non-repetitive dna sequence divergence in phylogenetically diploid and tetraploid teleostean species of the family cyprinidae and the order isospondyli.non-repetitive dna of anciently tetraploid teleostean species was analysed for the presence of duplicated sequences. closely related diploid species were investigated in comparison. from the reassociation kinetics of total nuclear dna, rate constants and fraction sizes of classes of repetitive and non-repetitive sequences were determined. dna fractions enriched in the slowest renaturing sequence class were determined. dna fractions enriched in the slowest renaturing sequence class were prepared ...1979533669
[experimental study of the aftereffects of feeding rats certain types of canned fish].for 3 years fish canned goods were added to the ration of rats. these additions included atlantic herring in tomato gravy ("stavrida"), dressed sprat in tomato gravy (sprats-small-sized) or sprat in vegetable oil ("sprat"). rats receiving canned "small-sized sprats" or "sprats developed much more often malignant tumors of different localization than did the animals fed on "stavrida" or control rats. feeding of rats on the vegetable oil from "stavrida" and "sprat" cans did not have any material e ...1978716334
histopathologic alterations associated with anisakis larvae in pacific herring from oregon.a histopathologic study of anisakis sp. larvae in pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi) is presented. tissue alterations included mechanical compression of the pancreas and liver, granulomatous inflammation and necrosis of the liver, and trauma to the muscularis externa of the pyloric caeca. host exudate in most lesions contained macrophages (histiocytes) and lymphocytes.1977916144
[lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from teleost fish retina, cardiac and skeletal muscle].kinetic analysis, electrophoresis and selective inactivation were used in studies of isozymic composition of ldh in the retina, cardiac and skeletal muscles in 8 species of marine teleost fishes. in the retina, the number of isoenzymes in all the fishes studied varied from 2 to 7, the predominant ones being b4 and e4. the isoenzyme e4 was found only in the retina of hexagrammus octogrammus, pleurogrammus monopterygius, liopsetts pannifasciata, limanda yokohamae, eleginus gracilis, therarga chalc ...1976941581
experimental studies on the migration of anisakis sp. larvae (nematoda: ascaridida) into the flesh of herring, clupea harengus l. 19751167848
formation of malonaldehyde in frozen baltic herring and its influence on the changes in proteins.the relationship between the malonaldehyde formed as oxidation product of lipids, and changes of proteins in frozen baltic herring (clupea harengus var. membranus) was studied. changes occurred in the muscle proteins due to freezing, so that water-binding capacity, solubility, and the amount of free epsilon-amino groups in these proteins decreased. a close relationship was found between the amount of malonaldehyde and changes of proteins in the different phases of storage. the reaction of malona ...19751224801
effect of different holding regimens on the intestinal microflora of herring (clupea harengus) larvae.the aerobic intestinal microflora of 2-week-old herring (clupea harengus) larvae was characterized by using conventional microbiological methods and electron microscopy. larvae were hatched and kept in filtered seawater or in seawater with penicillin and streptomycin. the gastrointestinal tract of herring larvae is essentially a straight tube divided into two compartments. light microscopy revealed bacteria present in a progressively increasing amount throughout the length of the gastrointestina ...19921610170
biological tags for stock separation in pacific herring clupea harengus pallasi in california.a survey of the parasites of pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi) off northern california identified 1 species of acanthocephala, 1 species of cestoda, 2 species of copepoda, 1 species and 1 family of digenea, 3 species of nematoda, and 3 species of protozoa. from this survey, lacistorhynchus dollfusi (cestoda), parahemiurus merus (digenea), and anisakis simplex, contracaecum sp., hysterothylacium sp. (nematoda) were selected as potential tags. herring were collected in tomales, san francis ...19921738068
new host and locality records for two protozoan (myxosporea, coccidia) parasites of marine fishes.this is the first report of the myxosporean ortholinea orientalis from atlantic herring clupea harrengus. it infects the kidney tubules and previously was known from pacific herring clupea pallasii and navaga eleginus navaga in the white sea and north pacific ocean. this is also the first report of the coccidian eimeria raibauti from norway pout trisopterus esmarkii. it infects the epithelium of the pyloric ceca and previously was known only from poorcod trisopterus minutus in the mediterranean ...19912010866
organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the southern baltic, 1983.hexachlorobenzene (hcb), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (bhc, hch), p,p'-dde, o,p'-ddd, o,p'-ddt, p,p'-ddd and p,p'-ddt (sigma ddt) and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 187 herring (clupea harengus) netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the baltic sea. the mean levels found for herring muscle tissue related to wet weight (microgram/kg) were: 14 hcb, 18 alpha-bhc, 23 beta-bhc, 14 gamma-bhc, delta-bhc r ...19863085378
[anisakids and human anisakiasis. 2. investigation of the anisakids of commercial fish in the district of paris].1,173 fish belonging to 13 species were examined during 1986-1987, during a survey conducted among commercial marine fish in the paris area (france). anisakis simplex l3 were found in 10 different species, and most frequently in herring (clupea harengus) 82.55% of 682 fish, red fish (sebastes marinus) 86.11% of 36 fish, and hake (merluccius merluccius) 88.57% of 35 fish, and in high number (average 8.8, 18.4 and 31 l3 per fish). pseudoterranova decipiens l3 were recovered from 7 different specie ...19883190121
mercury accumulation in relation to size and age of atlantic herring (clupea harengus harengus) from the southwestern bay of fundy, canada. 19873592756
