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microfilarial polyarthritis in a massive loa loa infestation. a case report.a cameroonian affected with massive loa loa infection developed febrile arthritis with involvement of both knees and the left ankle. although the patient was first seen by us after one month of treatment with indomethacin, at this time the joints were still inflamed and microfilariae of loa loa were found in the synovial fluid. no other etiological mechanism was identified. following the articular puncture and treatment with ketoprofen, the arthritis subsisted within a week. this is the first ca ...197721559
heterologous reactions involving parasites, blood group antibodies and tissue components.the sera of many patients with malaria and filariasis, and also anti-a and b blood group sera, were found to react by immunofluorescence with the somatic musculature of nematodes, especially ascaris, and human and rat muscle, especially the skeletal type. these reactions were attributed to a polysaccharide related to ab substance in adult nematodes and to raised ab antibodies in malaria. similar heterologous reactions were found to involve the integument of schistosome adult worms and the microf ...197552213
loa loa in a gynecologic smear. 1977266848
[the african eye worm loaloa]. 1977267479
attempts to infect jirds (meriones unguiculatus) with wuchereria bancrofti, onchocerca volvulus, loa loa loa and mansonella ozzardi. 1977267662
loa-loa microfilaremia in the nigerian population.in about half of 1026 nigerians infected with loa loa, the microfilaria levels were low, less than 8% had more than 1000 microfilariae in 50 cumm blood. the length range of 445 microfilariae obtained from 39 infected people was 156.8 to 308.7 micron with a mean of 236.4 micron, or microgram; smaller than in the kumba strain of cameroon. the persistence of a rather high number of microfilariae in the peripheral blood of four patients till 22 hours was discussed in relation to the importance of ma ...1977268074
[immunological diagnosis of filariosis in persons returning from tropical countries and in european and indigenous inhabitants of endemic areas (author's transl)].serum samples from persons who lived in areas where onchocerciasis occurred or who had filariasis were examined with the complement fixation test and the indirect hemagglutination test for the presence of antibodies against crude extracts from dirofilaria immitis, onchocerca volvulus, dipetalonema viteae, and ascaris suum. the results could be interpreted as follows: 1. the indirect hemagglutination test was more sensitive than the complement fixation test for the demonstration of antibodies in ...1977271633
loaiasis (loa loa) in an african student in indiana.loaiasis was seen in an african student in indiana, who had non-specific complaints, leukocyte count of 8,400/mm3, a 47% eosinophilia, and a high loa loa microfilaremia. successful treatment with diethylcarbamazine (hetrazan) produced no allergic manifestations and no reactions to the adult parasites were evident.1979287388
loiasis: report of three cases and literature review.loiasis is a tropical infection caused by the microfilarial nematode loa loa. increased numbers of cases of loiasis have been diagnosed outside of the endemic areas in western and central africa because of widespread international travel. the author presents three cases of loiasis discovered at howard university followed by a review of the literature.1979291735
[filariasis caused by loa loa (loaiasis)]. 1979292301
[cameroon swelling; infection by the filaria loa loa].recurrent skin edemata due to an infestation with the filaria loa loa are called cameroon or calabar swellings. these are tense elastic, circumscribed, indolent swellings, which are just slightly red coloured and disappear within 24 to 48 hours. intervals of several weeks or months may occur. one should think of loa loa disease seeing travellers return from loa endemic areas (west africa) with recurrent, transitory edema and eosinophilia. the stay in these areas may have been several years befor ...1979293283
[ocular manifestations in filariasis caused by onchocerca volvulus and by loa loa]. 1977305597
historical note on loa loa: a reinterpretation.loa loa, also known as the african eye worm, is a common parasite in the central part of west africa. as chrysops silacea and c. dimidiata, the only important vectors of loaiasis, are found exclusively in the tropical rain forests of west africa, the parasite's transmission is confined to this region. references by early writers to the extraction of loa loa from the eye of a man on the island of ormus (today known as hormuz or hormus) in the persian gulf apparently were based on a misinterpretat ...1977329697
[does the engraving by de bry from 1598 represent an eye-worm extraction? (discussion contribution and conclusion)]. 1977333222
