the structure of apis dorsata melittin: phylogenetic relationships between honeybees as deduced from sequence data. 19751093875
glycaemic responses to three different honeys given to normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits.blood glucose levels of normal and diabetic rabbits were determined after oral administration of graded doses of three different types of honeys; namely honeys of apis florea (small-bee) and apis dorsata (large-bee) and an adulterated commercial honey. the chemical analysis showed that commercial honey was adulterated with a saturated sucrose solution as it contained lower ash but higher nonreducing sugar levels than the natural ones. oral administration of pure small or large-bee honeys in 5 ml ...19892501525
evolution of the complementary sex-determination gene of honey bees: balancing selection and trans-species polymorphisms.the mechanism of sex determination varies substantively among evolutionary lineages. one important mode of genetic sex determination is haplodiploidy, which is used by approximately 20% of all animal species, including >200,000 species of the entire insect order hymenoptera. in the honey bee apis mellifera, a hymenopteran model organism, females are heterozygous at the csd (complementary sex determination) locus, whereas males are hemizygous (from unfertilized eggs). fertilized homozygotes devel ...200617065615
phylogenetic analysis of nosema ceranae isolated from european and asian honeybees in northern thailand.nosema ceranae was found to infect four different host species including the european honeybee (a. mellifera) and the asian honeybees (apis florea, a. cerana and apis dorsata) collected from apiaries and forests in northern thailand. significant sequence variation in the polar tube protein (ptp1) gene of n. ceranae was observed with n. ceranae isolates from a. mellifera and a. cerana, they clustered into the same phylogenetic lineage. n. ceranae isolates from a. dorsata and a. florea were groupe ...201121600213
a simple and distinctive microbiota associated with honey bees and bumble bees.specialized relationships with bacteria often allow animals to exploit a new diet by providing a novel set of metabolic capabilities. bees are a monophyletic group of hymenoptera that transitioned to a completely herbivorous diet from the carnivorous diet of their wasp ancestors. recent culture-independent studies suggest that a set of distinctive bacterial species inhabits the gut of the honey bee, apis mellifera. here we survey the gut microbiotae of diverse bee and wasp species to test whethe ...201021175905
infections of nosema ceranae in four different honeybee species.the microsporidium nosema ceranae is detected in honeybees in thailand for the first time. this endoparasite has recently been reported to infect most apis mellifera honeybee colonies in europe, the us, and parts of asia, and is suspected to have displaced the endemic endoparasite species, nosema apis, from the western a. mellifera. we collected and identified species of microsporidia from the european honeybee (a. mellifera), the cavity nesting asian honeybee (apis cerana), the dwarf asian hone ...201020600087
intergenerational reproductive parasitism in a stingless bee.insect colonies have been traditionally regarded as closed societies comprised of completely sterile workers ruled over by a single once-mated queen. however, over the past 15 years, microsatellite studies of parentage have revealed that this perception is far from the truth (beekman & oldroyd 2008). first, we learned that honey bee queens are far more promiscuous than we had previously imagined (estoup et al. 1994), with one apis dorsata queen clocked at over 100 mates (wattanachaiyingcharoen e ...200919778383
new evidence that deformed wing virus and black queen cell virus are multi-host pathogens.the host-range breadth of pathogens can have important consequences for pathogens' long term evolution and virulence, and play critical roles in the emergence and spread of the new diseases. black queen cell virus (bqcv) and deformed wing virus (dwv) are the two most common and prevalent viruses in european honey bees, apis mellifera. here we provide the evidence that bqcv and dwv infect wild species of honey bees, apis florea and apis dorsata. phylogenetic analyses suggest that these viruses mi ...201222001629
'special agents' trigger social waves in giant honeybees (apis dorsata).giant honeybees (apis dorsata) nest in the open and have therefore evolved a variety of defence strategies. against predatory wasps, they produce highly coordinated mexican wavelike cascades termed 'shimmering', whereby hundreds of bees flip their abdomens upwards. although it is well known that shimmering commences at distinct spots on the nest surface, it is still unclear how shimmering is generated. in this study, colonies were exposed to living tethered wasps that were moved in front of the ...200919756461
