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molecular evolution of glycogen phosphorylase and aminotransferases of vertebrate muscle tissue.comparative biochemical studies on phosphorylase b, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in muscles of various vertebrates (the lamprey lampetra fluviatilis, dogfish squalus acanthias, rays dasyatis pastinaca and raja clavata, teleosts scorpaena porcus, spicara smaris, esox lucius, tinca tinca, abramis brama, lucioperca lucioperca, cyprinus carpio, salmo ischchan, frog rana temporaria, tortoise testudo horsfieldi) revealed some peculiarties of their molecular evolution. it was ...197717251
[in vitro formation of glycogenolytic enzyme complexes with the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the skeletal muscles of skates and the frog].experimental evidence is presented concerning the existence of complexes of glycogenolytic enzymes with sarcoplasmic reticulum (sr) in skeletal muscles of the skates dasyatis pastinaca and raja clavata and frog rana temporaria. at various stages of preparation of kinase of glycogen phosphorylase (kgp) from ectothermic animals, in contrast to rabbit, association of kgp with the sr and glycogen granules persisted in calcium-free medium. complex of kgp with glycogen phosphorylase and atpase could b ...19862940777
similar localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate in the pineal organ and retina of various nonmammalian vertebrates.the localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate was compared in the pineal organ and retina of various vertebrates (raja clavata, carassius auratus, salvelinus alpinus, triturus vulgaris, triturus cristatus, lacerta muralis, lacerta agilis, lacerta viridis, columbia livia and white leghorn chicken) by postembedding immunoelectron microscopy. immunoreaction of both excitatory amino acids was detected in the pinealocytes in a localization similar to that of retinal photoreceptors. the r ...19958714767
survey of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fishes in the southeastern black sea.species diversity in the black sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. to assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. the pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. the cells showing cytopathic effects (cpe) were subjected ...201424991737
dna barcoding unveils skate (chondrichthyes: rajidae) species diversity in 'ray' products sold across ireland and the uk.skates are widely consumed across the globe, but many large species are subject to considerable concern regarding their conservation and management. within europe such issues have recently driven policy changes so that, for the first time, reports of skate landings now have to be made under species-specific names. total allowable catches have also been established for many groups, which have been set to zero for a number of the most vulnerable species (e.g., dipturus batis, raja undulata and ros ...201324024082
[effect of focused ultrasound on the electroreceptor system of skates and certain fish and amphibian tissues].the effects of focused ultrasound have been investigated on the structures of electroreceptor system of the black sea skates (raja clavata, dasyatis pastinaca), as well as on the tissues of some other poikilotherms (fishes belone belone and solea lascaris, toad bufo viridis, frog rana temporaria). it was shown that focused ultrasound evokes excitation (onset of impulse activity) when applied to the pore of electroreceptors and inhibition of the activity when applied to the ampulla itself. the da ...20086968488
bioactive peptides identified in thornback ray skin's gelatin hydrolysates by proteases from bacillus subtilis and bacillus amyloliquefaciens.thornback ray skin gelatin has been hydrolyzed with two different proteases in order to obtain peptides with ace inhibitory and antioxidant activity. hydrolysates with protease from bacillus subtilis a26 (trgh-a26) displayed ace inhibitory activity with an ic50 value of 0.94 μg/μl whereas neutrase® hydrolysate from bacillus amyloliquefaciens (trgh-neutrase) showed an ic50 value of 2.07 μg/μl. regarding antioxidant activity, ic50 values of 1.98 and 21.2 μg/μl in trgh-a26 and trgh-neutrase, respec ...201526149667
