a herpesvirus-type agent associated with skin lesions of green sea turtles in aquaculture.nine successive groups of green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) were observed in aquaculture during the posthatchling period. during the first 6 months of growth, each group underwent an epizootic of skin lesions, named gray-patch disease. two types of skin lesions are associated with gray-patch disease: papules and, more characteristically, spreading gray patches which appear 7 to 8 weeks after hatching. in both types of lesions, intranuclear inclusions are found in keratinocytes in the malpighian ...1975168798
somatic and immune responses to bovine growth hormone, bovine prolactin, and diethylstilbestrol in the green sea turtle. 1979467971
in vitro binding of radioiodinated sea turtle (chelonia mydas) follicle stimulating hormone to reptilian gonadal tissues. 1977924117
sex-specific dna in reptiles with temperature sex determination.banded krait minor ("bkm") satellite dna, originating in the w-chromosome of the snake bungarus fasciatus, has been found in the genome of diverse eukaryotic species including fruit fly, quail, and horse. concentrations of bkm have been found in the presumptive w-chromosome of snakes with isomorphic sex chromosomes and in the male-determining region of the y-chromosome in mouse and man. we therefore asked whether bkm-related dna might be present in quantitative excess in dna from males or female ...19902156951
the complete amino acid sequence of prolactin from the sea turtle (chelonia mydas).the complete amino acid sequence of prolactin (prl) from a reptile, the sea turtle (chelonia mydas), was determined for the first time. sequence analysis was performed on fragments obtained from cleavage of intact and performic acid-oxidized hormone with lysyl endopeptidase, staphylococcus aureus protease, and o-iodosobenzoic acid employing manual edman degradation. the sea turtle prl consists of 198 amino acid residues with three disulfide linkages formed between residues 4-11, 58-173, and 190- ...19902289679
isolation and properties of sea turtle (chelonia mydas) pituitary prolactin.sea turtle prolactin (prl) was isolated in a highly purified state from sea turtle pituitary side fractions obtained from other studies and some of its biological, chemical, and immunological properties were determined. sea turtle prl is a protein of 22-24 kda [sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis]. its sole amino terminal amino acid residue is leucine. the amino acid composition of sea turtle prl is similar to ovine prl and is characterized by a high content of aspart ...19852416632
purification and characterization of alpha-macroglobulin and ovomacroglobulin of the green turtle (chelonia mydas japonica).the plasma alpha-macroglobulin and egg white ovomacroglobulin were purified from the sea turtle, chelonia mydas japonica, and their structural and functional properties were studied with the aim of clarifying the degree of evolutional divergence of two homologous proteins specific to different tissues of the same animal. the concentration of alpha-macroglobulin in green turtle plasma was about 4 mg/ml. the protein was purified from the plasma by precipitation with polyethylene glycol 6000, follo ...19882453503
initiation and ultrastructure of a reptilian fibroblast cell line obtained from cutaneous fibropapillomas of the green turtle, chelonia mydas.two fibroblastic cell lines were established from explants of fibropapillomas of each of two different green turtles (chelonia mydas). these cells, designated gtfp (green turtle fibropapilloma), were subcultured approximately 30 times at 30 degrees c in eagle's minimal essential media supplemented with 2 to 10% fetal bovine serum. the ultrastructural morphology of the cultured fibroblasts is described. the cells contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, polyribosomes, and mitochondria; col ...19892592301
the complete amino acid sequence of growth hormone from the sea turtle (chelonia mydas).the complete amino acid sequence of growth hormone (gh) from a reptilian species (the sea turtle, chelonia mydas) has been determined for the first time. the hormone was reduced, carboxymethylated, and subsequently cleaved in turn with cyanogen bromide and staphylococcus aureus protease. the intact protein was also cleaved with lysyl endopeptidase and o-iodosobenzoic acid. the resulting fragments were exclusively separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and subjected to ...19892707583
histopathology of infections by learedius learedi price, 1934 and neospirorchis schistosomatoides price, 1934 (digenea: spirorchiidae) in wild green turtles, chelonia mydas l., from bermuda. 19854078989
three classes of immunoglobulins found in the sea turtle, chelonia mydas. 19724621961
organochlorine residues in eggs of loggerhead and green sea turtles nesting at merritt island, florida--july and august 1976.eggs from nine clutches of loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta) and two clutches of green turtles (chelonia mydas) were collected as they were laid on merritt island, florida. eggs were incubated, frozen, and analyzed for organochlorines. levels of dde and pcb, the major contaminants, averaged less than 0.08 ppm in loggerhead eggs and were even lower in green turtle eggs. these concentrations are far below levels thought to be potentially harmful. loggerhead eggs were frozen after 43-52 days inc ...19806775282
gastric ulceration associated with larval nematodes (anisakis sp. type i) in pen reared green turtles (chelonia mydas) from torres strait.during turtle farming operations in torres strait, green turtles (chelonia mydas) penned on murray island became infected with a larval nematode (anisakis sp. type i). the larvae were found associated with haemorrhagic ulcers in the pyloroduodenal junction of the alimentary tract. the apparent source of infection was a locally abundant sardine (harengula ovalis), on which the murray island turtles were fed. turtles held on other islands in the region were not fed sardines and remained uninfected ...19827097868
characterization of a reptilian epithelioid skin cell line derived from the green sea turtle, chelonia mydas.a continuous line of epithelioid cells was established from explant skin tissues of the green sea turtle, chelonia mydas. these cells, designated gts, have been subcultured more than 60 times in commercially available mammalian cell culture medium supplemented with 5% bovine calf serum. of those temperatures tested, optimal growth was achieved at 30 degrees c although replication occurred between 16 and 37 degrees c. these cells may be held as monolayers at 8 degrees c or stored frozen in growth ...19827129477
serum gonadotropin and steroids associated with breeding activities in the green sea turtle, chelonia mydas. ii. mating and nesting in natural populations. 19807353782
