further observations upon the hemoglobin systems of thermally-acclimated freshwater teleosts: pumpkinseed (lepomis gibbosus), white sucker (catostomus commersoni), carp (cyprinus carpio), goldfish (carassius auratus) and carp-goldfish hybrids. 19764279
[study of 50 strains of aeromonas hydrophilia isolated from fishes].a bacteriological survey of the healthy goldfish (carassius auratus) demonstrated the frequent occurrence of a. hydrophila. the biochemical characters and the sensitivity to 29 chemiotherapics and 15 antiseptics of 50 fish originating strains were studied and compared with a number of strains, implicated in human pathology. the results of this study indicate a good agreement for the biochemical characters and the sensitivity to chemiotherapics between the fish and the human strains. owing to thi ...1977603101
enhancement of repair of uv-irradiated plasmids in cultured fish cells by fluorescent light preillumination and growth arrest.the uv-irradiated plasmid pbscatsv, which could express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) in the presence of sv40 early promoter, was transfected into rbcf-1 cells derived from the goldfish (carassius auratus). the cells were incubated in the dark for 24 h and then the cat activity was measured. cat expression relative to non-irradiated control was calculated. the cat expression of the exponentially growing cells transfected with uv-irradiated plasmid was enhanced by fluorescent light (fl) ...19911719399
infection ability of watermolds in some temperate fishes of himalaya, india.infection ability tests of four species of the saprolegniales viz., brevilegnia subclavata couch, geolegnia inflata coker & braxton, protoachlya oryzae khulbe and scoliolegnia centrica khulbe were made by artificial inoculation experiments. except geolegnia inflata, all the three species parasitized the test fishes (carassius auratus l., puntius conchonius ham., p. ticto ham. and nemacheilus rupicola). two chemicals, namely boric acid and potassium permanganate were effective at 0.1 to 0.15 m co ...19892710158
daily cycles in plasma melatonin levels under long or short photoperiod in the common carp, cyprinus carpio.a radioimmunoassay (ria) for plasma melatonin (mlt) was simplified for use with the common carp (cyprinus carpio). plasma was partially purified with sep-pak c18 cartridge before ria. the inhibition curves for the sep-pak c18 fraction from the plasma of carp, goldfish (carassius auratus), yellow tail (seriola quinqueradiata), japanese eel (anguilla japonica), bora (mugil cephalus cephalus), kisu (sillago japonica), ishigarei (kareius bicoloratus), and shimaisaki (rhyncopelates oxyrhynchus) were ...19883197949
gonadotropin content of the pituitary gland of gonadal tumor-bearing common carp x goldfish hybrids from the great lakes, as assessed by bioassay and radioimmunoassay.the hybrids of carp (cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (carassius auratus) collected from the lower great lakes between 1978 and 1981 exhibited epizootics of gonadal neoplasm which were rare in the parental species. the pituitary glands of hybrids were, on average, 2.5 times larger than that of carp of similar body size. histologically, the hypertrophy was due to hyperplasia of proximal pars distalis basophils (the presumptive gonadotropes). using a carp gonadotropin (gth) radioimmunoassay it was fo ...19883366360
immunohistochemical demonstration of calbindin-d 28k (cabp28k) in the spinal cord motoneurons of teleost fish.the distribution and localization of the calcium-binding protein, calbindin-d 28k (cabp28k), in the spinal cord motoneurons of larvae of the teleost fish, apteronotus leptorhynchus (gymnotidae) and pollimyrus isidori (mormyridae), and in the adult goldfish, carassius auratus (cyprinidae), were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. sections of whole larvae and goldfish spinal cord were reacted with a polyclonal antibody to rat renal cabp28k. cabp28k was located by the pap technique (sternb ...19883233655
the energetic cost of the fever response in three species of ectothermic vertebrates.three species of ectothermic vertebrates: goldfish (carassius auratus), green tree frogs (hyla cinerea), and desert iguanas (dipsosaurus dorsalis) were used in this study. metabolic rates for each species were determined at the normal afebrile preferred body temperature and at the febrile preferred body temperature or other higher body temperatures. the febrile metabolic rate (or higher rate) was significantly greater than the afebrile metabolic rate (or lower rate) in each species. the average ...19852863044
cytological responses of the pituitary (rostral pars distalis) and immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (crf) in the goldfish treated with dopamine antagonists.the in vivo effects of three dopamine (da) antagonists on the cytology of the rostral pars distalis (rpd) were investigated in young goldfish (carassius auratus l.). pimozide, sulpiride, and domperidone were injected for 5 (low dose, experiment i) and 7 days (higher dose, experiment ii). cytological and immunocytochemical techniques using antisera to (1-24) acth and (1-39) acth, human beta-thyrotropin (tsh beta), and synthetic (1-41) crf were applied to pituitary and brain sections. cytometrical ...19882847956
the spectral transmission of the lens and cornea of the brown trout (salmo trutta) and goldfish (carassius auratus)--effect of age and implications for ultraviolet vision.this study reports spectral transmission curves (250-700 nm) for the lenses and corneas of two teleost species known to be u.v. sensitive; brown trout (salmo trutta) aged 0-3 yr, and goldfish (carassius auratus) aged 0-4 yr. in both cases there is a decrease in lenticular short-wave transmission with increased age which cannot be explained by an increase in lens size alone. corneas of goldfish go through a similar ageing process while those of the trout do not. an orange pigmentation located in ...19892623828
serotonergic neurons in the intestine of two teleosts, carassius auratus and oreochromis mossambicus, and the effect of serotonin on transepithelial ion-selectivity and muscle tension.the application of an antiserum directed against rat serotonin demonstrated serotonin-immunoreactive cell bodies and varicose nerve fibres in the myenteric plexus of both goldfish and tilapia. in the circular muscle layer immunoreactive varicose nerve fibres and a few cell bodies could be detected. a fine network of varicose fibres was observed underlying the epithelial cells. serotonin immunoreactivity was not observed along incoming mesenterial blood vessels, suggesting that the serotonergic n ...19892594202