digestive alkaline proteases from zosterisessor ophiocephalus, raja clavata, and scorpaena scrofa: characteristics and application in chitin extraction.the aim of this work was to study some biochemical characteristics of crude alkaline protease extracts from the viscera of goby (zosterisessor ophiocephalus), thornback ray (raja clavata), and scorpionfish (scorpaena scrofa), and to investigate their applications in the deproteinization of shrimp wastes. at least four caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in zymogram of each enzyme preparation. the optimum ph for enzymatic extracts activities of z. ophiocephalus, r. clavata, and s. scrofa w ...201122312476
[effect of kainic acid on synaptic transmission in the electroreceptors (ampullae of lorenzini) of the skate].superfusion of the basal membrane of the ampullae of lorenzini of the skate raja clavata with 10(-6)-10(-9) m kainic acid produced significant and reversible changes in background firing rate depending on its initial level. when synaptic transmission was abolished by high mg2+ solution, succeeding superfusion with kainic acid and mg2+ containing solution restored the background and evoked activity in the afferent fibres. it is suggested that the observed effects of kainic acid on the activity of ...20103012379
efferent tectal pathways in two chondrichthyans, the shark scyliorhinus canicula and the ray raja clavata.the efferent connections of the tectum mesencephali in the shark scyliorhinus canicula and the ray raja clavata have been studied by using the silver impregnation methods. of nauta-gygax ('54) and fink-heimer ('67). after a unilateral lesion made through all six tectal layers, three distinct pathways could be observed: 1) an ascending projection both ipsi- and contralateral to the pretectal area, the dorsomedial region of the thalamus, and the lateral geniculate body, 2) a commisural projection ...19817204648
retinofugal pathways in two chondrichthyans, the shark scyliorhinus canicula and the ray raja clavata.retinofugal pathways in the spotted dogfish scyliorhinus canicula and the thornback ray raja clavata were studied with reduced silver techniques following unilateral eye enucleations. optic nerve axons decussate in the chiasma opticum, except for a small ipsilateral projection to the area preoptica. after crossing, retinal projections distribute to the area preoptica, the thalamus dorsalis pars lateralis, the thalamus ventralis pars lateralis, the corpus geniculatum laterale, the nucleus pretect ...19817204647
igf-2-like peptides are present in insulin cells of the elasmobranchian endocrine pancreas: an immunohistochemical and chromatographic study.evidence for the presence of peptides, related to insulin-like growth factor 2 (igf-2), has been obtained in the endocrine pancreas of the elasmobranchian species raja clavata, the sting ray. by radioimmunoassay, igf-2-like immunoreactivity was detected in raja pancreas extract. further characterization of this activity by acid gel chromatography revealed two distinct peaks of igf-2-like immunoreactivity with apparent molecular weights of approximately 8.2 kda and 4.5 kda. using the same igf-2 a ...19947532639
amp-deaminase in elasmobranch fish: a comparative histochemical and enzymatic study.amp-deaminase activity was measured in white muscle from a wide range of fish, including one cyclostome, 13 chondrosteans, and one teleost to elucidate the pattern of the amp-deaminase activity in white muscle of fish. compared to a mammalian (rat) muscle extract, low enzyme activities are found in the cyclostome and two elasmobranchs from two families (scyliorhinidae, hexanchidae). in contrast, higher amp-deaminase activities, similar to mammals, are expressed in squalidae, all families of skat ...200515979370
distribution and potential role of cytosolic water-soluble phosphodiesters in fish.the distribution of water-soluble phosphodiesters (wspdes) visible by nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) in some intact tissues of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum) and in perchloric extracts after partial purification was examined by (31)p nmr spectroscopy. the compounds of interest were serine ethanolamine phosphate (sep), threonine ethanolamine phosphate (tep), glycerophosphorylcholine (gpc), and glycerophosphorylethanolamine (gpe). tep and sep were mostly accumulated in the heart and ...200313130434
the secondary olfactory connections in two chondrichthians, the shark scyliorhinus canicula and the ray raja clavata.the secondary olfactory connections in the shark scyliorhinus canicula and the ray raja clavata have been studied with reduced silver techniques. after transections through the pedunculus olfactorius in scyliorhinus degenerating fibers could be traced to the telencephalic hemisphere. on entering the hemisphere these fibers subdivide into a small medial and a larger lateral olfactory tract. the medial tract distributes fibers to the lateral part of the ipsilateral pallium dorsale, pars superficia ...19836886078