resolution and sensitivity of the eyes of the asian honeybees apis florea, apis cerana and apis dorsata.bees of the genus apis are important foragers of nectar and pollen resources. although the european honeybee, apis mellifera, has been well studied with respect to its sensory abilities, learning behaviour and role as pollinators, much less is known about the other apis species. we studied the anatomical spatial resolution and absolute sensitivity of the eyes of three sympatric species of asian honeybees, apis cerana, apis florea and apis dorsata and compared them with the eyes of a. mellifera. ...200919617438
interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees.beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. we analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of euclidean distances to wax choice. we tested the beeswaxes of apis mellifera capensis, apis florea, apis cerana and apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of a ...200919259641
physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of apis dorsata, apis mellifera and ziziphus jujube honey samples from evaluate physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous honey samples against different reference strains including escherichia coli atcc 8739, enterobacter aerogenes atcc 13048, pseudomonas aeroginosa atcc 9027, bacillus subtilis atcc 6633, staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, salmonella typhi atcc 14028, klebsiella pneumonia atcc 13883, aspergillus niger atcc 16404, rhizopus oligosporus pcsir1, candida albicans atcc 14053 and candida utilis atcc 9950.201425183333
domestication of cardamom (elettaria cardamomum) in western ghats, india: divergence in productive traits and a shift in major pollinators.elettaria cardamomum, a highly priced spice, is native to the western ghats of south india. wild populations still occur in isolated patches in their natural habitats; however, much of today's commercial product comes from cultivated sources. there is no information on domestication-related traits of this species; the main objective of this study was to compare wild and cultivated populations of cardamom in terms of vegetative and reproductive features in order to identify domestication syndrome ...200919126635
deformed wing virus associated with tropilaelaps mercedesae infesting european honey bees (apis mellifera).mites in the genus tropilaelaps (acari: laelapidae) are ectoparasites of the brood of honey bees (apis spp.). different tropilaelaps subspecies were originally described from apis dorsata, but a host switch occurred to the western honey bee, apis mellifera, for which infestations can rapidly lead to colony death. tropilaelaps is hence considered more dangerous to a. mellifera than the parasitic mite varroa destructor. honey bees are also infected by many different viruses, some of them associate ...200918941909
identification of lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus pentosus and lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee.this study aimed to isolate and identify lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee apis dorsata. samples of honeybee were collected from a. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. ninety two isolates were gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. by using bacterial universal primers, the 16s rdna gene from dna of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (pcr). forty-nine bacterial 16s rdna gene were sequenced a ...201324516438
social waves in giant honeybees repel hornets.giant honeybees (apis dorsata) nest in the open and have evolved a plethora of defence behaviors. against predatory wasps, including hornets, they display highly coordinated mexican wave-like cascades termed 'shimmering'. shimmering starts at distinct spots on the nest surface and then spreads across the nest within a split second whereby hundreds of individual bees flip their abdomens upwards. however, so far it is not known whether prey and predator interact and if shimmering has anti-predator ...200818781205
physicochemical and antioxidant properties of malaysian honeys produced by apis cerana, apis dorsata and apis mellifera.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of malaysian monofloral honey samples-acacia, pineapple and borneo honey-and compare them with tualang honey. acacia and pineapple honey are produced by apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by apis cerana and apis dorsata bees, respectively.201323433009
evidence for convergent nucleotide evolution and high allelic turnover rates at the complementary sex determiner gene of western and asian honeybees.our understanding of the impact of recombination, mutation, genetic drift, and selection on the evolution of a single gene is still limited. here we investigate the impact of all these evolutionary forces at the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene that evolves under a balancing mode of selection. females are heterozygous at the csd gene and males are hemizygous; diploid males are lethal and occur when csd is homozygous. rare alleles thus have a selective advantage, are seldom lost by the eff ...200818192695