[spectral analysis of the cardiac rhythm of fishes].spectral analysis of the rhythmograms in the cod gadus morhua callarias, plaice pleuronectes platessa, herring clupea harengus membras and trout salmo gairdneri revealed complex wave structure of their cardiac rhythm. in all the species investigated, slow (0.01-0.06 hz), intermediate (0.06-0.25 hz) and fast (0.25-0.5 hz) waves were recorded. it is suggested that the wave structure of cardiac rhythm reflects rather complicated relationships between functional systems regulating cardiac activity.19873673370
idiopathic enteropathy in the larval pacific herring, clupea harengus pallasi (valenciennes). 19863951056
enzyme heterozygosity associated with anatomical character variance and growth in the herring (clupea harengus l.).the hypothesis that enzyme heterozygosity is positively related to phenotypic characteristics in fish was tested using five polymorphic enzyme loci and seven anatomical characteristics in samples of north irish sea herring, clupea harengus. though not unambiguous the results indicated that heterozygosity was associated with increased developmental stability. also, multiple homozygosity was negatively correlated with growth parameter estimates. though no single locus correlates were evident, the ...19854019216
the size and shape of erythrocytes in the herring clupea harengus l. 19744149012
[residues of ddt and pcb in norwegian sprat (clupea sprattus) and herring (clupea harengus)]. 19724199534
distribution of pcb and p,p'-dde residues in atlantic herring (clupea harengus harengus) and yellow perch (perca flavescens) in eastern canada--1972. 19744216875
[variability in the composition and activity of proteinases of atlantic herring in relation to its biological state]. 19734701628
on the application of immunological techniques in geographic group studies of atlantic sea herring, clupea harengus. ii. herring serum analysis by gel diffusion. 19694984471
experimental thiamine deficiency in captive harp seals, phoca groenlandica, induced by eating herring, clupea harengus, and smelts, osmerus mordax. 19725017320
[anisakis sp. larvae in clupea harengus l. living in the baltic sea]. 19725063628
some fish muscle esterases and their variation in stocks of the herring (clupea harengus l.). the nature of esterase variation. 19695361443
[observations on "a-like" blood group principle in clupea harengus l]. 19695363919
[polyunsaturated fatty acid content of atlantic herring fish]. 19675610995
polymorphism of a phosphoglucomutase isoenzyme in the herring (clupea harengus). 19695809775
multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase in herring (clupea harengus harengus l.). 19665954113
on the application of immunological techniques in geographic group studies of atlantic sea herring, clupea harengus. i. neutralization of immune precipitins as an aid to herring serum analysis by immunoelectrophoresis. 19665962947
starvation of the herring, clupea harengus l.: survival and some gross biochemical changes. 19676080509
the effect of zinc on the ultrastructure of the trunk muscle of the larva of clupea harengus l.the ultrastructural changes in the trunk muscle tissue of clupea harengus l. larvae, hatched from eggs exposed to four different concentrations of zinc (0.5, 2.0, 6.0 and 12.0 ppm), were examined by morphometric analysis. the surface-to-volume ratio of the mitochondrial cristae was significantly reduced with increasing zinc concentrations. at concentrations of 2.0, 6.0 and 12.0 ppm zinc, the relative volumes of the mitochondria increased significantly and individual mitochondria were swollen. at ...19846151459
genetic analysis of enzyme polymorphisms in herring (clupea harengus l.).single pair matings were performed to confirm the genetic basis of electrophoretic variants of several enzyme systems in north-east atlantic herring (clupea harengus) collected in spawning condition from the north irish sea. mendelian inheritance of codominant autosomal alleles was established for aat-2, idh-2, ldh-2 and pgi. crosses among fum-1, idh-1 and sod homozygotes produced only homozygous offspring. this study also permitted the investigation of linkage relationships between polymorphic ...19846706677
properties of white trunk muscle from saithe pollachius virens, rainbow trout salmo gairdneri and herring clupea harengus: protein synthesis in vitro, electrophoretic study of proteins.1. ribosomes were isolated from white trunk muscle of saithe (pollachius virens), rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) and herring (clupea harengus). 2. incorporation of amino acids into protein by the ribosomes was determined in systems containing liver cell sap from rainbow trout. 3. incorporation of phenylalanine into protein was as follows: saithe 163.19 +/- 7.64 pmol, rainbow trout 126.99 +/- 3.07 pmol, herring 29.34 +/- 1.28 pmol per g wet weight of tissue and 4 min of incubation at 28 degrees ...19836839712
widespread occurrence of the pesticide toxaphene in canadian east coast marine fish.chromatographic and chemical confirmatory evidence is presented for the presence of residues of toxaphene, a polychlorinated camphene pesticide, in herring (clupea harengus harengus) and cod (gadus morhua) from widely-separated areas of the canadian east coast. toxaphene residues were not detected in a sample of deep-sea scallops (placopecten magellanicus). toxaphene was determined by capillary gas chromatography following a combination of chromatography and fuming nitric-concentrated sulfuric a ...19836874201
effect of suspended sediment on feeding by larval herring (clupea harengus harengus l.). 19827126915
liver ultrastructure in pigs fed various order to determine the effects of various dietary oils on the porcine liver, four groups of 10- to 11-week-old pigs received feed supplemented with either 10 per cent rapeseed oil (ro) of tower (0.4 per cent erucic acid) or target (30.2 per cent erucic acid) varieties, atlantic herring oil, or soybean oil for 10 weeks. the ultrastructural appearance of the livers from pigs of a fifth group receiving no oil was compared with that from the livers of pigs fed dietary supplements of the four oils ...19817255932
avoidance of dredge spoil by herring (clupea harengus harengus). 19817284625
three-dimensional spatial relationship between the collagen fibrils and the inorganic calcium phosphate crystals of pickerel (americanus americanus) and herring (clupea harengus) bone.high-voltage (1.0 mv) electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, electron diffraction and three-dimensional computer reconstruction, have been used to examine the spatial relationship between the inorganic crystals of calcium phosphate and the collagen fibrils of pickerel and herring bone. high-voltage stereo electron-micrographs were obtained of cross-sections of the cylinder-shaped intramuscular bones in uncalcified regions, in regions where only one or only severa ...19911994036
