the fine structure of the epidermis of two species of salmonid fish, the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) and the brown trout (salmo trutta l.). i. general organization and filament-containing cells.the fine structure of the epidermis or two species of salmonid fish has been described. gross characteristics have been noted along with many apparent differences in the epidermis of different body regions of the fish. the major cell type is the filament-containing cell and this has been described in detail. the major inclusions of the cell are the tonofilaments. differences in basal, mid-epidermal and periphal filament-c0ntaingcells have been characterized. comparisons of fish epidermis with th ...1975165897
toxicity of aeromonas salmonicida cells to atlantic salmon salmo salar peritoneal macrophages.several strains of aeromonas salmonicida were toxic to cultured peritoneal macrophages of atlantic salmon, salmo salar, in minimum doses of 5 x 10(6) cfu, whereas other strains were not. there was no correlation between cytotoxicity and in vivo virulence of the bacteria, the presence or absence of the two major surface components of a. salmonicida (namely, the a-layer and the o-polysaccharide chain of the lps) nor, finally, with the ability of the strains to produce the following enzymes in vitr ...19921618355
immunohistochemical identification of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in paraffin-embedded tissues of atlantic salmon (salmo salar).infectious pancreatic necrosis virus serotype sp was identified by immunohistochemistry in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of atlantic salmon (salmo salar). the immunoreaction was present in degenerating and necrotic cells in exocrine pancreatic cells. cross reactions were observed with rabbit antisera against serotypes sp, ab, and vr-299 in neutralization tests and western blotting. immunohistochemically, only sp antiserum produced positive immunostaining to sp antigens, whereas ...19901965633
temperature-dependent reproduction and survival of gyrodactylus salaris malmberg, 1957 (platyhelminthes: monogenea) on atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).the relationship of survival and reproduction of gyrodactylus salaris malmberg on the atlantic salmon (salmo salar) to water temperature (2.5-19.0 degrees c), was studied on the basis of temporal sequence of births and age at death of individual parasites on isolated salmon, and of infrapopulation growth on isolated and grouped salmon. mean life-span of the parasite was negatively correlated with water temperature: 33.7 days at 2.5 degrees c and 4.5 days at 19.0 degrees c. the average number of ...19912038497
sequence of a cdna clone encoding an atlantic salmon ribosomal protein.we report here the nucleotide sequence of a cdna clone encoding a salmon (salmo salar) ribosomal (r) protein. the encoded protein shows 62.3% and 62% similarity with the l14 and l18 r-proteins in xenopus laevis and rat, respectively.19912055494
plasmid profiling of vibrio salmonicida for epidemiological studies of cold-water vibriosis in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and cod (gadus morhua).in 1988, a new plasmid profile was observed for vibrio salmonicida isolated from cod (gadus morhua) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in fish farms in northern norway. this new plasmid profile, which consisted of plasmids of 61, 21, 3.4, and 2.8 megadaltons, is 1 of 11 plasmid profiles which have so far been observed for v. salmonicida. plasmid profiling and plasmid dna hybridization were used in epidemiological studies of cold-water vibriosis. our results indicate that v. salmonicida was transm ...19902160218
detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) rna by hybridization with an oligonucleotide dna probe.marine farming of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) is growing rapidly in norway, and fish diseases have now become one of the biggest obstacles for this new industry. infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) is commonly found in fish from norwegian sea farms. diagnosis of ipnv infection is, at present, mainly based on virus isolation in cell cultures and identification by neutralization tests (nt). a dna-rna hybridization assay was developed using a 24 base dna oligonucleotide probe. this is hom ...19902169675
atlantic salmon (salmo salar) serum albumin: cdna sequence, evolution, and tissue expression.atlantic salmon serum albumin is one of the most abundant proteins in salmon liver, representing 1.6% of all clones in a cdna library made from salmon liver rna. the dna from a number of clones was sequenced to reveal an open reading frame of 1,827 bases encoding a 608-amino-acid protein. the sequenced 5' untranslated region is 69 bases long and the 3' untranslated region contains two putative polyadenylation signals and poly(a) tail. sequence analysis of different clones indicates the presence ...19902261082
glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase complexed with lipopolysaccharide (lps) is a major lethal exotoxin and cytolysin of aeromonas salmonicida: lps stabilizes and enhances toxicity of the extracellular lethal toxin produced by aeromonas salmonicida was purified by fast-protein liquid ion-exchange chromatography. the toxin is composed of glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) (molecular mass, 25 kilodaltons) aggregated with lipopolysaccharide (lps), the gcat/lps complex having a molecular mass of about 2,000 kilodaltons, estimated by gel filtration chromatography. the toxin is lethal for atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) at a concentration of 0.045 micrograms of ...19902394687
[ultrastructural manifestations of the functional plasticity of the renal glomerular endothelium in vertebrates].studied has been the fine structure of the kidney's glomerulus endotheliocyte of man (age 2-6 years) and fish (year-old atlantic salmon salmo salar l.), as organisms occupying extreme place in development of kidney in phylogenetic line of the vertebrates. revealed has been the uniformity of geometric reconstruction of vascular endothelium of kidney's glomerulus of investigated objects under heterogeneous factors' influence (compensatory hyperfunction of man and environment influence of fish). fo ...19892541837
experimental transmission of a plasmacytoid leukemia of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha.a plasmacytoid leukemia of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, has recently been recognized in seawater netpens in british columbia, canada. the disease has occurred at several sites and has caused high mortality. plasmacytoid leukemia is characterized by a generalized invasion of visceral tissues and the orbit of the eye by plasmacytoid cells. the disease was experimentally transmitted to healthy chinook salmon by i.p. injection of kidney tissue homogenates, but transmission with a cell-f ...19902386969
influence of ration level and salinity on circulating thyroid hormones in juvenile atlantic salmon (salmo salar).following acute exposure to seawater (30 ppt), plasma thyroxine (t4) of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) smolts increased 80% in the first 6 hr, declined to initial levels after 24 hr, and remained stable for 18 days thereafter. in nonsmolts, plasma t4 did not rise immediately after exposure to seawater, fell slightly after 2 days, and remained low for 18 days. plasma triiodothyronine (t3) of smolts and nonsmolts was not affected by acute exposure to seawater. to examine the effect of long-term ada ...19902354765