parathyroid hormone-like immunoreactivity in fish plasma and tissues.although fish lack parathyroid glands, parathyroid hormone (pth)-like substances, reacting with guinea pig antibodies raised against bovine pth1(-84), were detected in the circulation of trout (salmo gairdneri) and goldfish (carassius auratus). the immunoreactive (ir) pth concentration in plasma (0.5-1.5 ng/ml) was less than that measured in heat-treated and dialyzed 0.6% nacl extracts of brain tissue (4.0-5.0 ng/g wet wt brain) and much less than that present in pituitary extracts (20-40 ng/g p ...19872444491
the in vitro effects of cyclic nucleotides, cyanoketone, and cycloheximide on the production of estradiol-17 beta by vitellogenic ovarian follicles of goldfish (carassius auratus).the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg), forskolin, cyclic nucleotides, the phosphodiesterase inhibitors ibmx and theophylline, cyanoketone, and cycloheximide on the production of estradiol-17 beta by isolated ovarian follicles of vitellogenic goldfish (carassius auratus) were examined using 18-hr incubations. hcg and all test agents which are known to increase intracellular concentrations of camp significantly stimulated the production of estradiol-17 beta. however, dibutyryl cgmp was ...19862429892
immunohistochemical localization of urotensin i and other neuropeptides in the caudal neurosecretory system of three species of teleosts and two species of three species of teleosts - carp cyprinus carpio; grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella; and crucian carp carassius auratus - the caudal neurosecretory system displays small, medium-sized and large neurons. urotensin i (ui)-immunoreactive and ui-nonreactive neurons were found in all three groups; in general, the number of the latter neurons exceeded that of the former. noteworthy are: (i) ui-immunoreactive fibers in the caudal spinal cord and (ii) dense accumulations of ui-immunoreactive product ...19862424610
the repair of uv-irradiated plasmids transfected into cultured fish cells.uv-irradiated plasmids (pnpv b and pbscatsv) were transfected into rbcf-1 cells derived from a goldfish (carassius auratus) and into a xeroderma pigmentosum (group a) cell line, xp20ssv. the frequency of stable neor transformation by pnpv b decreased in a dose-dependent manner. however, in spite of large differences in uv sensitivity detected in the colony formation assay, the dose-response curves of rbcf-1 cells and xp20ssv cells were almost the same. the photorecovery (pr) of transforming acti ...19902366798
cryptobia cataractae from the blood of semotilus atromaculatus: structure and division in the fish.a cryptobiid was found in the blood of 2 of 9 semotilus atromaculatus from a tributary of the saugeen river in ontario, canada. blood inoculation produced an infection in 2 uninfected s. atromaculatus but not in any oncorhynchus mykiss, catostomus commersoni, or carassius auratus. the flagellate was identified as cryptobia cataractae, based on host restriction. cryptobia cataractae occurred as slender and broad forms (body width 3.0-8.7 microns). the length of the anterior flagellum was equal to ...19902213407
[hormonal stimulation of ovarian adenyl cyclase in the rat and a teleost fish (carassius auratus): influence of adenosine triphosphate concentration]. 19744212669
localization and metabolism of 1,2- 3 h-vetamin d 3 and 26,27- 3 h-25-hydroxycholecalciferol in goldfish (carassius auratus l.). 19724342453
synchronous neurite branchings in single goldfish retinal ganglion cells.we have examined the time course of branch formation in neurites of retinal ganglion cells isolated from adult goldfish (carassius auratus). these neurites elongate at approximately 13 microns/h, and usually branch by bifurcation of growth cones at their tips. the times elapsed between branchings in different neurites of single cells can be described by a poisson distribution with a mean interval of approximately 2 h. as predicted by this distribution, a relatively large number of branchings occ ...19912069904
lack of involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism in chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone ii (cgnrh-ii) stimulation of gonadotropin secretion in dispersed pituitary cells of goldfish, carassius auratus. identification of a major difference in salmon gnrh and chicken gnrh-ii mechanisms of action.gonadotropin (gth) release in static incubations of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells was stimulated by chicken gth-releasing hormone ii (cgnrh-ii), salmon (s)gnrh, phospholipase a2, phospholipase c, phospholipase d, and arachidonic acid (aa). coincubations with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (ndga), 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, and indomethacin did not alter the gth responses to cgnrh-ii. in contrast, ndga reduced sgnrh-stimulated gth release. incubation with ca(2+)-deficient medium abolished t ...19911936548
effects of vertebrate insulins upon serum ffa and phospholipid levels in the goldfish, carassius auratus linnaeus. 19724402086
goussia carpelli (apicomplexa, eimeriorina) from cyprinid fish: field observations and infection experiments.intestinal tissue samples of 9 cyprinid and gobiid fish species from several hatcheries and ponds in south bohemia were found to harbour goussia carpelli-like coccidian oocysts. furthermore, laboratory transmission of goussia carpelli, obtained from common carp, was attempted to 9 cyprinid fish species, both laboratory reared and obtained from pond environments. infection experiments, carried out by fecal contamination (direct transmission) and by using tubificid oligochaetes as paratenic hosts ...19911928799
the result of inoculation of mycobacterium leprae in the goldfish (carassius auratus). 19744599823
melatonin deacetylation: retinal vertebrate class distribution and xenopus laevis tissue distribution.deacetylation is a rapid clearance mechanism for ocular melatonin. we have studied the distribution of retinal melatonin deacetylase activity among vertebrate classes. exogenous radiolabeled melatonin is metabolized by ocular tissue prepared from the amphibian xenopus laevis, the reptile anolis carolinensis, the teleost fish carassius auratus, and the bird gallus domesticus. in contrast, we were unable to detect ocular melatonin breakdown in rat or pig. in each species exhibiting ocular melatoni ...19911782560
