the effects of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on enzyme activities and accumulation of the metal in tissues and organs of rainbow and brown trout (salmo gairdneri, richardson and salmo trutta fario l.). 197937023
the fine structure of the epidermis of two species of salmonid fish, the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) and the brown trout (salmo trutta l.). i. general organization and filament-containing cells.the fine structure of the epidermis or two species of salmonid fish has been described. gross characteristics have been noted along with many apparent differences in the epidermis of different body regions of the fish. the major cell type is the filament-containing cell and this has been described in detail. the major inclusions of the cell are the tonofilaments. differences in basal, mid-epidermal and periphal filament-c0ntaingcells have been characterized. comparisons of fish epidermis with th ...1975165897
[isolation of a pathogenic rhabdovirus of brown trout (salmo trutta l., 1766)].a rhabdovirus pathogenic both for rainbow and brown trout has been isolated from brown trout suffering heavy mortalities associated with muscular haemorrages and necrotic lesions of kidney and spleen. according to seroneutralization tests and host range, this virus appears to be different from the other known salmonids rhabdoviruses. upon the basis of its in vitro gross characteristics, it is identical to viral haemorragic septicemia virus (vhs), f1 serotype, but differs from infectious hematopo ...1977402225
[response of the brown trout (salmo trutta, l. 1766) and rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri richardson, 1836) to infection by a new rhabdovirus].intra peritoneal injection of 200 g trout hold at + 12 degrees c with 2x10(8) p.f.u. of a new rhabdovirus (strain 23.75) induces an interferon synthesis within 2 days. (if titres reaching 2,000 units/ml). 1 month later, the surviving fish exhibit a specific anti 23.75 neutralizing serum activity (titre 40 to 80) which has been demonstrated to be due to immunoglobulins. this seroneutralization is also recorded in 1/3 of the survivors of natural infection.1977404069
the hydrolysis of dipeptides by mucosa from different regions of the alimentary tract of the brown trout (salmo trutta). 1979461437
[occurrence and ultrastructure of mast cells in the hypothalamus of teleost fishes].from 56 light-, fluorescence- and electronmicroscopically investigated brains of fishes mast cells could be found only in 4 cases. they were concentrated in the meninges of one pike (esox licius) and in the meninges and at larger blood-vessels of the hypothalamus of 2 trouts (salmo trutta fario). in the hypothalamus of a carp (cyprinus carpio) an infiltration of mast cells was detectable in the meninges, at blood-vessels and capillaries, between neuronal and glial fibres and sub- and intraependy ...1979473856
reproductive isolation with little genetic divergence in sympatric populations of brown trout (salmo trutta).two reproductively isolated demes of brown trout coexist in a small swedish mountain lake, lake bunnersjörna. we electrophoretically examined 102 specimens from that lake for 27 enzymes encoded by 54 loci. the two demes are fixed for different alleles at a lactate dehydrogenase locus (ldh-1); statistically significant allele frequency differences at five other loci further support the complete lack of gene flow between these demes. there are significant differences in growth rates between fish i ...1979499765
organochlorine pesticide residues in animals of tasmania, australia-1975-77.animals taken in tasmania including duck (anas superciliosa), eel (anguilla australis), english perch (perca fluviatilis), white-faced heron (ardea pacifica), brown trout (salmo trutta), european starling (strunus vulgaris), cat (felis cattus), cormorant (phalacrocorax sp.), mutton bird (puffinus tenuirostris), tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii), rainbow trout (salmo gairdnerii), tasmanian raven (corvus mellori), tench (tinca tinca), and quail (coturnix sp.) were sampled for p,p'-dde, pp,p'- ...1979537866
rainbow trout complement fixation used for titration of antibodies against several pathogens.since it is impossible to fix guinea pig complement (c) with rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) antibodies, whereas it is possible with brown trout (salmo trutta) antibodies, a c fixation test has been designed which uses haemolysin and c from rainbow trout. immunization of trout against lysed sheep red blood cells (srbc) elicited production of haemolytic igm. normal trout serum (nts) can be used as a source of c at a dilution at which its "natural" haemolytic activity (against various homeotherms ...1979547824
[parasites of salmo trutta l. from the tirino river. ii. host-parasite interactions of helminth species].the hundred and sixteen brown trout (salmo trutta l.) which were examined for helminth parasites were captured in the river tirino, (l'acquila - italy). six parasite species (phyllodistomum simile, crowcrocaecum testiobliquum, crepidostomum metoecus, cyathocephalus truncatus, truttaedacnitis truttae and dentitruncus truttae) were recovered. ecological studies on each helminth species recovered have been carried out analysing the following aspects; the preference of each parasite species for cert ...1978553267
[parasites of salmo trutta l. from the titino river. part iii. histological observations of parasites of the intestinal tract].during researches on helminth parasites of salmo trutta l. from the river tirino (l'aquila - italy) histological studies of the intestinal tract of brown trout infected by the following species: crowcrocaecum testiobliquum (wisnewski, 1932) skrjabin e koval, 1956; cyathocephalus truncatus (pallas, 1781);o truttaedacnitis truttae (fabricius, 1794) petter, 1974 and dentitruncus truttae sinzar, 1955 have been carried out. the attachment of the single species and the histological changes in the host ...1978553268
