[anisakids and human anisakiasis. 2. investigation of the anisakids of commercial fish in the district of paris].1,173 fish belonging to 13 species were examined during 1986-1987, during a survey conducted among commercial marine fish in the paris area (france). anisakis simplex l3 were found in 10 different species, and most frequently in herring (clupea harengus) 82.55% of 682 fish, red fish (sebastes marinus) 86.11% of 36 fish, and hake (merluccius merluccius) 88.57% of 35 fish, and in high number (average 8.8, 18.4 and 31 l3 per fish). pseudoterranova decipiens l3 were recovered from 7 different specie ...19883190121
intraoperative cardioplegic contrast echocardiography for assessing myocardial perfusion during open heart surgery.aortic root hypothermic, hyperkalemic cardioplegic perfusion has been shown to preserve ventricular function during open heart surgery. however, significant coronary artery stenoses may prevent adequate perfusion of myocardial regions distal to the lesions, leading to intraoperative ischemia and damage. the purpose of this study was to evaluate for the first time in human patients the use of intraoperative contrast cardioplegic echocardiography for identifying potentially jeopardized myocardial ...19846333444
kinetics of interactions of lactic acid, ph and atmosphere on the growth and survival of yersinia enterocolitica ip 383 o:9 at 4 degrees c.the influence of different lactic acid concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1% v/v), within ph range of 3.9 to 5.8 on the aerobic and anaerobic growth and survival kinetics of the virulent strain of y. enterocolitica ip 383 o:9, was determined in tryptone soy broth at 4 degrees c. growth and survival data were analyzed and fitted by a modification of the whiting and cygnarowicz-provost model, using the minpack software library. initial generation times, initial specific growth rates, lag t ...19958579992
[anisakiasis in the nantes area. from fishmongers' stalls to medical offices].1,103 fish-fillets belonging to 4 species were examined during one year, during a survey conducted among commercial marine fish-fillets in the nantes area (west coast) in france. anisakis simplex l3 were found in 3 different species and most of them are frequently present in coal fish (pollachius virens) and whiting (merlangius merlangus). we report 6 cases of human anisakiasis (3 certain cases and 3 probably cases). diagnosis was established in 3 cases by microscopic analysis of intestin bowel ...19958745739
growth and survival kinetics of yersinia enterocolitica ip 383 0:9 as affected by equimolar concentrations of undissociated short-chain organic acids.the influence of different organic acids (lactic, acetic, formic and propionic acids) at equimolar concentrations of undissociated acid with ph range of 3.9, 5.8, on the aerobic and anaerobic growth and survival kinetics of the virulent strain of y. enterocolitica ip 383 0:9, was determined in tryptone soy broth at 4 degrees c. growth and survival data were analyzed and fitted by a modification of the whiting and cygnarowicz-provost model, using the minpack software library. initial generation t ...19979039569
ulcerative dermatitis associated with uronema sp infection of farmed sand whiting sillago ciliata. 19979196825
a mathematical model for bacterial inactivation.the first order kinetic model, the buchanan model and cerf's model, can model a linear survival curve, a survival curve with a shoulder and a survival curve with a tailing, respectively. however, they are not suitable for fitting a sigmoidal survival curve. the three models were integrated into a new model that was capable of fitting the four most commonly observed survival curves: linear curves, curves with a shoulder, curves with a tailing (biphasic curves) and sigmoidal curves. the new model ...199910050684
structural model requirements to describe microbial inactivation during a mild heat treatment.the classical concept of d and z values, established for sterilisation processes, is unable to deal with the typical non-loglinear behaviour of survivor curves occurring during the mild heat treatment of sous vide or cook-chill food products. structural model requirements are formulated, eliminating immediately some candidate model types. promising modelling approaches are thoroughly analysed and, if applicable, adapted to the specific needs: two models developed by casolari (1988), the inactiva ...200011020040
ultrastructure and small-subunit ribosomal dna sequence of henneguya lesteri n. sp. (myxosporea), a parasite of sand whiting sillago analis (sillaginidae) from the coast of queensland, australia.henneguya lesteri n. sp. (myxosporea) is described from sand whiting, sillago analis, from the southern queensland coast of australia. h. lesteri displays a preference for the pseudobranchs and is typically positioned along the afferent blood vessels, displacing the adjoining lamellae and disrupting their normal array. the plasmodia appeared as whitish-hyaline, elliptical cysts (mean dimensions 230 x 410 microm) attached to the oral mucosa lining of the hyoid arch on the inner surface of the ope ...200111710554
extracellular production of a functional soy cystatin by bacillus subtilis.a recombinant bacillus subtilis producing soy cystatin was developed by subcloning with a soy cystatin gene cloned in escherichia coli. an active form of cystatin against the cysteine protease from pacific whiting fillets contaminated with myxosporidia parasite was constitutively expressed and secreted extracelluarly into the medium. two gene fragments of signal peptides from kera and sacb were introduced and compared for secretion efficiency of cystatin. the secretion level of active cystatin i ...200415291474
the distribution of octachlorostyrene (ocs) in environmental samples from europe.although octachlorostyrene (ocs) was never used as a commercial product, it may be produced during incineration and combustion processes involving chlorinated compounds. its environmental spreading was evaluated through the analysis of several representative samples. ocs could not be measured in soil samples collected from urban and rural areas or sediments, but was present (up to 5.41 ng/g dry weight) in industrial soil collected near chemically polluted areas. for aquatic biota samples, the oc ...200312948238
distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fish species of the north sea, north east atlantic ocean and irish sea.a surveillance programme was initiated on the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in wild marine fish. six research cruises were undertaken in an 18 mo period during 1997 and 1998, covering the north sea, the atlantic waters off the north and west coasts of scotland and the irish sea. a total of 19,293 fish were sampled from 23 different species including cod, haddock, norway pout, herring and sprat. individual fish lengths were recorded and the fish were c ...200111775798