genetic and morphological variation of bee-parasitic tropilaelaps mites (acari: laelapidae): new and re-defined species.mites in the genus tropilaelaps are parasites of social honeybees. two species, tropilaelaps clareae and t. koenigerum, have been recorded and their primary hosts are presumed to be the giant honeybees of asia, apis dorsata and a. laboriosa. the most common species, t. clareae, is also an economically important pest of the introduced western honeybee (a. mellifera) throughout asia and is considered an emerging threat to world apiculture. in the studies reported here, genetic (mtdna co-i and nucl ...200717828576
phylogenetic analysis of honey bee behavioral evolution.dna sequences from three mitochondrial (rrnl, cox2, nad2) and one nuclear gene (itpr) from all 9 known honey bee species (apis), a 10th possible species, apis dorsata binghami, and three outgroup species (bombus terrestris, melipona bicolor and trigona fimbriata) were used to infer apis phylogenetic relationships using bayesian analysis. the dwarf honey bees were confirmed as basal, and the giant and cavity-nesting species to be monophyletic. all nodes were strongly supported except that groupin ...200717123837
interspecific variation in beeswax as a biological construction material.beeswax is a multicomponent material used by bees in the genus apis to house larvae and store honey and pollen. we characterized the mechanical properties of waxes from four honeybee species: apis mellifera l., apis andreniformis l., apis dorsata l. and two subspecies of apis cerana l. in order to isolate the material effects from the architectural properties of nest comb, we formed raw wax in to right, circular cylindrical samples, and compressed them in an electromechanical tensometer. from th ...200617023592
organization and potential function of the mrjp3 locus in four honeybee species.royal jelly is a nutritious secretion produced by nurse honeybees to provision queens and growing larvae. major proteins of royal jelly are mutually similar, and they all belong to the mrjp/yellow protein family (pfam03022). the mrjp3 loci in four traditional honeybee species (apis mellifera, apis cerana,apis dorsata, and apis florea) were sequenced and found to share high sequence and structural similarities. pcr analyses confirmed the presence of an extensive repetitive region, which showed si ...200516190673
temporal genetic structure of a drone congregation area of the giant asian honeybee (apis dorsata).the giant asian honeybee (apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (dcas). here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a dca of a. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with microsatellite markers. analysis of the genotypic data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between 3 sampling days and indicated that the dca ...200516187127
genetic structure of an apis dorsata population: the significance of migration and colony aggregation.eight microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic structure of the giant honeybee (apis dorsata) population in northeast india. this species migrates seasonally between summer and winter nesting sites, and queens appear to return to their previously occupied site. furthermore, there is a strong tendency for colonies of this species to aggregate at perennially utilized nesting sites that may be shared by more than 150 colonies. these behavioral features suggest that colonies within a ...200415073227
sociality and the rate of rdna sequence evolution in wasps (vespidae) and honeybees (apis).sequence data of mitochondrial 16s ribosomal dna (mt-rdna) and nuclear 28s ribosomal dna (nuc-rdna) were compared in two honeybee species (apis mellifera and apis dorsata) and a selection of 22 wasp species (vespidae) with different levels of sociality. the averge substitution rates in mt-rdna and nuc-rdna were almost-equal in solitary species. in species with larger nests, however, the difference between the nuclear and the mitochondrial substitution rate significantly increased. the average su ...19989797411
bee and wasp stings in deniyaya; a series of 322 describe wasp and bee species that sting humans, analyse risk factors and clinical features.201525804910
folding behavior of four silks of giant honey bee reflects the evolutionary conservation of aculeate silk proteins.multiple gene duplication events in the precursor of the aculeata (bees, ants, hornets) gave rise to four silk genes. whilst these homologs encode proteins with similar amino acid composition and coiled coil structure, the retention of all four homologs implies they each are important. in this study we identified, produced and characterized the four silk proteins from apis dorsata, the giant asian honeybee. the proteins were readily purified, allowing us to investigate the folding behavior of so ...201525712559
toxinology of venoms from the honeybee genus apis.the venoms of apis dorsata, a. cerana, a. florea, and three different populations of a. mellifera were compared for lethal activity toward mice. all venoms exhibited identical activities, a finding consistent with recent evolutionary history within the genus. young queen honeybees use their venoms only for stinging other queens and possess a venom only half as lethal to mice as worker venom, and by the time queens are 1-2 years of age their venom has become essentially inactive. phospholipase a2 ...19958588216