glial fibrillary acidic protein in the fish optic nerve.the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap) is the predominant cytoskeletal protein of mature glial cells in the mammalian nervous system. the nervous systems of lower vertebrates, such as fish, have been examined for the presence of gfap and several investigators have shown that goldfish (carassius auratus) brain contains gfap-positive astrocytes. the same studies have demonstrated that, in contrast to the brain, the optic nerve of goldfish did not show any gfap immunoreact ...19911718861
immunohistochemical localization of glycine receptors and a linked polypeptide in the goldfish brain.three monoclonal antibodies were used to examine with immunocytochemistry the distribution of the glycine receptors and the related 93kd polypeptide in the adult goldfish brain (carassius auratus). one immunoglobulin recognizes the 48kd strychnine-binding subunit of the receptor and the two others bind to the peripheral 93kd polypeptide which is coupled to the receptor molecules. immunofluorescent spots were visualised with all three antibodies on the somatic and dendritic membrane of the cells. ...19911653341
the laboratory maintenance of sanguinicola inermis plehn, 1905 (digenea: sanguinicolidae).methodology is described for the laboratory maintenance of the life-cycle of sanguinicola inermis, using common carp (cyprinus carpio) as the definitive host and lymnaea peregra as the intermediate host. lymnaea auricularia was also infected but is not considered to be a suitable laboratory host. tench (tinca tinca) were susceptible to infection at high cercarial doses but subsequent infection rates were low. goldfish (carassius auratus) and lymnaea stagnalis were refractory to laboratory infect ...19921614729
psychometric functions for level discrimination and the effects of signal duration in the goldfish (carassius auratus): psychophysics and neurophysiology.classical conditioning of respiration was used to obtain psychometric functions for pulsed tone level discrimination in the goldfish (carassius auratus). conditioned respiratory suppression is a graded response that has some properties of a confidence rating measure. these properties were used to obtain receiver operating characteristics (roc) and psychometric functions using a blocked method of constant stimuli. empirical rocs and neurometric functions were also obtained for single auditory-ner ...19921512323
comparative effects of temperature on brain enzymes in the goldfish (carassius auratus) and mouse (mus musculus). 19705484073
visible light-inducible photolyase gene from the goldfish carassius introducing and expressing a cdna library constructed from mrna of the cultured goldfish carassius auratus cells in escherichia coli, a gene encoding photolyase of the vertebrate was isolated, the first example from metazoa. the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence differs significantly from those of microorganisms. five out of 6 tryptophan residues strictly conserved in photolyases from microorganisms and thought to play important roles in dna and chromophore binding of t ...19921339447
fish swimbladder: an excellent mesodermal inductor in primary embryonic induction.swimbladder of the crucian carp, carassius auratus, was found to be better as a vegatalizing tissue than other tissues, such as guinea-pig bone marrow, when presumptive ectoderm of triturus gastrulae was used as reacting tissue. swimbladder usually induced assemblies of highly organized mesodermal tissues, such as notochord, somites and pronephric tubules, some of which were covered by mesodermal epithelium without any epidermal covering. a special character of the effect of swimbladder was the ...19761003076
[comparison of the absorption values of various drugs in carassius auratus fish and in rats]. 19666004886
head-kidney thyroid in some indian teleosts.six species of fishes, with different habits and belonging to different habitats and families, have been investigated. only four, namely discognathus lamta, carassius auratus, glossogobius giuris and polynemus sexfilis have shown the presence of heterotopic thyroid follicles in their head-kidneys. the heterotopic thyroid follicles of discognathus lamta appear to be functional while those of the rest of fishes are in non-functional state.1978749388
antigen recognition and immune response in goldfish carassius auratus at different temperatures. 1978640118
gonads of carassius auratus (teleosts) in organ culture: a new technique and the effects of testosterone.the use of a semi-natural medium (eagle's mem supplemented with chicken embryo extract) appears to be satisfactory for ovarian and testicular fragment cultures of carassius auratus. the male germ cells show a normal degeneration which might be attributed to a lack of pituitary hormones: gonadotropic and, possibly, somatotropic hormone. the ovarian fragments maintain a normal organization during 21 days of culture. only the oocytes in late vitellogenesis massively atresiate at the beginning of cu ...1977558153
the adrenocortical-hypophyseal response to saline stress in the goldfish, carassius auratus l. 1975237695
a high abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: characteristics and seasonal changes.testosterone (t) exerts its actions in brain directly via androgen receptors or, after aromatization to estradiol, via estrogen receptors. brain aromatase activity in teleost fish is 100-1000 times greater than in mammals and would be expected to significantly reduce the quantity of androgen available for receptor binding. experiments were carried out on the goldfish carassius auratus to determine if androgen receptors are present in teleost brain and whether their physicochemical properties ref ...19883396501
comparative morphometric study of the vestibular system of the vertebrata: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces.morphometric measurements were made from serial sections of the vestibular system in four classes of vertebrates: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces. representative species of reptile studied were the lizard (gekko gecko), the common garter snake (thamnophis sp.), and the common turtle (chelonia sp.). the budgie (melopsittacus undulatas), the common pigeon (columba domestica), the yellow-bellied sapsucker (sphyrapicus varius), and the horned owl (bubo virginianus) were chosen as representative ...19863485883
bioassayable cholecystokinin in the brain of the goldfish, carassius auratus.cholecystokinin (cck)-gastrin peptides are shown to be present in the brain of all the species ranging from coelenterates to mammals. differentiation between cck and gastrin, presumed to be evolved from a common ancestral cerulein-like peptide, has been suggested to occur at the level of the amphibians. we examined the presence of bioassayable cck, as determined by its potency to stimulate enzyme secretion from isolated rat pancreatic acini, in the brain of the goldfish carassius auratus, a more ...19873574607