coastal lithofacies and biofacies associated with syndepositional dolomitization and silicification (draken formation, upper riphean, svalbard).the draken formation (120-250 m) of northeast spitsbergen (svalbard) forms part of a thick upper proterozoic carbonate platform succession. it consists predominantly of intraformational dolomitic conglomerates, with excellent textural preservation. six main lithofacies were recognized in the field: quartz sandstones, stromatolitic mats, conglomerates with silicified intraclasts, dolostone conglomerates with desiccated mudrocks, oolitic/pisolitic grainstones and fenestral dolostones. a series ...199111538645
modelling the effect of a temperature shift on the lag phase duration of listeria monocytogenes.the aim of this work is to study and model the effect of a temperature shift on h(0), the product of the growth rate by the lag phase duration (mulambda). our work is based on the data of whiting and bagi [int. j. food microbiol. 73 (2002) 291], who studied the influence of both the pre-incubation temperature (t(prior)) and the growth temperature (t(growth)) on lambda values of listeria monocytogenes. we introduce a new model to describe the evolution of the parameter h(0) as a function of t(pri ...200415854694
seasonal dynamics of trichodina spp. on whiting (merlangius merlangus)in relation to organic pollution on the eastern black sea coast of was determined that there is a relationship between prevalence and mean densities of trichodina spp. on merlangius merlangus and organic pollution, measured as levels of nitrite, nitrate and phosphate in the surrounding environment. monthly, two left anterior gill arcs of 60 m. merlangus (unless otherwise stated) captured with hook and line were fixed in 10% formalin. the number of trichodina spp. was determined by counting all of the cells with a grid slide. the two right anterior gill arcs ...200515856300
growth of listeria monocytogenes on iceberg lettuce and solid media.the growth of pathogenic bacterium listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut iceberg lettuce under constant temperatures was modelled in order to investigate microbial safety during distribution of this vegetable. we examined the effects of several incubation temperatures, ranging from 5 to 25 degrees c, on bacterial growth. these data were fitted to the baranyi model and the curves showed a high correlation coefficient at all temperature (r2 > 0.95). in addition, the native bacterial flora of the let ...200515862883
reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation.a partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support "intestinal health". however, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity.200515888784
the genera ceratomyxa thélohan, 1892, leptotheca thélohan, 1895 and sphaeromyxa thélohan, 1892 (myxosporea: bivalvulida) in gadid fish of the northeast atlantic.the gall-bladders of four species of gadid fish from the north sea and norwegian waters were examined for myxosporeans. the host species were cod gadus morhua l. (350 examined), haddock melanogrammus aeglefinus (l.) (592 examined), saithe pollachius virens (l.) (205 examined) and whiting merlangius merlangus (l.) (368 examined). four species of myxosporeans are redescribed from these fish. ceratomyxa arcuata thélohan, 1892 was the most common species and was found in whiting (41.8%) and cod (0.6 ...199910619068
nmda receptor subunit gene expression in the rat brain: a quantitative analysis of endogenous mrna levels of nr1com, nr2a, nr2b, nr2c, nr2d and nr3a.electrophysiological recordings have shown nmda receptors to be heterogenous structures capable of responding to selected antagonists and agonists in multiple ways. this diversity in functional response has led investigators to conclude that these channels are comprised of unique combinations of receptor subunits which determine a cell's functional nmda-signature [h. meguro, h. mori, k. araki, e. kushiya, t. kutsuwada, m. yamazaki, t. kumanishi, m. arakawa, k. sakimura, m. mishina, functional ch ...199910366738
occurrence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in retail prepackaged portions of marine fish in survey the presence of indigenous and nonindigenous foodborne bacterial pathogens in displayed prepacked portions of fresh marine fish.200616478492
anisakidae larval infection in fish fillets sold in fillets (n = 1760) sold on the belgium market were examined for anisakidae larval infection. seven sea fish species were examined by means of the candling technique over a period of 4 months, from november 1996 to february 1997. third-stage larvae of anisakis simplex and pseudoterranova decipiens were identified. a. simplex was the most abundant species with a prevalence of 84.5%, and was found in 192 of the examined fillets (10.9%). pollock (pollachius pollachius) was the most heavily infe ...199910321017
proteolysis and gelation of fish proteins under ohmic heating.pacific whiting surimi gels heated slowly in a water bath exhibited poor gel quality, while the ohmically heated gels without holding at 55 degrees c showed more than a twofold increase in shear stress and shear strain over conventionally heated gels. degradation of myosin and actin was minimized by ohmic heating, resulting in a continuous network structure. ohmic heating with a rapid heating rate was an effective method for maximizing gel functionality of pacific whiting surimi without enzyme i ...19989598187
characterization of the single tyrosine containing troponin c from lungfish white muscle. comparison with several fast skeletal muscle troponin c's from fish species.troponin c molecules from fast skeletal muscle of the following fish species (trout, whiting, lungfish, tilapia, and cod) have been purified to homogeneity. upon binding of ca2+ or mg2+, lungfish troponin c is the only troponin c from fish white muscle to show the typical increase of tyrosine fluorescence emission quantum yield reported for rabbit fast skeletal muscle troponin c. the increase of tyrosine fluorescence signal occurring upon ca2+ and mg2+ titration of lungfish troponin c has been u ...19979297801
targeted disruption of the hoxb-2 locus in mice interferes with expression of hoxb-1 and hoxb-4.mice with a disruption in the hoxb-2 locus were generated by gene targeting. 75% of the hoxb-2 mutant homozygotes died within 24 hours of birth. while a majority of these mice had severe sternal defects that compromised their ability to breathe, some had relatively normal sternum morphology, suggesting that one or more additional factor(s) contributed to neonatal lethality. at 3-3.5 weeks of age, half of the remaining hoxb-2 homozygotes became weak and subsequently died. all of the mutants that ...19969012503
characterization of the bacterial community associated with the surface and mucus layer of whiting (merlangius merlangus).the bacterial community inhabiting the mucus layer and surface of whiting was examined to determine whether the bacteria present are a reflection of the surrounding water or an indigenous bacterial flora is present. the outer mucus, mouth mucus and gut of four whiting harvested from a site in the irish sea and the surrounding water were examined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (trflp) analysis of the 16s rrna gene and clone library construction. the water community was the m ...200717692096
influence of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats.the effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. the isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, ca, mg and p in the protein preparations. cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g n/kg diet. extra protein was added to the diet at the expe ...19938329352