related structures in the plasmid profiles of bifidobacterium asteroides, b. indicum and b. globosum.seventy strains of b. asteroides isolated from the honey bees apis mellifera and a. cerana raised in 15 different countries, 73 strains of b. indicum from apis dorsata and a. cerana from the philippines and 28 strains of b. globosum isolated from feces of various animals and sewage, were studied for the existence of related structures among their plasmid complements with the southern blot-hybridization technique. thirteen different structures were found in b. asteroides and three in b. indicum a ...19863773785
[colony defence of asian honey bees].colony defence in asian honey bees. 1. in ais cerana, apis dorsata and apis florea a defence behaviour (körperschütteln) can be released by the approach of flying insects. films of apis cerana colonies exhibiting this behaviour were made and anaylysed. 2. körperschütteln "could not be released by various mechanical and chemical" stimuli. only the movement of a dark object before light background was effective in releasing this behaviour. 3. the optimal angular velocity of the dark object wh ...19751172342
Beyond the antipredatory defence: honey bee venom function as a component of social immunity.The honey bee colonies, with the relevant number of immature brood and adults, and stable, high levels of humidity and temperatures of their nests, result in suitable environments for the development of microorganisms including pathogens. In response, honey bees evolved several adaptations to face the increased risks of epidemic diseases. As the antimicrobial venom peptides of Apis mellifera are present both on the cuticle of adult bees and on the nest wax it has been recently suggested that the ...201121925197
review of the medicinal effects of tualang honey and a comparison with manuka honey.tualang honey (th) is a malaysian multifloral jungle honey. in recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies published in medical databases regarding its potential health benefits. the honey is produced by the rock bee (apis dorsata), which builds hives on branches of tall tualang trees located mainly in the north-western region of peninsular malaysia. this review collates the results of the various studies of th that range from research on tissue culture to randomised ...201323966819
volatile organic compounds of thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species.the volatile organic compounds (vocs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of thai honeys produced by apis cerana, apis dorsata and apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (hs-spme) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. honey originating from longan had more vocs than all other floral sources. sunflower honey had the least numbers of vocs. cis-linalool oxide, ...201728192487
social waves in giant honeybees (apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.giant honeybees (apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. in this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. the time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. we report for the first time that ...201323722559
biomedical activity and related volatile compounds of thai honeys from 3 different honeybee species.this study investigated the effect of 3 factors (floral source, honeybee species, and postcollection processing) that influence the antibacterial activity, free radical reduction, and other biochemical compositions of different honey types typical of thailand. honey samples from 3 honeybee species (apis mellifera, apis cerana, and apis dorsata) were obtained from 9 floral sources (longan, wild flower, lychee, coffee, sunflower, sesame, bitter bush, para-rubber, and manuka as a control) in differ ...201526317173
evaluation of anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-arthritic activities of indian apis dorsata bee venom in experimental animals: biochemical, histological, and radiological assessment.traditionally venoms are used from thousands of years to treat pain, inflammation, and arthritis. in ayurveda "suchika voron" and "shodhona" were practiced against pain. in the present study, venom composition of the indian honeybee apis florea (af), apis dorsata (ad), and apis cerana indica (ac) were analyzed using electrophoresis (sds-page). this venom analysis was used to shed light upon the correlation in structure and the venom composition among the three species in indian fields. among the ...201525689950
genetic relatedness of low solitary nests of apis dorsata from marang, terengganu, malaysia.knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of apis dorsata from peninsular malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. the analysis of 15 single locus dna microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of a. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. furtherm ...201222911733
