following: the first collection of the african tick amblyomma latum (koch) from a wild-caught animal [ball python, python regius (shaw)] in the united states; the first collection of the lizard scale mite hirstiella stami ...201121337954
amblyomma dissimile koch (acari: ixodidae) attacking primolius maracana vieillot (psittaciformes: psittacidae) in the amazon region, state of pará, brazil.the tick amblyomma dissimile koch feeds preferentially on reptiles (squamata), although amphibians (anura) also seem to be important hosts. we report an a. dissimile nymph infesting a blue-winged macaw, primolius maracana, held in captivity in the mangal das garças park, state of pará, brazil. environmental observations suggest that free-living iguanas (iguana iguana), which used to walk on the bird enclosure in the park, were the source of the a. dissimile tick that infested the blue-winged mac ...201121952971
the amino acid sequence of iguana (iguana iguana) pancreatic ribonuclease.the pyrimidine-specific ribonuclease superfamily constitutes a group of homologous proteins so far found only in higher vertebrates. four separate families are found in mammals, which have resulted from gene duplications in mammalian ancestors. to learn more about the evolutionary history of this superfamily, the primary structure and other characteristics of the pancreatic enzyme from iguana (iguana iguana), a herbivorous lizard species belonging to the reptiles, have been determined. the polyp ...19948307028
species-specific evolution of class i mhc genes in iguanas (order: squamata; subfamily: iguaninae).over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. however, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of mhc research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. this is particularly true for squamates, which are ...200818488213
twisting and bending: the functional role of salamander lateral hypaxial musculature during locomotion.the function of the lateral hypaxial muscles during locomotion in tetrapods is controversial. currently, there are two hypotheses of lateral hypaxial muscle function. the first, supported by electromyographic (emg) data from a lizard (iguana iguana) and a salamander (dicamptodon ensatus), suggests that hypaxial muscles function to bend the body during swimming and to resist long-axis torsion during walking. the second, supported by emg data from lizards during relatively high-speed locomotion, s ...200111441039
dermatomycosis in a pet inland bearded dragon (pogona vitticeps) caused by a chrysosporium species related to nannizziopsis vriesii.a chrysosporium sp. related to nannizziopsis vriesii was isolated in pure culture from squames and biopsies of facial lesions in a pet inland bearded dragon (pogona vitticeps) in spain. the presence in histological sections of morphologically consistent fungal elements strongly incriminates this fungus as the aetiological agent of infection. lesions regressed following treatment with oral ketoconazole and topical chlorhexidine and terbinafine until the lizard was lost to follow up 1 month later. ...200919659541
ameloblastin-rich enamel matrix favors short and randomly oriented apatite crystals.molecular evolution studies suggest that amelogenin (amelx), the principal component of the mammalian enamel matrix, emerged considerably later than ameloblastin (ambn), and enamelin. here, we created a transgenic mouse model to ask the question how a conceivable basal enamel lacking amelx and enriched in the more basal ambn might compare with recent mouse enamel. to answer this question we overexpressed ambn using a keratin 14 (k14) promoter and removed amelx from the genetic background by cros ...201122243254
development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, iguana iguana-light and scanning electron microscopic study.the ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. the situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. in this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (iguana iguana). collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. microscopic examination revealed th ...201627920949
isolation of the highly pathogenic and zoonotic agent burkholderia pseudomallei from a pet green iguana in prague, czech republic.melioidosis caused by burkholderia (b.) pseudomallei is an endemic zoonotic disease mainly reported from northern australia and southeast asia. in europe, cases of human melioidosis have been reported only from patients travelling to endemic regions. besides humans, b. pseudomallei has a very broad host range in domestic and wild animals. there are some reports about importation of b. pseudomallei-infected animals from endemic areas into europe. the present report describes the first case of b. ...201425430942
morphometrics and molecular analysis of ozolaimus linstowi n. sp. (oxyuroidea: pharyngodonidae) from the green lizard iguana iguana.ozolaimus linstowi n. sp. is described from the large intestine of iguana iguana linnaeus, 1758 from mexico. the present species can be easily distinguished from o. megatyphlon and o. cirratus by the presence of a long and slender pharynx not divided into sections, more similar to the remaining two species, o. monhystera and o. ctenosauri. ozolaimus linstowi n. sp. can be differentiated from o. monhystera by the shorter spicule length and smaller body size of both males and females. males of o. ...201625744633