immunoglobulin-type domains of titin: same fold, different stability?titin is a 3-mda protein thought to form a fibrous intracellular system in vertebrate striated muscle and to play an important role in sarcomere alignment during muscle contraction. it has also been implicated as a "molecular ruler", regulating the assembly and the precise length of the thick filaments [whiting, a. j., wardale, j., & trinick, j. (1989) j. mol. biol. 205, 163-169]. partial sequencing of titin-encoding cdnas suggests that the protein is organized in a modular fashion, containing t ...19948161531
assessment of heavy metals in two commercial fish species of four turkish seas.there is an increasingly need to assess the contaminant levels in fish as indicators of the health and well-being of both the fish and their consumers, including humans. fish samples were collected through the coastal waters of turkey and the contents of cadmium, copper, chrome, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, zinc and lead in the liver and muscle tissues were determined by icp-aes. the highest levels of each metal were found in the liver and this was followed by the muscle in both species. amo ...200818034361
some aspects of studies of thermal transitions in proteins by means of their intrinsic fluorescence.the changes in intrinsic fluorescence parameters induced by thermal transitions in proteins are developed on the background of the common thermal fluorescence quenching due to an activation of collisions between the excited chromophores and neighbouring quenching groups. two methods of separation of the thermal quenching and conformational change contributions to the temperature dependence of the fluorescence parameters are presented. one is based on the use of the linearity of the plots of the ...19846722276
structurally different neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes purified and characterized using monoclonal antibodies.acetylcholine receptors that bind nicotine with high affinity but do not bind alpha-bungarotoxin have recently been immunoaffinity purified from brains of chickens and rats (whiting and lindstrom, 1986a, b; whiting and lindstrom, 1987a). antisera to these receptors bind to the nicotinic receptors that regulate cation channel opening on chick ciliary ganglion neurons (stollberg et al., 1986) and rat pc12 cells (whiting et al., 1987c). here we report the preparation and characterization of monoclo ...19873694260
antibodies in sera from patients with myasthenia gravis do not bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from human brain.nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (achrs) from brains of chickens and rats have recently been purified and characterized (whiting and lindstrom, biochemistry, 25 (1986) 2082-2093; j. neurosci., 6 (1986) 3061-3069; proc. natl. acad. sci. u.s.a., 84 (1987) 595-599). using both antisera and monoclonal antibodies prepared to achrs from rat brain, we have demonstrated the existence of a homologous achr in human brain. here we report that antibodies to muscle achrs in the sera of patients with myasthe ...19873624454
modeling survival of listeria monocytogenes in the traditional greek soft cheese the present work, survival of listeria monocytogenes in the traditional greek soft, spreadable cheese katiki was studied throughout the shelf life of the product. samples of finished cheese were inoculated with a cocktail of five l. monocytogenes strains (ca. 6 log cfu g(-1)) and stored at 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees c. acid-stress adaptation or cross-protection to the same stress was also investigated by inoculation of acid-adapted cells in the product. the results showed that pathogen surviva ...200818810867
levels of heavy metals in some commercial fish species captured from the black sea and mediterranean coast of turkey.the distribution of some heavy metals in the muscle tissue of merlangius merlangus (whiting), mullus barbatus (red mullet), engraulis encrasicholus (anchovy) from black and mediterranean seas were studied. the highest al (95.313 microg/g dw), mn (1.390 microg/g dw), zn (25.416 microg/g dw) concentration was detected in e. encrasicholus from black sea; the highest li (3.200 microg/g dw) concentration was detected in e. encrasicholus from mediterranean sea; the highest cd (1.685 microg/g dw) conce ...200919082517
pharmacological properties of immuno-isolated neuronal nicotinic receptors.recently we immunoaffinity-purified an ach receptor from chicken brain using a monoclonal antibody raised against receptors from fish electric organ (whiting and lindstrom, 1986). this neuronal receptor could be affinity-labeled with 3h-bromoacetylcholine, and antisera to it specifically blocked ach-induced depolarization of chicken ciliary ganglion cells. here we show that this neuronal ach receptor binds 3h-nicotine with high affinity (kd = 6.61 +/- 0.13 nm). 3h-nicotine binding was blocked by ...19863531428
red-edge-excitation fluorescence spectroscopy of single-tryptophan proteins.with the aim of finding non-equilibrium dipole-relaxational electronic excited states of tryptophan residues in proteins the dependence of the fluorescence emission maximum on excitation wavelength was studied for several proteins containing a single tryptophan residue per molecule. spectral shifts upon red-edge excitation are not observed for short wavelength-emitting proteins (azurin, two-calcium form of whiting parvalbumin, ribonucleases c2 and t1). this may be because of the non-polar enviro ...19883208709
characterization of bovine and human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using monoclonal antibodies.neuronal acetylcholine receptors (achrs), which bind nicotine with high affinity but do not bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha bgt), have recently been immunoaffinity-purified from chicken (whiting and lindstrom, 1986a) and rat (whiting and lindstrom, 1987a) brain using monoclonal antibodies (mabs). here we report the characterization of nicotinic achrs of bovine and human brain using as probes mabs prepared to achrs from rat brain. both the human and bovine brain achrs exhibit high affinity for l-n ...19883171681
localization, quantification, and characterization of pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactivity in the parasitic flatworm diclidophora merlangi and its fish host (merlangius merlangus).pancreatic polypeptide (pp) immunoreactivity (ir) has been identified, quantified, and subsequently chemically characterised in the parasitic platyhelminth, diclidophora merlangi, and its specific teleostean host the whiting, merlangius merlangus. immunocytochemistry demonstrated pp-ir throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems of the parasite and in open-type endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa of its host. radioimmunoassay detected pp-ir in alcoholic extracts of whole parasites (3 ...19892737455