plasma concentrations of cortisol in hypophysectomized and sodium chloride-adapted goldfish (carassius auratus l.). 19744374488
fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropin(s). i. homologous bioassay using oocyte maturation and steroid production by isolated ovarian follicles.isolated ovarian follicles from several species were cultured to develop an in vitro bioassay system for fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropin. an extract of f. heteroclitus pituitaries, when tested in heterologous systems using follicles from rana pipiens. xenopus laevis, and carassius auratus, was ineffective in provoking either germinal vesicle breakdown or steroid production. in a homologous system using f. heteroclitus follicles, f. heteroclitus pituitary extract was capable of inducing both g ...19873497837
[influence of temperature on ovarian adenyl cyclase and its hormonal stimulation. comparative study in the rat and in a teleostean fish (carassius auratus)]. 19744375497
the effects of temperature and other factors upon the establishment and survival of pomphorhynchus laevis (acanthocephala) in goldfish, carassius auratus. 19724680538
urotensin ii-immunoreactive neurons in the caudal neurosecretory system of freshwater and seawater fish.antiserum generated against synthetic urotensin ii of the goby, gillichthys mirabilis, was used to localize urotensin ii in the caudal neurosecretory system in six species of freshwater teleosts: cyprinus carpio, carassius auratus, oreochromis mossambicus, oreochromis niloticus, salmo gairdneri and plecoglossus altivelis, and six species of seawater teleosts: acanthogobius flavimanus, pagrus major, parapristipoma trilineatum, trachurus japonicus, seriola dumerili and seriola quinqueradiata. in t ...19853884162
light- and electron-microscopic demonstration of immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various antibody to opsin isolated from rod outer segments of the frog retina was applied in light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical studies to the pineal organ of various vertebrates (cyprinus carpio, carassius auratus, rana esculenta, emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis and viridis. gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctata, didelphis virginiana, erinaceus roumanicus, myotis myotis, rabbit, rat, cat).19816458362
aquatic toxicity of acrylates and methacrylates: quantitative structure-activity relationships based on kow and lc50.recent epa scrutiny of acrylate and methacrylate monomers has resulted in restrictive consent orders and significant new use rules under the toxic substances control act, based on structure-activity relationships using mouse skin painting studies. the concern is centered on human health issues regarding worker and consumer exposure. environmental issues, such as aquatic toxicity, are still of concern. understanding the relationships and environmental risks to aquatic organisms may improve the un ...19873438503
structural and functional analysis of spontaneous anti-nitrophenyl antibodies in three cyprinid fish species: carp (cyrinus carpio), goldfish (carassius auratus) and tench (tinca tinca).high spontaneous anti-trinitrophenyl (tnp) activities were found in three cyprinid fish species: carp (cyprinus carpio), goldfish (carassius auratus) and tench (tinca tinca). the molecules involved, isolated by affinity chromatography on dinitrophenyl-lysine sepharose (dnp-lysine-sepharose), had the main characteristics of a high molecular weight immunoglobulin (igm-like). affinity measurements were performed on natural anti-dnp/tnp antibodies isolated from nine individual tench sera, using the ...19846500139
distribution of ligulid tapeworms in china.a survey of ligulid tapeworms carried out from 1979 through 1985 covered 29 provinces and autonomous regions in china. of the 25,800 fishes of 219 species that were dissected, fishes of 43 species were found to serve as second intermediate hosts. these tapeworms inflict heavy losses on freshwater commercial fisheries. their distribution indicates 3 distinct major zones: the qing zang gaoyuan is dominated by ligula; the rest of china, with the exception of a crescent area in guangdong province bo ...19873572664
trypanosoma danilewskyi: host specificity and host's effect on morphometrics.carassius auratus, barbus conhus, danio malabaricus, catostomus commersoni, notropis cornutus, etheostoma caeruleum, and ictalurus nebulosus were susceptible to trypanosoma danilewskyi by intraperitoneal inoculation. trypanosomes isolated from all species of susceptible fishes were infective to goldfish. no trypanosomes were detected in inoculated semotilus atromaculatus, ambloplites rupestris, lepomis gibbosus and perca flavescens. fifty specimens were measured from each of 3 c. auratus, 2 b. c ...19846512642
anomalous behavior of goldfish igm heavy chain in sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the heavy chain of the serum immunoglobulin (igm) of the goldfish (carassius auratus) differs not only from other studied vertebrate serum igm heavy chains, but also from other vertebrate lymphocyte membrane igm heavy chains including those from the goldfish itself. this difference, an increase in apparent mr of approximately 5000, was investigated by assessing in comparison with the igm heavy chain of human and rainbow trout (salmo ga ...19853931966
peripheral and central oculomotor organization in the goldfish, carassius auratus.peripheral and central oculomotor organization was studied in the goldfish. the sizes of the extraocular muscles were quantified by counting the fibers contained in a given muscle and by area measurements of the cross-sectional surfaces. all the muscles were of approximately similar size. kinematics were determined by electrical stimulation of a given muscle. the macroscopic appearance and kinematics of the muscles had the characteristics of other lateral-eyed animals (e.g., rabbit). locations o ...19854044944
validation of radioimmunoassay systems for the measurement of 11-keto- and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone in teleost blood.highly specific antisera for 11-keto- and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone have been raised in sheep. assay systems for the simultaneous measurement of 11-ketotestosterone, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17 beta were validated for ictalurus nebulosus plasma and carassius auratus serum. in males of both species 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone were the major steroids detected. in females, testosterone and estradiol-17 beta were the predominant steroids measur ...19854092434
