a study of the composition of fish liver and body oil triglycerides.silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography (ag(+)-hplc) was used to study the range and variations in molecular species of triglycerides from industrial, retail and laboratory extracted fish oils. these were contrasted with a typical plant oil. selected fish oils were fractionated and the fatty acid distribution of the fractions determined by gas-liquid chromatography. fish oils gave a characteristic ag(+)-hplc profile, typified by sharp, intense peaks at the start of the chromatogram and ...19921406065
characterization of vibrio anguillarum and closely related species isolated from farmed fish in norway.a total of 264 bacterial strains tentatively or definitely classified as vibrio anguillarum were examined. the strains were isolated from diseased or healthy norwegian fish after routine autopsy. with the exception of five isolates from wild saithe (pollachius virens), the strains originated from nine different species of farmed fish. the bacteria were subjected to morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies, numerical taxonomical analyses, serotyping by slide agglutination and enzyme- ...19911768147
infestation dynamics of external parasites of saithe (pollachius virens) from the north and norwegian attempt has been made to examine the saithe's external parasites with respect to host age and the reproduction time of clavella adunca in the north sea. 1835 specimens of pollachius virens caught in 1976-1980 and 1986 were examined. they were infested with diclidophora denticulata, udonella caligorum (monogenea) and clavella adunca, lepeophtheirus pollachius, caligus elongatus (copepoda). the large number of adult females of c. adunca in winter and spring, the juvenile forms in summer and for ...19911823481
[detection of antibodies against the larva of anisakis simplex in the pollock pollachius virens using elisa].from the fact that older saithes (more than 5 years old) are showing significantly lower prevalence of attack by anisakis larvae in lateral muscle than younger saithes (3-4 years old), the question arises if this phenomenon is based on a specific immune response. therefore we have investigated serum samples from saithes of different ages by using an indirect elisa to estimate the antibody-titer against excretory-secretory anisakis antigen. results showing a moderate correlation (r = 0.66) betwee ...19911858459
myosin isoforms in red and white muscles of some marine teleost fishes.the myosin content from red and white muscles of three marine fish species, saithe (pollachius virens. l.), haddock (melanogrammus aeglefinus, l.), both members of the family gadidae, and capeline (mallotus villosus, m.) of the family osmeridae, was analyzed electrophoretically. analysis of the native myosin by electrophoresis under non-dissociating conditions revealed two isoforms in red muscles, and three or four in white muscles. the white muscles of the two closely related species had a simi ...19902150675
relationships between plasmids and phenotypes of presumptive strains of vibrio anguillarum isolated from different fish species.on the basis of plasmid composition as well as serological and biochemical properties, 26 strains identified as vibrio anguillarum isolated from diseased fish could be assigned to two different groups. except for three reference strains, these++ strains were isolated from norwegian fish. the four strains isolated from rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), the only strain isolated from char (salvelinus alpinus), and three of six strains isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) harbored a plasmid of ...19892729984
endocytosis of horse-spleen ferritin by bony fish endocardium.the endocytic uptake of horse-spleen ferritin by the endocardial cells in 2 bony-fish species, xiphophorus helleri and pollachius virens, is described. in specimens of x. helleri injected intraperitoneally by a ferritin solution 1/10 h before the sacrifice, the endocardial bristle-coated vesicles, cytoplasmic tubules, and endosomes (smooth vesicles of variable size) contain a number of ferritin particles. these particles are taken up by the bristle-coated vesicles, transferred through the cytopl ...19873111153
entamoeba gadi sp. n. from the rectum of the pollock, pollachius virens (l., 1758), with some observations on its cytochemistry. 19664226197
properties of white trunk muscle from saithe pollachius virens, rainbow trout salmo gairdneri and herring clupea harengus: protein synthesis in vitro, electrophoretic study of proteins.1. ribosomes were isolated from white trunk muscle of saithe (pollachius virens), rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) and herring (clupea harengus). 2. incorporation of amino acids into protein by the ribosomes was determined in systems containing liver cell sap from rainbow trout. 3. incorporation of phenylalanine into protein was as follows: saithe 163.19 +/- 7.64 pmol, rainbow trout 126.99 +/- 3.07 pmol, herring 29.34 +/- 1.28 pmol per g wet weight of tissue and 4 min of incubation at 28 degrees ...19836839712