multiorgan fungal infection caused by microsporum canis in a green iguana (iguana iguana).multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. in this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. a cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hy ...201425000705
telencephalic connections in lizards. ii. projections to anterior dorsal ventricular ridge.three distinct cytoarchitectonic regions were identified within the anterior dorsal ventricular ridge (advr) of two species of lizards, gekko gecko and iguana iguana. these regions have been named according to their general topographical positions: medial area, caudolateral area, and rostrolateral area. injections of horseradish peroxidase throughout the advr demonstrated that each of the three areas of the advr receives projections from specific thalamic nuclei which are associated with specifi ...19846209314
mycoplasma iguanae sp. nov., from a green iguana (iguana iguana) with vertebral disease.strain 2327t, first cultured from vertebral abscesses of green iguanas (iguana iguana) collected in florida, usa, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes by 16s rrna gene sequence comparisons. strain 2327t lacks a cell wall, ferments glucose, does not hydrolyse arginine, aesculin or urea and is sensitive to digitonin. western blots distinguished the novel isolate serologically from the most closely related members of the mycoplasma neurolyticum cluster. on the basis of ...200616585690
rates of oxygen uptake increase independently of changes in heart rate in late stages of development and at hatching in the green iguana, iguana iguana.oxygen consumption (vo2), heart rate (fh), heart mass (mh) and body mass (mb) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (iguana iguana). mean fh and vo2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. vo2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while fh was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of vo2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fol ...201728011410
telencephalic connections in lizards. i. projections to cortex.the afferent connections to five cortical regions in two distantly related species of lizards (gekko gecko and iguana iguana) were studied by means of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin. each of the five cortical regions is characterized by a specific pattern of projections from telencephalic, thalamic, hypothalamic, and brainstem regions. subdivisions within the five cortical regions also receive different patterns of projections. the thalamo-cort ...19846209313
nucleus laminaris of the torus semicircularis: projection to spinal cord in reptiles.neurons in nucleus laminaris of the torus semicircularis were retrogradely labeled following application of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) to the cervical spinal cord in two lizards (gekko gecko and iguana iguana) and a turtle (pseudemys scripta). different patterns of cell labeling were seen among the species studied and may be related to the distinctive differences in head and body movements seen in these animals during defensive, aggressive and social behaviors.19816270598
posthatching yolk energy in a lizard: utilization pattern and interclutch variation.newly hatched green iguanas, iguana iguana, retain a yolk mass which is similar in relative size (13.6% of body mass) and caloric content (6.87 kcal/g dm) to the posthatching yolks described in loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta) and birds. the lipid: protein ratio in posthatching iguana yolk remains constant through depletion, which indicates that the nutrients are removed and utilized at the same rate. the yolk mass provides an important energy supplement for iguanas during the first month of ...198328310332
animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of northeastern brazil.this work documents the zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine (evm) of pedra lavrada (6°45's, 36°28'w), northeastern brazil. we interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. we calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. the main species mentioned were ram - ovis aries (uv= ...201222751649
a review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in south america.meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in south america. these include the alpaca (lama pacos), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (lama guanicoe), llama (lama glama), nutria (myocastor coypus), collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (rhea americana), lesser rhea (rhea pennata), yacare (caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (tupinambis m ...200822063568
topographic position of forelimb motoneuron pools is conserved in vertebrate evolution.the neuromotor conservatism hypothesis predicts that neuromotor patterns in homologous tetrapod muscles are conserved evolutionarily despite the musculoskeletal modifications of vertebrate limbs. a complete description of the anatomical organization of the neurons innervating homologous limb muscles is a prerequisite to any test of the neuromotor conservatism hypothesis. this study uses the retrograde neuronal tracer wga-hrp to selectively label the motor neuron pools of seven homologous forelim ...19989491275