apparent drug resistance to the organophosphate dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate by monogenetic trematodes.gyrodactylus elegans on goldfish, (carassius auratus) from a commercial farm were resistant to recommended dosages of dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate. controlled experiments suggest that a dosage 100 times the commonly recommended minimal dosage (.25 mg/l) was required to remove trematodes. a hypothesis is proposed to account for the development of drug resistant trematodes based on the life cycle of the parasites and continual drug exposure.19807411739
[the primary structure of hemoglobin from goldfish (carassius auratus)].the primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains from goldfish hemoglobin are given. the globin chains were separated by gel filtration after air-oxidation of globin. after chemical and enzymatical cleavage of the chains, the peptides were isolated by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography on dowex. the fish-chains have one residue more than the human chains. the alpha-chain is acetylated at the amino-terminal residue and has no cysteine. compared with the human chains there are 66 a ...19846714939
ruffed cell: a new type of neuron with a distinctive initial unmyelinated portion of the axon in the olfactory bulb of the goldfish (carassius auratus): ii. fine structure of the ruffed cell.the fine structure and synaptic features of the ruffed cell, especially those of the initial unmyelinated portion of its axon (ip), were investigated by means of electron microscopy. the round or oval cell body is 10 to 20 micrometers in diameter. near the cell body, there is a specialized region of the ip, about 20 to 40 micromerters in diameter, which consists of branched protrusions from the ip. many neuronal processes end on these protrusions, and the whole assembly reminds one of a bird's n ...19806776163
operant and pavlovian control of a defensive shuttle response in goldfish (carassius auratus). 19744833591
the localization of endogenous "prolactin" in the pituitary gland of the goldfish, carassius auratus, linnaeus. 19694890218
pyruvate metabolism in mammalian liver cells and in cells cultured from the testis of the goldfish (carassius auratus). 19715147319
between- and within-subject effect of shock intensity on avoidance in goldfish (carassius auratus). 19715559223
drug-oxidizing mono-oxygenase system in liver microsomes of goldfish (carassius auratus).the fractionation of the liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) was studied, and the properties of the microsomal fraction were examined. the microsomal fraction contained cytochrome p-450 and catalyzed the oxidation of aminopyrine, aniline, 7-ethoxycoumarin and benzo(a)pyrene. the oxidation activities were significantly lower than those of rat liver microsomes. the titration of cytochrome p-450 by potassium cyanide indicated the presence of multiple forms of cytochrome p-450 in goldfish liver mi ...19836139256
characterization of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites formed by 3-methylcholanthrene-induced goldfish, black bullhead and brown bullhead.metabolites of bap formed by 3-mc-induced goldfish (carassius auratus), black bullhead (ictalurus melas), brown bullhead (ictalurus nebulus) and rat have been separated by hplc. the main metabolites in both bullhead species and the rat were 3-hydroxy-bap and bap 9,10- and 7,8-dihydrodiols, whereas bap 1,6- and 3,6-diones and 9- and 3-hydroxy-bap predominated in the goldfish. induced rat formed over 10 times as many total metabolites as the fish. no induction was observed in the 3-mc-treated brow ...19846149861
cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons, sensory pinealocytes and landolt's clubs of the retina as revealed by means of an electron-microscopic immunoreaction against opsin.opsin-immunoreactive sites of hypothalamic cerebrospinal fluid (csf)-contacting neurons, pinealocytes and retinal cells were studied in various vertebrates (carassius auratus, phoxinus phoxinus, triturus cristatus, bombina bombina, rana esculenta) by means of postembedding immuno-electron microscopy with the use of the protein a-gold labeling method. the retina of the rat served as a general reference tissue for the quality of the immunocytochemical reaction. a strong opsin immunoreaction (rat-a ...19836226359
beta 2 microglobulin-like polypeptide of the goldfish, carassius auratus.antisera to human beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) detected a plasma membrane molecule on goldfish (carassius auratus) cells in immunofluorescence. a goldfish molecule detected by radioimmunoassay (ria) co-eluted with human beta 2m on gel filtration. by affinity chromatography on immobilized antibody to human beta 2m, a molecule was purified (from extracts of goldfish) that showed, on sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a mobility similar to that of human beta 2m (apparent mr 12,800 +/- 500).19846369118
[1st immunocytochemical application of an anti-dopamine antibody in the study of the central nervous system].an antibody against dopamine was raised in rabbits by means of an immunogen constituting dopamine coupled to bovine serum albumin by formaldehyde. these antibodies were applied to frozen sections of goldfish (carassius auratus) brain fixed by 4% paraformaldehyde. the localisation of immunoreactive structures corresponded to regions rich in dopamine detected by histofluorescence. the specificity of this antiserum tested with the aid of dopamine analogues coupled with a carrying protein different ...19826820314
immunocytochemistry of gonadotropic cells in the pituitary of some teleost antiserum (anti-sgth) raised against salmon gonadotropin (sg-g100) was tested on pituitary sections of sarotherodon mossambicus, carassius auratus, anguilla anguilla (intact and estradiol-treated to induce the development of the gonadotropic (gth) cells), salmo trutta fario, and a protandric marine teleost (sarpa salpa, sparidae). using an immunoenzymologic technique, anti-sgth stained gth and thyrotropic (tsh) cells in the species studied. anti-sgth stained the granulated gth cells in s. tru ...19836862173
