effects of tsetse (glossina morsitans morsitans westw.) (diptera: glossinidae) salivary gland homogenate on coagulation and fibrinolysis.the saliva of the tsetse, glossina morsitans morsitans westwood, has antithrombin anticoagulant activity and inhibits thrombin's esterolytic activity. it has no other detectable anticoagulant properties. the anticoagulant elutes in a single peak on sephadex fraction, is immediately acting, heat and storage stable, and has a molecular weight of 11-13,000. unlike heparin it is not neutralized by protamine sulphate or toluidine blue and does not require the co-factor, antithrombin iii, for optimal ...1979505376
trypanosomes in the lymph nodes of cattle and sheep infected with trypanosoma congolense.the prefemoral lymph nodes of two calves and a sheep infected with a stock of trypanosoma congolense transmitted by glossina morsitans were examined histologically for the presence of trypanosomes. ten days after infection trypanosomes were found in the subcapsular sinuses of the nodes of a calf and the sheep but parasites were absent from the blood at this time. trypanosomes were also detected in the prefemeral lymph node of the other calf on examination 30 days after infection, when parasites ...1979504804
observations on the antigenicity and serological relationships of stocks of trypanosoma congolense from east and west africa.antigenic relationships of 4 stocks of trypanosoma congolense from different parts of africa were examined by immunofluorescence (ifat) and neutralization tests. antisera to each stock were obtained from rabbits infected with trypanosomes transmitted by glossina morsitans. trypanosomes for use as antigens were obtained from local skin reactions developing on rabbits infected with 2 of the stocks. using the ifat and antisera at end-point dilutions approximately 40% of the trypanosomes fluoresced ...197994428
antigenic analysis by agglutination of trypanosoma brucei brucei parasitemias initiated in mice with in vitro-produced metacyclics.trypanosomes from 14 first-peak parasitemias initiated in mice by injection of in vitro-produced metacyclics were stabilated. strains derived from these stabilates were analyzed for their antigenic composition by cross-agglutination with immune sera produced in rabbits against 12 of the stabilates. the antigenic composition of the 14 stabilates was compared also with two first-peak parasitemias from mice inoculated with fly-derived metacyclics, the variant-specific antigen of the strain used to ...197986245
nuclear coat and viruslike particles in the midgut epithelium of glossina morsitans sspp.the ultrastructural aspects of the nuclear coat formation in midgut epithelial cells of pupae and adult flies of g. morsitans sspp. are described. out of four different species of glossina examined, this peculiar structure was only found in g. morsitans sspp. three different types of viruslike particles were found in midgut epithelial cells. one type which is of the same kind of particle found in the salivary glands, lies inside of cytoplasmic vesicles. two other types of particles were detected ...197614494
salivary secretion in wild glossina pallidipes austen. (diptera, glossinidae).the salivation behaviour of wild g. pallidipes obtained from lambwe valley and kbwezi was studied. salivation was measured by counting the number of salivary drops secreted per minute and measuring the sizes of the stained saliva after drawing them with a camera lucida. the results confirmed observations obtained from laboratory bred flies. the quantity of saliva secreted by tsetse flies was significantly increased as the flies became hungrier. the proportion of flies salivating also increased w ...197614492
lethal effect of tetracycline on tsetse flies following damage to bacterioid symbionts.high mortality was observed in tsetse flies, glossina morsitans morsitans, that had had a single blood meal on rabbits which had previously been administered tetracycline complex salts. the death of the flies was apparently effected by the killing of the fly symbionts and the destruction of the mycetomes of the gut. it is suggested that tetracycline complex salts in the food or drink of livestock may be tried for the control of tsetse flies.1977405237
excretion of uric acid and amino acids during diuresis in the adult female glossina morsitans.radiometric analysis was carried out on the urine collected for one hour following feeding of the adult female glossina morsitans on day 1 of a pregnancy cycle, which had previously received haemocoelic injections of u-14c labelled arginine, histidine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine or valine. mean radioactivity in the urine was quite high after labelled arginine (17.4% of injected activity) and histidine (21.8%) administration, most of the activity being in the amino acid f ...197831778
phospholipases of the tsetse fly glossina morsitans. 1978299642
cyclical transmission of trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and trypanosoma congolense by tsetse flies infected with culture-form procyclic trypanosomes.culture procyclic forms of trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and trypanosoma congolense were fed to glossina morsitans morsitans through artificial membranes. a very high percentage of the flies so fed produced established midgut infections, a proportion of which went on to develop into mature metacyclic trypanosomes capable of infecting mammalian hosts. the method offers a safe, clean way of infecting tsetse flies with african trypanosomes which reduces the need for trypanosome-infected animals in ...1979536930