nematodes associated with iguana iguana (linnaeus, 1758) (squamata, iguanidae) in semi-arid areas of northeastern brazil.nematodes were analyzed in iguana iguana, a large lizard iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the americas. the aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, i. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection). a total of 18 specimens of i. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females). the overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18), while in males, it was 75% (6 ...201627683813
an appraisal of the use of an infrared digital monitoring system for long-term measurement of heart rate in reptilian embryos.measurement of heart rate (fh) in embryonic reptiles has previously imposed some degree of invasive treatment on the developing embryo. recently a non-invasive technique of fh detection from intact eggs was developed for commercial avian breeders and has since been used in biological research. this device uses infrared light, enabling it to detect heartbeats in very early embryos. however, infrared light is a source of heat and extended enclosure of an egg in the device is likely to affect tempe ...201526086361
the progressive onset of cholinergic and adrenergic control of heart rate during development in the green iguana, iguana iguana.the autonomic control of heart rate was studied throughout development in embryos of the green iguana, iguana iguana by applying receptor agonists and antagonists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems. acetylcholine (ach) slowed or stopped the heart and atropine antagonized the response to ach indicating the presence of muscarinic cholinoceptors on the heart of early embryos. however, atropine injections had no impact on heart rate until immediately before hatching, when it increased he ...201526071949
the organization of central auditory pathways in a reptile, iguana iguana.the present experiments were designed to trace the central auditory pathways in an extant reptile, the new worlkd lizard--iguana iguana, utilizing anterograde axonal degeneration stained by the fink-heimer ('67) method and the retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase (lavail and lavail, '74). beginning with the projections of the auditory portion of the viiith nerve, the ascending pathways were traced through successive relay nuclei to the telencephalon. the auditory portion of the ...1978632382
lung ventilation during walking and running in four species of lizards.the relationship between locomotion and aspiration breathing was investigated in the lizards iguana iguana, ctenosaura similis, varanus exanthematicus and varanus salvator, and the quail coturnix coturnix. respiratory air-flow during walking and running on a 7.3 m track or on a treadmill was measured with a bidirectional flow meter attached to one nostril. in all four species of lizards, lung ventilation drops markedly during locomotion. tidal volume decreases as speed increases, often by more t ...19873666097
ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards.ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. in this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. virological ...201324073785
characterization of pituitary growth hormone and its receptor in the green iguana (iguana iguana).pituitary growth hormone (gh) has been studied in most vertebrate groups; however, only a few studies have been carried out in reptiles. little is known about pituitary hormones in the order squamata, to which the green iguana (gi) belongs. in this work, we characterized the hypophysis of iguana iguana morphologically. the somatotrophs (round cells of 7.6-10 μm containing 250- to 300-nm secretory granules where the gigh is stored) were found, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, ex ...201424769041
terrestrial locomotion does not constrain venous return in the american alligator, alligator mississippiensis.the effects of treadmill exercise on components of the cardiovascular (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, venous return) and respiratory (minute ventilation, tidal volume, breathing frequency, rate of oxygen consumption, rate of carbon dioxide production) systems and on intra-abdominal pressure were measured in the american alligator, alligator mississippiensis, at 30 degrees c. alligators show speed-dependent increases in tidal volume and minute ventilation, demo ...200516109894
anti-inflammatory potential of zootherapeutics derived from animals used in brazilian traditional medicine.animals are used for the treatment of diseases caused by inflammatory processes, although few studies evaluate their potential for these purposes.201425026349
ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern brazil.from 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (parque zoobotânico arruda câmara and parque estadual dois irmãos) located in northeastern brazil were identified. ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., parque estadual dois irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. the following tick-host associations were recorded: amblyomma fuscum neumann on boa constrictor l.; amblyo ...201019693679