urinary and biliary metabolites of phenanthrene in the coalfish (pollachius virens).metabolites present in the urine and bile of coalfish (pollachius virens) 48 hrs after the intragastric administration of phenanthrene (75 mg/kg) were studied. using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods small amounts of unchanged compound, all five of the possible monohydroxy derivatives and the 1,2- and 9,10-dihydrodiols of phenanthrene were identified inthese samples. the major metabolite detected was phenanthrene-1,2-dihydrodiol which was excreted mainly as glucuronide and/or sulfat ...19807361566
on the occurrence and morphology of gyrodactylus pterygialis from saithe pollachius virens in a norwegian fjord.a total of 308 pollachius virens from a fjord near bergen, western norway, were examined for gyrodactylus pterygialis over a 14-mo period; g. pterygialis showed the highest prevalence and density in winter/spring (november, january, march, and april pooled) but was absent in some months (august, september, and november). the morphology of the opisthaptoral hard parts of g. pterygialis were studied throughout the survey, and their variation is discussed with respect to host species, host locality ...19947799167
[anisakiasis in the nantes area. from fishmongers' stalls to medical offices].1,103 fish-fillets belonging to 4 species were examined during one year, during a survey conducted among commercial marine fish-fillets in the nantes area (west coast) in france. anisakis simplex l3 were found in 3 different species and most of them are frequently present in coal fish (pollachius virens) and whiting (merlangius merlangus). we report 6 cases of human anisakiasis (3 certain cases and 3 probably cases). diagnosis was established in 3 cases by microscopic analysis of intestin bowel ...19958745739
distribution of whaleworm (anisakis simplex, nematoda, ascaridoidea) l3 larvae in three species of marine fish; saithe (pollachius virens (l.)), cod (gadus morhua l.) and redfish (sebastes marinus (l.)) from norwegian waters.the frequency distribution of anisakis simplex l3 larvae between host tissues was investigated in three host species: saithe, cod and redfish. fish were sampled from norwegian coastal waters and examined for the presence of a. simplex in muscle and viscera. in all three of the host species, a. simplex larvae were most frequently detected in the viscera; the percentages of total infection for saithe, cod and redfish were 99.6%, 97.8% and 88.0%, respectively. in general, the distribution patterns ...19989569092
new data on the early development of hysterothylacium aduncum (nematoda, anisakidae).this note reports on incidental observations of the early development of the third-stage larvae of hysterothylacium aduncum from gadid fishes. gravid h. aduncum females were collected from pollachius virens, pollachius pollachius. gadus morhua, and molva molva in norwegian waters. the eggs were incubated at 20 per thousand salinity and 5 c. spontaneous hatching of third-stage larvae was observed 10-25 days after egg deposition. these larvae were long lived and could infect acartia tonsa copepods ...19989645866
anisakidae larval infection in fish fillets sold in fillets (n = 1760) sold on the belgium market were examined for anisakidae larval infection. seven sea fish species were examined by means of the candling technique over a period of 4 months, from november 1996 to february 1997. third-stage larvae of anisakis simplex and pseudoterranova decipiens were identified. a. simplex was the most abundant species with a prevalence of 84.5%, and was found in 192 of the examined fillets (10.9%). pollock (pollachius pollachius) was the most heavily infe ...199910321017
the genera ceratomyxa thélohan, 1892, leptotheca thélohan, 1895 and sphaeromyxa thélohan, 1892 (myxosporea: bivalvulida) in gadid fish of the northeast atlantic.the gall-bladders of four species of gadid fish from the north sea and norwegian waters were examined for myxosporeans. the host species were cod gadus morhua l. (350 examined), haddock melanogrammus aeglefinus (l.) (592 examined), saithe pollachius virens (l.) (205 examined) and whiting merlangius merlangus (l.) (368 examined). four species of myxosporeans are redescribed from these fish. ceratomyxa arcuata thélohan, 1892 was the most common species and was found in whiting (41.8%) and cod (0.6 ...199910619068