infectivity of trypanosoma brucei cultivated at 28 c with tsetse fly salivary glands.when transformed procyclic noninfective trypanosomes of several unrelated stocks of trypanosoma brucei were cultivated in t-30 falcon flasks at 28 c in a liquid medium containing head-salivary gland explants of glossina morsitans morsitans some of the organisms developed into forms infective for mice. infective trypanosomes were detected 7 to 14 days after the cultures were prepared and they persisted for varying periods of up to 88 days when the cultures were terminated. a few of the salivary g ...1979536931
active transport of sodium by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly glossian morsitans.isolated malpighian tubules of glossina morsitans are able to transport sodium against its concentration gradient. their rate of secretion is dependent on the sodium concentration of the bathing medium. potassium must be present in the bathing solution for rapid secretion to be maintained, but it does not play an active role in fluid secretion. lithium and ammonium ions are able to substitute partially for sodium, other monovalent cations cannot. ouabain does not affect rapid secretion by glossi ...1976180227
pathogen transmission in relation to feeding and digestion by haematophagous arthropods.the blood feeding habit, especially among opportunist feeders such as tabanids and stomoxys is known to result in transmission of diseases for which the vectors are not the obligate or alternate hosts. thus, mechanical transmission of trypanosomes such as t. vivax can occur in cattle herds outside tsetse fly areas where tabanids are actively feeding. in the case of yaws, mechanical transmission of the spirochaetes by eye flies (hippelates pallipes) in the west indies is thought to be most likely ...1975240257
aspects of the metabolism of u-14c arginine. u-14c histidine and u-14c lysine by adult female glossina morsitans during pregnancy. 1977122549
effects of host anemia, local skin factors, and circulating antibodies upon biology of laboratory reared glossina morsitans morsitans westwood (diptera: glossinidae). 1979540275
serological responses in rabbits used to maintain uninfected, laboratory-reared tsetses (glossina morsitans morsitans westwood) (diptera: glossinidae). 1979117892
trypanosoma theileri: in vitro cultivation in tsetse fly and vertebrate cell culture systems. 1979120349
[tsetse fly distribution in the north of the ivory coast]. 1978232290
studies on trypanosoma (nannomonas) congolense ii. observations on the cyclical transmission of three field isolates by glossina morsitans morsitans.teneral flies of glossina morsitans morsitans were fed on mice infected with cloned and uncloned derivatives of three recent field isolates of trypanosoma (nannomonas) congolense. flies with mature infections were identified by the warm-slide probe method and phase-contrast microscopy. high infection rates were achieved when such flies were fed on mice at peak parasitaemia. the infection rates were low when flies were fed on mice prior to or late after peak parasitaemia. the duration of the deve ...197832753
[effect of bacterial infections and antibiotics on tsetse flies (diptera, glossinidae) (author's transl)].the membrane feeding technique (in vitro feeding) used for the rearing of tsetse flies has advantages over the conventional method of feeding the flies on host animals. however, as long as blood remains the sole source of tsetse fly nutrition, the risk remains of blood being contaminated during collection, storage or feeding with bacteria pathogenic to the flies. the resulting high mortality of the tsetse flies endangers the success of this rearing. the experiments described here have shown that ...197944947
some effects of uninfected laboratory-reared tsetses (glossina morsitans morsitans westw.) (diptera: glossinidae) on host-rabbits.rabbits (flemish giant x french lop-eared) exposed to 300 to 500 tsetses (glossina morsitans morsitans westw.) a day, 2 or 3 days a week, did not show significant differences from littermates receiving no exposure, with respect to weight changes, haematocrits, red and white blood cell counts or whole blood clotting times. in other rabbits, the same daily exposure, 6 days a week, resulted in sharp decreases in haematocrit levels and in some, changes in weights, but no change in citrated plasma th ...197832754
the micro-organisms of tsetse flies.micro-organisms from tsetse fly mycetomes were maintained in culture, where they were more pleomorphic than in the mycetomes, but were in some cases very similar to those observed in ovaries by other authors. agglutination tests on the cultured forms indicated in affinity to rickettsia. they were sensitive to antibiotics introduced by feeding flies on hosts treated with ampicillin; this reduced the longevity and fecundity of the tsetse flies and appeared to disturb normal digestion of bloodmeals ...19751986