amelogenin gene similarity in vertebrates: dna sequences encoding amelogenin seem to be conserved during evolution.mouse amelogenin cdna was used in hybridization assays with genomic dna, cut with the restriction enzyme eco ri, from the edentulous chicken (gallus domesticus), the monophyodont mouse (as control), diphyodont man, and the polyphyodont fishes atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and seawolf (anarrhichas lupus). the hybridization assay was performed under stringent conditions with non-radioactive probes. hybridization was obtained with mouse (6.4-kb band), man (9-kb and 13-kb bands), and seawolf (18-kb ...19902097297
monoclonal antibodies to salmonid immunoglobulin: characterization and applicability in immunoassays.monoclonal antibodies to rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) igm were prepared and characterized for use in immunoassays. antibodies produced by the five clones reacted with the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. no indication of different heavy chain isotype specificity was observed for the mabs. one clone discerned igm from rainbow trout while the other four clones cross-reacted with igm from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and from brown trout (salmo trutta). the monoclonal antibodies identifie ...19902086271
purification and characterization of atlantic salmon prolactin.prolactin was isolated from the atlantic salmon (salmo salar) pituitary gland by extraction with acid acetone, gel filtration, ion exchange-chromatography, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. the yield was 0.6 mg/g wet tissue. the hormone had a molecular weight of 23.5 kda as determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. isoelectric focusing gave an isoelectric point of 9.2. the n-terminal sequence and the amino acid composition indicated extensive homology between ...19892925076
the salmon gene encoding apolipoprotein a-i: cdna sequence, tissue expression and evolution.a cdna encoding an apolipoprotein (apo) has been isolated from the atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and sequenced. it encodes a peptide of 258 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide of 18 aa, with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of the mrna of 12 and 329 nucleotides, respectively. the protein has structural features in common with other apo's of human and avian origin, including conserved sequences in the signal peptide and a series of internal repeats of 22 aa. the sequence has been identifi ...19911916288
an epizootic in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caused by a sorbitol-positive serovar 2 strain of yersinia ruckeri.enteric redmouth disease is described in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a state hatchery in sand ridge, illinois. biochemical, isoenzyme, and serological data indicated that the epizootic was caused by a sorbitol-fermenting serovar 2 strain of yersinia ruckeri. in laboratory experiments the isolate was pathogenic for both brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar).19863503134
mortality in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) associated with trichodinid ciliates.a protozoan infection (trichodina truttae) was identified in captive atlantic salmon (salmo salar) kelts that died in spring of 1988 and 1989. fish with intense infections showed signs of listlessness, erratic swimming and inappetence. the infection induced excessive mucus secretion, epithelial sloughing and lesions that probably permitted entry of opportunistic bacteria which eventually caused ulcers and death. a seawater bath for 30 min each week for 4 wk effectively controlled the parasite.19911902525
the specificity of atlantic salmon antibodies made against the fish pathogen vibrio salmonicida, establishing the surface protein vs-p1 as the dominating antigen.the specificity of salmon (salmo salar) antibodies made against the fish pathogen vibrio salmonicida was studied. salmon immunized with v. salmonicida emulisified in freund's complete adjuvant produced antibodies which preferentially bound to a 40 kd outer surface molecule (vs-p1). moreover, the bulk of the antibodies were specific for one particular epitope on vs-p1, defined by a mouse monoclonal antibody - as detected with a blocking elisa. the data imply that salmon b cells mainly (90%) recog ...19873678557
heterogeneity in the genome rnas and polypeptides of five members of a novel group of rotavirus-like viruses isolated from aquatic animals.biochemical characteristics of five rotavirus-like viruses isolated from striped bass (morone saxatilis), turbot (scophthalmus maximus), smelt (osmerus mordax) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in north america and europe were compared. the genome of each isolate was composed of 11 segments of dsrna and each isolate had a unique electropherotype in polyacrylamide gels. agarose gel electrophoresis showed similar rna profiles for all four isolates from north america, whereas the rna profile of the ...19911846647
insulin and glucagon family peptides in relation to activities of hepatic hexokinase and other enzymes in fed and starved atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and cod (gadus morhua).1. plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide (glp) were all reduced by starvation of salmon and cod. in the salmon the drop in glp was larger than in insulin and glucagon. 2. after starvation the activity of hexokinase (ec was increased in salmon liver, but decreased in cod liver. the salmon hepatic hexokinase activity was inversely correlated with the glp/insulin ratio. 3. activities of hepatic glycogen phosphorylase (ec and phosphofructokinase (ec ...19911814675
non-specific cytotoxic activity of teleost leukocytes.the existence of lymphoid cells with "natural" killer activity in mammals and birds has been known for some time. several previous reports have demonstrated similar activity in carp and catfish kidney leukocytes. however, the activity previously reported was directed towards established mammalian cell lines. in this report we confirm the existence of spontaneous killer activity in other species of teleosts, including salmonids. this spontaneous cytotoxic activity is directed towards several esta ...19853996708
papillomatous lesions in wild juvenile atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., in new brunswick, canada. 19854032638
coronary artery lesions in atlantic salmon (salmo salar). 19724569570
methylmercury as percentage of total mercury in flesh and viscera of salmon and sea trout of various ages.the proportion of methylmercury to total mercury in the flesh of salmon (salmo salar) 1 to 7 years old and sea trout (salmo ocla) 1 and 2 years old was found to average 93 percent with a range of 81 to 98 percent, and to be independent of the age of the fish. in salmon and sea trout 1 and 2 years old, methylmercury constituted 26 to 67 percent of the total visceral mercury, without age dependence.19734721053
[determination of residues of chloramphenicol in rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) (author's transl)]. 19744840814