[isolation and analysis of monoclonal antibodies against various gangliosides].female balb/c mice were immunized with human melanoma (mewo) cells containing ganglioside gd3 as a surface antigen. immune splenocytes were fused with syngeneic p3-x63.ag 8 myeloma cells. antibodies produced by hybrid clones were analyzed by solid phase immunoassay. b, c, d and q clones producing antibodies against raja clavata brain gangliosides were obtained. monoclonal b and c antibodies bound monosialogangliosides. monoclonal d antibody bound a number of gangliosides but reacted predominantl ...19863942818
identification of spinal electromotoneurons in the ray raja clavata (rajidae).retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected ipsilaterally in several parts of the electric organ and light microscopy were employed to study motoneurons and electromotoneurons of the spinal cord in the weakly electric ray raja clavata (rajidae). the horseradish peroxidase-labelled electromotoneurons form a chain of cells located ventrolaterally in the gray matter of the spinal cord segments adjacent to the electric organ. the diameters of cells in the electromotor nucleus vary from 7 ...19921376452
the branching of insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin: an immunohistochemical analysis during phylogeny.the co-existence of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1) with the classical islet hormones insulin (ins), glucagon (gluc), somatostatin (som) and pancreatic polypeptide (pp) in the endocrine pancreas of representative species of cyclostomes (myxine glutinosa), cartilaginous fish (raja clavata, squalus acanthias) and bony fish (cottus scorpius, carassius auratus, cyprinus carpio, anguilla anguilla) was studied by the use of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera and the double immunofluorescence tech ...19938265818
peptides related to insulin-like growth factor 1 in the gastro-entero-pancreatic system of bony and cartilaginous fish.evidence for the presence of peptides, related to insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1) has been obtained in serum and various organs of representatives of osteichthyes and chondrichthyes, i.e., the bony fish myoxocephalus (cottus) scorpius and the cartilaginous fish raja clavata. the peptides were identified by means of gel chromatography and an igf-1 radioimmunoassay. igf-1-like immunoreactivity was detected in three different apparent molecular mass forms, i.e., 17 kda, 6 kda and 4 kda, the oc ...20061539112
cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons of the central canal and terminal ventricle in various vertebrates.cerebrospinal fluid (csf)-contacting neurons were studied by means of electron microscopy in the spinal cord and/or terminal ventricle of the ray, raja clavata (elasmobranchii), the opossum, didelphis virginiana (marsupialia), the mouse, mus musculus, and the guinea pig, cavia cobaya (rodentia). dendrites of the csf-contacting neurons in the spinal cord of the ray penetrate the ependyma of the central canal and form terminals bearing stereocilia. axons apparently belonging to these neuronal peri ...19836871973
characterization, antioxidative and ace inhibitory properties of hydrolysates obtained from thornback ray (raja clavata) muscle.thornback ray muscle hydrolysates (trmhs) prepared by treatment with proteases from bacillus subtilis a26 (trmh-a26), raja clavata crude alkaline protease extract (trmh-crude), alcalase (trmh-alcalase) and neutrase (trmh-neutrase) were elaborated and their antioxidant properties and angiotensin i-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitory activities were tested. trmhs showed different degrees of hydrolysis (dh from 11 to 22%) and hydrophobic/hydrophilic peptide ratio. protein content varied from 71 to 7 ...201525979167
the afferent connections of the tectum mesencephali in two chondrichthyans, the shark scyliorhinus canicula and the ray raja clavata.the afferent connections of the tectum mesencephali were studied in the spotted dogfish scyliorhinus canicula and the thornback ray raja clavata by means of the horseradish peroxidase (hrp) technique. following unilateral injections in the tectum, labeled neurons could be identified in all main divisions of the brain and in the cervical spinal cord. telencephalic neurons which project to the tectum mesencephali were observed in the caudal part of the pallium. diencephalic projections to the tect ...19827076889