permanent cell lines from erythrophoromas in goldfish (carassius auratus).attempts to establish permanent cell lines from spontaneous erythrophoromas (tumors derived from red pigment cells or erythrophores) of goldfish were made with the use of biopsy specimens from 12 tumors in 10 fish. three cell lines were established that grew in vitro in synthetic medium (l-15 or dulbecco's modified eagle's minimum essential medium) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum for more than 8 months. one of these lines (gem-81) with high proliferative activity was cultured for over 2 ...19806928999
visualization of microtubules of cells in situ by indirect immunofluorescence.microtubule staining patterns can be visualized within cells in situ on the surface of fish scales from the squirrel fish, holocentrus ascensionis, and the common goldfish, carassius auratus, after incubation with antibodies to sea urchin tubulin and fluorescein-labeled goat antibodies to rabbit immunoglobulin g. chromatophores in situ from both species reveal a radial microtubule framework that orients the alignment of pigment granules. innervating fibers of erythrophores on the h. ascensionis ...19806935678
responses of msh and prolactin cells to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-htp) in amphibians and teleosts.injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-htp), a precursor of serotonin, induces dispersion of melanin in the amphibians, pleurodeles waltlii (urodela) and xenopus laevis (anura), in the goldfish, carassius auratus, and in the carp, cyprinus carpio. it is accompanied by a dispersion of erythrophore pigments. in the pituitaries of pleurodeles and goldfish, a stimulation of msh cells, characterized by a significant nuclear hypertrophy, is also observed; in carassius, msh cells may become degranulated. ...19806967354
the relationship between the activity of splenic enzymes and the immune response in the goldfish, carassius auratus. i. preliminary experiments with human a1 secretor's saliva and a1 rbc. ii. preliminary enzyme experiments using alpha-gpd and ldh.1. goldfish, carassius auratus, were injected with two antigenic substances a1 secretor's saliva or a1 rbc. 2. the goldfish produced significant antibody titers which continued for 10-12 weeks when maintained at 28 degrees c. 3. analysis of enzymatic activities of soluble and particulate alpha-gpd and ldh from skeletal muscle and spleen showed significant differences between and within tissues.19827172634
resonance raman microscopy of rod and cone photoreceptors.we have constructed a raman microscope that has enabled us to obtain resonance raman vibrational spectra from single photoreceptor cells. the laser beam which excites the raman scattering is focused on the outer segment of the photoreceptor through the epiillumination system of a light microscope. raman scattering from the visual pigment in the photoreceptor is collected by the objective and then dispersed onto a multichannel detector. high-quality spectra are recorded easily from individual out ...19826809771
the goldfish immune response. i. characterization of the humoral response to particulate antigens.anti-red blood cells (rbc) and anti-hapten antibody synthesis were studied in the goldfish, carassius auratus. spontaneous haemagglutination titres were found against all the antigens tested. a weak secondary response was observed in rbc-primed fish boosted during the end-phase of the primary antibody production. however, when the second antigenic challenge was performed during the early exponential phase of a primary stimulation, an important amplified response was obtained. the antibody produc ...19817275178
comparison of the pineal complex, retina and cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons by immunocytochemical antirhodopsin reaction.the presence of rhodopsin was investigated by an indirect immunocytochemical method in the pineal complex of various vertebrates (carassius auratus, cyprinus carpio, hypophthalamichthys molitrix, lucioperca lucioperca, triturus vulgaris, bombina bombina, rana esculenta, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis et viridis, white leghorn chickens, rat), in the retina of lebistes reticulatus, lucioperca lucioperca, rana esculenta, lacerta agilis, pseudemys scripta elegans, the chicken and the rat, ...19807456628
substance p-, f8famide-, and a18famide-like immunoreactivity in the nervus terminalis and retina of the goldfish carassius auratus.we re-investigated the occurrence of substance p-like immunoreactivity in the retina of the goldfish carassius auratus using antisera to substance p and other tachykinins. most antisera labelled a previously described single class of mono-stratified amacrine cells arborizing in layer 3 of the inner plexiform layer. preabsorption experiments showed that these amacrine cells contained at least one tachykinin-like peptide. one antiserum (inc 353) to substance p labelled not only these amacrine cell ...19957541719
the warm temperature acclimation-related 65-kda protein, wap65, in goldfish and its gene expression.cdnas encoding a warm temperature acclimation-related protein (wap65) were cloned from the muscle and hepatopancreas cdna libraries of the warm temperature-acclimated goldfish carassius auratus, and their nucleotide sequences containing 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions together with their polyadenylation signal were determined. the deduced amino acid sequence of wap65 was 31% homologous to rat hemopexin. however, goldfish wap65 lacked a few possible glycosylation sites and presumed functional histid ...19957615502
invertebrate and vertebrate immune cells express pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc) mrna.we show here that hemocytes and leukocytes with phagocytic activity from both invertebrates (planorbarius corneus, viviparus ater) and vertebrates (carassius auratus, rana esculenta) express pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc) mrna, as assessed by in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled human dna probe. these data are in accord with previous observations from our laboratories on the presence in these cells of pomc-derived peptides and strongly suggest that these molecules--highly conserved thro ...19957620207
immunocytochemical localization of sgnrh and cgnrh-ii in the brain of goldfish, carassius auratus.the immunocytochemical distribution of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sgnrh) and chicken gnrh-ii (cgnrh-ii) neurons in the brain of goldfish was examined using respective antisera. salmon gnrh-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were localized in the area between the olfactory nerve and the olfactory bulb (the terminal nerve ganglion), the ventral telencephalon, the preoptic area, and the hypothalamus. chicken gnrh-ii-ir cell bodies were observed in the same areas as were those of sgnrh, alt ...19957629310