impairment of early ovarian growth in landlocked atlantic salmon by an antibody to carbohydrate-rich gonadotropin.the role of the carbohydrate-rich gonadotropin (con aii gth) in an early phase of ovarian growth in landlocked atlantic salmon (salmo salar) was investigated by treating in vivo with an antibody to chum salmon (oncorhynchus keta) con aii gth (anti-con aii). anti-con aii treatment significantly inhibited ovarian growth but did not consistently lower serum levels of vitellogenin. this suggests that con aii gth is necessary for early ovarian growth and, has one or more functions in early ovarian gr ...19836840516
characterization of vibrio anguillarum and closely related species isolated from farmed fish in norway.a total of 264 bacterial strains tentatively or definitely classified as vibrio anguillarum were examined. the strains were isolated from diseased or healthy norwegian fish after routine autopsy. with the exception of five isolates from wild saithe (pollachius virens), the strains originated from nine different species of farmed fish. the bacteria were subjected to morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies, numerical taxonomical analyses, serotyping by slide agglutination and enzyme- ...19911768147
in vivo and in vitro toxicity of fractionated fish lipids, with particular regard to their content of chlorinated organic compounds.six different lipid matrices (the intact lipid (il), four lipid fractions with different polarity, and the free fatty acids (ffas) obtained by hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol (tag) containing fraction) were obtained from salmon (salmo salar) and eel (anguilla anguilla), each collected at a contaminated and a comparatively uncontaminated catch site along the coast of scandinavia. the lipid matrices were studied in toxicological test systems representing various biological functions of different ...19911766922
inoculation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus serotype sp did not cause pancreas disease in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).atlantic salmon were selected from a fish farm with no previous record of pancreas disease (pd) or infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) infection. groups of fish were inoculated with either ipnv (strain sp) from cell culture, organ material from fish with pd or control material as phosphate-buffered saline (pbs). virological, histological and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out throughout the experiment. none of the fish died or showed clinical symptoms of pd. histological e ...19911667971
a comparison of total and specific immunoglobulin levels in healthy atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) and in salmon naturally infected with aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes.healthy atlantic salmon and salmon with a history of chronic natural aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes infection were compared with respect to total serum protein and the concentration and specificity of serum immunoglobulin. the immunoglobulin level was measured using competitive elisa and the specific antibody activity against aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes was measured using double sandwich elisa. significant elevation of serum protein and immunoglobulin concentration was o ...19921604799
the atlantic salmon prepro-gonadotropin releasing hormone gene and mrna.screening for the gene encoding salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sgnrh) in an atlantic salmon (salmo salar) genomic library resulted in isolation of a positive clone designated lambda sgnrh-1. an anchor polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique was used to amplify gnrh cdna derived from salmon hypothalamic mrna. the cdna sequence was aligned to the 7607 base pair genomic sequence which was shown to encode the entire prepro-gnrh gene. the cdna proved that the cloned gene is expressed in the ...19921587389
dietary vitamin b6 and vitamin c. influence on immune response and disease resistance in atlantic salmon (salmo salar). 19921444053
nucleotide sequence and tissue distribution of three insulin-like growth factor i prohormones in salmon.tissue distribution and potential alternative splicing of insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) messenger rna were studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) on rna from several tissues at various stages of the life cycle of coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch). dna sequence analysis of rt-pcr products revealed three igf-i mrna transcripts, designated ea-1, ea-2, and ea-3, which code for three distinct prohormones, igf-ia-1, igf-ia-2, and igf-ia-3, respectively. the e-do ...19921406698
serological responses and immunity produced in salmonids by vaccination with australian strains of vibrio anguillarum.the australian populations of rainbow trout (onchorhynchus mykiss) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) were found to have similar immunological responses to local strains of vibrio anguillarum as those reported for the more genetically diverse populations of these fish and strains of v. anguillarum found in the northern hemisphere. in addition, our studies more precisely defined the respective responses of rainbow trout and atlantic salmon to immersion vaccination by the bath and dip methods.19921289240
yeast beta-glucan stimulates respiratory burst activity of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) macrophages.previous studies have shown that head kidney macrophages isolated from glucan injected rainbow trout (oncorhychus mykiss) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) have increased ability to kill aeromonas salmonicida. the present work was aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of glucan on the respiratory burst and bactericidal potential of atlantic salmon head kidney macrophages. salmon macrophages were incubated for 1-7 days with various concentrations of yeast beta-glucan (macrogard) and test ...19957615137
phylogenetic conservation and physical mapping of members of the h6 homeobox gene family.homeobox genes represent a class of transcription factors that play key roles in the regulation of embryogenesis and development. here we report the identification of a homeobox-containing gene family that is highly conserved at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in a diverse number of species. these species encompass both vertebrate and invertebrate phylogenies, ranging from homo sapiens to drosophila melanogaster. in humans, at least two homeobox sequences from this family were identifi ...19957647458
the fine structure of the epidermis of two species of salmonid fish, the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). and the brown trout (salmo trutta l.)the fine structure of epidermal mucous cells of two species of salmonid fish has been described. mucous cells are, next to filament-containing cells, the most commonly encountered cells in fish epidermis. the development of the cells as they progress to the periphery has been characterised. they are initially difficult to distinguish from filament-containing cells: later, they can be recognised by the presence of much smooth-surfaced e.r. the mucigenesis and the subsequent secretion of mucus has ...19751238172
a histological study of the pathological effect of lipopolysaccharide-free glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyl transferase (gcat) on atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). 19947698454