genetic differentiation of the giant honey bee (apis dorsata) in thailand analyzed by mitochondrial genes and microsatellites.genetic diversity and population differentiation of the giant honey bee (apis dorsata) in thailand were examined. six pcr-rflp mitotypes were generated from digestion of the coi-coii, cytb-trna(ser), atpase6-8, and lrrna genes with dra i and hin fi. low genetic diversity (h=0.074, pi=0.032%) and a lack of genetic population differentiation between a. dorsata originating from geographically different regions were observed from mtdna polymorphisms (p > 0.05). in contrast, microsatellite (a14, a24, ...200717342419
top-down sequencing of apis dorsata apamin by maldi-tof ms and evidence of its inactivity against microorganisms.apis mellifera venom is one of the best characterized venoms among hymenoptera, yet relatively little is known about venom belonging to other species in the genus apis. melittin, one of the most important bioactive peptides, has been isolated and characterized in a. mellifera, apis cerana, apis dorsata and apis florea, while apamin has been only characterized in a. mellifera and a. cerana. at present, no information is available about the sequence of a. dorsata apamin. moreover, while the antise ...201323748146
evidence for ventilation through collective respiratory movements in giant honeybee (apis dorsata) nests.the asian giant honeybees (apis dorsata) build single-comb nests in the open, which makes this species particularly susceptible to environmental strains. long-term infrared (ir) records documented cool nest regions (cnr) at the bee curtain (ncnr = 207, nnests > 20) distinguished by marked negative gradients (δtcnr/d < -3°c / 5 cm) at their margins. cnrs develop and recede within minutes, predominantly at higher ambient temperatures in the early afternoon. the differential size (δacnr) and temper ...201627487188
midgut bacterial communities in the giant asian honeybee (apis dorsata) across 4 developmental stages: a comparative study.bacterial communities are known to play important roles during the developmental stages of insects, but current knowledge of bacteria associated with the midgut of apis dorsata, the giant asian honeybee, is limited. using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (pcr-dgge) and 16s rrna sequencing, the aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of bacterial community structure across four a. dorsata life stages in different geographical locations. the result ...201726299408
intra-plant floral variation in cleome viscosa l. and its possible significance in breeding system.cleome viscosa l., an annual rainy season weed, is cosmopolitan in distribution. two naturally growing populations of c. viscosa from jammu, j & k, india have been studied for floral variation at an intra-plant level and its possible role in its life cycle. plants of both the populations bear flowers which exhibit tremendous intra-plant variation in size (large and small) and sex (hermaphrodite, staminate and pistillate). the average number of flowers per plant varied significantly and so did th ...201526245033
open-air-nesting honey bees apis dorsata and apis laboriosa differ from the cavity-nesting apis mellifera and apis cerana in brood hygiene behaviour.the cavity-nesting apis mellifera and apis cerana bees detect, uncap, and remove diseased brood. the hygiene behaviour of open-air-nesting bees apis dorsata and apis laboriosa was investigated in india and nepal. sealed a. dorsata pupae were pin-killed or deep-frozen. the workers removed 73 or 37% of damaged pin-killed pupae depending on the diameter of the pins, and only 7% of the frozen undamaged pupae. migrating a. dorsata and a. laboriosa left unopened the sealed brood in deserted combs. thu ...200415145245
the near complete mitochondrial genome of the giant honey bee, apis dorsata (hymenoptera: apidae: apinae) and its phylogenetic this report, we sequenced and characterized the near complete mitochondrial genome of apis dorsata collected from mizoram, india. for sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome, illumina nextseq500 platform was used. the near complete mitochondrial genome was assembled to be 15 076 bplong and contains the same gene order as the other honey bees. the assembly contains 13 protein coding genes, 21 transfer rna, 2 ribosomal rna and a partial control (a + t-rich) region estimated to be 75 bp. ...201626186304
investigation of combwax of honeybees with high-temperature gas chromatography and high-temperature gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. i. high-temperature gas chromatography.the combwaxes of the honeybee species apis mellifera, apis cerana, apis dorsata, apis laboriosa, apis florea and apis andreniformis have been examined by high-temperature gas chromatography. combwax consists of a complex mixture of homologous neutral lipids. these compounds containing up to 64 carbons were chromatographed intact on a 10 m x 0.2 mm high-temperature stable sop-50-pfd (50%-diphenyl/50%-1h,1h,2h,2h-perfluorodecylmethylpolysiloxane)-co ated duran glass capillary column. the use of th ...199910519097
extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, apis dorsata (fabricius, 1793).the giant honeybee apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. yet, like in all other apis species, a. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (dcas) where large numbers of males gather in flight. we here report how the drone composition of a. dorsata dcas facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three dcas) and temporal (sub ...201425558361
giant honeybees (apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns.the open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees (apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. in particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. in shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate mexican wave-like patterns. the paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual pa ...201425169944
intraspecific aggression in giant honey bees (apis dorsata).we investigated intraspecific aggression in experimental nests (expn₁, expn₂) of the giant honey bee apis dorsata in chitwan (nepal), focusing on interactions between surface bees and two other groups of bees approaching the nest: (1) homing "nestmate" foragers landing on the bee curtain remained unmolested by guards; and (2) supposed "non-nestmate" bees, which were identified by their erratic flight patterns in front of the nest, such as hovering or sideways scanning and splaying their legs fro ...201426462834
Purification and inflammatory edema induced by two PLA(2) (Anch TX-I and Anch TX-II) from sea anemone Anthothoe chilensis (Actiniaria: Sagartiidae).The Anch TX-I and II PLA(2) were purified from Anthothoe chilensis (Lesson, 1830) from the extract of the anemone after only two chromatographic step using molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and reverse phase HPLC on µ-Bondapak C18 column. Both PLA(2) showed a molecular mass of ~14kDa determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and showed a high catalytic activity (data not showed). Although homologous with mammalian or snake venom group I PLA(2)s, Anch TX-I and II is sufficiently ...201222100907
susceptibility of four different honey bee species to nosema this study, we investigated the infectivity of nosema ceranae and the immune response of the european honey bee, apis mellifera and the asian honey bee species, apis cerana, apis dorsata and apis florea when inoculated with two isolates of n. ceranae isolated from different climates (canada and thailand), using cage experiments. the results indicated that the local isolate of n. ceranae (thailand) had high infectivity in a. mellifera, a. cerana and a. dorsata but only a few spores were observ ...201223290277
specific ige to honeybee venom in patients with hypersensitivity to asian giant honeybee (apis dorsata). 201324260985
the ectoparasitic mite tropilaelaps mercedesae reduces western honey bee, apismellifera, longevity and emergence weight, and promotes deformed wing virus infections.historically an ectoparasite of the native giant honey bee apis dorsata, the mite tropilaelaps mercedesae has switched hosts to the introduced western honey bee apis mellifera throughout much of asia. few data regarding lethal and sub-lethal effects of t. mercedesae on a. mellifera exist, despite its similarity to the devastating mite varroa destructor. here we artificially infested worker brood of a. mellifera with t. mercedesae to investigate lethal (longevity) and sub-lethal (emergence weight ...201627126517
medicinal uses of honey (quranic medicine) and its bee flora from dera ismail khan district, kpk, pakistan.this study was carried out during 2005-2008 to identify existing plant species visited by workers of honeybees for nectar and pollen collection in dera ismail khan (d.i.khan) district, pakistan. the honeybee species investigated in the area were, rock bee (apis dorsata f.), little bee (a. florea f.) and european honeybee (a. mellifera l.). a detailed list of 86 plant species both wild and cultivated was prepared, out of which 12 species, phulai (acacia modesta wall.), sarsoon (brassica campestri ...201323455201
migrating giant honey bees (apis dorsata) congregate annually at stopover site in thailand.giant honey bees (apis dorsata) of southern asia are vital honey producers and pollinators of cultivated crops and wild plants. they are known to migrate seasonally up to 200 km. it has been assumed their migrations occur stepwise, with stops for rest and foraging, but bivouacking bees have rarely been seen by scientists. here i report discovery of a site in northern thailand where bivouacs appeared in large congregations during the wet seasons of 2009 and 2010. the bivouac congregation stopover ...201223028715
how to join a wave: decision-making processes in shimmering behavior of giant honeybees (apis dorsata).shimmering is a collective defence behaviour in giant honeybees (apis dorsata) whereby individual bees flip their abdomen upwards, producing mexican wave-like patterns on the nest surface. bucket bridging has been used to explain the spread of information in a chain of members including three testable concepts: first, linearity assumes that individual "agent bees" that participate in the wave will be affected preferentially from the side of wave origin. the directed-trigger hypothesis addresses ...201222662123