[parasites of salmo trutta l. from the tirino river. part iv. intermediate hosts of cyathocephalus truncatus (pallas, 1781) and dentitruncus truttae sinzar, 1955].during studies on helminth parasites of brown trout (salmo trutta l.) from the river tirino (l'aquila - italy), the intermediate hosts of cyathocephalus truncatus (pallas, 1781) and dentitruncus truttae sinzar, 1955 have been searched for. a total of 15,444 amphipoda belonging to the following 3 species: echinogammarus roco karman, 1973, echinogammarus tibaldii pinkster and stock, 1970, and gammarus italicus goedmakers and pinkster, 1977, have been dissected. e. roco, e. tibaldii and g. italicus ...1978553269
isozyme loci in brown trout (salmo trutta l.): detection and interpretation from population data. 1977562331
life history and habitat analysis of the eye fluke diplostomum spathaceum (trematoda: diplostomatidae) in utah.diplostomum spathaceum which is widespread throughout utah in desert, mountain valley, and high alpine lakes, causes a disease known as diplostomatosis or eye fluke disease. snails (756) were examined and two species, lymnaea stagnalis and l. palustris were positive for d. spathaceum. examination of 838 fish, which included 19 species, revealed 10 species (salmo trutta, catostomus discobulus, salmo clarki, micropterus salmoides, catostomus platyrhynchus, salmo gairdneri, gila atraria, catostomus ...1977864559
[ulcerative dermal necrosis (udn) of the river trout (salmo trutta fario) in switzerland. ii. predisposing and infection-precipitating factors]. 1977897655
gene duplication in salmonid fishes: evidence for duplicated but catalytically equivalent a4 lactate dehydrogenases.skeletal muscle tissues from many species of salmonid fish are known to exhibit a set of three of five isozymes for a4-type lactate dehydrogenase (l-lactate: nad oxidoreductase, e.c., but the genetic basis for this isozyme system has not previously been assessed. this isozyme system was purified to homogeneity from salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and shown to be composed of two polypeptides. aalpha and abeta, in binomial tetrameric combinations. amino acid analysis revealed that aalp ...1977921740
genetic variation in scandinavian brown trout (salmo trutta l.): evidence of distinct sympatric populations. 1976965242
observations on the life-cycle of the strigeoid trematode, apatemon (apatemon) gracilis (rudolphi, 1819) szidat, 1928.the life-cycle of apatemon (a.) gracilis was completed in the laboratory. the snail host is lymnaea peregra (muller). the cercaria is redescribed from a wide range of material. metacercariae were found in naturally infected rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri richardson), three-spined sticklebacks (gasterosteus aculeatus l.) and stone loach (nemacheilus barbatulus (l.)) from scotland and in three-spined sticklebacks from iceland. in trout, most metacercariae were found in the pericardial cavity, in s ...1976965706
permeability of trout erythrocytes to nonelectrolytes.using a densimeter technique, a kinetic analysis was made, employing both entrance and exit studies, of the permeability of erythrocytes of brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis), rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), german brown trout (salmo trutta) and cutthroat trout (salmo clarki) to glycerol, ethylene glycol, thiourea and urea. all of the data indicate that these four nonelectrolytes cross the membrane of the erythrocytes of these four species of fishes by simple diffusion only.1976974163
mercury in various tissues of fish caught downstream of a wood pulp factory in the kammerfoss river, south norway.the mercury content of perch (perca fluviatilis) and brown trout (salmo trutta) from a river in south norway, previously shown to be contaminated with mercury from a wood pulp factory, was studied during a 5-years period after the use of mercury in the factory had been discontinued in 1970. in addition to muscular tissue, samples of liver, kidney, brain, heart, and gonads were also analyzed in some cases. the mercury level in the musculature remained nearly constant at about 1 mug/g during the y ...1976995587
the immune response of brown trout (salmo trutta l.) to injection with soluble antigens.the immune response of brown trout (salmo trutta) to horse serum and keyhole limpet haemocyanin was studied. intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections were used, with and without adjuvant, in 209 fish. complement-fixing antibodies (cfa) and precipitins were produced to both antigens. cfa were detected after 8 days to haemocyanin and after 13 days to horse serum. maximum cfa titres to a single intraperitoneal injection of horse serum or haemocyanin were reached at 44 and 43-46 days respectivel ...19761022141
a natural anti-a agglutinin in the serum of the brown trout (salmo trutta).20% of normal serum samples from adult brown trout (salmo trutta) possess an agglutinin for human erythrocytes with anti-blood-group a specificity. this agglutinin has properties which clearly distinguish it from the agglutinin with anti-(b+'p') specificity found in ova from fish of the same species and from anti-blood a antibodies found in human serum.19751173701
yersinia enterocolitica in borwn trout (salmo trutta l.) from this pilot study, 20 brown trout (salmo trutta l.) from one area in western norway were investigated for the presence of yersinia enterocolitica (y.e.). three strains were isolated from three of these trout. all strains were classified as y.e. on the basis of biochemical properties. one of the strains showed antigenic relationship to y.e o-serotype 17. a second strain was antigenically related both to y.e. and y. pseudotuberculosis: agglutination against y.e. o-antisera 4-33, 18, and 21, was ...19761251738
synthesis of n-acetyl neuraminic acid from [14c] glucose by the epidermis of the brown trout, salmo trutta l. 19761277795
changes in plasma glucagon, insulin and tissue metabolites associated with prolonged fasting in brown trout (salmo trutta fario) during two different seasons of the year.1. pyrenean brown trout juveniles (salmo trutta fario) were fasted for 50 days in late winter (experiment 1) and summer (experiment 2). plasma insulin, glucagon and glucose and some metabolites in plasma and in tissues were analysed. 2. glucagon increased significantly on the 3rd day of fasting in the winter experiment (controls 653.7 +/- 92.4 pg/ml, fasted 912.7 +/- 135.2 pg/ml), and the same tendency was observed on the 5th day in the summer experiment (controls 430.5 +/- 56.2 pg/ml, fasted 55 ...19921354588