gonadotropic cells in the atlantic salmon, salmo salar. an experimental immunocytological, electron miscroscopical study.the gonadotropin-producing cells (gth-cells) in the atlantic salmon were studied light and electron microscopically before, during and after spawning, and after injections of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lh-rh). the double immunofluorescent technique was applied using rabbit anti-carp gth as the first antibody. numerous immunofluorescent cells were observed throughout the pars distalis, but very few in the pars intermedia. these cells are basophilic and pas-positive, and ultrastructura ...1978354792
genetic variation in the humoral immune response against vibrio salmonicida and in antibody titre against vibrio anguillarum and total igm in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).total igm level and antibody titre to vibrio anguillarum o-antigen after bath-vaccination, and specific antibody response to v. salmonicida o-antigen at three different samplings were analysed in family material of atlantic salmon (salmo salar), consisting of 791 fish belonging to 34 maternal full-sib groups within 12 paternal half-sib groups. the fish were immunized twice, and blood samples collected three times. after the third blood sampling, the fish were challenged with v. anguillarum. medi ...19947725631
prevalence of larval anisakis simplex in pen-reared and wild-caught salmon (salmonidae) from puget sound, washington.the abundance of parasites of public health significance in pen-reared salmon and wild-caught salmon was compared. two hundred eighty-seven salmon from puget sound, washington, were examined for third-stage larvae of anisakis simplex. of these fish, 237 atlantic salmon (salmo salar), coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (o. tshawytscha) were reared in commercial salmon pens and 50 sockeye salmon (o. nerka) were caught during their spawning migration. all wild-caught salmon were ...19892761015
relationships between plasmids and phenotypes of presumptive strains of vibrio anguillarum isolated from different fish species.on the basis of plasmid composition as well as serological and biochemical properties, 26 strains identified as vibrio anguillarum isolated from diseased fish could be assigned to two different groups. except for three reference strains, these++ strains were isolated from norwegian fish. the four strains isolated from rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), the only strain isolated from char (salvelinus alpinus), and three of six strains isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) harbored a plasmid of ...19892729984
relationship between resistance of salmonids to furunculosis and recovery of aeromonas salmonicida from external were sampled at the ed weed state fish hatchery (south hero, vermont, usa) in september 1992. aeromonas salmonicida was common, with concentrations as high as 10(5) to 10(7) colony-forming units per gram of mucus, and readily recovered from most mucus samples obtained from furunculosis-sensitive populations of brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis), lake trout (salvelinus namaycush), and atlantic salmon (salmo salar). the pathogen was the predominant microorganism and accounted for greater tha ...19947760494
virulence studies based on plasmid profiles of the fish pathogen vibrio salmonicida.strains of vibrio salmonicida isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) suffering from cold-water vibriosis could be divided on the basis of plasmid profiles into four different categories. of 32 strains, 19% harbored three plasmids of 24, 3.4, and 26 megadaltons (mda), 69% harbored the 24- and 3.4-mda plasmids but not the 2.6-mda plasmid, and 9% harbored only the 24-mda plasmid. the fourth category, which consisted of only one strain, harbored a plasmid of ...19892729983
the quantitative relationship of lethality between extracellular protease and extracellular haemolysin of aeromonas salmonicida in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).an additive relationship of lethality between purified protease and haemolysin of the extracellular products (ecp) of aeromonas salmonicida was demonstrated by i.p. injection in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). the lethal toxicity of the combinations of protease and haemolysin follow a linear regression line y = -54.54x + 2400. the ld50 of protease and haemolysin when injected separately was 2400 ng/g fish and 44 ng protein/g fish, respectively.19892689276
degradation of human epidermal keratin by cod trypsin and extracts of fish intestines.cod gadus morhua and bovine trypsin degraded human epidermal keratin with similar efficacies in vitro around optimal ph, which was at ph 8.4 for cod trypsin and at ph 9.5 for bovine trypsin. extract of intestines of cod, atlantic herring clupea harengus, atlantic salmon salmo salar, and redfish sebastes marinus degraded keratin with similar efficacies with ph optima between 8.5 and 9.5. sheets of plantar callus were degraded with somewhat lower efficacy than keratin. the keratin-degrading activi ...19892465741
degradation of human epidermal keratin by fish pepsin.stomach extract of atlantic herring clupea harengus, atlantic salmon salmo salar, cod gadus morhua, redfish sebastes marinus, and plaice pleuronectes platessa, degraded human epidermal keratin effectively in vitro. the keratin-degrading activity of all extracts showed a ph optimum around 3.3-3.4, and sheets of plantar callus were degraded with about the same efficacy as keratin. pepstatin sensitivity, heat lability, and the acidic ph optimum demonstrated that the keratin-degrading activity was p ...19882456043
soybean trypsin inhibitors in diets for atlantic salmon (salmo salar, l): effects on nutrient digestibilities and trypsin in pyloric caeca homogenate and intestinal content.atlantic salmon (salmo salar, l), 180 g, were fed diets containing a crude trypsin inhibitor from soybean at five levels. the five levels resulted in trypsin inhibitor activities (tia) corresponding to an inclusion of 0 to about 100% commercial soybean meal. digestibility of protein and fat, weight gain and trypsin activity in intestinal content were significantly reduced with increasing dietary tia. the response curves for nutrient digestibility and growth indicated that the atlantic salmon wer ...19947828032
electrophoretically detectable genetic variation in natural and hatchery stocks of atlantic salmon in survey the genetic resources of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) stocks in finland, an electrophoretic study was made of natural and hatchery stocks. the stocks were compared with the nearest stocks in the ussr, and the effects of hatchery rearing were evaluated. the genetic variation within and between stocks was measured from 20 samples, of which three (kola, neva and onega) were from the ussr. twenty-five enzyme loci were examined, of which six were polymorphic: aat-4, idh-3, me-3, mdh-3, ...19892777627
plasmids in vibrio salmonicida isolated from salmonids with hemorrhagic syndrome (hitra disease).vibrio-like isolates from atlantic salmon (salmo salar linnaeas) and a few from rainbow trout (s. gairdneri richardson) suffering from hemorrhagic syndrome (hitra disease), also called cold-water vibriosis, a disease of great importance in norwegian fish farming, were examined for plasmid content. of 84 strains isolated from 1982 to 1984, 70 (83.3%) had a common 21-megadalton (mda) plasmid. a 3.4-mda plasmid was found in 58 of the strains with the 21-mda plasmid, and a 2.8-mda plasmid was found ...19882846646