the feeding habits and ecology of the tsetse fly glossina morsitans submorsitans newstead in relation to nagana transmission in the gambia.the source of blood meals from 174 fed glossina morsitans submorsitans newstead, captured in malaise traps in savanna woodland in the gambia, were identified by the precipitin test. warthog accounted for 90% of the meals and single bushbuck and ox feeds were identified. nagana is a major problem in the area, but contact between tsetse and livestock is reduced by restricted grazing. in this situation, warthog, with a ubiquitous distribution, appear to be major maintenance hosts for g. m. submorsi ...197935933
the endosymbionts of glossina morsitans and g. palpalis: cultivation experiments and some physiological properties.pyruvate, malate, and succinate are the main substrates for bacteroid respiration; oxygen uptake can be inhibited by rotenone and antimycin a, but not by cyanide. the symbionts displayed limited growth and survival for over 80 days in a medium with succinate and pyruvate as main substrates, and supplemented with nucleotides. it was not possible to cultivate the endosymbionts of g. morsitans and g. palpalis intracellularly in cell cultures of the tsetse fly or of vertebrates. a high attraction be ...197943084
trypanosoma brucei: in vitro propagation of metacyclic forms derived from the salivary glands of glossina morsitans.1 metacyclic forms of trypanosoma brucei obtained from the salivary glands of the tsetse fly, glossina morsitans have been cultured for the first time in their infective forms for more than 200 days in continuous culture. the parasites were grown at 25 c and 30 c on a bovine embryonic spleen (besp) feeder layer in buffered rpmi 1640 medium supplemented with 20% heat-inactivated bovine fetal serum (bfs) and 5% lactalbumin hydrolysate. initial growth rate was enhanced when normal, noninfected, sal ...1979512767
physiology of an atp receptor in labellar sensilla of the tsetse fly glossina morsitans morsitans westw. (diptera: glossinidae).electrophysiological recordings have been made from cells in the eight large, labellar sensilla of g. morsitans. one of these cells in each sensillum was shown to respond to atp over a concentration range of 10(-6)-10(-3) m. it was also sensitive to several other adenosine phophates, but much less sensitive to ctp, gtp and itp. the activity of the receptor was depressed below ph 7, and sometimes considerably increased above ph 9. these aspects the receptor's physiology support the results of beh ...197611268
a microscopical study of the innervation of flight muscles in the tsetse fly.the gross morphology of the nervous system supplying the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles of tsetse flies is described. electron microscopical investigation of the nerves reveals that the dorsal longitudinal muscles are innervated by branches from four main axons. a detailed description of the neuromuscular junctions in the flight muscle is presented.1978619162
sleeping sickness: in vitro cultivation of trypanosoma brucei from the salivary glands of glossina morsitans.two strains of trypanosoma brucei were propagated from the salivary glands of 5 glossina morsitans for more than 200 days on a bovine embryonic spleen feeder layer using buffered rpmi 1640 medium supplemented with 20% bovine fetal serum. in the first 2 to 3 weeks of cultivation the density of parasites in the salivary glands and culture medium remained constant probably because of defective binary fission. the parasites were infective to rodents only on days 17 and 25. electron microscopic exami ...1978739298
ultrastructural studies of certain aspects of the development of trypanosoma congolense in glossina morsitans morsitans.the course of trypanosoma congolense infections in glossina morsitans morsitans was followed by electron-microscopic examination of ultrathin sections of the guts and proboscises of infected flies. guts dissected from flies 7 days after infection with culture procyclic forms of t. congolense had heavy trypanosome infections in the midgut involving both the endo- and ectoperitrophic spaces. trypanosomes were also seen in the process of penetrating the fully formed peritrophic membrane in the cent ...1979544799
cyclic amp is a likely mediator of ovulation in the tsetse fly.ovulation in tsetse flies is normally induced by mating, but virgins can be stimulated to ovulate with an injection of dibutyryl cyclic amp, cholera toxin (a cyclic amp generator), or aminophylline (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). thus, elevation of cyclic amp is a likely link in the events leading to ovulation.1978216570
insemination, pregnancy and suspected abortion rates in a natural population of glossina morsitans morsitans (diptera: glossinidae) in the republic of zambia. 1977561849
nutrition of glossina morsitans: metabolism of u-14c threonine during pregnancy.following injection of u-14c threonine into the haemolymph of adult female glossina morsitans during late pregnancy, radioactivity was detected in the postparturient female and in its offspring, in threonine, lipids, and a range of non-essential amino acids. the level of radioactivity recovered from the larva was higher than that remaining in the injected adult, and the radioactivity recovered was considerably higher in the amino acid than in the lipid fraction. administration of labelled threon ...19768973