identification of a cyprinid fish, the tench tinca tinca l., as a carrier of the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida, causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids.a typical, pigment-producing strain of aeromonas salmonicida (a. sal.), the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish species, was isolated from a cyprinid species, the tench tinca tinca l. with papilloma-like skin alterations. histopathology of the papilloma-like skin alterations in tench revealed "round holes", distinctly lined by thick layers of epithelial cells, but no bacteria. the organism was isolated from skin, gills and fins, but not internal organs. the isolate proved highly vir ...19921462724
some plasma hormones and metabolites in the pyrenean brown trout (salmo trutta fario).1. pyrenean brown trout (salmo trutta fario) from 200 to 1700 g were analysed in lots of 12 specimens in march, april, july and october 1988, and in january 1989. 2. hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol) and metabolites (glucose, lactate, proteins, triglycerides) were determined in plasma. 3. body parameters (length and weight) increased progressively, while plasma metabolites and hormones were more dependent on seasonal and sexual conditions. 4. plasma insulin presented a maximum in spring (11 ...19911685386
mineral content and blood parameters of dying brown trout (salmo trutta l.) exposed to acid and aluminum in soft water.1. whole body mineral content and blood parameters were monitored in dying brown trout exposed to acid (ph 4.5) and aluminium (12 mumol l-1) at low external calcium concentration (20 mumol l-1). 2. fish surviving the treatment had elevated haematocrit, low plasma sodium levels, and low whole body sodium and potassium content. 3. dying trout had haematocrit and plasma sodium levels similar to treatment survivors, but whole body mineral content was unaffected and moisture content increased. 4. dea ...19911685405
distribution of the salmonid hpa 1 family in the salmonid species demonstrated by in vitro runoff transcription assay of total genomic dna: a procedure to estimate repetitive frequency and sequence divergence of a certain repetitive family with a few known in vitro runoff transcription assay of total genomic dna was developed. as an example of use of this assay, analysis of a highly repetitive sequence in the cherry salmon (oncorhynchus masou) is described. total genomic dna of the cherry salmon was completely digested with hpa 1, whose site is known to be in the trna-unrelated region of the cherry salmon hpa 1 family. on transcription of the digested dna in a hela cell extract, a discrete-sized rna of about 100 nucleotides, constituting 70% of ...19911707099
[chloromyxum sp. (myxosporidia) in the kidney of salmo trutta f. fario (osteichthyes)].chloromyxum sp. is described from the kidney of one to four years old brown trout from thuringia. this species is not distinguishable from c. wardi by light microscopy, but is not identified here with that species because of the different location.19911928797
[parasitism in fishes and human riverside communities of the huillinco and natri lakes (great island of chiloé), chile].in april and december 1989, 35 fish from lake huillinco (42 degrees 48's, 74 degrees 02'w) and 36 fish from lake natri (42 degrees 48's, 73 degrees 50'w), in the great island of chiloé (chile) were examined. coprological samples from 159 persons, 17 dogs, 19 pigs and 4 cats from around both lakes were examined for diphyllobothrium spp. infection. in the lake huillinco the following helminths of fishes were determined: contracaecum sp. and hysterothylacium sp. in salmo trutta, cauque mauleanum an ...19902152358
the spectral transmission of the lens and cornea of the brown trout (salmo trutta) and goldfish (carassius auratus)--effect of age and implications for ultraviolet vision.this study reports spectral transmission curves (250-700 nm) for the lenses and corneas of two teleost species known to be u.v. sensitive; brown trout (salmo trutta) aged 0-3 yr, and goldfish (carassius auratus) aged 0-4 yr. in both cases there is a decrease in lenticular short-wave transmission with increased age which cannot be explained by an increase in lens size alone. corneas of goldfish go through a similar ageing process while those of the trout do not. an orange pigmentation located in ...19892623828
effect of potassium ethylxanthate and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on the accumulation and disposition of nickel in the brown trout (salmo trutta).brown trouts, salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 or 10 micrograms/l of 63ni2+, alone or with potassium ethylxanthate or sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. after one and three weeks the accumulation and disposition of the 63ni2+ in the fish were examined by liquid scintillation spectrometry and whole-body autoradiography. the sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was found to greatly enhance the uptake of 63ni2+ in several tissues of the trouts. potassium ethylxanthate was without effect. die ...19882840649
effects of some chelating agents on the uptake and distribution of 203hg2+ in the brown trout (salmo trutta): studies on ethyl- and isopropylxanthate, diethyl- and diisopropyldithiophosphate, dimethyl- and diethyldithiocarbamate and pyridinethione.brown trout, salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 microgram/l 203hg2+, alone or with potassium ethylxanthate (pex), sodium isopropylxanthate (six), sodium diethyldithiophosphate (sep), sodium diisopropyldithiophosphate (sip), sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (smc), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (sec) or sodium pyridinethione (spyr), respectively. after 1 week the uptake and distribution of the 203hg2+ in the fish were examined by gamma spectrometry. six, sip, smc, sec and spyr induce ...19882853939