monoclonal antibodies for the measurement of class-specific antibody responses in the green turtle, chelonia mydas.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed against the known immunoglobulin classes of the green turtle, chelonia mydas. plasma protein fractions enriched for 5.7s igy, 7s igy, and igm turtle immunoglobulins were used to immunize balb/c mice for hybridoma production and for hybridoma screening. fifteen hybridomas produced mabs with specificity for turtle immunoglobulins and for affinity purified dinitrophenol (dnp) specific turtle antibodies. three mabs specific for either turtle 5.7s igy heavy ...19957502491
chlamydiosis in mariculture-reared green sea turtles (chelonia mydas).from august 1990 to june 1991, a moderate die-off of 4- to 5-year-old green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) occurred at cayman turtle farm, grand cayman, british west indies. clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and inability to dive. many of the ill turtles floated on the surface of their tanks. there was no apparent sex predilection. complete necropsies, including histopathologic examination of tissues, were performed on eight turtles. necropsies revealed multiple irregular discrete to pat ...19948140712
evaluation of hawaiian green turtles (chelonia mydas) for potential pathogens associated with fibropapillomas.thirty-two juvenile green turtles (chelonia mydas) were captured alive in kaneohe bay, island of oahu, hawaii, during september 1991. ten of the turtles sampled were afflicted with green turtle fibropapillomatosis (gtfp) in varying degrees of severity. virus isolation attempts were negative in all individuals. using nasopharyngeal and cloacal swabs, we isolated 28 gram negative bacteria, five gram positive cocci, bacillus spp., and diphtheroids. the most common isolates included pseudomonas fluo ...19948151829
neurologic examination of sea determine whether neurologic examination techniques established for use on dogs and cats could be adapted for use on sea turtles.19979343552
hapalotrema (digenea: spirorchidae) in the green turtle (chelonia mydas) in australia.hapalotrema mehrai rao, 1976 and hapalotrema postorchis rao, 1976 (digenea: spirorchidae) are redescribed from the heart and pulmonary arteries of the green turtle, chelonia mydas, from moreton bay in south-eastern queensland. hapalotrema pambanensis gupta and mehrotra, 1981 from c. mydas in india is made a synonym of h. mehrai. hapalotrema dorsopora dailey, fast and balazs, 1993 from c. mydas from hawaii was described with a dorsally opening uterine pore, but this is found to be the opening of ...19989576515
single paternity of clutches and sperm storage in the promiscuous green turtle (chelonia mydas).paternity of 22 green turtle (chelonia mydas) clutches from 13 females of the southern great barrier reef breeding population was determined through microsatellite analyses at five loci, including the analysis of successive clutches for nine of the females. a large number of alleles per locus (10-40) provided probabilities of detecting multiple paternity that were quite high, particularly at all loci combined (99.9%). although green turtles are promiscuous breeders and there was an expectation o ...19989633101
gram-negative bacterial infections and cardiovascular parasitism in green sea turtles (chelonia mydas).to investigate causes of ill health and mortality in juvenile wild green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) found along the mid-north west coast of western australia between june and october of 1997.19989673767
serological association between spirorchidiasis, herpesvirus infection, and fibropapillomatosis in green turtles from florida.serodiagnostic tests for detecting green turtle (chelonia mydas) antibody responses were developed to test the strength of association between exposure to spirorchid trematode antigens or herpesvirus antigens and having green turtle fibropapillomatosis (gtfp). plasma samples from 46 captive-reared green turtles, including paired pre- and 1-yr post-inoculation samples from 12 turtles with experimentally induced gtfp, were found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to be negative for antib ...19989706559
chelonacarus elongatus n. gen., n. sp. (acari: cloacaridae) from the cloaca of the green turtle chelonia mydas (cheloniidae).chelonacarus elongatus n. gen., n. sp. is proposed for a cheyletoid mite (acari: prostigmata) of the family cloacaridae found in the cloacal tissue of the endangered green turtle chelonia mydas linnaeus, 1758 from the atlantic coast of the republic of panama. in females, the new genus is distinguished from other genera of turtle cloacarids by the elongate slender shape of the idiosoma, the shape and pattern of sclerotization of the dorsal shield, and the fused distal ends of apodemes ii. a combi ...19989714221
tumorigenicity of green turtle fibropapilloma-derived fibroblast lines in immunodeficient mice.fibroblast lines derived from normal skin and spontaneous or experimentally induced fibropapillomas of green turtles (chelonia mydas) were established and propagated in medium composed of a combination of dulbecco's minimal essential with f12 medium plus 10% fetal bovine serum at 30 degrees c. fibropapilloma-derived fibroblasts were indistinguishable from normal skin fibroblasts in vitro. tumor lines did not exhibit loss of contact inhibition, anchorage independence, or reduced serum requirement ...199810090007
establishment and characterization of 13 cell lines from a green turtle (chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas.thirteen cell lines were established and characterized from brain, kidney, lung, spleen, heart, liver, gall bladder, urinary bladder, pancreas, testis, skin, and periorbital and tumor tissues of an immature male green turtle (chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas. cell lines were optimally maintained at 30 degrees c in rpmi 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. propagation of the turtle cell lines was serum dependent, and plating efficiencies ranged from 13 to 37%. the cell lines, ...199910462202
comparative pathology and pathogenesis of spontaneous and experimentally induced fibropapillomas of green turtles (chelonia mydas).tumor biopsy samples from 25 floridian and 15 hawaiian green turtles (chelonia mydas) with spontaneous green turtle fibropapillomatosis (gtfp) and from 27 captive-reared green turtles with experimentally induced gtfp were examined microscopically to differentiate the histologic features that result from gtfp pathogenesis and those that result from incidental factors that may vary according to geographic region. common histologic features for spontaneous and experimentally induced tumors included ...199910568436
control of salt gland activity in the hatchling green sea turtle, chelonia mydas.we studied the control of salt gland secretion in hatchling chelonia mydas. the threshold salt load to activate salt secretion was between 400 mumol nacl 100 g bodymass (bm)-1 and 600 mumol nacl 100 g bm-1, which caused an increase in plasma sodium concentration of 13% to 19%. following a salt load of 2700 mumol nacl 100 g bm-1, salt gland secretion commenced in 12 +/- 1.3 min and reached maximal secretory concentration within 2-7 min. maximal secretory rate of a single gland averaged 415 mumol ...200010707322