"spring rise" of whaleworm (anisakis simplex; nematoda, ascaridoidea) third-stage larvae in some fish species from norwegian waters.the seasonal variation in the infection of saithe (pollachius virens), cod (gadus morhua), and redfish (sebastes marinus) from a coastal area of central norway with anisakis simplex third-stage larvae (l3) was studied over a period of 1 year. in all three host species there was an increase in the abundance of the parasite in spring, with a peak appearing in march and april. cod displayed the most distinct seasonal variation, showing a clear abundance peak in april. the abundance peak in april fo ...200010952259
investigation into the susceptibility of saithe pollachius virens to infectious salmon anaemia virus (isav) and their potential role as a vector for viral transmission.wild-caught saithe pollachius virens were experimentally exposed to an isolate of infectious salmon anaemia virus (isav) of norwegian origin. mortality attributable to isav did not occur following exposure by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of virus or by cohabitation with isav-infected atlantic salmon salmo salar. despite the individual testing of 120 isav-exposed saithe, isav was not detectable using rt-pcr, the most sensitive isav diagnostic tool demonstrated to date. furthermore, saithe ex ...200212152900
antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fish epidermis and epidermal mucus.annual discards from the world fisheries are estimated to be approximately 20 million metric tonnes (25%) per year. the main objective of this work is to increase the utilisation of by-products (notably skin) from fish species in order to isolate new biologically active compounds. this study presents the results of a screening program for antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities in epidermal mucus and epidermis extracts of thirteen fish species that are commonly caught in north atlanti ...200212385701
growth of whaleworm (anisakis simplex, nematodes, ascaridoidea, anisakidae) third-stage larvae in paratenic fish hosts.the growth of anisakis simplex l3 larvae in the three paratenic hosts saithe ( pollachius virens), cod (gadus morhua) and redfish (sebastes marinus) was studied based on material collected off the island of vega on the west coast of norway over a period of 1 year. in all three fish species, a positive correlation between the length of larvae and the age of the fish was shown. the number of large larvae, here defined as l3>28 mm, increases with increasing age of the host. these findings clearly i ...200312632142
isolation of the xoytocin-like pituitary principle of a teleost fish (pollachius virens) and comparison of its properties with those of synthetic 4-serine, 8-isoleucine oxytocin. 196314065121
the life cycle of anisakis simplex in the norwegian deep (northern north sea).copepoda (calanus finmarchicus n = 1,722, paraeuchaeta norvegica n = 1,955), hyperiidae (n = 3,019), euphausiacea (meganyctiphanes norvegica n = 4,780), and the fishes maurolicus muelleri (n = 500) and pollachius virens (n = 33) were collected in the norwegian deep (northern north sea) during summer 2001 to examine the importance of pelagic invertebrates and vertebrates as hosts of anisakis simplex and their roles in the transfer of this nematode to its final hosts (cetaceans). third stage larva ...200415278439
lack of evidence of infectious salmon anemia virus in pollock pollachius virens cohabitating with infected farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar.the infectious salmon anemia (isa) virus causes lethargy, anemia, hemorrhage of the internal organs, and death in farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar. it has been a cause of disease in norwegian farmed atlantic salmon since 1984 and has since been identified in canada, scotland, the united states, and the faroe islands. wild fish have been proposed as a viral reservoir because they are capable of close contact with farmed salmon. laboratory studies have shown that brown trout and sea trout salmo ...200415584421
morphometric discrimination of two allozymically diagnosed sibling species of the echinorhynchus gadi zoega in muller complex (acanthocephala) in the north sea.allozyme electrophoresis was used to detect biological species of the e. gadi complex from gadids from the northern north sea. a fixed difference at one of nine enzyme loci surveyed confirmed the existence of two reproductively isolated, sympatric species. mixed infections of two e. gadi spp. (termed a and b) were observed in gadus morhua and pollachius virens. e. gadi sp. b was also found in melanogrammus aeglefinus and merlangius merlangus. the presence of gravid females of e. gadi spp. a and ...200515841350