characterization of basic proteins from goldfish myelin.myelin basic protein (mbp) from common goldfish (carassius auratus) myelin was extracted with dilute mineral acid. immunological cross-reactivity of the goldfish mbp, with polyclonal antisera raised against bovine mbp, suggested that the goldfish protein has epitopes for these antibodies. it also reacted with a monoclonal antibody specific for a seven amino acid epitope (130-137) conserved in the mbp of most mammalian species. to characterize the charge heterogeneity of this protein, we iodinate ...19937678038
myxobolus cultus n. sp. (myxosporea: myxobolidae) in the goldfish carassius auratus transformed from the actinosporean stage in the oligochaete branchiura sowerbyi.a new myxosporean myxobolus cultus n. sp. was found in experimentally infected goldfish carassius auratus exposed to actinosporean spores from the oligochaete branchiura sowerbyi (tubificidae). at 2-4 mo following initial exposure, spores of m. cultus were observed in the cartilage of goldfish. a lymphocytic infiltrate surrounded the pseudocysts. some pseudocysts were destroyed and spores had been engulfed by phagocytes. phagocytized spores were also found in the epidermis of skin and within mel ...19957776133
synthetic scotophobin in goldfish: specificity and effect on learning.synthetic rat scotophobin was injected intracranially into common goldfish (carassius auratus) which were then trained to avoid light or dark. the substance interacts with the learning process in goldfish in an apparently specific way, facilitating the acquisition of dark avoidance, a task homologous with that acquired by rats from which the natural peptide was isolated, while inhibiting acquisition of light avoidance.19725049310
masking of tones by noise for the goldfish (carassius auratus). 19744426992
immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.the presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis et viridis, gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctate). the outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. th ...19826213109
[serogroups, virulence and hemolytic activity of aeromon as hydrophila which caused fish bacterial septicaemia].a new infected disease called bacterial septicaemia occurred in cyprinid fish throughout china during 1989-1992. a. hydrophila was known as the most important pathogen of this harmful disease. thirty-three strains of a. hydrophila, most isolated from moribund fishes, were serogrouped by tube-agglutination with rabbit antisera. most of the isolates could be grouped into two serotypes, tps-30 and pbjs-76. these two groups could be found not only in zhejiang province but in other province in south ...19958745552
[the sequence of the alpha- and beta-chains of the goldfish hemoglobin (carassius auratus) (author's transl)].the primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains from goldfish hemoglobin are given. the globin chains were separated by gel filtration after oxidation of globin with air. the peptides for sequencing were obtained by chemical and enzymatical cleavage. the alpha-chain has 142 residues, the beta-chain 147. the alpha-chain is acetylated at the amino-terminal residue. compared with the human chains, there are 66 amino acid differences in the alpha-chain, 72 residues are different in the beta-cha ...19807380396
a new class of dna photolyases present in various organisms including aplacental mammals.dna photolyase specifically repairs uv light-induced cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers in dna through a light-dependent reaction mechanism. we have obtained photolyase genes from drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), oryzias latipes (killifish) and the marsupial potorous tridactylis (rat kangaroo), the first photolyase gene cloned from a mammalian species. the deduced amino acid sequences of these higher eukaryote genes show only limited homology with microbial photolyase genes. together with th ...19947813451
comparative distribution of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the brain of a teleost (carassius auratus), an amphibian (hyla meridionalis), and a reptile (gallotia galloti).the distribution of neurotensin (nt) was studied in the brain of three species belonging to the three major classes of cold-blooded vertebrates: teleost fishes (carassius auratus), anuran amphibians (hyla meridionalis), and reptiles (gallotia galloti; lacertidae). by using antibodies directed against synthetic bovine nt in the three species, immunoreactive cell bodies were discovered mostly in the telencephalon and diencephalon, in particular at the level of the preoptic region the mediobasal hy ...19947836560
cloning of a marsupial dna photolyase gene and the lack of related nucleotide sequences in placental mammals.photoreactivating enzyme, dna photolyase, reduces lethal, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet light (uv) by catalyzing near uv or visible light-dependent repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (cpds) in dna. the enzyme activity has been detected in a wide variety of organisms ranging from bacteria to nonplacental mammals. however, the evidence for photoreactivation in placental mammals, including humans, is controversial. as a first step to identify the presence and activity of th ...19947937136
spread of the bacterial fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida after importation of infected goldfish, carassius auratus, into australia. 19938117214
multiple loci for synapse protein snap-25 in the tetraploid goldfish.the common goldfish carassius auratus is tetraploid and has 100 chromosomes. we describe here goldfish cdna clones for snap-25, a 200-amino-acid synaptosome-associated protein that has remained highly conserved during evolution. snap-25 occurs as a single-copy gene in mouse, chicken, and drosophila melanogaster. sequences of six distinct goldfish cdna clones and southern hybridizations show that the goldfish has three, or possibly four, snap-25 loci rather than two as expected. a gene duplicatio ...19938248151
cloning and characterization of a truncated dopamine d1 receptor from goldfish retina: stimulation of cyclic amp production and calcium mobilization.receptors for dopamine are present on horizontal cells of fish retina that are linked to the activation of adenylate cyclase. in the present study, the goldfish (carassius auratus) gene that encodes these receptors, referred to as gfd1, was isolated and analyzed. a single open reading frame within the gfd1 gene encodes a protein of 363 amino acids that is highly homologous with dopamine d1 receptors from rats and humans. interestingly, the carboxyl terminus of gfd1 lacks 80 amino acids that are ...19938264547