development of trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei in glossina morsitans inoculated into the tsetse haemocoel.classically, infective development of trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei in tsetse flies is thought to take the route crop-midgut-hindgut proventriculus-hypopharynx-salivary gland, where the parasites reach their infective phase. it has been shown experimentally that t. (t.) brucei is capable of developing up to the infective stage in g. morsitans following inoculation of bloodstream form trypanosomes into the haemocoel. the rabbit on which flies were maintained became infected 18 days after expos ...19768974
digestive processes of haematophagous insects. xiv. haemolytic activity in the midgut of glossina morsitans morstians westwood (diptera: glossinidae). 1977589527
monthly and seasonal variations in size of uterine contents of wild female glossina morsitans morsitans (diptera: glossinidae) in the republic of zambia, africa. 1977606813
tsetse fly reactions to light and humidity gradients.tsetse flies are positively phototactic below about 30 degree c and negatively phototactic above it. the flies show a preference for the wet end of a humidity gradient and the bright end of a dorsal light intensity gradient. studies of activity levels indicate that tsetse flies should aggregate in damp situations where the activity levels is minimal, whereas in practice the flies are distributed throughout the whole of gradient. analyses of the water and fat content of experimental flies indicat ...1979570508
investigations on the prevalence of trypanosome carriers and the antibody response in wildlife in northern botswana.605 buffalo, 60 lechwe, 23 kudu, 23 impala, 15 tsessebe, 22 sable and two reedbuck from northern botswana were examined for trypanosome infections by serological and/or parasitological means. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), the haematocrit centrifugation technique (hct) and rodent subinoculation were used. the overall prevalence of patent infection with trypanosomes in buffalo, lechwe and reedbuck was 15,7%. in the case of buffalo and lechwe it was possible to classify their origi ...1978675844
the effects of dietary sodium and potassium on rapid diuresis in the tsetse fly glossina morsitans. 1977858930
sex pheromone of the tsetse fly: isolation, identification, and synthesis of contact pheromones isolated from the cuticle of the female tsetse fly, glossina morsitans morsitans westwood, release mating behavior in the male fly at ultrashort range or upon contact with baited decoys. three active components were identified as 15,19-dimethylheptatriacontane, 17,21-dimethylheptatriacontane, and 15,19,23-trimethylheptatriacontane. chemical and biological comparisons show that the natural and synthetic compounds are identical.1978675256
in vitro feeding in the rearing of tsetse flies (glossina m. morsitans and g.p. palpalis, diptera: glossinidae).the increasing demand for laboratory reared tsetse flies for research and biological control makes it necessary to develop effective and standardized tsetse fly feeding methods without using live animals for the daily blood uptake. the in vitro feeding technique, described in this paper, has been used for rearing g. m. morsitans by feeding them defibrinated equine blood through a silicone membrane. the results obtained for female longevity and productivity and mean weight of puparia are satisfac ...1978675846
first tsetse fly transmission of the "antat" serodeme of trypanosoma brucei. 1977610616
aposymbiotic tsetse flies, glossina morsitans morsitans obtained by feeding on rabbits immunized specifically with symbionts. 1978701841
antigenic variation in its mammalian host, trypanosoma brucei is able to change the antigenic character of its glycoprotein surface coat and so evade the host's immune response. this phenotypic change seems to occur spontaneously in 1 in 10,000 individuals but is not due to genetic mutation: host antibody is not necessary for its induction but plays a selective part in bringing about the gross changes in parasite numbers and antigenic character observed in the bloodstream by destroying the main component of what is ...1978661969
hormonal growth stimulation and inhibition of pupal cells of the tsetse fly, glossina m. morsitans, in vitro. 1977865642
the successful use of work oxen in agricultural development of tsetse infested land in ethiopia.for the past five years a herd of work oxen, now numbering some 450 individuals, has been maintained under the protection of trypanocidal drugs on a settlement scheme in an area of western ethiopia infested with tsetse. this paper describes the environmental conditions and the epizootiology of trypanosomiasis in the oxen and in the vector, glossina morsitans. it is concluded that with the strategic use of drugs, oxen can be kept alive and perform useful agricultural work, in areas of high tsetse ...1978746583
effect of gamma radiation on the tsetse fly, glossina palpalis palpalis (rob.-desv.) (diptera, glossinidae) with observations on the reproductive biology. 1978753787