risk factors for outbreaks of infectious salmon anemia in farmed atlantic salmon, salmo salar.infectious salmon anemia (isa) is a viral disease occurring in farmed atlantic salmon (salmo salar) that is characterized by lethargy, anorexia, anemia and death. to control the disease in new brunswick, canada, 7.5 million fish from outbreak cages have been destroyed since 1997. despite changes made by farmers, 2002 was the worst year ever for isa losses in the region. we evaluated the associations between potential risk factors and isa outbreaks in the atlantic-salmon sites in new brunswick. t ...200516188335
cathepsin d from atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) liver. isolation and comparative studies.the isolated cathepsin d-like enzyme from atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) liver was shown to be a monomer with a molecular mass of approximately 40 kda. it was inhibited by pepstatin a and had an optimum for degradation of haemoglobin at ph 3.0. the purified enzyme had lower temperature stability than bovine cathepsin d. antibodies raised against the purified enzyme and against two c-terminal peptides of cod cathepsin d recognized a 40 kda protein in immunoblotting of the samples from the purific ...200717428719
characterization of volatile compounds in a fermented and dried fish product during cold storage.the northern european production technique for dry-cured meat sausages was used to produce a sliceable, fermented, and dried fish product rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa). the fatty fish atlantic salmon (salmo salar), the lean fish saithe (pollachius virens) (1:1, w/w), lactobacillus sakei, and 4 different milk protein-based ingredients were used in the recipes. the changes in the volatile compounds during cold storage (+4 degrees c) of vacuum-packed dried sausages were studied ...200717995693
distribution of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) in wild marine fish from scottish waters with respect to clinically infected aquaculture sites producing atlantic salmon, salmo salar l.this study represents the first large-scale investigation of ipnv in scottish wild marine fish. kidney samples were taken from 30 627 fish comprising 37 species and 45 isolations were made from nine different species, illustrating these as reservoirs of ipnv in scottish waters. the estimated prevalence of ipnv in the scottish marine environment was low at 0.15% (90% confidence intervals, (ci) of 0.11-0.19%). this was significantly greater in fish caught less than 5.0 km from ipn-positive fish fa ...200818261031
high-speed assessment of fat and water content distribution in fish fillets using online imaging spectroscopy.a nondestructive method using online spectral imaging has been developed for quantitative measurements of moisture and fat distribution in six species of fish fillets: atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus), catfish (icatalurus punctatus), cod (gadus morhua), mackerel (scomber japonicus), herring (clupea harengus), and saithe (pollachius virens). a spectral image cube was acquired for each fish fillet, and a subsampling approach for relating spectral and chemical features was applied. spec ...200818656933
use of a commercial protease and yeasts to obtain cgrp-like molecules from saithe protein.different bioactive molecules, such as cgrp-like peptides, can be found in fish protein hydrolysates. calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) is a neuropeptide known to act as a potent arterial and venous vasodilator in humans. this study focuses on the industrial obtaining of cgrp-like molecules from saithe (pollachius virens) byproduct, derived from the filleting process. protein from p. virens was primarily hydrolyzed with alcalase and later treated with saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells. tr ...200818707122
screening and characterisation of potentially pathogenic bacteria associated with atlantic cod gadus morhua larvae: bath challenge trials using a multidish intensive aquaculture systems, high concentrations of nutrients and high densities of fish larvae provide favorable conditions for opportunistic pathogenic bacteria to flourish. we screened potentially pathogenic bacterial strains isolated from moribund atlantic cod gadus morhua larvae, pollack pollachius pollachius, coalfish pollachius virens, atlantic halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus, rotifers, algae and water samples from different hatcheries. three identical challenge experiments tested ...200818998585
ecological meltdown in the firth of clyde, scotland: two centuries of change in a coastal marine ecosystem.the firth of clyde is a large inlet of the sea that extends over 100 km into scotland's west coast.201020686614