a ty1-copia group retrotransposon sequence in a vertebrate.we have used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to isolate a sequence characteristic of a ty1-copia group retrotransposon from the genome of the herring (clupea harengus). this is the first ty1-copia group retrotransposon sequence described in a vertebrate. phylogenetic comparison of this sequence with other members of this group of retrotransposons shows that it resembles more closely some ty1-copia group members from drosophila melanogaster than other group members in plants and fungi. these ...19921318500
occurrence and survival of the larval nematode anisakis sp. in the flesh of fresh, frozen, brined, and smoked pacific herring, clupea harengus pallasi.two hundred and twenty pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi) from yaquina bay, oregon, were divided into five groups to test the effects of various methods of handling and processing (fresh, frozen, brined, cold smoked, and cold smoked-gibbed) on the occurrence and survival of anisakis larvae in the flesh. viscera and flesh were digested separately using a pepsin-hc1 technique, and counts were taken of anisakis larvae. parasite loads were statistically largest in the flesh of frozen, brined, ...1977559067
herring antifreeze protein: primary structure and evidence for a c-type lectin evolutionary origin.a complementary dna (cdna) for a type ii antifreeze protein (afp) was isolated from an atlantic herring liver cdna library and sequenced. the predicted protein sequence is homologous to those of the type ii fish afp from smelt and sea raven; it is also homologous to the carbohydrate recognition domains (crd) of calcium-dependent (c-type) lectins and similar domains in lectin-like proteins. herring belong to the infradivision clupeomorpha, which is distinct from the euteleostei to which all other ...19938364686
molecular analysis of ependymins from the cerebrospinal fluid of the orders clupeiformes and salmoniformes: no indication for the existence of an euteleost infradivision.ependymins represent the predominant protein constituents in the cerebrospinal fluid of many teleost fish and they are synthesized in meningeal fibroblasts. here, we present the ependymin sequences from the herring (clupea harengus) and the pike (esox lucius). a comparison of ependymin homologous sequences from three different orders of teleost fish (salmoniformes, cypriniformes, and clupeiformes) revealed the highest similarity between clupeiformes and cypriniformes. this result is unexpected b ...19938350351
in vitro digestibility of different prey species of minke whales (balaenoptera acutorostrata).information on diet composition, daily energy expenditure, energy storage and the utilization of energy in the prey are important factors when evaluating the food consumption of minke whales (balaenoptera acutorostrata) during their summer stay in northern waters. the purpose of the present study was in this context to obtain information on the digestible energy (de) of different prey selected by minke whales. an in vitro three-stage digestion technique, simulating the different compartments of ...19938260475
nickel-63 in baltic fish and sediments.the determination of 63ni was carried out on fish samples of cod (gadus morhua), herring (clupea harengus), sprat (sprattus sprattus) and samples of sediment core from the gdaƄsk bay. in contrast to stable nickel, 63ni is non-uniformly distributed within the fish. more than 95% of total 63ni content in cod and herring is located in fillet with skin and scale. our data suggesting, that mechanism for uptake of 63ni in cod and herring is by passive adsorption onto the surface of skin and scale mucu ...19948019522
dietary deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid impairs vision at low light intensities in juvenile herring (clupea harengus l.).in the retina of herring (clupea harengus l.), rods are recruited from about 8 wk after hatching, and from this time there is a linear relationship between the number of rods in the photoreceptor cell population and the content of di22:6n-3 molecular species of phospholipids. juvenile herring were reared from four weeks' post-hatching for 15 wk on either artemia nauplii deficient in 22:6n-3 or on enriched artemia nauplii containing 4.3% 22:6n-3. the visual performance of the fish was then determ ...19957637565
development of swimming movements and musculature of larval herring (clupea harengus).a kinematic analysis was made of swimming of larval herring clupea harengus l. swimming style was found to change with growth and development; the amplitude of swimming movements of early post-yolk-sac larvae increases linearly towards the tail, a style of swimming which relies mainly on resistive forces for propulsion. later, after the caudal and dorsal fins have developed, the swimming style changes, in response to an increase in reynold's number, such that inertial forces are more important. ...19846747536
[histone h1 from the herring clupea harengus pallasi testis structurally resembling histone h5].erythrocyte- and testis-specific fractions of the lysine-rich histone of herring clupea harengus pallasi were studied. electrophoretically purified fractions were cleaved at residues of tyrosine and phenylalanine. the fragments thus obtained and intact proteins were investigated by the method of incomplete succinylation which permitted one to determine the number of lysine residues, the total number of arginine and histidine residues and the molecular length of polypeptides. it has been found th ...19846504033
inheritance of allozymes in atlantic herring (clupea harengus harengus).progeny from single pair crosses of atlantic herring were examined to determine the heritability of genetic variation at seven polymorphic allozyme loci. mendelian inheritance of codominant autosomal alleles was established for idh-2, ldh-1, ldh-2, me-2, pgm-1, and pgi-2. this demonstration of mendelian inheritance is essential for accurate interpretation of allozymic variation among natural populations of this pelagic species.19816462190