the presence in salivary secretions of glossina morsitans of stages of trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei other than those occurring in the salivary glands.using the bat wing membrane technique to study salivary secretions of glossina morsitans infected with trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei, it was shown that flies extrude infected salivary secretions as early as day six after an infective blood meal. the non-salivary-gland stages of t. (t.) brucei were extruded intermittently and flies infected with such trypanosomes were not all destined to develop metacyclic infections. once the salivary glands were involved, the trypanosomes appeared in the sec ...1978569915
the role of laboratory testing of insecticides for tsetse-fly control. 1977860315
temperature receptors on tarsi of the tsetse fly glossina morsitans west. 19751143318
trypanosoma brucei-cultivation in vitro of infective forms derived from the midgut of glossina morsitans.infective forms of trypanosoma brucei derived from the midgut of glossina morsitans, have been propagated in vitro for 61 days on a bovine embryonic spleen (besp) feeder layer using rpmi 1640 medium. it was reproducibly shown that only parasites cultured from the midgut of tsetse flies 12-14 hr after feeding on infected animals could be established in vitro. cultures thus established were infective to rats and tsetse flies. only midgut vector types of the parasites were identified by light and e ...1978660382
host preference and trypanosome infection rates of glossina morsitans morsitans westwood in the republic of zambia.examination of data on the host preference and trypanosome infection rates of glossina morsitans morsitans westwood in central zambia showed a marked preference for suids (62%); bovids (17%), 'other mammals' (14%), primates (4%), reptiles (3%) and birds (less than 1%) accounted for the remaining feeds. trypanosome infection rates in g. m. morsitans were very low (0-3-66%), with higher rates in males; only vivax-type trypanosomes were encountered. the heterogeneity of monthly and seasonal infecti ...1977849014
long term variations in trypanosome infection rates in highly infected tsetse flies on a cattle route in south-western thousand, nine hundred and ninety-seven male and 1988 female glossina morsitans submorsitans were dissected at ogbomosho, on a trade cattle route in south-western nigeria, from june 1970 to august 1973. of male flies, 1307 (65-45%) were infected by trypanosoma vivax trypanosomes, 66 (3-31%) by the subgenus nannomonas (congolense group) and three (0.15%) by the subgenus trypanozoon (brucei group). of flies, 1236 (62-17%) had t. vivax infections, 80 (4-02%) had infections of the subgenus nanno ...1977849015
structural modulations in the tsetse fly milk gland during a pregnancy cycle.gross ultrastructural and histochemical details of the integumental milk glands of the tsetse fly glossina morsitans have been examined during the pregnancy cycle. structural evidence for protein secretion is found between days 3-8 of the nine-day cycle: termination of activity is completed on the day of parturition. onset of lactation is synchronized with the eclosion of the first instar larva. the changes in cell volume (notably in the extracellular reservoir) occurring throughout the pregnanc ...19751145609
metabolism of u-14c leucine and u-14c valine by adult female glossina morsitans during pregnancy. 1977881566
maternal nutritive secretions as possible channels for vertical transmission of microorganisms in insects: the tsetse fly example. 1975801109
micro-organisms in the midgut of tsetse fly larvae.two types of micro-organisms were found in the midgut of glossina morsitans larvae, a large gram-negative bacterial rod and a small gram-negative rickettsia-like micro-organism, although the occurrence of the rickettsial type is restricted. the location of these micro-organisms in a small area of the proventriculus of all three larval instars is discussed. the large micro-organisms resemble milk-gland bacteria, and further evidence is presented in support of a milk transmission hypothesis for th ...19761031837
sumbionts in the female tsetse fly glossina morsitans morsitans.a rickettsia-like symbiont, located in the ovaries of g. m. morsitans is maternally transmitted to the offspring via the egg. it is suggested that they may be essential for normal ovarian development.1975806465
digestive processes of haematophagous insects. xii. secretion of trypsin and carboxypeptidase b gy glossina morsitans morsitans westwood (diptera: glossinidae). 1977837276
sterility in tsetse flies (glossina morsitans westwood) caused by loss of symbionts. 1976986317
observations of resting sites of glossina morsitans morsitans (diptera: muscidae) during the wet season in the republic of zambia, africa. 1977845902
passage of trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense through the peritrophic membrane of glossina morsitans morsitans. 1977895841
storage of nutriments by adult female glossina morsitans and their transfer to the intra-uterine larva. 1976965773
digestive processes of haematophagous insects. xi. partial purification and some properties of six proteolytic enzymes from the tsetse fly glossina morsitans morsitans westwood (diptera: glossinidae). 1976991018
sound production in the tsetse fly glossina morsitans morsitans. 19751133267
sex recognition pheromone in tsetse fly glossina morsitans. 19751113875
fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride.the effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the malpighian tubules of glossina morsitans have been observed. the cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. the results confirm that fluid secretion by the malpighian tu ...19761003084