cells of origin of pathways descending to the spinal cord in two chondrichthyans, the shark scyliorhinus canicula and the ray raja clavata.the cells of origin of pathways descending to the spinal cord in the shark scyliorhinus canicula and in the ray raja clavata have been demonstrated by using the horseradish peroxidase (hrp) technique. following hrp injections in the spinal cord of scyliorhinus (fourth to sixth segment) and of raja (15th to 20th segment) labeled neurons could be identified in the rhombencephalon, the mesencephalon, and in the diencephalon. cells of origin of diencephalic nuclei, which project to the spinal cord, ...19817298910
[the characteristics of the interaction of glycogenolytic enzymes with glycogen in endothermic and ectothermic animals].it has been shown that the dependence of glycogenphosphorylase kinase activity on the quantity of glycogen added corresponds to the glycogenphosphorylase saturation curve by glycogen obtained during investigation of complex formation with the muscle glycogenphosphorylase of the animals: rat, frog rana temporaria and fish raja clavata under identical conditions. we suggest that glycogenolytic enzymes organize regular structure on glycogen particle. glycogenphosphorylases of heat-loving animals ha ...19921300015
[study of the larval stages of monogenea of fishes (author's transl)].the ciliate cells and the oncomiracidial chetotaxy of the following species are described: among the polyopisthocotylea : gastrocotyle trachurii van bneden and hesse, 1863, gastrocotylidae, parasite of trachurus trachurus (l.); cyclocotyla bellones (otto, 1821), diclidophoradae, living on the cymothoides isopods of sparidae : boops boops (l.) and spicara maena (l.) ; mazocraes sp., mazocraeidae, parasite of sardinella maderensis (lowe, 1841). among the monopisthocotylea : ligophorus vanbenedeni ...1978754614
electronmicroscopical, immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical and biological evidence for the occurrence of cardiac hormones (anp/cdd) in chondrichthyes.as representatives of the vertebrate class of chondrichthyes the plagostomian species squalus acanthias, scyliorhinus canicula and raja clavata as well as the holocephalan species chimaera monstrosa were investigated for the presence of cardiac hormones of the atrial natriuretic polypeptide/cardiodilatin- (anp/cdd-) family. anp/cdd-immunoreactive cells were detected in the atria and the ventricles of all species studied. while these cells failed to react with antisera raised against the n-termin ...19872961715
morphological and molecular characterization of a new myxozoan species (myxosporea) infecting the gall bladder of raja clavata (chondrichthyes), from the portuguese atlantic coast.microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, chloromyxum clavatum n. sp., infecting the cartilaginous fish raja clavata linnaeus, 1758 (chondrichthyes: rajidae), collected from the northwest atlantic coast of portugal. young plasmodia and mature spores were found floating free in the gall bladder of r. clavata . spores were spherical to subspherical with a pointed anterior end, measuring14.4 ± 0.5 μm (n = 25) in length, 11.9 ± 0.5 μm (n = 25) in width, and ...201322998576
redescriptions of species of tetrarhynchobothrium diesing, 1850 and didymorhynchus beveridge & campbell, 1988 (cestoda: trypanorhyncha), with the description of zygorhynchus borneensis n. sp.tetrarhynchobothrium tenuicolle diesing, 1850 is redescribed from the type-specimens collected from raja clavata linnaeus in the adriatic sea. t. striatum (wagener, 1854) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host, myliobatis aquila linnaeus, from the type-locality, off naples, italy. the two species are very similar in tentacular armature, but are provisionally maintained as independent species, since the armature of t. tenuicolle cannot be fully described and because all availabl ...200818038196
[composition of the carbohydrate component and fatty acids of the chief gangliosides of the brains of cartilaginous fish].ganglioside composition has been studied in the brain of 5 elasmobranch fishes (3 sharks: carcharhinus longimanus, carcharhinus sp., squalus acanthias and 2 rays: dasyatis pastinaca, raja clavata). for the identification of ganglioside fractions, molar ratio of glucose, galactose, nana and sphingosine as well as the presence of hexosamine were determined in the main gangliosides from the brain of the shark c. longimanus. the data obtained indicate that the majority of brain gangliosides in elasm ...2008941546
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