purification and characterization of atlantic salmon growth hormone and evidence for charge heterogeneity.highly purified growth hormone (gh) has been isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) pituitaries by extraction with acid acetone, acidic precipitation, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the yield was 2.5 mg/g wet tissue. the atlantic salmon gh (sgh) emerged as a single symmetrical peak after hplc on a reverse phase c18 column. sds-gel electrophoresis revealed only one band with an estimated molecular weight of 23,000. atlantic sgh showed a uniform molecular we ...19902289675
molecular cloning and characterization of homeo-box-containing genes from atlantic the most primitive group among vertebrates, fish might serve as a model system when studying the genetic regulation of embryogenesis in higher animals. to identify genes important for early development, we have constructed a genomic library from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and screened it with homeobox-containing probes from drosophila melanogaster. five different salmon homeoboxes were isolated. two of these were located in the same clone, separated by only 7.5 kb. this demonstrates the pr ...19882897318
characterization of a new serotype of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from atlantic salmon.virus particles isolated from hatchery reared fish with infectious pancreatic necrosis (ipn) were neutralized by homologous immune sera but not by immune sera raised against ipn virus serotype 1, 2, and 3. this virus isolate, called the n1 strain, was detected in one year old atlantic salmon (salmo salar) during an outbreak with histopathological lesions of ipn and slightly increased mortality. the polypeptide pattern of n1 virus differed markedly from that of the three classical ipn virus serot ...19883214272
thyroid hormones in blood plasma of developing salmon embryos.blood plasma thyroxine (t4) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (t3) concentrations in developing embryos of chum (oncorhynchus keta), coho (oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook (oncorhynchus tschawytscha), and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) were measured by radioimmunoassay between hatching and completion of yolk-sac absorption. blood sampling was initiated when approximately 50% of the yolk that was present at hatching had been absorbed. at this time blood plasma levels of t4 (7-9 ng/ml) and t3 (1-5 ng/ml ...19873557098
tracts of putative ultraviolet receptors in the retina of the two-year-old brown trout (salmo trutta) and the atlantic salmon (salmo salar).we previously showed that the brown trout possesses uv-sensitive cones in its retina that are lost in 2-year-old fish. however, present investigations reveal that in the narrow growth zone along the periphery and the ventral embryonic fissure, the formation of these cones continues in trout and salmon.19873691736
infection of exophiala salmonis in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). 19853981748
[effect of hydraulic structures and water storage basins on the parasitic fauna of the atlantic salmon (salmo salar)].157 specimens of salmo salar l. belonging to different age groups were examined in the region of the lower-tuloma hydropower-station. 13 species of parasites (of them 5 are freshwater) were found in anadromous migrants. the character of the parasite fauna and the structure of fishes' scale have shown that some salmons cannot get the fishrunning over and stay in summer months under the damb where become infected with freshwater parasites. 19 species of parasites (of them 14 are freshwater) were f ...19807375139
the effect of fungicides on survival of the crayfish plague fungus, aphanomyces astaci, oomycetes, growing on fish scales.zoospores from the crayfish plague fungus aphanomyces astaci could germinate and grow in vitro on scales of salmo salar. the fungicidal activity of different compounds was tested against the fungus growing on fish scales as well as in lake water. malachite green was the most effective fungicide, but scale mucus protected the fungus from this compound to some extent. for complete inhibition of spore germination in scale mucus 2 mg1-1 was required compared to 1 1 mg1-1 in lake water.19807464900
a microbiological assay for determining sarafloxacin and oxolinic acid concentrations in atlantic salmon plasma.a microbiological assay was developed to quantify the concentrations of the quinolone antibiotics sarafloxacin and oxolinic acid in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) plasma. the assay was a modification of the association of official analytical chemists (aoac) method for antibiotic concentrations in feeds using disk diffusion and a lawn of vibrio anguillarum atcc 19264 as the test organism. with these modifications, sensitivities of 0.04 microgram/ml for sarafloxacin and 0.125 micrograms/ml for oxol ...19948065273
amoxicillin concentrations in the serum of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l) during furunculosis therapy.the effectiveness of the delivery of amoxicillin to atlantic salmon, undergoing chemotherapy in natural outbreaks of furunculosis in sea-cages, was investigated by measuring the concentration of the drug in serum samples. five groups of 50 sera from three outbreaks were collected two hours after oral treatment with doses of 80 or 120 mg/kg bodyweight. amoxicillin was detected in 82, 82, 92, 100 and 90 per cent of the sera in the five groups (limit of detection 0.16 microgram/ml). many sera conta ...19938128552
immunoregulation in fish. i: intramolecular-induced suppression of antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens studied in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l).we report here evidence for intramolecular-induced suppression of the in vivo antibody response in fish, using a panel of t-dependent hapten-carrier antigens. atlantic salmon were immunized intraperitoneally with protein antigens (limulus polyphemus hemocyanin, chicken gamma globulin, and aeromonas salmonicida a-layer protein) given in their native form or haptenated with either 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenyl-acetic acid (nip), 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-acetic acid (tnp), or fluorescein-5-iso-thiocya ...19947521853
sequence of a cdna clone encoding the atlantic salmon alpha 1-microglobulin/bikunin protein.we report here the nucleotide sequence of a cdna clone encoding the salmon (salmo salar) alpha 1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor protein (sambp). the encoded precursor shows 36 and 42% amino acid (aa) similarity to the ambp of pig and human, respectively. signature aa motifs are conserved. the data infer that the ancestral ambp gene arose more than 450 million years ago, before the tetrapod-fish divergence.19947523247
detection of aeromonas salmonicida, causal agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish, from the tank effluent of hatchery-reared atlantic salmon smolts.the fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida, could be detected only by bacteriological culture from the kidney of dead or moribund fish in one tank in a hatchery rearing atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) smolts. however, by using a dna probe specific for this species, allied to a pcr assay, the pathogen could be detected in water, feces and effluent samples taken from this fish tank. also, the presence of the pathogen was found in effluent samples from two fish tanks containing apparently healthy fi ...19947527205