the sex determination gene shows no founder effect in the giant honey bee, apis dorsata.all honey bee species (apis spp) share the same sex determination mechanism using the complementary sex determination (csd) gene. only individuals heterogeneous at the csd allele develop into females, and the homozygous develop into diploid males, which do not survive. the honeybees are therefore under selection pressure to generate new csd alleles. previous studies have shown that the csd gene is under balancing selection. we hypothesize that due to the long separation from the mainland of hain ...201222511940
training for defense? from stochastic traits to synchrony in giant honey bees (apis dorsata).in giant honey bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. it can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi-) synchronized properties. it presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal path ...201226466631
complex social waves of giant honeybees provoked by a dummy wasp support the special-agent hypothesis.the social waves in giant honeybees termed as shimmering are more complex than mexican waves. it has been demonstrated1 that shimmering is triggered by special agents at the nest surface. in this paper, we have used a nest that originated by amalgamation of two previously separated nests and stimulated waves by a dummy wasp moved on a miniature cable car. we illustrate the plausibility of the special-agent hypothesis1 also for complex shimmering processes.201020585516
variation in pollen dispersal between years with different pollination conditions in a tropical emergent tree.we examined differences in pollen dispersal efficiency between 2 years in terms of both spatial dispersal range and genetic relatedness of pollen in a tropical emergent tree, dipterocarpus tempehes. the species was pollinated by the giant honeybee (apis dorsata) in a year of intensive community-level mass-flowering or general flowering (1996), but by several species of moths in a year of less-intensive general flowering (1998). we carried out paternity analysis based on six dna microsatellite ma ...200415488013
effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant asian honey bee, apis pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. however, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. we tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. foragers inves ...201425104758
speeding up social waves. propagation mechanisms of shimmering in giant honeybees.shimmering is a defence behaviour in giant honeybees (apis dorsata), whereby bees on the nest surface flip their abdomen upwards in a mexican wave-like process. however, information spreads faster than can be ascribed to bucket bridging, which is the transfer of information from one individual to an adjacent one. we identified a saltatoric process that speeds up shimmering by the generation of daughter waves, which subsequently merge with the parental wave, producing a new wave front. motion pat ...201424475104
cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees.during social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. however, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six apis species from two locations in southeast ...201121732186
a novel strain of sacbrood virus of interest to world apiculture.this study has characterised a novel serotype of sacbrood virus (sbv) infecting apis mellifera in new guinea that has emerged in the presence of the introduced european and asian serotypes, which infect a. mellifera and apis cerana, respectively. the new guinea serotype appears to have evolved through mutation of the european serotype with no evidence of recombination between known strains, although recombination was detected in other sbv isolates from asia. sbv was also confirmed for the first ...201424650855
endosymbiotic bacteria in honey bees: arsenophonus spp. are not transmitted transovarially.intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria are common and can play a crucial role for insect pathology. therefore, such bacteria could be a potential key to our understanding of major losses of western honey bees (apis mellifera) colonies. however, the transmission and potential effects of endosymbiotic bacteria in a. mellifera and other apis spp. are poorly understood. here, we explore the prevalence and transmission of the genera arsenophonus, wolbachia, spiroplasma and rickettsia in apis spp. colon ...201627279628
capsid gene divergence of black queen cell virus isolates in thailand and japan honey bee queen cell virus (bqcv) has been found in honey bees worldwide. by using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) technique, bqcv was detected in a non-native species, apis mellifera l., collected in both thailand and japan, and three other honey bee species (apis cerana indica f., apis dorsata f., and apis florae f.) native to thailand and apis cerana japonica f. native to japan. based on the capsid coding region, the phylogenetic analysis showed that the bqcv strains ...201526470278
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