characteristics of freeze-dried fish protein isolated from saithe (pollachius virens).fish proteins isolated from by-products or low commercial/underutilized species using ph-shift process is a new source of proteins that may be used as wet or dried ingredients to develop value-added convenience foods. this paper reports the effects of freeze-drying on characteristics of fish protein isolates (fpi) from saithe (pollachius virens) with or without lyoprotectants. freeze-dried saithe mince from the same lot and without additives was used as a control. the resulting fish protein powd ...201123729850
erod activity in gill filaments of anadromous and marine fish as a biomarker of dioxin-like pollutants.the applicability of a gill filament-based ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) assay, originally developed in rainbow trout, was examined in atlantic salmon (salmo salar), arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus), atlantic cod (gadus morhua), saithe (pollachius virens) and spotted wolffish (anarhichas minor). all species but spotted wolffish showed strong erod induction in tip pieces of gill filaments following 48 h of exposure to waterborne beta-naphthoflavone. atlantic salmon parr, smolts held in fre ...200314659457
development and validation of a range of endogenous controls to support the implementation of practical taqman real-time pcr-based surveillance for fish diseases within aquaculture.the use of taqman real-time pcr-based technology has recently become more frequent in the detection of pathogens in the aquaculture industry. this interest has necessitated the development of robust and reliable pathogen-detection assays. the development of a range of endogenous control assays to be run alongside these diagnostic assays works to further increase confidence in the latter. this study describes the design of a range of endogenous control assays based on the elongation factor 1-α (e ...201222524565
dna barcoding for detecting market substitution in salted cod fillets and battered cod chunks.the italian ministry of agricultural, food and forestry policies (mipaaf) decree dated 31 january 2008, which reports the italian name for fish species of commercial interest, establishes that baccalà can be obtained exclusively from g. macrocephalus (pacific cod) and g. morhua (atlantic cod). this paper describes the coi-based dna identification system to verify the substitution or misbranding of gadoid fish species and, consequently, its concordance with the labels on salted cod fillets shown ...201323870888
fatty acid and lipid class composition in eyes and brain from teleosts and elasmobranchs.the fatty acid and lipid class composition of the eyes and brain were determined for the following species: atlantic cod (gadus morhua), saithe (pollachius virens), redfish (sebastes marinus), atlantic salmon (salmo salar), rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), portuguese dogfish (centroscymnus coelolepis), black dogfish (centroscyllium fabricii), and leafscale gulper shark (centrophorus squamosus). fatty acid analyses of eyes from teleosts in the present study indicated that the lean species con ...200415193274
skeletal muscle capillary supply in a fish that lacks respiratory pigments.the relationship between capillary density and mitochondrial volume density has been investigated for the slow trunk muscle of the haemoglobinless 'icefish', chaenocephalus aceratus lönnberg. in general, for teleost slow muscles capillary densities, na(c,f), are positively correlated with mitochondrial volume densities, vv(mit,f). however, the capillary density for the slow trunk muscle of the icefish is low (544 +/- 24 capillaries/mm2) when compared with teleosts of similar mitochondrial volume ...19846494646
detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by gc-icpms analysis.the present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (gc) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (icpms). the procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (engraulis ringens), atlantic herring (clupea harengus), sand eel (ammody ...201323620370
pfaas in fish and other seafood products from icelandic waters.perfluorinatedalkyl acids (pfaas) are of growing concern due to possible health effects on humans. exposure assessments indicate that fish consumption is one of the major sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) exposure to humans, one of the major pfass, whereas concerns of overestimation of this exposure source have been raised. therefore, pfaas concentrations in fish from the north atlantic (icelandic fishing grounds) in the flesh of different fish species were investigated along with more ...201424782899