presence of an extended duplication in the putative low-density-lipoprotein receptor-binding domain of apolipoprotein b. cloning and characterization of the domain in salmon.the sequence of the c-terminal 1058 amino acids of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) apolipoprotein (apo) b was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of cloned cdna. in comparison with chicken or mammals apob-100, salmon apob is c-terminally truncated and extended gaps are found. the two clusters of positively charged residues, previously identified as part of the putative low-density-lipoprotein (ldl) receptor-binding domain of apob, are brought into close proximity in salmon apob. this is achieved ...19957541349
characterisation of fast, slow and cardiac muscle tropomyosins from salmonid fish.tropomyosin (tm) has been isolated from the cardiac muscle, and fast and slow trunk (myotomal) muscles of the mature salmonid fish atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri). when examined electrophoretically, isoforms of tm were detected which were specific, and exclusive, to each type of muscle. cardiac and fast muscles contained single and distinct isoforms, while slow muscle contained two distinct isoforms, closely related in terms of apparent m(r), and pi. there was n ...19957556155
molecular cloning and characterization of anionic and cationic variants of trypsin from atlantic salmon.pancreatic cdna libraries from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) were constructed and screened with salmon trypsin-specific probes. five clones containing near full-length transcripts were selected for further characterization. comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that all variants possessed the canonical serine protease catalytic triad, consisting of histidine, aspartic acid and serine residues, a substrate-binding pocket with aspartic acid at the bottom, and 12 cysteine residues com ...19957556223
recognition of yeast cell wall glucan by atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) macrophages.phagocytosis of yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) glucan particles by atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) pronephric macrophages was studied. the particles contained > 95% glucose linked through beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glycosidic linkages. the macrophages rapidly phagocytized both native and opsonized glucan particles although the latter were taken up at a higher rate. within 30 min, 40-60% of the macrophages had taken up > 1 native glucan particle. the uptake of native glucan particles could be inhi ...19938375567
specificity of a beta-glucan receptor on macrophages from atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).this study was undertaken to study the specificity of a beta-glucan receptor on atlantic salmon macrophages. previous in vitro studies have shown that atlantic salmon macrophages express a receptor that rapidly recognizes and mediates uptake of nonopsonized beta-glucan particles. the ingestion of particles was shown to be inhibited by preincubating the macrophages with glucans containing beta-1,3-linkages, but not by glucans containing other linkages. in the present study we have shown that smal ...19947698364
nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of cichlid fish minisatellites.we have cloned, sequenced, and determined the genomic organization of minisatellites from the african cichlid fish, oroechromis niloticus. we estimate that minisatellites related in sequence to the jeffreys' core probes 33.6 and 33.15 occur approximately every 1000 kilobase pairs in the cichlid fish genome. sequencing of three minisatellites revealed that the size of the monomer units of the tandem arrays ranged from 7 to 24 base pairs (bp). one minisatellite appeared to contain a higher ordered ...19957729681
two ferritin subunits of atlantic salmon (salmo salar): cloning of the liver cdnas and antibody preparation.the ferritin heavy (h) and middle (m) subunit cdnas were isolated from the atlantic salmon (salmo salar) liver. full-length clones encoding the ferritin m subunit of 176 residues were obtained by screening of a liver cdna library. the evolutionary conserved iron-responsive element (ire) was identified in the upstream untranslated region. ferritin h cdna was cloned by running reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) on salmon liver mrna. the salmon ferritin h subunit of 177 residu ...19957773334
a triose-phosphate isomerase polymorphism in the atlantic salmon salmo salar l.atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., from four european locations show allelic variation at one of three triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) loci (tpi-3*) when separated on horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, using either eye or liver extracts. two common alleles (*100 and *103) and one rare allele (*97) segregate at tpi-3* with unambiguous typing being possible by observing the interlocus heterodimers. family studies demonstrate that tpi-3* 100 and *103 are of autosomal location and are inherited i ...19957794237
common and rare trout parasites in a small landscape system.brown trout (salmo trutta) from four lakes within an area of approximately 40 km2 were found to harbour nine helminth species. crepidostomum metoecus could be classified as core species, while crepidostomum farionis had an intermediate position. all the others could be classified as satellite species. salmon (salmo salar) fingerlings were grown to smolts in an earthpond over the summer. the fingerlings became infected with crepidostomum spp. which may indicate a superior colonization ability in ...19938479796
n-terminal amino acid sequence of a 28 kda major serum high density lipoprotein of the rainbow trout oncorhynchus there are few data on primary structures of fish apolipoproteins (apo), we determined the n-terminal sequence of a 28 kda major serum protein of rainbow trout, a possible homologue of apoai protein in higher vertebrates. rainbow trout serum was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. a spot of the 28 kda protein (pl 5.45) was cut out and directly applied to a protein sequencer. we succeeded in sequencing 30 amino acids from the n-terminal. the sequence of the 28 kda protein shared a hig ...19947799567
purification and characterization of a multicatalytic proteinase from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) muscle.a high molecular mass alkaline proteinase was purified by deae-sepharose and mono q chromatography. the mol. wt was estimated to be about 600,000. under denaturing conditions, the enzyme dissociated into a cluster of subunits with mol. wt ranging from 25,000 to 30,000. the isoelectric point of the enzyme was about ph 7.3. the proteinase was able to hydrolyse n-terminal-blocked 4-methyl-7-coumarylamide substrates for either trypsin- or chymotrypsin-like activity. it was also able to hydrolyse hae ...19958574923
characterization of the 5' region of the atlantic salmon (salmo salar) transferrin-encoding gene.a genomic fragment encompassing the first two exons and 1.3-kb 5'-flanking sequence of the atlantic salmon transferrin (tf)-encoding gene (stf) has been isolated and characterized. the transcription start point of stf was mapped to 48 nucleotides upstream from the translation start codon. in the proximal promoter region (-118 to +1), stf displays sequence similarity to the chicken, mouse and human tf, and contains a tata-box, ccaat-box and caaac motif conserved during evolution. putative binding ...19947821802