'hunger' in the tsetse fly: the nutritional correlates of behaviour. 19751127248
inhibition of diuresis in the tsetse fly (glossina morsitans) by ouabain and acetazolamide.acetazolamide and ouabain, metabolic inhibitors which interfere with certain membrane transport systems, reduce the rate of water elimination by male glossina morsitans morsitans. the results suggest that water is transported across membranes during diuresis and that a ouabain sensitive na+k+atpase and an acetazolamide-sensitive carbonic anhydrase are involved in diuresis.19751157860
field studies using repellent-treated wide-mesh net jackets against glossina morsitans in ethiopia. 19751157732
tsetse fly glossina morsitans morsitans produces ultrasound related to behavior.the spectrum of the sounds produced by the tsetse fly glossina morsitans morsitans extends to above 80 khz and the energy distribution between 20 and 70 khz is related to behavior.19751140314
storage and sexual separation of glossina morsitans morsitans westwood puparia.maintenance of unknown-age tsetse puparia at 4 degrees c for six days substantially reduced emergence; normal emergence occurred when puparia were held at temperatures of 12 degrees, 14 degrees, or 16 degrees c for two, three or four weeks, respectively. in-storage eclosion of adults was either suppressed completely at the temperatures used or was slight. weight, puparial duration, and density of puparia were examined in an attempt to detect sexual differences in puparia. there appeared to be no ...19751155998
therapeutic activity of isometamidium chloride in boran cattle against a tsetse-transmitted clone of trypanosoma congolense with a low level of drug resistance.experiments were conducted with a clone of trypanosoma congolense, il 3580, which exhibited a low level of resistance to isometamidium chloride. five cattle were treated intramuscularly with isometamidium chloride at a dose rate of 0.5 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) and challenged 28 days later with 5 glossina morsitans centralis infected with t. congolense il 3580. all 5 cattle and 15 untreated steers challenged on the same day became parasitaemic by day 15 post-infection. thus, at a dose of 0.5 mg k ...19921304663
effect of puparia incubation temperature: increased infection rates of trypanosoma congolense in glossina morsitans centralis, g. fuscipes fuscipes and g. brevipalpis.puparia of glossina morsitans centralis (machado), g.fuscipes fuscipes (newstead) and g.brevipalpis (newstead) were incubated at 25 +/- 1 degrees c, 28 +/- 1:25 +/- 1 degrees c, day:night or 29 +/- 1 degrees c throughout the puparial period, and maintained at 70-80% relative humidity. puparial mortality was higher at 29 than at 25 degrees c (optimum temperature) in all three species, particularly in g.f.fuscipes and g.brevipalpis. adults of g.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees c, a ...19921421481
some changes in the flight apparatus of tsetse flies, glossina morsitans and g. pallidipes, during maturation. 19751159309
aspects of the nutrition of adult female glossina morsitans during pregnancy. 1976950478
an analysis of supernumerary or b-chromosomes of wild and laboratory strains of glossina morsitans morsitans. 19921421491
a comparison of african buffalo, n'dama and boran cattle as reservoirs of trypanosoma congolense for different glossina species.teneral glossina morsitans centralis machado were fed on the flanks of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer sparrman), n'dama (bos taurus l.) or boran (bos indicus l.) cattle infected with trypanosoma congolense broden. the infected tsetse were maintained on rabbits and on day 30 after the infected feed, the surviving tsetse were dissected to determine the infection rates. the mean infection rates (% +/- se) in the midgut of tsetse fed on buffalo, n'damas and borans were 23.5 +/- 3.3, 31.6 +/- 2 ...19921421502
quantitative ultrastructural investigations of the life cycle of trypanosoma brucei: a morphometric analysis.the quantitative ultrastructure of the developmental stages of trypanosoma brucei brucei in its vector glossina morsitans was studied by morphometric analysis. values from ectoperitrophic midgut forms, proventricular forms, epimastigote and metacyclic forms in the salivary gland are compared with results from bloodstream forms, published previously. significant differences in the volume densities of the trypanosome's single mitochondrion, of microbody-like organelles and in the surface densities ...19751195156
the use of "fast" neutrons and gamma radiation to sterilize the tsetse fly glossina tachinoides westw. 19751184212
diuresis in the tsetse fly glossina austeni.after taking a blood meal, the tsetse fly glossina austeni excretes the excess water and salts of the meal in approximately 30 min. during this period a volume of fluid equivalent to 80% of the unfed weight of the fly passes through the haemolymph, whose composition nevertheless remains almost constant. the fluid excreted has a higher sodium and lower potassium concentration than the haemolymph, indicating that sodium may be the prime mover in urine formation in glossina.19751202130
penetration of mid-gut cells of glossina morsitans morsitans by trypanosoma brucei rhodesianse. 19751202348