light perception in the vertebrate brain: an ultrastructural analysis of opsin- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons in iguanid lizards.recent biochemical and immunocytochemical evidence indicates that a population of circadian and reproductive rhythm-entraining photoreceptors lies in the basal diencephalon of iguanid lizards. here, we report the results of correlated light and electron microscopy of opsin-immunoreactive cells in the basal brain, and we discuss their ultrastructural relationship to known photoreceptors. cerebrospinal fluid (csf)-contacting bipolar neurons in the lizards anolis carolinensis and iguana iguana were ...19968731227
scanning electron microscope studies of the auditory papillae of some iguanid lizards.the papillae basilares of 16 species (10 general) of iguanid lizards were studied by scanning electron microscopy. variations in the surface structures of the auditory papillae showed the following major differences: 1)papillae with localization of the unidirectional hair cells at the apical end of the papilla (anolis carolinensis); 2)papillae with absence or loss of a portion of the apical bidirectional hair-cell segment (basiliscus basiliscus); 3)papillae with a central, short ciliated, unidir ...19817304475
the fine structure of the parietal retinas of anolis carolinensis and iguana electron microscopic examination of the parietal retinas of anolis carolinensis and iguana iguana demonstrated within each retina (1) two distinct populations of neurons, (2) two populations of glia, and (3) a population of photoreceptors which could not be subdivided. a small population of very electron-dense cells, in many respects similar to photoreceptors, was also found in the iguana. correspondingly dark processes were found in the plexiform layer of each retina. parietal photoreceptors ...1979476797
a second class of neurons within the retinas of the parietal eyes of anolis carolinensis and iguana iguana. 1979435984
iguana iguana: a model species for studying the ontogeny of behavior/hormone interactions.several features of the green iguana, iguana iguana, make this species an excellent subject for biological research, especially with respect to collecting comparative data on behavior/hormone interactions. this species thrives on captivity, and behavioral interactions appear substantially similar to those observed in natural populations, given effective captive environments. because hatchlings do not necessarily associate with adult conspecifics in wild populations, behavioral patterns exhibited ...20071974785
seasonal productivity of lizard femoral glands: relationship to social dominance and androgen and hormonal correlates of femoral gland productivity were investigated in groups of adult and juvenile green iguanas (iguana iguana) over 12 months. femoral gland productivity, pore size, and the percentage of lipids in the secretions were correlated with plasma testosterone (t) levels in dominant, although not in subordinate, adult males. secretory activity peaked during the breeding months, at which time dominants produced more secretion than subordinates. pore size in juvenile males w ...20061594671
mature erythrocytes of iguana iguana (squamata, iguanidae) possess functional mitochondria.electron microscopy analyses of iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-fitc, hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (δψm)-sensitive probe mitotracker red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron micros ...201526367118
investigations on blood coagulation in the green iguana (iguana iguana).the prothrombin time (pt), activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt), thrombin time, kaolin clotting time (kct), dilute russell's viper venom time (drvvt) and reptilase time, as well as five different plasma fibrinogen assays [gravimetry, jacobsson method (extinction at 280 nm), millar method (heat precipitation), kinetic turbidometry, clauss method] and resonance thrombography were performed in 26 clinically healthy green iguanas. all assays were carried out in comparison with pooled normal ...200212069264
echocardiographic and radiographic findings in a cohort of healthy adult green iguanas (iguana iguana).to describe characteristics of echocardiography and cranial coelomic radiography in a cohort of iguanas.201425127666
evaluation of liver parenchyma and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in captive green iguanas (iguana iguana) under general anesthesia.contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging techniques are considered useful in veterinary and human medicine to evaluate liver perfusion and focal hepatic lesions. although hepatic diseases are a common occurrence in reptile medicine, there is no reference to the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (ceus) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (cect) to evaluate the liver in lizards. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of change in echogenicity and attenuation of the liver ...201424885935