insertional mutagenesis of listeria monocytogenes 568 reveals genes that contribute to enhanced thermotolerance.the objectives of this study were to identify molecular mechanisms of thermotolerance using transposon mutants of listeria monocytogenes 568, serotype 1/2a, and to compare their thermal death kinetics at 52, 56 and 60 degrees c. sixteen tn917 transposon mutants with enhanced heat resistance were acquired from a library of 4300 mutants following a multi-step screening process. genetic regions with tn917 insertions encompassed a broad range of functionalities including; transport, metabolism, repl ...200919836093
the effects of ciguatoxin on the nerves of the teleost fish, sillago ciliata.the absolute refractory period, relative refractory period, and the duration and magnitude of the supernormal period were measured after incubation of fish nerves with ciguatoxin and other channel modifying compounds, tetrodotoxin, veratridine, verapamil, and lignocaine. in vitro electrophysiological studies were carried out on the lateral line nerve of the whiting, sillago ciliata cuvier. electrophysiological changes in fish nerves after exposure to ciguatoxin (0.3 and veratridine (1 x ...19921344907
salt-induced conformational changes in skeletal myosin light chains, troponin-c, and parvalbumin.evidence for salt-induced changes in myosin light chains [dissociated by treatment with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (dtnb)], troponin-c (tnc), and parvalbumin was obtained from chymotryptic digestion, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and difference absorption studies. high salt (0.6 m nacl) protects the dtnb light chain from proteolysis, increases its alpha-helical content, and quenches the tryptophan fluorescence. these effects are similar to the changes induced by ca2+ but smaller in ...1979518878
seasonal investigation of trace element contents in commercially valuable fish species from the black sea, species (sarda sarda, mulus barbatus ponticus, trachurus trachurus and merlangius merlangus) were collected from the black sea, turkey between 2008 and 2009 (spring, summer, autumn and winter). the samples were analyzed using flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. the maximum metal concentrations were found to be as 25.5-41.4 microg/g (fe), 17.8-25.7 microg/g (zn), 0.28-0.64 microg/g (pb), 0.64-0.99 microg/g (cr), 1.3-3.6 microg/g (mn), 1.4-1.9 ...201020036302
a united residue force-field for calcium-protein interactions.united-residue potentials are derived for interactions of the calcium cation with polypeptide chains in energy-based prediction of protein structure with a united-residue (unres) force-field. specific potentials were derived for the interaction of the calcium cation with the asp, glu, asn, and gln side chains and the peptide group. the analytical expressions for the interaction energies for each of these amino acids were obtained by averaging the electrostatic interaction energy, expressed by a ...200415388862
purification and determination of inhibitory activity of recombinant soyacystatin for surimi application.a recombinant soyacystatin (r-soyacystatin) was tested for its inhibitory activity against cysteine proteinase of pacific whiting and its activity was compared to that of egg white cystatin. a recombinant soyacystatin expressed in escherichia coli was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using phenyl-sepharose and deae-sepharose. native egg white cystatin was purified by using affinity chromatography on cm-papain-sepharose generated in our lab. egg white cystatin and soyacystatin were tested ...200515744709
spatial analysis of stable isotope data to determine primary sources of nutrition for fish.carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to determine the ultimate autotrophic sources supporting production of three commercially important fish species over unvegetated mudflats in a subtropical estuary. mean isotope values over the whole estuary for fish and autotroph sources were modeled to indicate feasible combinations of sources. variability in isotope values among nine locations (separated by 3-10 km) was then used as a further test of the likelihood that sources were involved in fi ...200312774226
phenotypic variation in a significant spore character in kudoa (myxosporea: multivalvulida) species infecting brain tissue.some kudoa species display variations in the number of polar capsules in spores within an individual pseudocyst. nonetheless, there is usually a dominant morphotype which forms a significant element of diagnosis. in 2007, a kudoa isolate from whiting (spores with 5 (dominant) or 6 (minor) polar capsules) was characterized by burger et al. (2007) as being 100% identical in ssu rdna to kudoa yasunagai (spores with 7 polar capsules) from a halibut, despite its obvious morphological differences. the ...201020546639
overexpression of the gaba(a) receptor epsilon subunit results in insensitivity to anaesthetics.the epsilon -subunit of the gaba(a) receptor was independently cloned and functionally characterised in recombinant expression systems by two groups (davies, p.a. et al., nature 385 (1997) 820; whiting, p.j. et al., journal of neuroscience 17 (1997) 5027). both groups showed that co-expression of alphabeta epsilon -subunits produced functional receptors, however the sensitivity of these receptors to the potentiating effects of general anaesthetic agents differed. co-expression of the two epsilon ...200212367611
metal concentrations in two bioindicator fish species, merlangius merlangus, mullus barbatus, captured from the west black sea coasts (bartin) of turkey.the black sea is very vulnerable to originating from land based human activities and its health is equally dependent on the coastal and non-coastal states of its basin. total concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum, iron, manganese, boron and chromium concentrations were determined in merlangius merlangus (whiting) and mullus barbatus found in amasra in the west coast of the black sea (turkey). the metal contents that were measured in head and muscle was expressed in µg g ...201121785875
morphometric discrimination of two allozymically diagnosed sibling species of the echinorhynchus gadi zoega in muller complex (acanthocephala) in the north sea.allozyme electrophoresis was used to detect biological species of the e. gadi complex from gadids from the northern north sea. a fixed difference at one of nine enzyme loci surveyed confirmed the existence of two reproductively isolated, sympatric species. mixed infections of two e. gadi spp. (termed a and b) were observed in gadus morhua and pollachius virens. e. gadi sp. b was also found in melanogrammus aeglefinus and merlangius merlangus. the presence of gravid females of e. gadi spp. a and ...200515841350
hepatitis d virus infection in the western brazilian amazon - far from a vanishing disease.a decline in hepatitis d virus (hdv) occurrence was described in europe and asia. we estimated hdv prevalence in the brazilian amazon following hepatitis b vaccination.201223295870
whiting events: biogenic origin due to the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterial annual whiting event occurs each year in late may to early june in fayetteville green lake, new york. the initiation of this event correlates with exponential growth of the synechococcus population within the lake. synechococcus is the dominant (by approximately 4 orders of magnitude) autotrophic organism owing to the oligotrophic condition of the lake. the delta 13c values of the dissolved inorganic c range seasonally from -9.5% in winter to -6.2% in summer due to photosynthetic activity. ca ...199711541205