an outbreak of salmonellosis linked to a marine september 1998, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a coastal aboriginal community in the northern territory over a seven day period. an investigation was conducted by the center for disease control, territory health services. thirty-six cases were detected and 17% (n=6) were hospitalized. salmonella chester was isolated from eight of nine stool specimens. sixty-two percent of cases interviewed (n=28) reported consumption of a green turtle (chelonia mydas) within a median of 24 hours p ...199910774704
assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in hawaiian green turtles, chelonia immature green turtles, chelonia mydas, captured from kaneohe bay on the island of oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (ewl) in freund's complete adjuvant, gerbu, or isa-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). cell-mediated immune response was measured ...200010802287
growth-related changes in heavy metal accumulation in green turtle (chelonia mydas) from yaeyama islands, okinawa, japan.concentrations of nine heavy metals (fe, mn, zn, cu, pb, ni, cd, co, and hg) were determined in liver, kidney, and muscle of 50 green turtles (chelonia mydas) collected from yaeyama islands, okinawa, japan, to elucidate growth-related changes in heavy metal accumulation during different growth stage. considerably high cu concentrations were found in the liver of smaller turtles. mean hepatic concentration of cu was 50.2 microg/g wet weight which varied widely (4.27-113 microg/g wet weight). cadm ...200010948289
detection of herpesviral sequences in tissues of green turtles with fibropapilloma by polymerase chain alpha-herpesvirus has been associated recently with green turtle fibropapilloma (fp). to further clarify the role of this newfound green turtle herpesvirus (gthv) in the pathogenesis of fp, various normal-appearing tissues and organs (including skin, eye, brain, heart, liver, spleen, intestine, lung, kidney, nerve, gonad, tongue, gall bladder, urinary bladder, thyroid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from blood) and tumor tissues from 19 green turtles (chelonia mydas) with fp, an ...200011043948
persistent infectivity of a disease-associated herpesvirus in green turtles after exposure to seawater.herpesviruses are associated with several diseases of marine turtles including lung-eye-trachea disease (letd) and gray patch disease (gpd) of green turtles (chelonia mydas) and fibropapillomatosis (fp) of green, loggerhead (caretta caretta), and olive ridley turtles (lepidochelys olivacea). the stability of chelonian herpesviruses in the marine environment, which may influence transmission, has not been previously studied. in these experiments, letd-associated herpesvirus (letv) was used as a m ...200011085447
amplification and analysis of dna flanking known sequences of a novel herpesvirus from green turtles with fibropapilloma brief report.a 1,632-bp fragment, flanking the original 483-bp region of the dna polymerase gene of a novel herpesvirus found in tissues of green turtles (chelonia mydas) with fibropapilloma, was amplified from the circularized ecori-cut dna extracted from tumor tissues by inverse pcr. the resultant 2,019-bp partial sequence of the dna polymerase gene of the newfound herpesvirus, including the original 483-bp region, showed a high degree of homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels with that of o ...200011205112
diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in hermann's tortoise (testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (testudo graeca), and other tortoises in europe and the united states. herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the ...200011228895
development of the pulmonary surfactant system in non-mammalian amniotes.pulmonary surfactant (ps) is a complex mixture of phospholipids, neutral lipids and proteins that lines the inner surface of the lung. here, it modulates surface tension thereby increasing lung compliance and preventing the transudation of fluid. in mammals, the ps system develops towards the end of gestation, characterized by an increase in the saturation of phospholipids in lung washings and the appearance of surfactant proteins in amniotic fluid. birth, the transition from in utero to the ext ...200111369533
subcellular distribution of trace elements in the liver of sea turtles.subcellular distribution of cu, zn, se, rb, mo, ag, cd and pb was determined in the liver of green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from yaeyama islands, japan. also, hepatic cytosol from sea turtles was applied on a sephadex g-75 column and elution profiles of trace elements were examined. copper, zn, se, rb, ag and cd were largely present in cytosol in the liver of both species, indicating that cytosol was the significant site for the accumulation of thes ...200212398389
bacteraemia in free-ranging hawaiian green turtles chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis.past studies of free-ranging green turtles chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (fp) in hawaii have shown that animals become immunosuppressed with increasing severity of this disease. additionally, preliminary clinical examination of moribund turtles with fp revealed that some animals were also bacteraemic. we tested the hypothesis that bacteraemia in sea turtles is associated with the severity of fp. we captured free-ranging green turtles from areas in hawaii where fp is absent, and areas w ...200312608567
induction of vitellogenesis by estradiol-17beta and development of enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays to quantify plasma vitellogenin levels in green turtles (chelonia mydas).treatment of juvenile green turtles (chelonia mydas) with estradiol-17beta resulted in the induction of a 200 kda plasma protein, consistent with vitellogenin (vtg). the n-terminal 15 amino acids of the anion exchange purified protein shared sequence homologies with vitellogenins of several vertebrate species. rabbit antiserum raised against purified vtg recognized the plasma protein as well as several yolk proteins. monoclonal antibody (mab) hl1248, produced by inoculating mice with turtle yolk ...200312831775
learedius learedi infection in black turtles (chelonia mydas agassizii), baja california sur, turtle (chelonia mydas agassizii) carcasses, recovered as a result of incidental capture in magdalena bay, mexico, revealed invasion by spirorchiid trematode eggs in liver, kidney, intestines, muscle, heart, pancreas, and duodenum. seventy-five adult learedius learedi price, 1934, were recovered from the heart of 1 turtle. most of the organs showed a mild or absent inflammatory response in histological sections, with the exception of a pancreatic-duodenal section that revealed severe lymph ...200415270115
digestive pathology of sea turtles stranded in the canary islands between 1993 and 2001.digestive lesions were observed in 84 of 136 sea turtles (128 caretta caretta, four chelonia mydas and four dermochelys coriacea) stranded in the canary islands between january 1993 and december 2001. in the oral cavity ulcerative and necropurulent stomatitis were the most frequently observed lesions, and in the oesophagus ulcerative and fibrinous oesophagitis, and traumatic oesophageal perforation were most frequently observed; all these lesions were mainly associated with the ingestion of fish ...200415357377