expansion of genes that encode mhc class i molecules in cyprinid fishes.we have analyzed the genomic genes and the mrna that encode mhc class i molecules in cyprinid fishes, namely, the ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii) and the carp (cyprinus carpio). the presence of several distinct class i genes was revealed in the genome of cyprinid fishes, and distinct class i genes that are expressed in carp cells were identified. the sequences of the alpha 3 domain of these class i genes are relatively well conserved, whereas the sequences of the respective ...19938326125
goldfish calcitonin: purification, characterization, and hypocalcemic potency.a novel teleost calcitonin was isolated from the goldfish, carassius auratus, and its amino acid sequence was determined to be h-cys-ser-ser-leu-ser-thr-cys-val-leu-gly- lys-leu-ser-gln-glu-leu-his-lys-leu-gln-thr-tyr-pro-arg-thr-asn-val-gly- ala-gly-thr-pro-nh2. the structure of goldfish calcitonin (gct) was similar to that of salmon calcitonin (sct) but differed from the latter at positions 3, 27, and 29. the hypocalcemic activity of gct was estimated to be 3,470 iu/mg by the standardized rat ...19938454163
somatostatin-, vasoactive intestinal peptide-, and granulin-like peptides isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish, carassius auratus.three new peptides were originally isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish. they were structurally related with somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip), and granulin (grn) and thus termed goldfish somatostatin (gss-28), gvip, and ggrn, respectively. the primary structures of these peptides were determined as: svessnhlpa 10rerkagcknf20ywkgftsc for the gss-28; hsdavftdny10sryrkqmaak20kylnsvla-nh2 for the gvip, and vihcdsstic10 pdgttcclsp20ygvwyccpfs30mgqccrdgih40ccrhgyhcds50tsthclr ...19958536941
receptor binding of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists that inhibit release of gonadotropin-ii and growth hormone in goldfish, carassius goldfish, gnrh stimulates gonadotropin-ii (gth-ii) and growth hormone (gh) release. the two native forms of gnrh, salmon gnrh (sgnrh) and chicken gnrh-ii (cgnrh-ii), bind to two classes of gnrh binding sites: high-affinity/low-capacity sites and low-affinity/high-capacity sites. our previous in vitro perifusion studies of goldfish pituitary fragments showed that [ac-delta 3-pro1, 4fd-phe2, d-trp3,6]-mgnrh (analog e), [ac-delta 3-pro1, 4fd-phe2, d-trp3,6]-sgnrh (analog c), and [ac-d(2)nal1, 4c ...19947803606
classification and host specificity of metagonimus spp. from korean freshwater fish.taxonomic problems of metagonimus spp. in korea were investigated. metacercariae of various freshwater fish species -- plecoglossus altivelis, carassius auratus, zacco platypus, zacco temmincki, opsariichthys bidens -- were collected from different localities in korea and experimentally fed to golden hamsters. observation of recovered adult worms showed that plecoglossus altivelis was infected with metacercariae of both m. yokogawai and m. takahashii. c. auratus was infected with metacercariae o ...19968820736
[polymorphism of trypanosoma gruby, 1841 found in the blood of carp (carassius auratus gibelio (bloch), perch (perca fluviatilis l.) and stone perch (acerina cernua (l.))]. 19846516399
functional evidence regarding receptor subtypes mediating the actions of native gonadotropin-releasing hormones (gnrh) in goldfish, carassius goldfish, two native gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) peptides, salmon gnrh (sgnrh) and chicken-ii gnrh (cgnrh-ii), stimulate gonadotropin (gth-ii) and growth hormone (gh) secretion. in the present study we tested whether sgnrh and cgnrh-ii act through different or the same population of gnrh receptors on gth and gh cells, using various approaches. a gnrh antagonist [ac-delta 3-pro1,4fd-phe2,d-trp3,6]sgnrh (analog c) equally inhibited gth-ii release by sgnrh and cgnrh-ii. similarly, [ac- ...19948045371
homeobox genes are expressed in the retina and brain of adult goldfish.the goldfish (carassius auratus) visual pathway displays continuous growth and plasticity throughout life. since homeobox genes are important transcriptional regulators in development, we searched for homeobox genes in the adult goldfish retina and brain. using the pcr, we discovered a repertoire of homeobox sequences expressed in these tissues. in addition to isolating homeodomain sequences found in the vertebrate hox gene clusters, a sequence identical to the chicken chox7 homeodomain was char ...19938096640
in vitro characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists in goldfish, carassius auratus.the two native forms of gnrh, salmon gnrh and chicken gnrh-ii, in the brain and pituitary of goldfish are both active in stimulating gonadotropin-ii (gth-ii) and gh release. the objective of the present study was to characterize gnrh antagonists for their ability to inhibit sgnrh- and cgnrh-ii-induced gth-ii and gh release in goldfish using a pituitary fragments perifusion system. contrary to expectations, putative gnrh antagonists with d-arg6 stimulated gth-ii and gh release in nearly all cases ...19938404604
similar localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate in the pineal organ and retina of various nonmammalian vertebrates.the localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate was compared in the pineal organ and retina of various vertebrates (raja clavata, carassius auratus, salvelinus alpinus, triturus vulgaris, triturus cristatus, lacerta muralis, lacerta agilis, lacerta viridis, columbia livia and white leghorn chicken) by postembedding immunoelectron microscopy. immunoreaction of both excitatory amino acids was detected in the pinealocytes in a localization similar to that of retinal photoreceptors. the r ...19958714767
immunocytochemical localization of granulin-1 to mononuclear phagocytic cells of the teleost fish cyprinus carpio and carassius auratus.a new class of low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich regulatory growth factors, designated granulins, has been isolated from hematopoietic tissues of a teleost fish (cyprinus carpio) and structurally characterized. granulin-1, the predominant form found in carp spleen, was used to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits and to establish a radioimmunoassay. this permitted preliminary tissue distribution studies of granulin-1 to be undertaken in carp (cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (carassius auratus). ...19957829976
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