life cycle strategy of hysterothylacium aduncum to become the most abundant anisakid fish nematode in the north sea.the present study demonstrates the influence of physical systems (mixed and stratified waters) on the occurrence and distribution of the anisakid nematode hysterothylacium aduncum in commercially important gadiform fish species from the central and northern north sea. stratified waters are essential in structuring marine food webs and are therefore also important for the transfer of fish parasites to their host species. during two research cruises in 2001, 308 haddocks (melanogrammus aeglefinus) ...200515986247
inhibition of protease in intact fish fillets by soaking in or injection of recombinant soy cystatin or bovine plasma.arrowtooth flounder (af) fillets are known to contain a heat-activated cysteine protease similar to that found in pacific whiting, which results in soft texture upon cooking. a crude recombinant soy cystatin (crsc) produced by escherichia coli, which has been shown to inhibit the protease(s) in pacific whiting, was introduced into af fillets by immersion or injection at one of three levels of inhibitory activity: 10 times less than, equal to, or 10 times greater than that of a 20% bovine plasma ...200516332133
thermodynamic analysis of calcium binding to frog parvalbumin.the enthalpy of calcium binding to frog parvalbumin (rana temporaria isoenzyme ivb, pi 4.75) has been measured by microcalorimetry. the reaction is exothermic; the heat of the reaction in 100 mm kcl, 50mm tris, ph 8.0 at 12 degrees c is -19 kj (mol site)-1 and -33 kj (mol site)-1 in the presence of 1 mm magnesium. the shape of the titration curve indicates that the properties of the two calcium binding sites are different. the thermodynamic parameters measured for frog parvalbumin are compared w ...20143879254
occurrence of plesiomonas shigelloides in displayed portions of saltwater fish determined by a pcr assay based on the huga gene.pcr primers were designed and used to amplify a 435-bp fragment from the plesiomonas shigelloides huga gene. the pcr assay combined with a non-selective enrichment step proved to be a reliable procedure for p. shigelloides detection in fish meat. the incidence of this bacterium was investigated in 52 lots of pre-packed saltwater fish portions (conger, swordfish, sole, grouper, whiting and halibut) displayed at two hypermarkets by a conventional two-step procedure and the pcr assay. using the for ...200616481056
partial purification and characterization of cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chicken plasma.a high-molecular-weight cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cpi) was purified from chicken (gallus gallus) plasma using polyethylene glycol (peg) fractionation and affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl-papain-sepharose-4b. the cpi was purified 96.8-fold with a yield of 28.9%. based on inhibitory activity staining for papain, cpi was shown to have an apparent molecular mass of 122 kda. no inhibitory activity was obtained under reducing condition, indicating that cpi from chicken plasma was stabiliz ...200616815719
[immunization program against influenza for adults 65 years or older at a community pharmacy in puerto rico].evaluate the educational needs of adults over 65 years or more with regards to the vaccine, vaccination and immunization against the influenza, design strategies to assist the educational needs and implant and evaluate an immunization program at an independent community pharmacy. a study divided into three phases: phase i--evaluation of the educational needs related to the vaccine, vaccination and immunization. phase ii--designing of strategies to assist the needs. phase iii--a random longitudin ...200616883677
pcbs and pcdd/fs in fish and fish products and their impact on the human body burden in belgium.the concentrations of marker pcbs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) in fish have been assessed with gc-ms: an average concentration of 540 ng-pcb g(-1) fat (5.02 ng-pcb g(-1) wet weight) was observed. the average concentration of pcdd/fs, assessed with the calux bioassay, amounted to 64 pg-calux-teq g(-1) fat (0.58 pg-calux-teq g(-1) wet weight) and that of pcdd/fs + dioxin-like pcbs amounted to 131 pg-calux-teq g(-1) fat (1.18 pg-calux-teq g(-1) wet weight). results of the pcb congeners analyse ...200717396213
in vivo red blood cell sickling and mechanism of recovery in whiting, merlangius merlangus.haemoglobin concentrations in vertebrate red blood cells are so high that in human sickle cell disease a single surface amino acid mutation can result in formation of large insoluble haemoglobin aggregates at low oxygen levels, causing peculiar cell deformations or 'sickling'. this may cause vascular occlusion and thereby severe pain, organ failure and death. here, using light and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate extensive in vivo sickling of whiting red blood cells after capture ...200717872999
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of h2 s-positive and h2 s-negative strains of shewanella baltica isolated from spoiled whiting (merlangius merlangus).four strains were isolated from a spoiled whiting (merlangius merlangus). all of them were able to grow aerobically from 4 to 30°c and also able to develop anaerobically in the presence of trimethylamine n-oxide (tmao) at 25°c. biochemical characterization did not allow identification of the strains species but showed that one of the four strains was unable to produce h2 s. two strains synthetized an ornithine decarboxylase being potential putrescine producers. results of carbon source use highl ...201425073930
extraction of sardine myoglobin and its effect on gelation properties of pacific whiting surimi.myoglobin (mb) was extracted from pacific sardine and added to pacific whiting surimi to measure its effects on protein gelation. the purity of mb extract was determined by sds-page. mb extract using ethanol showed higher purity than mb extract using ammonium sulfate. the addition of 0.2% mb significantly reduced breaking force. however, a synergistic effect of 1.0% mb was observed with 1.0% beef plasma protein (bpp) to increase surimi gel strength. the highest storage modulus of gels was observ ...200717995761
ro60 and la ribonucleoproteins become self-aggregated by cell and la antigens are of clinical interest in subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus because skin lesions appear after uv irradiation, which induces the translocation of intracellular ro and la ribonucleoproteins and trigger autoantibody production. present studies address the question whether cellular stressors modify molecular characteristics and distribution of ro60 and la proteins. to accomplish our goal hep-2 cells were stressed by heat and uv irradiation and ro and la expression was studi ...200718157285