genomic variation of the fibropapilloma-associated marine turtle herpesvirus across seven geographic areas and three host species.fibropapillomatosis (fp) of marine turtles is an emerging neoplastic disease associated with infection by a novel turtle herpesvirus, fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (fpthv). this report presents 23 kb of the genome of an fpthv infecting a hawaiian green turtle (chelonia mydas). by sequence homology, the open reading frames in this contig correspond to herpes simplex virus genes ul23 through ul36. the order, orientation, and homology of these putative genes indicate that fpthv is a ...200515613340
diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the canary islands, spain (1998-2001).this paper lists the pathological findings and causes of mortality of 93 sea turtles (88 caretta caretta, 3 chelonia mydas, and 2 dermochelys coriacea) stranded on the coasts of the canary islands between january 1998 and december 2001. of these, 25 (26.88%) had died of spontaneous diseases including different types of pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, septicemic processes and neoplasm. however, 65 turtles (69.89%) had died from lesions associated with human activities such as boat-strike injuri ...200515759796
plastic debris ingestion by sea turtle in paraíba, brazil.coastal gill net entanglement and debris intake are important threats to the survival of sea turtles. two sea turtles (lepidochelys olivacea and chelonia mydas) were found stranded along the coast of paraíba. after necropsy, plastic debris were found in the stomach. the debris is described. this is the first record of this sort of problem for the paraíba littoral.200415341830
circulating serotonin in vertebrates.the role of circulating serotonin is unclear and whether or not serotonin is present in the blood of non-mammalian species is not known. this study provides the first evidence for the presence of serotonin in thrombocytes of birds and three reptilian species, the endothermic leatherback sea turtle, the green sea turtle and the partially endothermic american alligator. thrombocytes from a fresh water turtle, american bullfrog, yellowfin tuna, and chinook salmon did not contain serotonin. serotoni ...200516041566
conservation genetics of the east pacific green turtle (chelonia mydas) in michoacan, mexico.the main continental nesting rookeries of the east pacific green turtle (epgt), chelonia mydas, on the michoacan (mexico) coast suffered drastic population declines following intense exploitation in the 1960s--1970s with annual abundance of nesting females plummeting from about 25,000 to an average of about 1400 between 1982 and 2001. analyses of data from three ndna microsatellite loci and 400 bp mtdna control region sequences from a total of 123 nesting females sampled from four michoacan rook ...200415330119
vitellogenin in black turtle (chelonia mydas agassizii): purification, partial characterization, and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for its turtle plasmatic vitellogenin (vtg) was purified from 17beta-estradiol-induced males using ion-exchange chromatography. the isolated protein was identified as vtg by its glycolipoprotein nature and amino acid sequence homology with other vertebrate vtg. it was characterized as a 500-kda dimer composed of two identical, 200- to 240-kda monomers. polyclonal antibodies raised against black turtle vtg showed high titer and specificity, as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and w ...200616519309
cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the hawaiian islands.for the first time, cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, chelonia mydas, from the hawaiian islands. the oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of cryptosporidium parvum.199716535658
purification, characterization and comparison of reptile lysozymes.cation exchange column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify four reptile lysozymes from egg white: sstl a and sstl b from soft shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis), astl from asiatic soft shelled turtle (amyda cartilagenea) and gstl from green sea turtle (chelonia mydas). the molecular masses of the purified reptile lysozymes were estimated to be 14 kda by sds-page. enzyme activity of the four lysozymes could be confirmed by gel zymograms and showed charge difference ...200616549391
effects of organochlorine compounds on cytochrome p450 aromatase activity in an immortal sea turtle cell line.many classes of environmental contaminants affect the reproductive function of animals through interactions with the endocrine system. the primary components affected by endocrine active compounds (eacs) are the steroid receptors and the enzymes responsible for steroidogenesis. this study sought to develop an in vitro model for assessing eac effects in sea turtles by examining their ability to alter cytochrome p450 aromatase (cyp19) activity. aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the conversio ...200415178053
the ozobranchus leech is a candidate mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus found latently infecting skin tumors on hawaiian green turtles (chelonia mydas).fibropapillomatosis (fp) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. a fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (fpthv) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. dna from an array of parasites of green turtles (chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative pcr (qpcr) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for fpthv. marine leeches (ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral ...200415033569
lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, terrapene carolina.the limb girdles and lungs of turtles are both located within the bony shell, and therefore limb movements during locomotion could affect breathing performance. a mechanical conflict between locomotion and lung ventilation has been reported in adult green sea turtles, chelonia mydas, in which breathing stops during terrestrial locomotion and resumes during pauses between bouts of locomotion. we measured lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion using pneumotach masks in three individual terra ...200312939371
basic oxidative stress metabolites in eastern pacific green turtles (chelonia mydas agassizii).analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters, including oxidative stress indicators, is an invaluable tool in wildlife health assessment, particularly for threatened or endangered species. this study was aimed at obtaining baseline information of oxidative stress indicators in eastern pacific green turtles (chelonia mydas agassizii) from a relatively undisturbed habitat at bahía magdalena, baja california sur, mexico. tissues were analyzed for superoxide radical (o(2)(*-) production, lip ...200716931166