ræstur fiskur: air-dried fermented fish the faroese has played an important role in the diet of the population of the mid-atlantic faroe islands. dried and fermented fish in particular have been an essential storable protein source in an economy where weather conditions and seasonal fluctuations affect the availability of food. for generations the islanders have prepared ræstur fiskur, a home-made air-dried and fermented fish dish made of atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) or saithe (pollachius virens (l.)). fermenting the fish is an efficient a ...201526537479
temporal variation in environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages around an offshore oil platform in the north sea.this study reports temporal variations in the environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages observed in the vicinity of an offshore oil platform and the surrounding seafloor in the north sea. multi-seasonal sampling was conducted at a typical large steel jacketed facility, using mid-water fish traps at three different depths (i.e., 10, 50 & 100 m). commercially important gadoids such as saithe pollachius virens, haddock melanogrammus aeglefinus and cod gadus morhua were the most ...201525965149
inferring fish escape behaviour in trawls based on catch comparison data: model development and evaluation based on data from skagerrak, denmark.during the fishing process, fish react to a trawl with a series of behaviours that often are species and size specific. thus, a thorough understanding of fish behaviour in relation to fishing gear and a scientific understanding of the ability of different gear designs to utilize or stimulate various behavioural patterns during the catching process are essential for developing more efficient, selective, and environmentally friendly trawls. although many behavioural studies using optical and acous ...201424586403
latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the norwegian coast.the latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (pops: legacy organochlorines [ocs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [pbdes,] and hexabromocyclododecane [hbcd]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°n) on the norwegian coast. cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of pops than saithe, probably because of higher exposure i ...201222734881
do salmon farms increase the concentrations of mercury and other elements in wild fish?earlier assessments have suggested that salmon farms may act as a source of mercury (hg) and other elements in local marine environments. in this study, we measured 30 elements in the livers of demersal atlantic cod (gadus morhua) and pelagic saithe (pollachius virens) caught in association with salmon farms (farm associated [fa]; n = 75) or at reference locations (control; n = 80) in three regions throughout the latitudinal extent of norway (59-70° n). concentrations of most elements (24 of 30) ...201121589984
proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish.ecological traps form when artificial structures are added to natural habitats and induce mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences. their existence in terrestrial systems has been documented, yet little evidence suggests they occur in marine environments. coastal fish farms are widespread artificial structures in coastal ecosystems and are highly attractive to wild fish.201121264217
salmon farms as a source of organohalogenated contaminants in wild fish.organohalogenated contaminants (ohcs), including organochlorines (ocs; pcb, and oc-pesticides), brominated flame retardants (bfrs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers [pbde], hexabromocyclododecane [hbcd]) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos), were measured in livers of atlantic cod (gadus morhua) and saithe (pollachius virens) caught in the vicinity of salmon farms (n = 75) and control sites (n = 80) in three regions (59°-70°n) in norway. forty-five percent of the farm-associated (fa) fish (60% of t ...201020977203
chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.the chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. the main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (scomber scombrus). in general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed ...200717208480
identification of gadoid species in fish meat by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) on genomic dna.identification of fish species is significant due to the increasing interest of consumers in the meat of sea fish. methods focusing on fish species identification help to reveal fraudulent substitution among economically important gadoid species in commercial seafood products. the objective of this work was to develop a conventional pcr method for the differentiation of the following gadoid fish species in fish products: alaska pollack ( theragra chalcogramma), blue whiting ( micromesistius pout ...200818454544
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