interlaboratory calibration results of polychlorinated biphenyl analyses in herring.twenty-three laboratories from 13 countries in continental europe, scandinavia, the british isles, and north america participated in a polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) check sample program conducted under the auspices of the international council for exploration of the sea (ices). pcbs were determined in unspiked and spiked (1.00 mg aroclor 1254/kg oil) herring (clupea harengus harengus) oil by the participants, each of which used his or her own cleanup and quantitation techniques; a common aroclo ...19836402482
lipid class composition during embryonic and early larval development in atlantic herring (clupea harengus, l.).the lipid class compositions of atlantic herring eggs and larvae were determined immediately before fertilization, after fertilization and at various times during subsequent embryonic and early larval development. total lipid constituted 15% of the dry wt of ripe eggs, 70% of the total lipid being polar lipid with phosphatidylcholine (pc) accounting for almost 90% of the polar lipid. in general, the total lipid content decreased gradually during embryogenesis and in particular during larval deve ...19853982237
fatty acid composition of phospholipids and neutral lipids during embryonic and early larval development in atlantic herring (clupea harengus, l.).the fatty acid compositions of total polar and total neutral lipids of atlantic herring eggs and larvae were determined immediately before fertilization, after fertilization and at various times during subsequent embryonic and early larval development. within 3 hr after fertilization the percentage of total pufa in neutral lipid decreased from 33% to 20%, with a reciprocal increase in monoenes. thereafter the percentage of pufa in the neutral lipids increased progressively, attaining the origina ...19853982235
studies of fish zona pellucida by high-performance ion-exchange chromatography on agarose columns and free zone either free zone electrophoresis or high-performance ion-exchange chromatography on deae agarose, zona pellucida from baltic small herring (clupea harengus l.) was separated into several fractions. these fractions had very similar protein compositions, since on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate they all gave the same pattern: chiefly one major and three minor bands corresponding to proteins with the following estimated molecular weights: 78 000, 96 000 (the major c ...19853928670
nutritional availability to rats of selenium in four seafoods: crab (callinectes sapidus), oyster (crassostrea virginica), shrimp (penaeus duorarum) and baltic herring (clupea harengus).1. the present study was conducted to determine the biological availability to rats of the selenium in four high-se seafoods: crab (callinectes sapidus), oyster (crassostrea virginica), shrimp (penaeus duorarum) and baltic herring (clupea harengus). 2. weanling male rats were fed on a se-deficient torula yeast diet for 4 weeks followed by either continued depletion or repletion for 4 weeks with 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 microgram se as selenite/g, or 0.1 or 0.2 microgram se as freeze-dried cooked test fo ...19863676154
electrophoretic identification of anisakis sp. larvae (ascaridida: anisakidae) from clupea harengus l. in baltic sea.on the basis of electrophoretic studies carried out on 15 gene-enzyme systems, 80 anisakis sp. larvae from the herring clupea harengus, fished in south baltic sea and gdanisk bay, were identified as anisakis simplex b. this is the first record of anisakis simplex b in the baltic sea. the spawning migration of the herrings from the north sea to the baltic sea and the distribution of a. simplex b are briefly discussed.19892487893
degradation of human epidermal keratin by cod trypsin and extracts of fish intestines.cod gadus morhua and bovine trypsin degraded human epidermal keratin with similar efficacies in vitro around optimal ph, which was at ph 8.4 for cod trypsin and at ph 9.5 for bovine trypsin. extract of intestines of cod, atlantic herring clupea harengus, atlantic salmon salmo salar, and redfish sebastes marinus degraded keratin with similar efficacies with ph optima between 8.5 and 9.5. sheets of plantar callus were degraded with somewhat lower efficacy than keratin. the keratin-degrading activi ...19892465741
degradation of human epidermal keratin by fish pepsin.stomach extract of atlantic herring clupea harengus, atlantic salmon salmo salar, cod gadus morhua, redfish sebastes marinus, and plaice pleuronectes platessa, degraded human epidermal keratin effectively in vitro. the keratin-degrading activity of all extracts showed a ph optimum around 3.3-3.4, and sheets of plantar callus were degraded with about the same efficacy as keratin. pepstatin sensitivity, heat lability, and the acidic ph optimum demonstrated that the keratin-degrading activity was p ...19882456043
intraspecific myosin light chain polymorphism in the white muscle of herring (clupea harengus harengus, l.).the myosin contained in white and red muscles of herring (clupea harengus harengus) was purified, and its subunit composition analyzed by electrophoretic techniques. the only myosin isoform present in red muscles was made up of one type of heavy chain and two types of light chain. the native myosin from white muscles migrated as one wide band. analysis of the extracts by sds/glycerol/page from white muscles revealed one main type of heavy chain. light chains were identified by sds-page analysis ...19902365052
an inhibitor of t lymphocyte blastogenesis derived from the unfertilized ova of shad (alosa sapidissima).unfertilized ova from shad, a north atlantic herring, contains a cytostatic inhibitor of t lymphocyte blastogenesis. the inhibitor has an estimated molecular weight of 10,000-30,000 da, is heat stable, non dialyzable, and resistant to protease digestion and periodate oxidation. although the inhibitor functions at an early metabolic event in t lymphocyte mitogenesis, it does not appear to interfere with thymidine transport, antagonize lectin binding to lymphocyte surface receptors, or interfere w ...19902189050