amino acid sequence and activity of green turtle (chelonia mydas) turtle lysozyme purified from egg white was sequenced and analyzed its activity. lysozyme was reduced and pyridylethylated or carboxymethylated to digest with trypsin, chymotrypsin and v8 protease. the peptides yielded were purified by rp-hplc and sequenced. every trypsin peptide was overlapped by chymotrypsin peptides and v8 protease peptides. this lysozyme is composed of 130 amino acids including an insertion of a gly residue between 47 and 48 residues when compared with chicken lysozyme ...200616947076
fluoride content by ion chromatography using a suppressed conductivity detector and osmolality of bitterns discharged into the pacific ocean from a saltworks: feasible causal agents in the mortality of green turtles (chelonia mydas) in the ojo de liebre lagoon, baja california sur, mexico.on december 1997, 94 corpses of green turtles, chelonia mydas, were found at the ojo de liebre lagoon (oll) adjacent to the industrial operation of exportadora de sal s. a (essa), the largest saltworks in the world, owned by the mexican government and mitsubishi corporation, located in baja california sur, mexico. every year about 551 x 10(6) m3 of seawater is solar evaporated, producing 7 x 10(6) tons of salt and 24.6 x 10(6) m3 of bitterns, the latter being discharged into the oll, which is a ...200212243394
marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern brazil.dead stranded sea turtles were recovered and examined to determine the impact of anthropogenic debris and fishery activities on sea turtles on the coast of rio grande do sul state, brazil. esophagus/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead caretta caretta, and two leatherback dermochelys coriacea turtles (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the main debris ingested, predominated by white and colorless pieces. the ingestion of anthropogeni ...200111827120
the diving behaviour of green turtles undertaking oceanic migration to and from ascension island: dive durations, dive profiles and depth distribution.satellite telemetry was used to record the submergence duration of green turtles (chelonia mydas) as they migrated from ascension island to brazil (n=12 individuals) while time/depth recorders (tdrs) were used to examine the depth distribution and dive profiles of individuals returning to ascension island to nest after experimental displacement (n=5 individuals). satellite telemetry revealed that most submergences were short (<5 min) but that some submergences were longer (>20 min), particularly ...200111809783
aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (chelonia mydas) from tortuguero national park, costa rica.bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (chelonia mydas) from tortuguero national park, costa rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. a total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 gram-negative and three gram-positive genera. two hundred thirty-nine were gram-negative and 86 were gram-positive isolates. klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal ...200617315444
survey of florida green turtles for exposure to a disease-associated herpesvirus.a recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to assess exposure of florida wild green turtles chelonia mydas to letv, the herpesvirus associated with lung-eye-trachea disease (letd). plasma samples from 329 wild juvenile green turtles netted in the indian river lagoon, along the sebastian reef, or in the trident basin (indian river and brevard counties, florida) were tested by elisa for the presence of antibodies to letv. plasma samples from 180 wild juvenile green tur ...200111804414
detection of antibodies to a disease-associated herpesvirus of the green turtle, chelonia mydas.lung-eye-trachea disease-associated herpesvirus (letv) is linked with morbidity and mortality in mariculture-reared green turtles, but its prevalence among and impact on wild marine turtle populations is unknown. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detection of anti-letv antibodies and could distinguish letv-exposed green turtles from those with antibodies to fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus (fphv). plasma from two captive-reared green turtles immunized with ...200111574574
specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from ishigaki island, japan.concentrations of total arsenic (as) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from ishigaki island, japan. in both species, total as concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. high concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. a significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (scl), an indicator of age, and total as levels in green turtl ...200817728031
spirorchiidiosis (digenea: spirorchiidae) and lesions associated with parasites in caribbean green turtles (chelonia mydas).forty-seven nesting green turtles (chelonia mydas) were examined for parasitic pathogens. four species of cardiovascular flukes (digenea: spirorchiidae), learedius learedi, hapalotrema postorchis, monticellius indicum and amphiorchis solus were collected from 39 of 40 of the turtles, and neospirorchis species were identified in seven of the 47 by histological examination. the pathological changes associated with the spirorchiids and their eggs included aneurysms, arteritis of great vessels with ...200717921440
open-sea migration of magnetically disturbed sea turtles (chelonia mydas) that shuttle between their brazilian feeding grounds and nesting beaches at ascension island in the middle of the atlantic ocean are a paradigmatic case of long-distance oceanic migrants. it has been suggested that they calculate their position and the direction of their target areas by using the inclination and intensity of the earth's magnetic field. to test this hypothesis, we tracked, by satellite, green turtles during their postnesting migration from ascension ...200011044382
association of herpesvirus with fibropapillomatosis of the green turtle chelonia mydas and the loggerhead turtle caretta caretta in florida.sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (fp) is a disease marked by proliferation of benign but debilitating cutaneous fibropapillomas and occasional visceral fibromas. transmission experiments have implicated a chloroform-sensitive transforming agent present in filtered cell-free tumor homogenates in the etiology of fp. in this study, consensus primer pcr methodology was used to test the association of a chelonian herpesvirus with fibropapillomatosis. fibropapilloma and skin samples were obtained from 1 ...199910494499
a new pronocephalid, pleurogonius tortugueroi n. sp. (digenea), from the intestine of green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) in costa rica.a new species of trematode, pleurogonius tortugueroi n. sp. (digenea: pronocephalidae) is described from the lower intestine of green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) from tortuguero national park, costa rica. the new species differs from all other species of pleurogonius by having a short oesophagus and oval testes close to lateral posterior limit of the body. it differs from all other species, except p. malaclemys hunter 1961, by having an ovary between the testes; moreover the latter species is a ...200718412051