effect of injected yeast glucan on the activity of macrophages in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., as evaluated by in vitro hydrogen peroxide production and phagocytic capacity.a prepared polysaccharide from the cell wall of yeast, m-glucan, has previously been demonstrated to have immunostimulatory effects in salmonids as observed by enhanced in vivo non-specific disease resistance in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., and increased in vitro bactericidal activity of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), macrophages. in the present study m-glucan was injected intraperitoneally into atlantic salmon and the effect on core components in the non-specific part of the ...19947835949
study of the humoral response of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.), naturally infected with aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes.the humoral antibody response of healthy atlantic salmon and of two groups of salmon, naturally infected with aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes, was examined in some detail. one diseased group was chronically infected and the other recently infected. it was found that the humoral response of these two infected groups was quite different. the chronically infected fish showed poor specific response to the causative agent whereas the recently infected salmon produced strong specific antibody ...19958588335
development of a homologous radioimmunoassay for coho salmon insulin-like growth factor-i.a specific homologous radioimmunoassay (ria) for measurement of insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) in plasma of salmonid and a few non-salmonid fish species was developed using recombinant coho salmon igf-i (rsigf-i) as tracer and standard, and antiserum against this peptide raised in rabbits. the minimum detection level of igf-i was 1.5 ng/ml and linearity was obtained in a range from 1.5 to 23 ng/ml. no cross-reaction was detected in the salmon igf-i ria with mammalian growth factors, salmon ...19947843563
molecular cloning of a cdna encoding the prepro-salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone of the red seabream.complementary dna fragments encoding the prepro-salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone ([trp7, leu8]gnrh, sgnrh) of the red seabream pagrus major were amplified from mrna of the olfactory bulbs using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and the full-length cdna was cloned from a cdna library using the pcr-amplified cdna as a probe. the cdna consisted of 442 bp, including an open reading frame of 270 bp which encoded the prepro-sgnrh (90 amino acid residues). the prepro-sgnr ...19947851723
effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor i on salinity tolerance and gill na+, k+-atpase in atlantic salmon (salmo salar): interaction with cortisol.the potential roles of growth hormone (gh) and insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) in seawater (sw) acclimation of juvenile atlantic salmon (salmo salar) were examined. compared to controls, fish in 12 ppt seawater given one or three injections (2-6 days) of gh (ovine, 0.2 microgram.g-1) or igf-i (recombinant bovine, 0.05-0.2 microgram.g-1) had significantly greater salinity tolerance as judged by lower plasma sodium, osmolality, and muscle moisture content following transfer to 34 ppt. single ...19968713639
a glucokinase-like-enzyme in the liver of atlantic salmon (salmo salar).an enzyme with properties similar to rat liver glucokinase (hexokinase iv or d) is present in salmon liver in addition to low-km hexokinase(s). the specific activity of this enzyme increases about 1.6 fold, comparing activities after feeding diets with 25% and 0% digestive energy from starch. the enzyme has a low affinity for glucose, s0.5 = 25.2-26.8 mm (95% confidence interval) and a low activity with fructose, approximately 8% of the activity with glucose. its molecular mass was estimated to ...19968759298
chilodonella spp. at four fish farms in northern finland.a total of 4.1% infestation with chilodonella spp. was found among fish studied in 144 tanks in 1987-1989, representing 14.0% of the tanks in which fish are reared at four salmonid farms in northern finland. two species were found, c. hexasticha and c. piscicola, and both occurred on salmon (salmo salar l.), sea trout [s. trutta m. trutta (l.)] and brown trout [s. t. m. lacustris (l.)]. variability was observed in the length and width of the c. piscicola specimens and the number of ciliary rows ...19947866384
salmon hnf1: cdna sequence, evolution, tissue specificity and binding to the salmon serum albumin promoter.cdna clones coding for the transcription factor hnf1 have been isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). the 559 amino acid residue long encoded protein shows high conservation, with respect to other species, of the domains necessary for dna-binding: the hnf1 atypical homeodomain, the pou related sequence and the dimerisation domain. alignment with rat hnf1 protein reveals that the transcription activation domains adi and adiii are relatively conserved in the fish sequence whereas adii is ...19957897653
a sequential light microscopic and ultrastructural study on the uptake and handling of vibrio salmonicida in phagocytes of the head kidney in experimentally infected atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).the uptake and handling of vibrio salmonicida in phagocytes of the head kidney of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) were evaluated by light and electron microscopy, including in situ identification of the bacterium by immunolabeling at the light microscopical and the ultrastructural level. fish were injected with live bacteria, and 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after inoculation, samples were collected after perfusion fixation. morphologically, the most prominent change in the course of the experiment ...19968826006
genetic variation in the humoral immune response in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) against aeromonas salmonicida a-layer.antibody responses to aeromonas salmonicida a-layer were analysed in family material of atlantic salmon (salmo salar), consisting of 791 fish belonging to 34 full-sib groups within 12 paternal half-sib groups. the fish were immunized twice and blood samples were collected three times. significant increase in antibody titre from first to second, and from second to third sampling, was observed. genetic variation in antibody titres was observed at the three samplings with estimated heritabilities r ...19947941312
pancreatic carboxylester lipase from atlantic salmon (salmo salar). cdna sequence and computer-assisted modelling of tertiary structure.we report the isolation and characterization of a 1795-bp cdna fragment encoding atlantic salmon pancreatic carboxylester lipase from salmon pancreas mrna. the nearly full-length cdna contained a 540-amino-acid open-reading frame, encompassing the mature protein (by similarity to mammalian carboxylester lipase enzymes). the salmon carboxylester lipase primary structure shared 58% identity with mammalian carboxylester lipases, lacking the proline-rich c-terminal repeats found in human and rat car ...19948001575