the control of diuresis in the tsetse fly glossina austeni: a preliminary investigation of the diuretic hormone.the rate of secretion of the malpighian tubules of glossina austeni is controlled by a diuretic hormone. this hormone is present in the nervous tissue of the fly together with a degradative enzyme that can be activated by boiling. it is demonstrated that the malpighian tubules are able to destroy the diuretic hormone; they may therefore participate in the control of diuresis. the diuretic hormone appears to be a heat-stable, non-dialysable, alcohol-soluble molecule, containing amino acid, glucos ...19751202131
nutrition of glossina morsitans: metabolism of u-14c glucose during pregnancy. 19761249435
modelling trypanosomiasis prevalence and periodic epidemics and epizootics.existing mathematical models of trypanosomiasis epidemiology and epizootiology are extended by including some relevant biology of the disease vector, the tsetse fly. rickettsia-like organisms, or rlo, are a vertically transmitted symbiont of tsetse, which confer an increased susceptibility to trypanosomiasis infection. tsetse populations are also limited by density-dependent starvation. modelling leads to the prediction of a stable dimorphism with a fraction of tsetse possessing rlo. the equilib ...19921302761
trypanosomiasis in the black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis linnaeus, 1758).a black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) moved from a tsetse-free to a tsetse-infested area in kenya was monitored for two months following translocation. the animal acquired a trypanosoma vivax infection from natural tsetse challenge, but survived without requiring treatment with trypanocides. the infection was characterised by moderately high parasitaemia, with symptoms of anaemia, leukopaenia and thrombocytopaenia. although confirmed to be t. vivax through deoxyribonucleic acid hybridisation and ...19921305862
atp reception by the tsetse fly, glossina morsitans west. 19761269607
the nature of the teneral state in glossina and its role in the acquisition of trypanosome infection in tsetse.teneral glossina morsitans morsitans from outbred and susceptible stocks infected with trypanosoma (nannomonas) congolense developed, respectively, three and six times higher midgut infection rates than flies of the same stock which had previously taken a bloodmeal. non-teneral g. m. morsitans remained relatively refractory to infection when infected at subsequent feeds. differences in susceptibility to midgut infection between teneral flies from susceptible and outbred lines of g. m. morsitans ...19921288435
development of multiple drug resistance of trypanosoma congolense in zebu cattle under high natural tsetse fly challenge in the pastoral zone of samorogouan, burkina faso.preliminary data from an ongoing epidemiological survey in the pastoral zone of samorogouan (kénédougou) indicate the occurrence of multiple-drug-resistant trypanosoma congolense. despite frequent trypanocidal drug treatments with diminazene aceturate (berenil, hoechst) at 7 mg/kg body weight (bw) at intervals of 2 to 4 weeks, no significant drop in the prevalence of african animal trypanosomosis (aat) was observed. to examine a suspected drug resistance, 20 zebu cattle, naturally infected with ...19921359750
suppression of t-cell responsiveness during tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis in the present study, we demonstrate that lymph node cells from cattle infected with t. congolense through tsetse fly challenge were unable to proliferate in vitro following activation with the t-cell mitogen concanavalin a. this was associated with a simultaneous suppression of interleukin 2 (il-2) production and interleukin 2 receptor (il-2r) expression. however, the capacity of the cells to secrete interferon gamma following the mitogenic activation was not affected by the infection.19921355308
a light and electron microscopic study of changes in blood and bone marrow in acute hemorrhagic trypanosoma vivax infection in calves.eleven 6-month-old calves were tsetse fly challenged with a stock of trypanosoma vivax (il 2337) that causes hemorrhagic infection. the calves were randomly euthanatized every 4 to 6 days; two other calves served as controls. peripheral blood changes included anemia, thrombocytopenia, and an initial leukopenia. later in the course of infection, leukocytosis associated with lymphocytosis and neutropenia developed. moderate reticulocytosis (highest mean count 3.6 +/- 3.7%, maximum count 9.4%) acco ...19921348380
inhibitory effect of trypanosoma brucei brucei on glossina morsitans midgut trypsin in vitro.the ability of trypanosoma brucei brucei to inhibit trypsin or trypsin-like enzymes in crude midgut homogenates of glossina morsitans morsitans was studied in vitro. the isolated parasites caused a concentration-dependent decrease in midgut trypsin activity. furthermore, trypanosomes lysed by repeated freeze-thawing had a similar effect on trypsin activity. in both cases, the inhibition by either intact or lysed parasites was partial as revealed by dixon plots. similarly, trypanosome membrane pr ...19921409526