the diencephalon of the pacific herring, clupea harengus: retinofugal projections to the diencephalon and optic tectum.the pattern of retinofugal projections to nuclei in the diencephalon and to the optic tectum was analyzed with horseradish peroxidase and autoradiographic methods in clupea harengus, a clupeomorph teleost, for comparison with osteoglossomorph, elopomorph, and euteleost teleosts and with non-teleost actinopterygians. most retinal fibers decussate in the optic chiasm and project to nuclei in the preoptic area, ventral and dorsal thalamus, posterior tuberculum, synencephalon, and pretectum, as well ...19938381443
a study of the composition of fish liver and body oil triglycerides.silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography (ag(+)-hplc) was used to study the range and variations in molecular species of triglycerides from industrial, retail and laboratory extracted fish oils. these were contrasted with a typical plant oil. selected fish oils were fractionated and the fatty acid distribution of the fractions determined by gas-liquid chromatography. fish oils gave a characteristic ag(+)-hplc profile, typified by sharp, intense peaks at the start of the chromatogram and ...19921406065
identification of grass carp haemorrhage virus as a new genogroup of aquareovirus.three aquareovirus strains isolated from grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus), geoduck clams (panope abrupta) and herring (clupea harengus) in north america and asia were examined by rna-rna blot hybridization to determine their genogroup. the isolates from clams and herring were identified as members of genogroup a, but the isolate from grass carp did not hybridize to any of the known genogroups, suggesting that this virus probably represents a new, seventh genogroup.199910501493
the diencephalon of the pacific herring, clupea harengus: cytoarchitectonic analysis.the cytoarchitecture of nuclei in the preoptic area, ventral thalamus, dorsal thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum, synencephalon, and pretectum and the accessory optic nuclei was analyzed in the clupeomorph teleost, clupea harengus. plesiomorphic (evolutionarily primitive) and apomorphic (evolutionarily derived) features of nuclei were identified by cladistic analysis. plesiomorphic features include the cytoarchitectonic organization of most of the preoptic nuclei, the some ...19938429133
differences in prey selection and behaviour during self-feeding and chick provisioning in rhinoceros auklets.we determined whether a marine diving bird, the rhinoceros auklet, cerorhinca monocerata, used different foraging behaviour and collected different prey items for its young than when feeding itself. foraging behaviour was determined by conducting visual scans, and prey items were sampled by collecting fish delivered to chicks and by collecting fish where auklets were self-feeding, which was verified by two other sources of information. adult auklets ate small fish (59.1+/-0.5 mm, n=547), includi ...199910512659
molecular cloning of troponin i expressed in fast white muscle of a teleost fish, the atlantic herring (clupea harengus l.).by cdna cloning and 5'-race analysis we characterised a clupea harengus troponin i mrna expressed in larvae and in adult white (fast) muscle, but not in red (slow) or cardiac muscle. the mrna encodes a tni protein of the short chain length (176 residues) n-terminally truncated type previously observed only in tetrapod skeletal muscles. despite its expression specificity the herring tni does not particularly resemble the tetrapod fast skeletal muscle isoform in sequence but appears to be outside ...19968634330
fluorescent histochemistry of the teleost gut: evidence for the presence of serotonergic neurones.the guts of the teleosts myoxocephalus scorpius, pleuronectes platessa and clupea harengus were examined using fluorescent histochemistry and the innervation compared to that in mammals and other lower vertebrates. in myoxocephalus and pleuronectes both greeen and yellow fast fading fluorescent nerves were found in the intestine. to test whether the yellow nerves might be serotonergic, an attempt was made to extract 5-ht from the intestine of these fish in a region where enterochromaffin cells w ...1979455398
time trends of chlordane, ddt, and pcb concentrations in pike (esox lucius) and baltic herring (clupea harengus) in the turku archipelago, northern baltic sea for the period 1971-1982. 19826812672
trace metals in herring from the southern baltic, 1983.the cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and nickel concentrations have been determined in muscle tissue of 187 herring (clupea harengus) netted in different regions in the southern part of the baltic sea. the method of measurement was atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. the mean values obtained related to wet weight (mg/kg) for herring muscle tissue were: 0.009 cd, 0.079 pb, 0.49 cu, 9.2 zn, 9.9 fe, 0.19 mn and 0.10 ni. some differences in the concentration of particular trace metals b ...19863953160
ca2+-dependent antifreeze proteins. modulation of conformation and activity by divalent metal ions.the antifreeze proteins (afps) are structurally diverse molecules that share an ability to bind to ice crystals and inhibit their growth. the type ii fish afps of atlantic herring and smelt are unique among known afps in their requirement of a cofactor for antifreeze activity. these afps are homologous with the carbohydrate-recognition domains of ca2+-dependent (c-type) lectins and require ca2+ for their activity. to investigate the role of metal ions in the structure and function of type ii afp ...19968663288
pheromone-induced spawning of pacific herring. i. behavioral characterization.a spawning pheromone in the milt (semen) and testes of the pacific herring, clupea harengus pallasi, triggers spawning in sexually mature fish of both sexes and is thought to facilitate school spawning of this species. we found the response to the pheromone to be a stereotyped behavioral sequence consisting of a graded extension of the gonadal papilla, release of gametes, and spawn deposition behavior. the response is triggered by an olfactory stimulus, as demonstrated by the elimination of the ...19979213139
pheromone-induced spawning of pacific herring. ii. plasma steroids distinctive to fish responsive to spawning pheromone.a spawning pheromone in the milt (semen) and testes of the pacific herring, clupea harengus pallasi, is thought to facilitate school spawning of this species. we found that responsiveness to the spawning pheromone was variable among ripe fish (milt-producing or ovulated). measurement of five principle reproductive steroids in the free form and five steroids in conjugated forms in the plasma of male fish early in the spawning season (newly ripe fish) showed that elevated plasma levels of 3 alpha, ...19979213140