ultrastructural neurobiology of the olfactory mucosa of the brown trout, salmo trutta.this paper describes four investigations of the olfactory mucosa of the brown trout: 1) the ultrastructure of the olfactory mucosa as revealed by scanning (sem), conventional transmission (tem), and high voltage (hvem) electron microscopy; 2) light and electron-microscopic investigations of retrograde transport of the tracer macromolecule horseradish peroxidase (hrp) when applied to the cut olfactory nerve; 3) sem and tem investigations of the effects of olfactory nerve transection on cell popul ...19921392070
the primary structure of histone h2b from brown trout (salmo trutta) testes. 1976986955
[ulcerative dermal necrosis (udn) of the river trout (salmo trutta fario) in switzerland. i. macroscopical and microscopical findings]. 1977877539
somatostatin stimulates acth release in brown trout (salmo trutta l.).injections of somatostatin (srif) produced small but significant increases in the serum cortisol concentration of brown trout in which endogenous acth secretion was suppressed with dexamethasone. srif did not stimulate in vitro secretion of cortisol by trout interrenal tissue. these results suggest that srif may play a minor role in acth secretion in salmonids.19862867005
adp-ribosyltransferase is highly conserved: purification and characterization of adp-ribosyltransferase from a fish and its comparison with the human enzyme.covalent modification of proteins by adp-ribosylation is a major mode of protein regulation in eukaryotic cells. adp-ribosyltransferases have been characterized from mammals but little is known about these enzymes in lower vertebrates. we purified an adp-ribosyltransferase (e.c. from trout (salmo trutta faris) by affinity chromatography and characterized it. the 11,700-fold purified activity shows a major protein band at a molecular mass of 75,000 kda in a sds-polyacrylamide gel. in si ...19873121683
host-parasite relationships between larval sialis lutaria (megaloptera) and neoechinorhynchus rutili (acanthocephala).the role of the larva of the alder fly sialis lutaria as a host for neoechinorhynchus rutili (acanthocephala) has been investigated. brown trout (salmo trutta) infected with n. rutili were found to be feeding on s. lutaria larvae which contained juvenile acanthocephalans in their haemocoels. these acanthocephalans have been identified as n. rutili. a previous report of this host-parasite relationship indicated some form of host response to the larval acanthocephalan. stained wax sections of s. l ...19883200605
evidence for post-cyclic transmission in the life-history of neoechinorhynchus rutili (acanthocephala).field observations at one site on brown trout (salmo trutta) and three-spined sticklebacks (gasterosteus aculeatus) concurrently infected with mature neoechinorhynchus rutili, together with the knowledge that large trout can be piscivorous in habit led to the proposition that the post-cyclic transmission of n. rutili may occur between these fish species. this route of transmission has been suggested for a number of acanthocephalan species. a laboratory experiment was conducted and it was demonst ...19883200606
the effects of acute and chronic stress on the levels of reproductive hormones in the plasma of mature male brown trout, salmo trutta l.chronic confinement for 1 month caused a significant elevation of plasma cortisol but suppressed the levels of plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in sexually mature male brown trout. an acute handling stress for 1 hr elevated blood cortisol and acth levels and also suppressed circulating androgens. this androgen suppression in response to acute stress was accompanied by an elevation of plasma gonadotropin levels. these findings are discussed in relation to stress-induced suppression of ...19872828150
[epidemiology of diphyllobothriasis in the valdivia river basin, chile].in the valdivia (chile) river basin 1,295 inhabitants of 6 riverside districts were examined between march and october 1987 and showed a 1.2% of prevalence by diphyllobothrium in the districts of riñihue and las huellas. prevalence of 5.3% and 9.8% respectively were registered in dogs of the districts of riñihue and malihue. no cat or pig infection was observed in the different districts. the parasites recovered after the treatment were identified as diphyllobothrium latum. human infection by d. ...19892814310
seasonal variation in specific plasma- and target-tissue binding of androgens, relative to plasma steroid levels, in the brown trout, salmo trutta l.the circulating levels of the plasma androgens, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, and their specific binding to skin cytosol, skin nuclear extract, and plasma were determined in mature male and immature male and female brown trout during a single spawning cycle. 11-ketotestosterone was not bound by any of the fractions examined whereas testosterone was bound with high affinity to plasma (kd = 32.6 nm), skin cytosol (kd = 16.9 nm), and skin nuclear extract (kd = 2.6 nm). the binding capacity ...19883384312
alterations in the peripheral lymphoid organs and differential leukocyte counts in saprolegnia-infected brown trout, salmo trutta fario.the number of circulating leukocytes and the structure of splenic and renal lymphoid tissue were comparatively analysed in healthy and saprolegnia-infected wild brown trout, salmo trutta fario. sick trout showed lymphopenia, mainly due to decreased numbers of circulating small lymphocytes, and heterophilia. the splenic and renal lymphoid tissue of infected trout exhibited similar changes, consisting of cellular depletion, lymphoid cell degeneration, and vascular alterations with blood vessel enl ...19883388763
phosphoglucose isomerase isozymes and allozymes of the brown trout, salmo trutta l.1. in brown trout the pgi-1 and pgi-2 loci are predominantly expressed in white skeletal muscle; pgi-3 being mainly expressed in most other tissues. 2. total pgi activity determinations revealed that the allele formerly designated pgi-2(65) is a null allele, pgi-2(n). 3. enzyme kinetic studies on the partially purified pgi homodimeric isozymes revealed that from 5 to 25 degrees c both pgi-1 and pgi-2 had significantly higher mean km(f6p) values compared to pgi-3. 4. distinct metabolic roles for ...19873427913