the navigational feats of green sea turtles migrating from ascension island investigated by satellite telemetry.previous tagging studies of the movements of green turtles (chelonia mydas) nesting at ascension island have shown that they shuttle between this remote target in the atlantic ocean and their feeding grounds on the brazilian coast, a distance of 2300 km or more. since a knowledge of sea turtle migration routes might allow inferences on the still unknown navigational mechanisms of marine animals, we tracked the postnesting migration of six green turtle females from ascension island to brazil. fiv ...19989881473
lesions caused by cardiovascular flukes (digenea: spirorchidae) in stranded green turtles (chelonia mydas).evidence of infection with spirorchid flukes (digenea: spirorchidae) was sought at necropsy of 96 stranded green turtles, chelonia mydas, that were examined during the course of a survey of marine turtle mortality in southeastern queensland, australia. three species of spirorchid (hapalotrema mehrai, h. postorchis, and neospirorchis schistosomatoides) were identified. severe disease due to spirorchid fluke infection (spirorchidiasis) was implicated as the principal cause of mortality in 10 turtl ...19989545132
first report of monticellius indicum mehra, 1939 (digenea: spirorchiidae) infecting chelonia mydas linnaeus, 1758 (testudines: chelonidae) from brazil. 200818660980
geographic structure of mitochondrial and nuclear gene polymorphisms in australian green turtle populations and male-biased gene flow.the genetic structure of green turtle (chelonia mydas) rookeries located around the australian coast was assessed by (1) comparing the structure found within and among geographic regions, (2) comparing microsatellite loci vs. restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of anonymous single copy nuclear dna (ascndna) loci, and (3) comparing the structure found at nuclear dna markers to that of previously analyzed mitochondrial (mtdna) control region sequences. significant genetic structure w ...19979409840
natural beaches confer fitness benefits to nesting marine turtles.coastal ecosystems provide vital linkages between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and thus support extremely high levels of biodiversity. however, coastlines also contain the highest densities of human development anywhere on the planet and are favoured destinations for tourists, creating a situation where the potential for negative effects on coastal species is extremely high. i gathered data on marine turtle reproductive output from the literature to determine whether coastal development nega ...200818765355
local genetic structure within two rookeries of chelonia mydas (the green turtle).we used multilocus minisatellite dna fingerprinting to examine the local genetic structure within nesting populations of green turtles (chelonia mydas) in tortuguero, costa rica and melbourne, florida, usa. in the tortuguero population, there was a significant negative correlation between genetic similarity of pairs of nesting females and the distance between their nest sites both within years (r2 = 0.273; p < 0.001) and between years (r2 = 0.578; p < 0.001). of the 122 female pairs scored for t ...19968972082
localization of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus in green turtles (chelonia mydas) by in-situ hybridization.fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (fpthv) is the presumed aetiological agent of sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (fp). intralesional dna and rna of the virus have been detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse transcriptase-pcr (rt-pcr), respectively, but the exact location and distribution of the virus within the tumours have not been addressed. in this study, in-situ hybridization (ish) was used to investigate viral transcriptional activity and localization of fpthv. twe ...200818823635
detection by elisa of circulating anti-blood fluke (carettacola, hapalotrema, and learedius) immunoglobulins in hawaiian green turtles (chelonia mydas).an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is described utilizing the surface glycocalyx crude antigen of adult blood trematodes learedius learedi, hapalotrema dorsopora, and carettacola hawaiiensis, for the detection of circulating antibodies (ab) in hawaiian green turtles (chelonia mydas) naturally infected with the parasites and with or without green turtle fibropapillomatosis (gtfp). a concentration of 10.0 micrograms/ml of antigen was optimal in terms of test specificity and sensitivity. ...19957776127
high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of atlantic turtles stranded in the canary islands, spain.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs 28, 31, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180, and 209) were measured in tissue samples (liver and fat) from 30 loggerhead turtles caretta caretta, 1 green turtle chelonia mydas, and 1 leatherback dermochelys coriacea stranded on the coasts of the canary islands, trying to establish a possible relation between pcb concentrations and the lesions and causes of death. tissues from these turtles contained higher levels of pcbs than those reported in turtles from other geographical r ...200919062067
molecular evolution and population genetics of greater caribbean green turtles (chelonia mydas) as inferred from mitochondrial dna control region sequences.the molecular evolution and population genetics of migratory green turtles (chelonia mydas) in the greater caribbean were examined with mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region i sequences. a total of 488 base positions (bp) per individual were aligned for 44 individuals from four nesting populations in florida, costa rica, aves island (venezuela), and surinam. twelve sequence polymorphisms were detected, representing ten transitions, one transversion, and one 10-bp repeat. sequence analyses of ...19947729697
discovery of a novel single-stranded dna virus from a sea turtle fibropapilloma by using viral metagenomics.viral metagenomics, consisting of viral particle purification and shotgun sequencing, is a powerful technique for discovering viruses associated with diseases with no definitive etiology, viruses that share limited homology with known viruses, or viruses that are not culturable. here we used viral metagenomics to examine viruses associated with sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (fp), a debilitating neoplastic disease affecting sea turtles worldwide. by means of purifying and shotgun sequencing the ...200919116258
bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles chelonia mydas: an indication of polluted effluents.sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. a total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during june-december of 2003. the bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 4 ...200919185323