soft tissue influence on ex vivo mobility in the hip of iguana: comparison with in vivo movement and its bearing on joint motion of fossil sprawling tetrapods.the reconstruction of a joint's maximum range of mobility (rom) often is a first step when trying to understand the locomotion of fossil tetrapods. but previous studies suggest that the rom of a joint is restricted by soft tissues surrounding the joint. to expand the limited informative value of rom studies for the reconstruction of a fossil species' locomotor characteristics, it is moreover necessary to better understand the relationship of ex vivo rom with the actual in vivo joint movement. to ...201424762236
collection and characterization of semen from green iguanas (iguana iguana).to determine an efficient method for the collection of semen samples by means of electroejaculation, characterize spermatozoa quality and quantity, and determine the effect of refrigerated storage on motility of spermatozoa obtained from green iguanas (iguana iguana).201324274892
chemical and behavioral studies of femoral gland secretions in iguanid lizards.comparative studies on the chemistry and behavioral significance of femoral gland secretions in desert iguanas (dipsosaurus dorsalis) and green iguanas (iguana iguana) are reviewed. field and laboratory studies suggest that femoral gland secretions function in conspecific recognition and range marking. in desert iguanas, secretions are of low volatility and may be detected initially using long-range ultraviolet visual cues. in contrast, green iguana secretions contain a diversity of volatile lip ...19938477348
assessments of thermal antinociceptive effects of butorphanol and human observer effect on quantitative evaluation of analgesia in green iguanas (iguana iguana).to determine whether butorphanol induces thermal antinociception in green iguanas (iguana iguana) and assess the human observer effect on quantitative evaluation of butorphanol-induced analgesia.201223013175
nitrogen excretion during embryonic development of the green iguana, iguana iguana (reptilia; squamata).development within the cleidoic egg of birds and reptiles presents the embryo with the problem of accumulation of wastes from nitrogen metabolism. ammonia derived from protein catabolism is converted into the less toxic product urea or relatively insoluble uric acid. the pattern of nitrogen excretion of the green iguana, iguana iguana, was determined during embryonic development using samples from allantoic fluid and from the whole homogenized egg, and in hatchlings and adults using samples of b ...201222710252
comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (iguana iguana), common tegu (tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (pogona vitticeps).radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and ct studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. the aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaver ...201222578088
ultrastructural analysis of spermiogenesis in iguana iguana (reptilia: sauria: iguanidae).spermiogenesis in the lizard, iguana iguana, was studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. during this process, structures such as the acrosomal complex in the spermatid head and the axonemal complex in the mid and principal pieces of the flagellum are formed. the nuclear content is initially compacted into thick, longitudinal chromatin filaments. nuclear shape is determined by further compaction and by the manchette, a layer of microtubules surrounding the head. the acrosomal co ...200212854047
selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor reflex in conscious green iguanas (iguana iguana).to determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species.201122023131
diagnosis and management of lymphoma in a green iguana (iguana iguana).case description-a 2-year-old female green iguana was examined for anorexia and swelling and pain on palpation in the cranial cervical area. clinical findings-marked soft tissue swelling in the cranial cervical area with corresponding cystic swellings in the pharynx were noted. the iguana was considered to be 50% under the expected body weight, given diet and husbandry conditions. the wbc count was markedly elevated, characterized by heterophilia and lymphocytosis. surgical exploration of the cr ...201121961640
alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (iguana iguana).to characterise the anaesthetic effects of alfaxalone administered intramuscularly (im) at 10, 20, and 30 mg kg(-1) .201121831051
incomplete ovariosalpingectomy and subsequent malignant granulosa cell tumor in a female green iguana (iguana iguana).a 9-year-old spayed female green iguana (iguana iguana) was evaluated because of a distended coelom and weight loss. history included a single episode of egg binding and subsequent bilateral ovariosalpingectomy.201121756181
isolation and identification of mycobacteria from captive reptiles.the occurrence of mycobacterium species in clinically healthy pet reptiles was studied in italy during the period 2004-2006. the feces samples of 223 animals were examined bacteriologically. thirty-seven strains were isolated, in particular from 13/18 (72.2%) ophidians, 13/134 (9.7%) saurians and 11/71 (15.5%) chelonians. the isolates were classified, after hplc analysis of bromophenacyl esters of cell wall mycolic acids, as mycobacterium fortuitum (14 strains, 37.8%), mycobacterium fortuitum-li ...201222657144
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