impaired cellular immune response in rats exposed perinatally to baltic sea herring oil or 2,3,7,8-tcdd.while the immunotoxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) has been well established, the effects of complex environmental mixtures of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (phahs) are poorly understood. many phahs, including the polychlorinated-biphenyls (pcbs), -dibenzofurans (pcdfs), and dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), possess 'dioxin-like' activities, and accumulate in the aquatic food chain. organisms occupying high trophic levels may therefore be exposed to concentrations which may ...19979285039
effect of a low-fat diet on body composition and blubber fatty acids of captive juvenile harp seals (phoca groenlandica).we investigated the effects of a change from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet of differing fatty acid (fa) composition on the body composition and blubber fa of five captive juvenile harp seals. seals that had been maintained for 1 yr on a diet of atlantic herring (>/=9% fat) were switched to a diet of atlantic pollock (1. 7% fat) for 30 d. on days 0, 14, and 30, mass and body composition (using isotope dilution) were measured, and blubber biopsies (5 cmx6 mm) were taken for fa analysis. fat ac ...200010685906
temperature and developmental plasticity of muscle phenotype in herring larvaemyogenesis, the expression of myofibrillar protein isoforms and the development of muscle innervation were investigated in clyde herring (clupea harengus l.) in two successive spawning seasons at temperatures ranging from 5 °c to 15 °c. myotube formation occurred in a rostral to caudal progression at similar somite stages at all temperatures. superficial mononuclear muscle pioneer fibres were present at the horizontal septum. myofibrillogenesis was retarded with respect to somite stage a ...19979318632
temperature and myogenesis in embryos of the atlantic herring clupea harengusthe development of axial muscles has been investigated in spring-spawning atlantic herring (clupea harengus l.) reared at 5, 8, 12 and 15 °c. in 1994, around 90 % of embryos hatched after 28 days at 5 °c, 16 days at 8 °c, 9 days at 12 °c and 8 days at 15 °c. the somites were formed from cells of the paraxial mesoderm in a rostral to caudal direction, starting at the neural plate stage. somites were added at rates ranging from one every 3 h at 5 °c to one every 52 min at 1 ...19959319285
what a drag it is getting cold: partitioning the physical and physiological effects of temperature on fish swimmingthe influence of temperature-induced changes in water viscosity on the swimming performance and kinematics of larval atlantic herring (clupea harengus) was examined using high-speed video recording. the physical effects of viscosity were measured separately from the physiological (q10) effects of temperature by increasing the viscosity using methyl cellulose. voluntary swimming speeds of large larvae (18.2 mm total length) were characterized by reynolds numbers based on length (rel) between 100 ...19979319652
development of primers for polymorphic microsatellite loci in the pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi). 19989561793
concentrations and biomagnification of 17 chlordane compounds and other organochlorines in harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and herring from the southern baltic sea.four species of harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and one herring (clupea harengus) sample from the southern baltic sea were analysed in an attempt to study the concentration and biomagnification of 17 chlordane related compounds (chls) including 12 components present in technical chlordane, the toxic metabolites oxychlordane and cis-hepatchlorepoxide and the photoconversion products photoheptachlor and two photo-cis-chlordanes. the concentration and biomagnification ability of chls were also ...19989828351
pathology and morphology of ichthyophonus hoferi in naturally infected fishes off the swedish west coast.the pathology and morphology of ichthyophonus hoferi was studied in naturally infected atlantic herring clupea harengus, in sprat sprattus sprattus, and in flounder pleuronectes flesus from the west coast of sweden. the pathogen was found in all organs examined, with the intensity of infection varying in different organs of the different fish species. two main phases in the life of infecting parasites were identified, 'active' and 'passive', the latter being able to switch to active. the active ...19989828406
trends in the maternal investment of harbour porpoises are uncoupled from the dynamics of their primary prey.harbour porpoises in the bay of fundy and gulf of maine feed primarily on atlantic herring. herring stocks have undergone dramatic fluctuations in abundance over the past three decades due to changes in fishing intensity. in order to understand the effects of these changes in prey abundance on the patterns of maternal investment, i examined interdecadal variation in the size of porpoise calves measured in august prior to weaning. female harbour porpoises exhibited significant variation in matern ...200111297173
successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.the authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. the paper is divided into four parts. the first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (vhs) virus in north america in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (o. kisutch) returning for spawning. the fish disease control policies at both state and federal levels in the unit ...199910190216
reproductive steroids during maturation in a primitive teleost, the pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi).concentrations of reproductive steroids were measured in the plasma of captive pacific herring, clupea harengus pallasi, (1) prior to ovulation and milt production, (2) during the periovulatory and newly milt-producing period, (3) during a "ripe" holding period after ovulation and during milt production, and (4) before and after spawning. 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20beta-p), despite being present only in low concentrations in the unconjugated (free) form (<10 ng/ml), is likely to ...19968812404