changes in plasma vitellogenin, sex steroids, calcitonin, and thyroid hormones related to sexual maturation in female brown trout (salmo trutta).female brown trout (salmo trutta) from a wild strain (baltic sea trout) and a cultured strain were sampled individually for blood plasma at regular intervals during the period around final sexual maturation. the plasma samples were analyzed for vitellogenin (vtg), estradiol-17 beta, testosterone, 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-p), calcitonin, tri-iodothyronine (t3), thyroxine (t4), and total and free plasma calcium. in the wild fish, vtg, estradiol-17 beta, and testoster ...19892806878
triiodothyronine binding to putative solubilized nuclear thyroid hormone receptor in liver and gill of the brown trout (salmo trutta) and the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the binding of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (t3) to salt-extracted nuclear protein of liver and gill from trout and eel was studied in vitro. [125i]t3 binding depended on the temperature and protein concentration. binding equilibria were achieved in the two tissues of each species between 15 and 24 hr at 4 degrees. the binding was reversible in the presence of excess unlabeled t3. scatchard analysis showed a single class of high affinity and low capacity t3 binding species considered, 2.71 x 10(-10) ...19892806877
the deleterious effects of cortisol implantation on reproductive function in two species of trout, salmo trutta l. and salmo gairdneri richardson.implantation of a cortisol-releasing pellet (60 mg kg-1 fish) into the peritoneal cavity of brown trout, salmo trutta l. (sexually maturing males and females), and rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri richardson (maturing males and immature fish of both sexes), significantly elevated their plasma cortisol level. at 18 days postimplantation, cortisol-implanted sexually maturing male brown trout had smaller gonads, a lower plasma testosterone level, and less gonadotropin in their pituitary gland than co ...19892591721
ontogenesis of diurnal rhythms of camp concentration, outer segment disc shedding and retinomotor movements in the eye of the brown trout, salmo trutta.histological analyses of the retina of salmo trutta post-embryos exhibit rhythmic disc shedding at 6 weeks, followed by cyclic retinomotor movements at 7 weeks. diurnal variations in camp concentration, as established by a radioreceptor assay, develop simultaneously with retinomotor movements and are fully expressed at 9.5 weeks. in continuous darkness, neither retinomotor movements nor intra-ocular peaks of camp occur, indicating that the endogenous oscillator for retinomotor movements and camp ...19892555021
monoclonal antibodies to salmonid immunoglobulin: characterization and applicability in immunoassays.monoclonal antibodies to rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) igm were prepared and characterized for use in immunoassays. antibodies produced by the five clones reacted with the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. no indication of different heavy chain isotype specificity was observed for the mabs. one clone discerned igm from rainbow trout while the other four clones cross-reacted with igm from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and from brown trout (salmo trutta). the monoclonal antibodies identifie ...19902086271
comparative ultrastructure of the zona radiata from eggs of six species of salmonids.the zona radiata from unactivated and activated eggs from chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha), chum salmon (o. kisutch), pink salmon (o. gorbuscha), brown trout (salmo trutta), rainbow trout (s. gairdneri) and lake trout (salvelinus namaycush) were examined using scanning and transmission microscopy. the zona radiata in all species examined consisted of an outer adhesive coating, a thin densely staining zona radiata externa with pore canal plugs and a thick, fibrous zona radiata interna wi ...19873690632
effects of bleached kraft mill effluent on early life stages of brown trout (salmo trutta l.).brown trout (salmo trutta l.) eggs fertilized in clean water were incubated in bleached kraft mill effluent (bkme) concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% (v/v) in a continuous-flow system and exposure was continued with the sac fry for most of the yolk sac stage. in addition, sac fry first incubated in clean water were exposed after hatching to the same concentrations for 44 days. percentage hatching was lower than in the control only in 2% bkme. in all the bkme concentrations, the newly hatched sa ...19873691367
tracts of putative ultraviolet receptors in the retina of the two-year-old brown trout (salmo trutta) and the atlantic salmon (salmo salar).we previously showed that the brown trout possesses uv-sensitive cones in its retina that are lost in 2-year-old fish. however, present investigations reveal that in the narrow growth zone along the periphery and the ventral embryonic fissure, the formation of these cones continues in trout and salmon.19873691736
the effect of dose, route, number of injections and the use of adjuvant on the clearance of and immune response to, haemocyanin following injection into brown trout (salmo trutta).the primary and secondary immune responses were investigated in trout injected with haemocyanin (hcn) intramuscularly (im) or intraperitoneally (ip), with or without adjuvant. hcn was detected in the blood 30 min after injection and clearance times varied after one injection from 8 to 56 days. fish given two and three injections cleared the antigen faster. precipitins against hcn were first detected 21 to 30 days after injection and were still present on day 56. however, antibodies detectable by ...19863765340
effects of domestic wastewater on serum enzyme activities of brown trout (salmo trutta).1. chronic injuries of kidney and liver tissue of brown trout caused by domestic wastewater were not accompanied by increased activities of serum enzymes (got, gpt). 2. increased enzyme activities were only observed in fish with acute saproloegnia infection. 3. it is important to distinguish between acute and chronic responses of serum enzymes in diseased fish.19901982877