dimethylamine and diet.forty-six different foods eaten by six healthy male volunteers were investigated as potential sources of the aliphatic secondary amine, dimethylamine. none that were representatives from the fruit and vegetable, meat, dairy and grain produce categories afforded any measurable elevation in urinary dimethylamine output following ingestion. all of the statistically significant increases occurred after consumption of fish and seafoods. however, within this category a wide variation was observed. the ...200818282650
[the influence of myxidium gadi georgievitsch, 1916 (myxozoa: myxosporea) on the level of lipid reserves in the tissues of the black sea whiting merlangius merlangus euxinus at different periods of the annual cycle].concentration of total lipids and main lipid classes in the tissues of the black sea whiting males and females under different degrees of their infestation with the myxosporean myxidium gadi is studied. fishes were examined during the periods of fattening and spawning. decrease of the total lipid (2-3 times) and triacylglycerol (3-4 times) concentration in the liver of heavily ingested males is revealed, as compared with the weakly infested fishes. however this effect has not been found in the f ...200818727363
clinical trial: protective effect of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate against indomethacin (nsaid)-induced small intestinal injury.a partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is marketed as a health food supplement supporting 'intestinal health'.200819145735
optimum chopping conditions for alaska pollock, pacific whiting, and threadfin bream surimi paste and gel based on rheological and raman spectroscopic analysis.rheological and raman spectroscopic properties of surimi from three species [alaska pollock (ap) (cold water), pacific whiting (temperate water), and threadfin bream (warm water)] were investigated as affected by various chopping conditions. comminuting alaska pollock surimi at 0 °c demonstrated superior gel hardness and cohesiveness when chopping time was extended to 15-18 min; however, long chopping time at higher temperatures resulted in a significantly decreased gel texture particularly at 2 ...201222394148
intestinal protective effect of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation.a partially hydrolysed, dried, product of pacific whiting fish is marketed as a health food supplement supporting 'intestinal health'. scientific data supporting these claims are severely limited. we, therefore, examined if it influenced intestinal injury caused by the nsaid, indomethacin.200919323982
bipteria formosa (kovaleva et gaevskaya, 1979) comb. n. (myxozoa: myxosporea) in whiting merlangius merlangus (teleostei: gadidae) from denmark.a total of 22 specimens of whiting merlangius merlangus (l.) (teleostei, gadidae) from the northern øresund, denmark were examined for myxosporea. zschokkella hildae auerbach, 1910 (myxidiidae), gadimyxa sp. (parvicapsulidae) and a species of bipteria occurred in the renal tubules of 9%, 18% and 68% whiting, respectively. immature spores of the bipteria species are very similar to spores of myxoproteus formosus kovaleva et gaevskaya, 1979 originally described from the urinary system of whiting f ...200919606784
factors impacting the regrowth of escherichia coli o157:h7 in dairy manure compost.the environmental variables affecting escherichia coli o157:h7 regrowth in dairy manure compost were investigated. factors evaluated were moisture content, strain variation, growth medium of inoculum, level of background microflora and inoculum, different days of composting, and acclimation at room temperature. a mathematical model was applied to describe e. coli o157 regrowth potential in compost. repopulation occurred in autoclaved compost with a moisture content as low as 20% (water activity ...200919681288
development and validation of a range of endogenous controls to support the implementation of practical taqman real-time pcr-based surveillance for fish diseases within aquaculture.the use of taqman real-time pcr-based technology has recently become more frequent in the detection of pathogens in the aquaculture industry. this interest has necessitated the development of robust and reliable pathogen-detection assays. the development of a range of endogenous control assays to be run alongside these diagnostic assays works to further increase confidence in the latter. this study describes the design of a range of endogenous control assays based on the elongation factor 1-α (e ...201222524565
determination of mineral composition in three commercial fish species (solea solea, mullus surmuletus, and merlangius merlangus).this study was monitored to determine the changes in the micromineral and macromineral composition of common sole (solea solea), striped red mullet (mullus surmuletus), and whiting (merlangius merlangus) throughout the year. macromineral concentrations in edible parts of fish species were 444-1,559 mg/kg for na, 1,975-5,130 mg/kg for k, 228-658 mg/kg for mg, 187-1,105 mg/kg for ca, and 2,341-7,341 for p, respectively. the highest mercury contents were found in the autumn months. while the highes ...201019924552
identification of novel and zoonotic cryptosporidium species in marine fish.little is known about the prevalence and genotypes of cryptosporidium in fish. the present study investigated the prevalence of cryptosporidium species in cultured fingerlings (n=227), wild freshwater (n=227) and wild marine/estuarine species (n=255) of fish in western australia by pcr amplification at the 18s rrna locus. results revealed a low prevalence of cryptosporidium infection in fish hosts; 0.8% (6/709). four species of cryptosporidium were identified including c. parvum, c. xiaoi and pi ...201020031326
a community-based assessment of seafood consumption along the lower james river, virginia, usa: potential sources of dietary mercury exposure.the use of community-based participatory research (cbpr) methods to conduct environmental exposure assessments provides valuable insight about disparities in seafood consumption and contaminant exposure. ninety-five community-specific seafood consumption surveys were administered to low-income african-american women (ages 16-49) residing in the southeast community of newport news, va, usa, for the purpose of assessing potential dietary mercury exposure. only the results of the seafood consumptio ...201020129605
monthly occurrence and prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in whiting merlangius merlangus.a field survey was carried out to determine the occurrence and spread of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in whiting merlangius merlangus (l.), a key prey species in the southeastern black sea region. in march, april, september and december 2007 and monthly in 2008, 70 to 105 m. merlangus captured by gill nets were examined in pools of 7 fish per pool (total number of fish = 1603). after determining the seasonal occurrence of vhsv in whiting, 43, 80 and 88 whiting were sampled individ ...201020225672