temperature and neural development of the atlantic herring (clupea harengus l.).embryos of atlantic herring (clupea harengus l.) from the buchan (northern north sea) stock were incubated from fertilisation until hatching at temperatures of 5, 8, 12, and 15 degrees c. the relative timing of development of the kolmer-agduhr (ka) neurons, the posterior lateral line nerve, the motor neurons, and myotubes were determined with respect to somite stage of the embryo. development of the ka neurons, the lateral line nerve, and the myotubes was similar at all temperatures. in contrast ...19979219350
experimental infections of copepods and sticklebacks gasterosteus aculeatus with small ensheathed and large third-stage larvae of anisakis simplex (nematoda, ascaridoidea, anisakidae).free-swimming ensheathed larvae of anisakis simplex were shown experimentally to be ingested by the copepods oitona similis and acartia tonsa and by the nauplii of barnacles balanus sp. the larvae did not grow in the copepod hemocoel. experimental infections of various malacostracans were unsuccessful. sticklebacks gasterosteus aculeatus are naturally infected with larvae of a. simplex in coastal brackish water. such sticklebacks may have acquired the infection by eating either a crustacean host ...200111199846
vitamins a1 and a2 in hepatic tissue and subcellular fractions in mink feeding on fish-based diets and exposed to aroclor 1242.two-month-old female mink were fed diets based on either baltic herring (clupea harengus membras) or freshwater smelt (osmerus eperlanus) for 21 weeks. a portion of the smelt-fed mink were exposed orally to polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), aroclor 1242 (1 mg/d). retinol (vitamin a1), 3,4-didehydroretinol (vitamin a2), and their different fatty acyl esters were studied in hepatic tissue, microsomes, and cytosol by argentated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. as a result of a ...200211833811
purification and characterization of cathepsin d from herring muscle (clupea harengus).cathepsin d was purified and concentrated 469-fold from a homogenate of clupea harengus muscle. the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 38000-39000. it is inhibited by pepstatin and has optimal activity at ph 2.5 with hemoglobin as the substrate. the isoelectric point is at ph 6.8. glycosidase treatment and binding to concanavalin a indicated that the enzyme contains one n-linked carbohydrate moiety of the high-mannose type per molecule. the first 21 amino acid residues of th ...200111207447
determination of semivolatile compounds in baltic herring (clupea harengus membras) by supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.the on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-gas chromatography method was applied to the determination of volatile compounds of raw and baked baltic herring (clupea harengus membras). the analytes were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at 45 degrees c and 10 mpa pressure. after extraction, the volatiles and coeluted lipids were separated on-line using supercritical fluid chromatography and the volatile fraction was introduced directly into a gas chroma ...200211902942
lipid oxidation in fillets of herring (clupea harengus) during ice storage.the influence of ice storage on lipid oxidation, odor, antioxidants, water-soluble catalysts, and microorganisms was investigated in fillets of herring (clupea harengus) during 15 days. based on linear regression analyses of the data, significant rises (p </= 0.05) in lipid oxidation products were seen after 2-3 days and in "rancid" odor after 2.5 days. peroxide value (pv), fluorescent product (fp), and ascorbic acid analyses were the chemical measures most strongly correlated to "rancid" odor ( ...199910563927
embryonic temperature modulates muscle growth characteristics in larval and juvenile herringthe influence of embryonic and larval temperature regime on muscle growth was investigated in atlantic herring (clupea harengus l.). eggs of spring-spawning clyde herring were incubated at 5 degrees c, 8 degrees c or 12 degrees c until hatching and then reared until after metamorphosis at rising temperatures to simulate a seasonal warming. metamorphosis to the juvenile stage was complete at 37 mm total length (tl), after an estimated 177 days as a larva at 5 degrees c, 117 days at 8 degrees c an ...19989450973
concentrations, biomagnification and spatial variation of organochlorine compounds in a pelagic food web in the northern part of the baltic sea.zooplankton, mysis (mysis sp.) and herring (clupea harengus) were collected at two pelagic locations in the northern part of the baltic sea, one in bothnian bay (bb) and the other in the bothnian sea (bs), in order to investigate concentrations, composition profiles, biomagnification features and spatial differences of organochlorine contaminants. compounds included in this study are hexachlorocyclohexanes (hchs), ddts, hexachlorobenzene (hcbz), chlordanes (chls), dieldrin, mirex and polychlorin ...19989695178
trimethylamine oxide and urea synthesis in rainbow smelt and some other northern fishes.trimethylamine oxide (tmao) and urea levels in the blood of rainbow smelt, osmerus mordax, were previously shown to increase dramatically in winter, but the means by which these osmolytes are acquired has remained unclear. in this study, i show that the smelt can synthesize tmao via liver trimethylamine oxidase activity and thus are not completely dependent on a dietary source of tmao. cold-acclimatized pacific herring, clupea harengus, were also found to have high levels of tmao in the blood, w ...19989754528
the influence of salinity and temperature change on the functioning of the urinary bladder in the early larval stages of the atlantic herring clupea harengus l.major changes in the morphology of the urinary bladder were observed during the transition from yolk-sac to feeding larval stages of herring, in particular bladder volume increased almost sixfold. initially, the urine flowed into the hindgut, but within days of hatching a separate urinary duct, leading to the exterior, had formed. micturation was intermittent but quite regular. the period between micturations increased from 1.6 to 4 min in the progression between the two larval stages. the disch ...200010607551