mercury levels in fish in a river habitat after cessation of mercury contamination.the rate of decrease shown by mercury levels in brown trout (salmo trutta) and perch (perca fluviatilis) collected downstream to a wood pulp factory after a ban on the use of phenyl mercury in the pulp and paper industries was made effective in 1970 has been slow. even though a river habitat was involved, it seemed to take about 15 years for levels of mercury in downstream fish to fall to those recorded in fish upstream to the wood pulp factory.19863797236
organochlorine insecticides in trout, salmo trutta fario l., taken from four rivers in león, spain. 19873801696
[sphaerospora truttae (myxosporidia) in salmo trutta and thymallus thymallus: first detection in thüringia and in the hartz region and also in the grayling].s. truttae is described from brown trout and grayling in middle germany. this species is obviously not connected with pkx, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (pkd) in salmonids. s. truttae, however, is important in this connection from the viewpoint of differential diagnostics.19911888073
effects of six trace metals on calcium fluxes in brown trout (salmo trutta l.) in soft water.calcium fluxes were measured simultaneously in brown trout fry maintained in an artificial soft water medium of [ca] 20 mumol.1(-1) and ph 5.6, and exposed to each of six trace metals (al, cu, fe, ni, pb, and zn). the trace metal concentrations represented typical and maximum levels found in acid waters experiencing declining fishery status. in the absence of trace metals, evidence is presented which suggests that ca. 91% of ca taken up from the external medium was by extraintestinal active tran ...19911744250
analysis of the structure and variability of nucleolar organizer regions of salmo trutta by c-, ag-, and restriction endonuclease banding.nucleolar organizer regions (nors) of brown trout were investigated using c-, ag-, and restriction endonuclease banding. the presence of constitutive heterochromatin was confirmed by c-banding. giemsa-staining, c-banding, and ag-banding revealed great variability in the size of the short arm of the nor-bearing chromosome. this size variation was due in some cases to nor duplication. restriction endonuclease digestion induced a specific banding pattern for alui, ddei, haeiii, mboi, and hinfi, ind ...19901701115
kinetic studies on the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh-5) isozymes of brown trout, salmo trutta l.the ldh-5 isozymes of brown trout, salmo trutta l., were purified and subjected to enzyme kinetic analysis. a hierarchy of magnitude existed for both km(pyr) and km(lac) such that ldh-5(105/105) greater than (100/105) greater than (100/100). the results suggest that the 105 allele has been replaced by 100 at ldh-5 under the action of natural selection.19854053579
metabolic effects of pcb (polychlorinated biphenyls) on the brown trout (salmo trutta). 19724198981
[seasonal changes in the enzyme pattern and neurosecretion content as well as innervation of the preoptic nucleus in the brook trout (salmo trutta fario) with special reference to the hypothalamic hydrencephalokrinia]. 19704331425
[differentiation and ultrastructure of the distal skeleton of the pectoral fin of the native trout (salmo trutta fario l.). i. differentiation and ultrastructure of the actinotrichia]. 19744367392
[differentiation and ultrastructure of distal skeleton of pectoral fin of indigenous trout (salmo trutta fario l.). ii. differentiation and ultrastructure of lepidotrichia]. 19744469410
[triiodothyronine is needed for the acclimatization of brown trout (salmo trutta) or rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) to seawater].brown and rainbow trout, held in freshwater at 13 +/- 1 degrees, were injected, every 3 days, with iopanoic acid (iop: 5 mg/100 g body wt), an inhibitor of deiodination of thyroxine (t4) to triiodothyronine (t3). one group of iop-treated rainbow trout was immersed in t3 (20 micrograms/l water). in iop trout, plasma t3 fell to very low levels by day 7, while changes in t4 levels were less marked. in iop + t3 trout plasma t3 increased fivefold, plasma t4 being unchanged. no mortality occurred and ...19921521165
[permeability of trout (salmo trutta fario) erythrocytes to non-electrolytes]. 19705503222
further investigation of the parasite fauna of the brown trout salmo trutta. 19675583360
[contribution on hydrencephalocriny: ii. seasonal and age determined changes in the hypothalamic hydrencephalocriny in the brook trout (salmo trutta fario)]. 19685639337
the action of thyroxine on mitochondrial respiration and phosphorylation in the trout (salmo trutta fario l.). 19685657201
[early histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cartilagineous skeleton of the primary girdles and fins in trouts (salmo trutta fario l.)]. 19685677815
[enzootic disease of trout, salmo trutta, in the vistula]. 19685757717
the population dynamics of the monogenean gill parasite discocotyle sagittata leuckart on windermere trout, salmo trutta, l. 19655887653
[contributions on hydroencephalocrania: i. hypothalamic hydroencephalocrania in the trout (salmo trutta fario)]. 19676062989
dna sequence variation of the mitochondrial control region among geographically and morphologically remote european brown trout salmo trutta populations.throughout its natural range, the brown trout salmo trutta l. exhibits a complex pattern of morphological and life-history variation. this has led to considerable taxonomic confusion, hampering the understanding of the evolutionary history of the species. to document the phylogenetic relationships among morphologically and geographically remote brown trout populations across western europe, we determined the dna sequence variation in segments of the mitochondrial control region for 151 individua ...19921344992