hybridization among the ancient mariners: characterization of marine turtle hybrids with molecular genetic assays.reports of hybridization between marine turtle species (family cheloniidae) have been difficult to authenticate based solely on morphological evidence. here we employ molecular genetic assays to document the sporadic, natural occurrence of viable interspecific hybrids between species representing four of the five genera of cheloniid sea turtles. using multiple dna markers from single-copy nuclear loci, eight suspected hybrids (based on morphology) were confirmed to be the products of matings inv ...19957657993
presence of a neurophysin-like precursor in the green turtle (chelonia mydas).a glycoprotein of neurohypophysial origin was found to have cofractionated with fsh prepared from pituitary glands of the green turtle, chelonia mydas. antiserum raised against this preparation contained high antibody titres and affinity for the neurohypophysial component and allowed development of a specific radioimmunoassay to monitor its purification and distribution in the brain. immunocytochemistry revealed that the glycoprotein was concentrated in the pars nervosa and associated nerve trac ...19846434686
annual and diurnal cycles in plasma testosterone and thyroxine in the male green sea turtle chelonia mydas.male plasma testosterone (t) and thyroxine (t4) were monitored over several annual cycles in a captive breeding colony of green sea turtles, chelonia mydas. daily and annual water temperatures varied by only approximately 1 and 3 degrees, respectively. a pronounced season cycle in plasma t was evident in the population as a whole and in individual animals: plasma t was at a nadir (approximately 3 ng/ml) in september-november and then increased progressively to a peak (27-39 ng/ml) in april; leve ...19854039277
chemical contamination of green turtle (chelonia mydas) eggs in peninsular malaysia: implications for conservation and public health.persistent organic pollutants (pops)-such as organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes)-and heavy metals have been reported in sea turtles at various stages of their life cycle. these chemicals can disrupt development and function of wildlife. furthermore, in areas such as peninsular malaysia, where the human consumption of sea turtle eggs is prevalent, egg contamination may also have public health implications.200919750104
conjunctivitis, tracheitis, and pneumonia associated with herpesvirus infection in green sea turtles.fourteen juvenile (15- to 20-month-old) green sea turtles (chelonia mydas), representative of a group of sea turtles with clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, were euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. macroscopically, lesions included periglottal necrosis, tracheitis with intraluminal caseous and laminated necrotic debris, and severe pneumonia. several turtles had caseous conjunctival exudate covering the eyes. microscopically, the turtles had fibrinonecrotic inflammation around the ...19862851569
studies on cardiovascular fluke (digenea: spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtles from the great barrier reef, queensland, australia.twenty-seven sea turtles (23 chelonia mydas and four eretmochelys imbricata) from northeast queensland were found to be infected with cardiovascular flukes and/or their eggs. five had originated from turtle farms in the torres strait, five from an oceanarium on magnetic island (146 degrees 56'e, 19 degrees s) and the remainder from coral reefs in the torres strait or near townsville. the incidence of flukes and/or eggs in the groups was 4.8 per cent (5 of 104), 33.3 per cent (5 of 15) and 72.2 p ...19892584443
canine distemper infection in crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous) from argentina.canine distemper virus (cdv) has been reported worldwide in wild carnivores and has been cited as the cause of population declines in some species. crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous) from el palmar national park, argentina, were observed either dead or exhibiting clinical neurologic signs. samples were taken from two individuals that were laterfound tobe positive for cdv by direct immunofluorescence in brain tissue. based on molecular studies, the cdv strain had a high percentage of identity co ...200919901389
effect of water temperature on a herpesvirus infection of sea turtles.the role of water temperature in the induction and maintenance of a dermal herpesvirus infection (gray-patch disease) of young, green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) was studied under carefully controlled experimental conditions, in which the influence of other recognized stress factors was negligible. a nimals that were subjected to a gradual temperature increase from 25 to 30 degrees c, with subsequent maintenance at 30 degrees c, and those that were abruptly shifted from water at 25 degrees c to ...1977192673
comparative phylogeny and historical perspectives on population genetics of the pacific hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas), inferred from feeding populations in the yaeyama islands, japan.mitochondrial dna sequence polymorphisms and patterns of genetic diversity represent the genealogy and relative impacts of historical, geographic, and demographic events on populations. in this study, historical patterns of population dynamics and differentiation in hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas) in the pacific were estimated from feeding populations in the yaeyama islands, japan. phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes indicated that hawksbill and gre ...201020064003
fibropapillomatosis in stranded green turtles (chelonia mydas) from the eastern united states (1980-98): trends and associations with environmental factors.we examined data collected by the us sea turtle stranding and salvage network on 4,328 green turtles (chelonia mydas) found dead or debilitated (i.e., stranded) in the eastern half of the usa from massachusetts to texas during the period extending from 1980 to 1998. fibropapillomatosis (fp) was reported only on green turtles in the southern half of florida (south of 29 degrees n latitude). within this region, 22.6% (682/3,016) of the turtles had tumors. fibropapillomatosis was more prevalent in ...200515827208
distribution of chelonid fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus variants in florida: molecular genetic evidence for infection of turtles following recruitment to neritic developmental habitats.marine turtle fibropapillomatosis is associated with chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (c-fp-hv) and commonly affects juvenile green turtles (chelonia mydas) in neritic (nearshore) habitats. green turtles have a complex life history, characterized by shifts in trophic level as well as habitat during ontogeny. thus, several hypotheses can be proposed for when turtles become infected with c-fp-hv. they may acquire the virus at an early stage in the life cycle, including prenatal, hatc ...200516244058
structure of the newly found green turtle egg-white ribonuclease.marine green turtle (chelonia mydas) egg-white ribonuclease (gtrnase) was crystallized from 1.1 m ammonium sulfate ph 5.5 and 30% glycerol using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. the structure of gtrnase has been solved at 1.60 a resolution by the molecular-replacement technique using a model based on the structure of rnase 5 (murine angiogenin) from mus musculus (46% identity). the crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group c2, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.271, b = 34.174, c = 3 ...201020606267