immunohistochemical identification of renibacterium salmoninarum by monoclonal antibodies in paraffin-embedded tissues of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.), using paired immunoenzyme and paired immunofluorescence techniques.renibacterium salmoninarum was identified in situ by immunoenzymatic and immunofluorescence techniques in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens collected during a natural outbreak of bacterial kidney disease (bkd) and from an experimental infection in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). monoclonal antibodies (mabs) 4d3 and 2g5 were used in this study, both specific for the 57-58-kd outer membrane protein (p57) of the bacterium. both mabs revealed positive staining in ethanol-fixed tissue specimens, b ...19948011782
high-affinity ca2+,mg(2+)-atpase in plasma membrane-rich preparations from olfactory epithelium of atlantic salmon.high-affinity ca2+,mg(2+)-atpase was identified in a plasma membrane-rich fraction of olfactory epithelium from atlantic salmon (salmo salar). the enzyme required both ca2+ and mg2+ for activation. the apparent km for ca2+ was 9.5 nm and vmax was 0.85 mumol pi/mg of protein per min. stimulation by ca2+ was optimal at 5-100 microm mgcl2. bovine brain calmodulin had no effect on ca2+,mg(2+)-atpase, even after multiple washes of the membrane preparation with edta or egta. endogenous calmodulin was ...19948018695
cytochrome b and 16s rrna sequence variation in the salmo trutta (salmonidae, teleostei) species complex.pcr amplification and direct sequencing of regions of the cytochrome b and 16s rrna mitochondrial genes was carried out on italian and irish populations of the brown trout (salmo trutta) species complex. these included s. t. marmoratus, s. t. macrostigma, salmo carpio, and salmo fibreni collected in italy, and s. t. trutta morpha fario, from both italy and ireland. samples of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) were also examined and used as an outgroup in the phylogenetic analysis. results based on 5 ...19948025731
tail-to-tail orientation of the atlantic salmon alpha- and beta-globin genes.we report the cloning of a cdna and two corresponding beta-globin genes of the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) as well as two genes for alpha-globins. nucleotide sequence analysis of the cdna shows that the predicted beta-globin peptide comprises 148 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 16,127 da and an overall amino acid similarity of 40-50% to higher vertebrates and 60-90% to fish sequences. the study of the genomic organization of alpha- and beta-globin genes shows that, as is the ...19948151712
the population age structure and reproductive biology of gyrodactylus salaris malmberg (monogenea).gyrodactylus salaris has recently become a major pathogen of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in norway. the survivorship, population age structure and pattern of insemination of g. salaris were studied to determine the extent to which this species reproduces sexually. the age-specific mortality schedule of g. salaris could be described by an exponential model but day to day variations were large, with an increase in mortality after each birth. modelling population growth using the best fit mortali ...19948159462
estrogen receptor binds to the salmon gnrh gene in a region with long palindromic sequences.footprinting and gel shift assays demonstrated that the human estrogen receptor (her) specifically binds to two estrogen response element (ere)-like motifs in the gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh) gene promoter region of atlantic salmon (salmo salar). the two er binding sites are situated approximately 1.5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of the gnrh gene and are localized 49 bp from each other. each ere-like motif is composed of two palindromic ere half-sites interspaced by 8 a ...19938243805
cloning and characterization of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) serum transferrin cdna.characterization of atlantic salmon serum transferrin cdna representing a near full-length transferrin mrna revealed a 2,070-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 690 amino acids. the predicted protein contains an 18 amino acids' long signal sequence and shows 49% amino acid positional identity with xenopus laevis transferrin and human serum transferrin. on the basis of sequence differences obtained from different salmon transferrin cdna clones, 2 distinct classes of transferrin mrna were ...19938293074
expression of growth hormone genes in atlantic salmon.atlantic salmon (salmo salar) possess two genes encoding gh. we have investigated the expression of these two genes in the salmon pituitary. the transcriptional start site was localized 64 nucleotides upstream of the first methionyl codon using primer extension and 5' specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays. northern analysis revealed a major atlantic salmon gh (salgh) transcript band of approximately 1400 nucleotides. as coexpression of the salgh genes is not discernible by transcript l ...19938297473
thyroid hormone deiodination in brain, liver, gill, heart and muscle of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) during photoperiodically-induced parr-smolt transformation. i. outer- and inner-ring thyroxine deiodination.outer-ring deiodinase (ord) and inner-ring deiodinase (ird) pathways for l-thyroxine (t4) were examined in the microsomes of tissues of 20-month-old atlantic salmon induced to undergo parr-smolt transformation (pst) in late february and march by imposing a 16-hr photoperiod. smolt external characteristics, decline in condition factor, increases in brain-somatic index, cardiac-somatic index, gill-somatic index, gill na+/k+ atpase activity, and food consumption developed progressively during the 5 ...19938319872
application of heteroduplex analysis for detecting variation within the growth hormone 2 gene in salmo trutta l. (brown trout).a new method to detect variation at a single copy nuclear gene in brown trout, salmo trutta l., is provided. the technique entails (i) selective gene amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), (ii) digestion of amplification products by restriction endonucleases to obtain fragments of suitable size, (iii) hybridization with heterologous dna followed by denaturation and reannealing to obtain heteroduplex molecules, and (iv) screening for variation in polyacrylamide gels. variation was ...19957706115
pcr and probe-pcr assays to monitor broodstock atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) ovarian fluid and kidney tissue for presence of dna of the fish pathogen renibacterium salmoninarum.a simple, rapid pcr assay for the identification of renibacterium salmoninarum in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) tissues detected dna extracted from between 4 and 40 bacterial cells. pcr was at least as sensitive as culture when it was used to identify subclinically infected fish experimentally challenged with r. salmoninarum. however, pcr identified much higher numbers of kidney tissue and ovarian fluid samples from commercially reared broodstock fish to be positive for r. salmoninarum than d ...19979163437
transmission of loma salmonae (microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.transmission studies were conducted to determine if loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. transmission of l. salmonae to chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood c ...19957728735
a 70 kda aeromonas salmonicida serine protease - beta-galactosidase hybrid protein as an antigen and its protective effect on atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) against a virulent a. salmonicida challenge. 19938449332
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