the effects of hypophysectomy, prolactin therapy and environmental calcium on electrolyte balance of the brown trout salmo trutta, l.adaptation of the brown trout to fresh water containing increasing concentrations of calcium resulted in a decrease in plasma electrolyte level and total electrolyte excretion. the electrolyte excretion rate was higher at the beginning than at the end of the urine collection periods. hypophysectomized fish had a lower plasma electrolyte concentration than the controls. this deficiency was partially corrected by polactin therapy. high environmental calcium was only effective to a limited extent. ...19761270991
[electrophoretic evidence of a strong genetic differentiation between brown trout populations of corsica].electrophoretic variations of 18 enzyme systems encoded by 37 loci have revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation between three brown trout populations from corsica. one of these populations could be salmo trutta macrostigma dum.19836416620
the fine structure of the epidermis of two species of salmonid fish, the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). and the brown trout (salmo trutta l.)the fine structure of epidermal mucous cells of two species of salmonid fish has been described. mucous cells are, next to filament-containing cells, the most commonly encountered cells in fish epidermis. the development of the cells as they progress to the periphery has been characterised. they are initially difficult to distinguish from filament-containing cells: later, they can be recognised by the presence of much smooth-surfaced e.r. the mucigenesis and the subsequent secretion of mucus has ...19751238172
annual variations in the visual pigments of brown trout inhibiting lochs providing different light environments.visual pigments were extracted at regular intervals over the year from trout (salmo trutta) inhabiting three scottish lochs. measurements of the spectral quality of the light in the lochs were also made. in all cases only a2-based pigment was found in the winter, with a1-based pigment appearing as well in summer. fish from loch turret had significantly less a1-based pigment than fish from the other two lochs. loch turret differs from the other two lochs in being dystrophic, as opposed to eutroph ...19846533987
the effect of hypophysectomy and prolactin therapy on water balance of the brown trout salmo trutta.a technique for the hypophysectomy of the brown trout is described which might be applicable to other salmonids. hypophysectomy produced a decrease in water turnover which was corrected by prolactin therapy. hypophysectomy resulted in a decrease in the next flux of osmotic water. both osmotic and diffusional water permeabilities were evenly decreased after hypophysectomy, such that the ratio of the osmotic and diffusional permeability coefficients (pos/pd) retained a value of approximately unity ...19751202128
the effects of calcium on water balance of the brown trout salmo trutta.water space, tritiated water flux, drinking and urine flow rates of the brown trout were decreased by increasing the environmental calcium concentration. diffusional and osmotic permeabilities were identical in fresh water. this suggests that water flow across the gill occurs entirely by diffusion. previous suggestions of a discrepancy between the two permeabilities in freshwater teleosts could have been due to an overestimation of urine flow rate upon which the determination of osmotic permeabi ...19751202127
toxicity of selected priority pollutants to various aquatic organisms.toxicity tests were conducted with selected compounds listed by the united states environmental protection agency (epa) as priority pollutants. acute toxicity information was determined for acenaphthene, arsenic trioxide, cadmium chloride, mercury(ii) chloride, silver nitrate, chlordane, endosulfan, and heptachlor. acute tests were conducted using one or more of the following species: fathead minnows (pimephales promelas), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), b ...19836617566
seasonal and diel changes in plasma cortisol levels of the brown trout, salmo trutta l.a marked diel variation in plasma cortisol concentration was demonstrated in the brown trout, salmo trutta l. for most of the year this variation took the form of an elevation of cortisol levels during the hours of darkness. there was some evidence of a phase shift from a peak at 2400 hr during the spring and early summer to a peak at 0400 hr during the late summer and early autumn. during the winter months a nocturnal elevation of plasma cortisol was not evident. a shorter, episodic elevation o ...19836682391
an immunochemical study of the human blood group p1, p, and pk glycosphingolipid antigens.the erythrocyte pk and p blood group antigens have been identified as ceramide trihexoside (cth), gal-(alpha, 1 leads to 4)gal(beta, 1 leads to 4)glc-cer, and globoside, galn-ac(beta, 1 leads to 3)gal(alpha, 1 leads to 4)gal(beta, 1 leads to 4)glc-cer, respectively, and the following structure has been proposed for the p1 antigen: gal(alpha, 1 leads to 4)gal(beta, 1 leads to 4)glcnac(beta, 1 leads to 3)gal(beta, 1 leads to 4)glc-cer. although the p1 and pk determinants have identical terminal di ...19751182122
cortisol-induced lymphocytopenia in brown trout, salmo trutta l.the administration of cortisol in the food of brown trout produced peak plasma cortisol titres of about 140 ng ml-1 at 12 hr and markedly reduced the number of circulating lymphocytes, which reached their lowest count at 36 hr. cortisol did not affect the erythrocyte, thrombocyte, or neutrophil count. sexual maturation of the male fish was associated with an increase in erythrocytes and a decrease in lymphocytes in the blood. these findings are discussed in relation to the increased susceptibili ...19846698391
hepatic cytochrome p-450-dependent monooxygenase systems of the trout, frog and snake--i. components.1. components of the hepatic monooxygenase systems (cytochrome p-450, cytochrome b5, nadph cytochrome p-450- or c-reductase) of the brown trout (salmo trutta), leopard frog (rana pipiens) and garter snake (thamnophis) were considerably lower than those found in the rat. 2. reactivity of snake nadph-cytochrome p-450-reductase with cytochrome p-450 was about twice that of the rat reductase; reactivities of trout and frog reductases were similar, but lower than that of the rat. the optimal temperat ...19826802562