an immune response to ice crystals in north atlantic mammals, the presence of crystals composed of small organic molecules, including urate and related compounds, has been shown to trigger an inflammatory response and the subsequent production of specific immunoglobulins (ig's). many fishes that are exposed to ice crystals in cold temperate and polar oceans may harbour ice crystals internally. here, we report evidence for a specific immune response to ice crystals in cold-ocean marine fishes. using ice nucleation activity as an assay, anti-ice ...19968944760
pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle (van beneden, 1871) euzet & prost, 1969 (monogenea: polyopisthocotylea: mazocraeidae), a parasite of herring clupea harengus l. and sprat sprattus sprattus l. (teleostei: clupeidae).a total of 690 herring clupea harengus l. and 88 sprat sprattus sprattus l. caught off the west coast of sweden, in the north sea and off the west and south coasts of the united kingdom, were examined for gill parasites. the monogenean pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle (van beneden, 1871) euzet & prost, 1969 was found in 38 (5.5%) herring and one (1.1%) sprat. the parasite was significantly (p<0.05) more common off the west coast of sweden than elsewhere and most specimens (62.5%) were found on ...199910613537
primary structure and function of three gonadotropin-releasing hormones, including a novel form, from an ancient teleost, herring.the evolution of gnrh and the role of multiple forms within the brain are examined. three forms of gnrh were purified from the brain of pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi) and characterized using edman degradation and mass spectrometry. two forms correspond with the known structures of chicken gnrh-ii and salmon gnrh that are found in many vertebrate species. the third form, designated herring gnrh (hrgnrh), has a primary structure of pglu-his-trp-ser-his-gly-leu-ser-pro-gly-nh2. this nove ...200010650929
microsatellite dna analysis of population structure in atlantic herring (clupea harengus), with direct comparison to allozyme and mtdna rflp analyses.previous attempts to test for small-scale stock structuring within atlantic herring (clupea harengus l.) with molecular markers have been hampered by uninformative levels of genetic variation. here we report the first application of microsatellite dna markers to investigate population subdivision in atlantic herring from norwegian waters and the barents sea, and also examine microsatellite differentiation between c. harengus and pacific herring (c. pallasi). results from four microsatellite loci ...199910583552
distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fish species of the north sea, north east atlantic ocean and irish sea.a surveillance programme was initiated on the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in wild marine fish. six research cruises were undertaken in an 18 mo period during 1997 and 1998, covering the north sea, the atlantic waters off the north and west coasts of scotland and the irish sea. a total of 19,293 fish were sampled from 23 different species including cod, haddock, norway pout, herring and sprat. individual fish lengths were recorded and the fish were c ...200111775798
development and characterization of a cell line from pacific herring, clupea harengus pallasi, sensitive to both naphthalene cytotoxicity and infection by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus.a cell line, phl, has been successfully established from newly hatched herring larvae. the cells are maintained in growth medium consisting of leibovitz's l-15 supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (fbs), and have been cryopreserved and maintain viability after thawing. these cells retain a diploid karotype after 65 population doublings. phl are susceptible to infection by the north american strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (vhs) virus, and are sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of naph ...199910813363
enzyme activities in fish spermatozoa with focus on lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from herring clupea harengus.the activities of nad- and nadp-dependent dehydrogenases and creatine kinase were compared in extracts of spermatozoa from herring (clupea harengus), carp (cyprinus carpio) and catfish (clarias gariepinus). the activity of malic enzyme in herring spermatozoa was approximately 5 and 36 times higher than in carp and catfish spermatozoa. in contrast, lactate dehydrogenase activity in herring spermatozoa was very low. herring spermatozoa possess two isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase: ldh-a(2)b(2) ...200312628371
growth and emigration of third-stage larvae of hysterothylacium aduncum (nematoda: anisakidae) in larval herring clupea harengus.the growth and emigration of hystherothylacium aduncum in laboratory-reared herring larvae clupea harengus was studied. experimental infections of 36-day-old herring larvae resulted in 126 hosts infected with 306 h. aduncum larvae. regression analyses showed a significant worm emigration from the rectum to the head of the fish, accompanied by an increase in worm body length. the emigration was independent of worm intensity, which suggests an ontogenetic process. some worms departed from this pat ...200011191903
four years of monitoring for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine waters around the united kingdom.between 1995 and 1998, marine fish from around the coast of the uk were collected and samples analysed for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) using cell culture isolation methods. in 1997 and 1998 the samples were also analysed for vhsv by reverse transcription pcr (rt-pcr). a total of 1867 fish of 11 species were tested, but vhsv was isolated on only 1 occasion, from herring clupea harengus, in 1996. however, despite vhsv not being isolated in 1997 and 1998, in both years samples of he ...200312803381
relationship between ultrastructure and the nanoindentation properties of intramuscular herring bones.the nanoindentation technique was used to characterize the indentation modulus of intramuscular herring bone (clupea harengus) along its length, from early to fully mineralized regions. both the indentation modulus and modulus anisotropy ratio, indentation modulus longitudinally/indentation modulus transversely, increased nonmonotonically with mineralization, from 1.1 in the early stages of mineralization to 2.1 in the fully mineralized region. the indentation modulus in the fully mineralized re ...200111853259
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