effects of salinity and anatomical hook location on the mortality and physiological response of angled-and-released sand whiting sillago ciliata.three experiments were done with sand whiting sillago ciliata: the first two assessed the short-term mortality and physiological response of individuals after being mouth hooked and then subjected to rapid changes in salinity, while the third experiment investigated their longer-term fate after ingesting hooks (independent of salinity changes). in experiment one, 48 tanks containing a single s. ciliata were randomly assigned as either one of three treatments or a control. the fish in treatments ...200920735535
better red than dead? potential aposematism in a harpacticoid copepod, metis holothuriae.the conspicuous, red harpacticoid metis holothuriae grows to a large size (∼600 μm length) and accounts for 29.51% of the numerical meiofaunal abundance within blooms of the toxic, benthic cyanobacterium lyngbya majuscula. despite this, the meiobenthic juvenile trumpeter whiting, sillago maculata, consume m. holothuriae at only 2.16% of numerical meiofaunal biomass within simulated blooms, despite their apparent ease of predation. we compared the predation rates of copepods that had been dyed re ...201122209520
differential localization of two alternatively spliced gabaa receptor gamma2-subunit mrnas in the chick brain.two variants of the gabaa receptor gamma2 subunit are known to exist, which differ by the presence (gamma2l) or absence (gamma2s) of eight amino acids in the presumed intracellular loop between the third and fourth membrane-spanning domains. these variants have been shown to be generated by alternative splicing of the gamma2-subunit primary gene transcript in mouse (kofuji et al., j. neurochem., 56, 713 - 715, 1991), and in bovine and human (whiting et al., proc. natl. acad. sci. usa, 87, 9966 - ...199212106372
when whiting out won't work. 20092777111
trimethylarsine oxide in estuary catfish (cnidoglanis macrocephalus) and school whiting (sillago bassensis) after oral administration of sodium arsenate; and as a natural component of estuary catfish.oral administration of sodium arsenate to estuary catfish (cnidoglanis macrocephalus) and school whiting (sillago bassensis) resulted in an accumulation of trimethylarsine oxide in their tissues. the levels of arsenobetaine, which occurs naturally in these fish, did not appear to be affected by the oral dosing with sodium arsenate. trimethylarsine oxide also occurred as a natural component of estuary catfish and its presence may be related to the mode of feeding of this fish.20113602996
phineas w. whiting (1887--1978). 1979352796
ecology and genetic structure of zoonotic anisakis spp. from adriatic commercial fish species.consumption of raw or thermally inadequately treated fishery products represents a public health risk, with the possibility of propagation of live anisakis larvae, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis, or anisakiasis. we investigated the population dynamics of anisakis spp. in commercially important fish-anchovies (anisakis), sardines (sardina pilchardus), european hake (merluccius merluccius), whiting (merlangius merlangus), chub mackerel (scomber japonicus), and atlantic bl ...201424317085
survey of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fishes in the southeastern black sea.species diversity in the black sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. to assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. the pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. the cells showing cytopathic effects (cpe) were subjected ...201424991737
screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the norwegian coastal line.viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) infects a wide range of marine fish species. to study the occurrence of vhsv in wild marine fish populations in norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. in total, vhsv was detected by rrt-pcr in twelve samples originating from atlantic herring (clupea harengus), haddock (melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (merlangius merlangus) and silvery ...201425248078
a survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., farms.viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) was isolated from five species of wrasse (labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, lepeophtheirus salmonis (krøyer, 1837), on marine atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., farms in shetland. as part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for vhsv using virus isolation. eleven pools (8%) were confirmed vhsv positive from: grey gurnard, eutrigla gurnardus l.; atlant ...201525102953
preliminary investigation of perfluoroalkyl substances in exploited fishes of two contaminated estuaries.perfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) are being increasingly detected in a range of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, often resulting from the use of legacy fire-fighting foams. this study conducted an initial investigation of the concentrations of pfass in the commercially and recreationally exploited species dusky flathead, mud crab, school prawn, sea mullet, yellowfin bream, eastern king prawn and sand whiting, across two contaminated estuaries. all samples contained perfluoro-n-octane sulfonat ...201627289281
biochemical characterisation of alaska pollock, pacific whiting, and threadfin bream surimi as affected by comminution conditions.salt-soluble protein, surface reactive sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity of alaska pollock, pacific whiting, and threadfin bream surimi were characterised, as affected by various comminution conditions. chopping time/temperatures were explored in consideration of their habitat temperatures. salt-soluble protein (ssp) significantly decreased when chopping time was extended. corresponding to our follow-up study, no relationship between ssp and gel texture was found. surface hydrophobi ...201323265477
distribution and chemical form of mercury in commercial fish tissues.we analyzed total hg concentrations in various tissue samples obtained from 7 commercially available fish species. mehg contents were also estimated for muscle and liver samples by a selective analysis of inorganic hg. among the tissues, high hg accumulations were shown in liver, muscle, heart and spleen throughout all fish species. carnivorous fish, such as scorpion fish, sea bream and japanese whiting, tended to show higher hg accumulations in the muscle, with the highest hg levels being shown ...201222863865
thermal stability of fish natural actomyosin affects reactivity to cross-linking by microbial and fish transglutaminases.natural actomyosin (nam) from pacific whiting (pw) showed thermal transition temperatures by circular dichroism at 31.8 and 43.1°c, which were lower than those of threadfin bream (tb) nam, 35.0 and 49.3°c. endothermic transitions of pw-nam by differential scanning calorimetry were at 31.8, 42.1 and 75.3°c, compared to 36.1, 50.9 and 78.4°c for tb-nam. based on surface hydrophobicity, α-helical content, and solubility, pw-nam unfolded to a greater extent than did tb-nam when incubated at 25°c for ...200826047448
assessment of metals in fish from lake macquarie, new south wales, australia.the concentrations of the metals cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, silver, selenium and zinc were measured in the muscle and gonad tissues of five species of fish, yellowfin bream (acanthopagrus australis), silverbiddy (gerres subfasciatus) and trumpeter whiting (sillago maculata), southern log finned goby (favonigobious lateralis), and the halfbridled goby (arenigobius frenatus) from the contaminated lake macquarie nsw and three relatively uncontaminated reference estuaries, wallis lake, port ste ...200817768590