simple mendelian inheritance at a locus coding for alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in brown trout (salmo trutta). 19826809701
enveloping layer and periderm of the trout embryo (salmo trutta fario l.)20u.the origin of pericarderm and epidermis has been studied in trout embryos from stage 20(2 days after fertilization at 10degrees c) to hatching (stage 410). between stages 20 and 50, the blastodisc consists of an inner mass of blastomeres covered by a superficial layer of closely packed blastomeres, the peripheral layer. this layer gives rise to both peripheral cells and to cells joining the inner mass of blastomeres. between stages 50 and 110, junctions differentiate between peripheral cells. th ...1976954062
a quantitative analysis of spermatogenesis in the trout, salmo trutta fario.the pattern of spermatogenesis was studied during an annual reprodutive cycle in adult male brown trout. the part of the testicular volume occupied by the nuclei of germ cells and of sertoli cells, the lobular lumen and the extra-lobular space were measured. the number of germ cells was estimated by the total volume occupied by each cell divided by the individual volume of each cell. the permanent number of spermatogonia a (spermatogonia isolated or in groups of 2) was about 50 million. each ga ...19836850778
effect of calcium and aluminum concentrations on the survival of brown trout (salmo trutta) at low ph. 19836860811
immunocytochemistry of gonadotropic cells in the pituitary of some teleost antiserum (anti-sgth) raised against salmon gonadotropin (sg-g100) was tested on pituitary sections of sarotherodon mossambicus, carassius auratus, anguilla anguilla (intact and estradiol-treated to induce the development of the gonadotropic (gth) cells), salmo trutta fario, and a protandric marine teleost (sarpa salpa, sparidae). using an immunoenzymologic technique, anti-sgth stained gth and thyrotropic (tsh) cells in the species studied. anti-sgth stained the granulated gth cells in s. tru ...19836862173
ultraviolet receptors, tetrachromatic colour vision and retinal mosaics in the brown trout (salmo trutta): age-dependent changes.microspectrophotometric analysis of the visual receptors of "yearling" brown trout, salmo trutta, revealed three cone types, double cones with visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 600 and 535 nm, and two types of single cone with lambda max at about 440 and 355 nm. two-year-old fish did not possess the u.v. cone cells. microscopical analysis of the cone mosaic in "yearling" trout showed a square pattern of double cones with a central single cone and corner single cones, but in two-year-o ...19873447359
immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like material in the brain and the pituitary gland during the periovulatory period in the brown trout (salmo trutta l.): relationships with the plasma and pituitary fish there are few data on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gn-rh) neurosecretory activity, which could explain long- and short-term variations of the gonadotropin secretion. there is no biological species specificity between mammal and fish gn-rh; although there is a structural difference, they are, on the contrary, characterized by a high immunological specificity which does not allow measurement of fish gn-rh using radioimmunoassay for lh-rh. we have synthesized salmon gn-rh according t ...19863510150
the primary immune response of brown trout (salmo trutta) to cellular and soluble antigens: enumeration of antibody-secreting and antigen-binding cells, and the production of antibody.significantly increased numbers (p less than 0.01) of antigen-binding (abc) and antibody-secreting cells (asc) were stimulated, in the spleen and the anterior kidney (ak) of the brown trout (salmo trutta), by a single intraperitoneal injection of salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (lps), keyhole limpet haemocyanin (klh), sheep red blood cells (srbc) or klh- or lps-coated srbc. with the exception of the srbc group, the spleens contained more avc and asc per 10(6) lymphoid cells than the ak ...19817029986
estrogen-binding sites in the liver of sexually mature male and female brown trout, salmo trutta l.binding sites with characteristics conforming to those of a putative estrogen receptor have been identified in the liver of sexually mature male and female brown trout. [3h]estradiol is bound with high affinity (kd in the 10(-9) m range) and limited capacity (less than 400 fmol mg-1 protein) to a proteinaceous moiety in liver cytosol. binding is highly specific, only estradiol and estrone displace specifically bound [3h]estradiol. cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17 alpha, 20 bet ...19863510151
seasonal patterns of free and conjugated androgens in the brown trout salmo trutta. 19827141206
the ecology of crepidostomum species (allocreadiidae: digenea) in the salmonoids of lake yli-kitka in northeastern finland.crepidostomum spp. were studied from 417 whitefish (coregonus acronius rapp, 1854), 220 vendace (coregonus albula l.) and 38 brown trout (salmo trutta m. lacustris (l.)) from lake yli-kitka in northeastern finland during 1980-1983.12.7% of the whitefish were infected with crepidostomum with a mean intensity of 4.6 worms per infected fish. the species involvedare c. farionis (müller, 1784) and crepidostomum wikgreni gibson et valtonen, 1988, which differed from c. farionis in the number and size ...19892767545
[helminths in trout (fam. salmonidae) in freshwater reservoirs].a survey is made of the helminths parasitizing in representatives of family salmonidae caught mainly in the free fresh-water basins in the country. more detailed information and study concerned the american and the balkan trout--salmo irideus gairdneri and salmo trutta m. fario respectively--because of their higher economic importance. in the course of the study some corrections were made of the names of some of the species in the light of the new data obtained concerning all helminths alreay me ...19827179733
influence of calcium on the survival of eggs and fry of brown trout (salmo trutta) at ph 4.5. 19827201861
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