from cnidarians to mammals: the use of animals as remedies in fishing communities in ne brazil.this work documents zootherapeutic practices in northeast brazil. it is primarily based on field surveys carried out in fishing villages located in the states of maranhão and paraíba, where 60 respondents (38 men and 22 women) provided information on animal species used as medicine, body parts used to prepare the remedies and illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed. a total of 100 animal species (72 families), distributed in 12 taxonomic categories, was used as medicine. zootherapeutic r ...200616621379
antibiotic resistant bacteria as bio-indicator of polluted effluent in the green turtles, chelonia mydas in oman.antibiotic resistant bacteria were studied as bio-indicators of marine polluted effluents during egg-laying in green turtles. a non-invasive procedure for sampling oviductal fluid was used to test for exposure of turtles to pollution in ras al-hadd, oman, which is one of the most important nesting beaches in the world. each sample was obtained by inserting a 15 cm sterile swab gently into the cloacal vent as the sphincter muscle is relaxed and the cloacal lining is unfolded to the outside. forty ...201021237506
individual variation in feeding habitat use by adult female green sea turtles (chelonia mydas): are they obligately neritic herbivores?satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis were used to confirm that oceanic areas (where water depths are >200 m) are alternative feeding habitats for adult female green sea turtles (chelonia mydas), which have been thought to be obligate herbivores in neritic areas (where depths are <200 m). four females were tagged with satellite transmitters and tracked during post-nesting periods from ogasawara islands, japan. three females migrated to neritic habitats, while transmissions from another ...200616683139
fluke (spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtles stranded on taiwan: prevalence and pathology.abstract the prevalence of spirorchiid fluke infections of marine turtles is high and may cause the death of the hosts throughout their ranges. virtually nothing has been reported regarding the infective status of sea turtles stranded on taiwan. between 2007 and 2010, 30 green turtles (chelonia mydas) and 2 loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta), stranded and dead, were examined for spirorchiid flukes and their eggs. twenty-four of the green turtles were juveniles, and the stranded loggerhead tu ...201122032290
green turtle (chelonia mydas) foraging and nesting aggregations in the caribbean and atlantic: impact of currents and behavior on dispersal.although significant amounts of research have been dedicated to increasing the knowledge of the life history of green turtles (chelonia mydas), large gaps exist in our understanding of juvenile migratory behavior. these gaps can be filled by genetic studies of foraging ground aggregations. using mitochondrial dna markers and bayesian analyses, samples (n = 106) from a foraging aggregation in north carolina indicated that animals from the east coast of the united states (54%) and mexico (27%) dom ...200616782781
testing dispersal hypotheses in foraging green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) of brazil.testing theories of dispersal is challenging in highly migratory species. in sea turtles, population size, geographic distance, natal homing, and ocean currents are hypothesized to affect dispersal. little is known, however, about these mechanisms in sea turtles foraging along the south american coast. green sea turtles feeding at ubatuba (ub, n = 114) and almofala (af, n = 117), brazil, were sequenced at the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region (486 bp) and genotyped at 7 microsatellite loc ...200717158465
metal profiles used as environmental markers of green turtle (chelonia mydas) foraging resources.the baja california peninsula, mexico serves an important role for feeding and developing sea turtles. high concentrations of metals detected in green turtles (chelonia mydas) from magdalena bay prompted an investigation into the sources of metals in the region. we compared metal concentrations in sea turtle tissues with plant species found in their stomach contents, and with the same species of plants collected inside a sea turtle refuge area known as estero banderitas. differences in the metal ...200717188334
digenetic trematode community in nesting green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) from tortuguero national park, costa rica.the digenetic community of 40 green sea turtles (chelonia mydas) was investigated at tortuguero national park, costa rica. in total, 24,270 trematodes belonging to 29 species and 6 families including clinostomidae 1, microscaphidiidae 5, paramphistomidae 2, pronocephalidae 15, rhytidodidae 2, and spirorchiidae 4 were recorded from chelonians examined. turtles harbored a mean of 7.63 +/- 3.5 sd species. only 3 species, i.e., learedius learedi, microscaphidium reticulare, and pyelosomum cochlear, ...200617304795
isolation, characterization, and antibiotic resistance of vibrio spp. in sea turtles from northwestern mexico.the aerobic oral and cloacal bacterial microbiota and their antimicrobial resistance were characterized for 64 apparently healthy sea turtles captured at their foraging grounds in ojo de liebre lagoon (oll), baja california sur (bcs), mexico (pacific ocean) and the lagoon system of navachiste (lsn) and marine area of influence (mai), guasave, sinaloa (gulf of california). a total of 34 black turtles (chelonia mydas agassizii) were sampled in oll and eight black turtles and 22 olive ridley turtle ...201526161078
evidence of fluconazole-resistant candida species in tortoises and sea turtles.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of candida spp. recovered from tortoises (chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (chelonia mydas, caretta caretta, lepidochelys olivacea, eretmochelys imbricata). for this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. the collected specimens were seeded on 2% sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and bioc ...201526363919
some properties of new nesting areas of sea turtles in north-eastern mediterranean situated on the extension of the samandag beach, of the most endangered species in tropical seas, chelonia mydas (green turtles) prefer undisturbed sand beaches to lay their eggs. while caretta caretta lays their eggs all over the mediterranean beaches of turkey, c. mydas nesting locations are limited with north-eastern site (alata, kazanli, akyatan and samandag) of the country and some beaches in cyprus. until 2003, no nesting place of both species between akyatan and samandag was recorded. from north to south, the beaches examined in 200 ...200617402246
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