fish and macro-crustacean communities and their dynamics in the severn estuary.the species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the severn estuary are reviewed. the fish community is notably species rich and exceeds 100 species in total for the estuary. standardised long-term sampling at hinkley point in bridgwater bay gives a total complement of 83 for a single locality and this number is increasing by about one new species every two years. most of these new species are moving in from centres of population lying to the south of the estuary. almost all species of fis ...201020074757
trace metals in tissues of the six most common fish species in the black sea, turkey.concentrations of mn, fe, co, ni, as, se, cd, ag and pb in scale, skin, muscle, gills, liver and the gonads of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata), european seabass (dicentrarchus labrax), black sea salmon (salmo trutta labrax), horse mackerel (trachurus trachurus), red mullet (mullus barbatus) and whiting (merlangius merlangius euxinus) from the black sea, in turkey, were investigated. elemental analyses were performed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after sample preparation by ...201525082436
grillotia erinaceus (van beneden, 1858) (cestoda:trypanorhyncha) from whiting in the black sea, with observations on seasonality and host-parasite interrelationship.the genus grillotia guiart, 1927 is cosmopolitan in its distribution and the type-species, g. erinaceus (van beneden, 1858), has been relatively well studied. however, this study provides infection indices of grillotia erinaceus from southern and northern black sea whiting merlangius merlangus for the first time. the specimens of grillotia erinaceus were obtained from subserosa of the anterior oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca, liver, ovaries and mesenterium of whiting caught by commercial fish ...201425119355
occurrence and molecular characterization of hysterothylacium aduncum (nematoda: anisakidae) from merlangius merlangus euxinus and trachurus trachurus off the turkish coast of black sea.a total of 286 larval forms of hysterothylacium aduncum were collected from merlangius merlangus euxinus and trachurus trachurus captured at different sites of the black sea coast of turkey. prevalence of h. aduncum in m. merlangus euxinus and t. trachurus was 37.4 and 29.3 %, respectively. the fourth-stage larvae from m. merlangus euxinus and t. trachurus of h. aduncum were characterized genetically using a molecular approach. the ribosomal dna (rdna) internal transcribed spacer (its) region (i ...201323239095
phylogenetic analysis of the ssu rrna gene from the piscine diplomonad spironucleus torosus (diplomonadida: hexamitinae).previous studies have recorded spironucleus torosus poynton et morrison, 1990 from several species of gadoid fishes, including the only freshwater gadoid, the burbot lota lota (l.). two morphologically different isolates of s. torosus have been described (elongate and pyriform). both have been found in saltwater, while only the elongate has been found in freshwater. to address the conspecificity of the two morphs of s. torosus, and to identify the source of s. torosus in burbot in norway, we hav ...200718303769
fatty acid and cholesterol concentrations in usually consumed fish in brazil.several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. these effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. however, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region.201525424160
morphological and morphometric study of crustacean parasites within the genus lernaeocera.two species of lernaeocera are present in the southeastern north sea. lernaeocera lusci infects bib trisopterus luscus, dragonet callionymus lyra and sand goby pomatoschistus minutas. l. minuta is a junior synonym of l. lusci. the second valid species, l. branchialis, infects whiting merlangius merlangus. the two species can be morphologically separated by the antennary processes, which are present in l. lusci and absent in l. branchialis. discriminant functions allow complete separation between ...19958719951
response of branchial na(+)/k(+) atpase to changes in ambient temperature in atlantic cod (gadus morhua) and whiting (merlangius merlangus).the maintenance of ion and ph homeostasis despite changes in ambient temperature is crucial for ectothermic organisms. thermal sensitivity of na(+)/k(+) atpase mrna expression, protein expression and activity was determined in gills of north sea cod (nc) and northeastern arctic cod (neac), acclimated for 6 weeks at 4 and 10 °c and compared to field samples of north sea cod (snc), acclimatized to early spring (4 °c) and summer (18 °c) conditions. the same analyses were conducted in gills of the c ...201626922791
a statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the log gaussian cox process (lgcp) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. the model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. the model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correl ...201424911631
a novel cold-adapted esterase from salinisphaera sp. p7-4: gene cloning, overproduction, and characterization.salinisphaera sp. p7-4 was isolated from the intestine of silver whiting, sillago japonicas caught in the pacific ocean, and the esterase gene was cloned using the shotgun method. the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence (951 bp) corresponded to a protein of 316 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 34,443. the esterase had 46 and 44% identities with the esterase enzymes of ralstonia eutropha jmp134 and rhodopseudomonas palustris haa2, respectively. the primary struc ...201122353741
acute co2 tolerance during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts.ocean sequestration of co2 is proposed as a possible measure to mitigate climate changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentrations of the gas, but its impact on the marine ecosystem is unknown. we investigated the acute lethal effect of co2 during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts: red sea bream (pagrus major), japanese whiting (sillago japonica), japanese flounder (paralichthys olivaceus), and eastern little tuna (euthynnus affinis). the percentages of larvae that hat ...200314608607
levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the north sea food web.the levels of individual pbde congeners were investigated in the invertebrate species whelk (buccinum undatum), seastar (asterias rubens), and hermit crab (pagurus bernhardus), the gadoid fish species whiting (merlangius merlangus) and cod (gadus morhua), and the marine mammal species harbor seal (phoca vitulina) and harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena). these species are all important representatives of different trophic levels of the north sea food web. all six major pbde congeners detected (bd ...200212380070
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