influence of d(+)-glucosamine on infection rates and parasite loads in tsetse flies (glossina spp.) infected with trypanosoma brucei.teneral glossina morsitans centralis, g. m. morsitans and g. pallidipes were infected with three different clones of trypanosoma brucei in blood containing d(+)-glucosamine, an inhibitor of tsetse midgut lectin. on average, 5 days of d(+)-glucosamine treatment tripled infection rates, without affecting the proportion of infections that matured. total infection rates were equal in males and females, but twice as many infections matured in males. counts of parasites in the guts and salivary glands ...19921359749
molecular biology of african trypanosomes: development of new strategies to combat an old disease.african trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause a number of diseases of man and domesticated animals in large regions of sub-saharan africa. the diseases have proven to be particularly difficult to prevent or to effectively treat due to features of both the trypanosome and the insect vector, the tsetse fly. the habitat of the tsetse and its resistance to insecticides have rendered vector control efforts ineffective. attempts to develop a vaccine against the african trypanosomes has been ...19921373267
response of trypanosoma congolense in goats to single and double treatment with diminazene aceturate.diminazene aceturate is one of a limited number of compounds currently marketed for treatment of trypanosomiasis in cattle, sheep and goats. the pharmacokinetics of the compound in goats suggest that double treatment with diminazene aceturate might enhance the compound's therapeutic activity. a study was therefore conducted in goats using two clones of trypanosoma congolense, il 3274 and il 1180, which were previously shown to be resistant and sensitive, respectively, to single treatment with di ...19921410826
temporal changes in activity during destruction of the thoracic ventral eclosion muscle of the tsetse fly.the spontaneous intracellular activity of the thoracic ventral longitudinal eclosion muscle (vlem) of glossina is described for the period from eclosion up to a short time before the final breakdown of recorded fibres. the vlem comprises a single motor unit with no inhibitory input. the firing frequency of the motor unit declines over 5 h after eclosion and leg release. over a period of inactivity lasting between 19-24 h in the sample fibres, there is no loss of resting membrane potential and oc ...19911682956
activation of three species of tsetse (glossina spp.) in response to host derived stimuli.recordings were made of the activation of hungry glossina morsitans morsitans westwood, g. pallidipes austen, and g. austeni newstead in response to odours from ox breath and ox urine, and a moving visual stimulus, in a wind tunnel. the spontaneous activity of g.m.morsitans was very low (less than 4% of males and 2% of females active per min during control periods). that of g.austeni and g.pallidipes was in the region of 20% except for g.pallidipes females when in excess of 40% were active durin ...19921463900
trypanosoma brucei brucei: in vitro production of metacyclic in vitro method has been established to obtain metacyclic form populations of trypanosoma brucei brucei. trypanosome populations containing more than 98% of metacyclic forms were obtained from cultures which were: 1) initiated with bloodstream forms in primary cultures in the presence of microtus montanus embryonic fibroblast-like cells (feeder cell layers); 2) maintained in glucose-free eagle's minimum essential medium supplemented with 10 mm l-proline, 2 mm l-glutamine and 20% (v/v) fetal b ...19921522545
characterization by isoenzyme electrophoresis of trypanozoon stocks from sleeping sickness endemic areas of south-east epidemic of sleeping sickness, which started in 1976 in a focus within the county of luuka in central busoga, has spread to cover the three districts of busoga and large parts of the neighbouring districts of tororo and mukono. forty-three isolates of the subgenus trypanozoon from busoga and tororo (27 from man, 9 from cows, 2 from pigs and 5 from tsetse flies) were compared by thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis for seven enzymes. thirty zymodemes were identified; 17 of them were found cir ...19921464150
genetic variability in the social bee lasioglossum marginatum and a cryptic undescribed sibling species, as detected by dna fingerprinting and allozyme electrophoresis.dna fingerprints (dnafp) were obtained for three widely separated samples of bee related to lasioglossum marginatum using the m13 sequence as a probe. bee samples were obtained from france (three localities separated by at most 20 km), greece and india. all european populations exhibited almost identical profiles with similarity indices (s) of over 98% within a french sample, 94% among greek bees and 90% between greek and french bees. the dnafp profiles of indian bees showed more polymorphism (i ...19921343781
isolation and properties of 600-kda and 23-kda haemolymph proteins from the tsetse fly, glossina morsitans: their possible role as biological insecticides.the haemolymph of the tsetse fly, glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. the purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. the lipophorin is of high molecular weight (m(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin i (m(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin ii (m(r) ...19921514048
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