antigenic activity in adult dipetalonema viteae in the indirect immunofluorescent test against sera from filariasis patients--the immunofluorescent histological search for "pure" antigen.using ifat, it has been shown that isolated egg-shells and uterine fluid of dipetalonema viteae are the most potent antigens in heterologous systems using human sera from patients infected with wuchereria bancrofti, onchocerca volvulus and loa loa, as well as in homologous systems using sera from animals infected with d. viteae. it is suggested that these antigens are unlikely to be highly species-specific, and that anatomical isolation of antigens is a necessary prerequisite to immunochemical a ...1979394410
localization of acid phosphatase in microfilariae of loa loa and dipetalonema perstans from cameroun.the histochemical pattern of acid phosphatase activity in the microfilaria of l. loa showed a diffuse red staining all over the body, with conspicuous staining of the excretory and anal vesicles, innenkörper, amphids and phasmids. in d. perstans, the enzymatic activity was localized chiefly in four regions corresponding to the excretory and anal vesicles, amphids and phasmids of the microfilariae. a considerable loss of enzyme activity was observed in microfilariae that had been stored in a refr ...1977564090
[etiological study of low fertility in eastern gaboon. iii. filarial endemicity (loa loa, d. perstans). prevalence of microfilariae in hydroceles (author's transl)].during an inquiry performed in gaboon the prevalence of hydroceles had led to puncture systematically every vaginal flow. 68 fluids were so collected at the end of the inquiry. subsequently the statistical analysis of the results in men seems to suggest a correlation between microfilaremia (loa loa and d. perstans) and the prevalence of hydroceles. microfilariae were found in 77% according to the following distribution: loa loa seldom diagnosed in this kind of flow were detected in 10%; d. perst ...1977570721
[etiological study of low fertility in eastern gaboon. ii. results according to the geographical distribution and the ethnic group (author's transl)].an epidemiological study was conducted in haut-ogooué and ogooué-lolo, and included 875 men and 673 women. the purpose of this article is to precise the geographical distribution of the factors related to low fertility, and to verify the stability of the etiological relations according to the region, the place of residence and the ethny. among men, hydroceles and epididym lesions are more frequent in ogooué-lolo, in small villages, and in forest areas. microfilariae loa-loa and d. perstans has t ...1977618031
epidemiology of poly-parasitism. ii. types of combinations, relative frequency and associations of multiple infections.frequency distributions, including all of the observed types of combinations of multiple infections with different helminths and protozoa are presented for sample villages of the african savannah and of the trans-andean part of peru. measurements of correlation between these infections based on properties of the multivariate, multinomial distribution are calculated to show age and sex patterns of association in different population samples. a correlation matrix for combined infections with dipet ...1978675834
[the first description of loa-loa infestation of the eye by pigafetta a historical error (author's transl)].contrary to common theory (belding 1965), there is no reference to the african eyeworm in pigafetta's work. philipp pigafetta (1533-1603) translated the oral africa report of the portuguese eduart lopez into the italian language. the de bry brothers published in 1597 the german version of this travel report, and in 1598 the latin version followed.1976794565
loa loa: experimental infection in two species of african primates.four species of primates, baboon (papio anubis), patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas), green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops) and chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) were inoculated with third-stage larvae of a human strain of loa loa from cameroon, west african. the baboon and patas monkeys developed patent infections after 135 to 148 days; the green monkeys and chimpanzee did not. in each animal which became patent, microfilaremia rose rapidly to high levels. in the baboon, but not in the patas monkeys, ...1975808145
man-biting species of chrysops meigen, culicoides latreille and simulium latreille in ethiopia, with discussion of their vector potentialities.human filariasis and its vectors are little known in ethiopia. wuchereia bancrofti is confined to the western lowlands and cannot be the aetiological agent of elephantiasis in the highlands. onchocerca volvulus is widespread in the south-western highlands. loa loa and dipetalonema perstans are reported here for the first time and appear to be uncommon. studies were conducted in 1973, mostly near jimma in kaffa province, on potential vectors of all but the first of these parasites. among simuliid ...1977877992
filaria--loa-loa: case report. 19751056180
loa loa: development to the infective stage in an american deerfly, chrysops atlanticus.chrysops atlanticus, an american species of deerfly collected along the mississippi gulf coast, will support the development of the microfilaria of human loa loa to the infective stage. development takes place in the fat body of the fly and requires 9 to 10 days of development and pattern of morphogenesis of the parasite in c. atlanticus is virtually identical to that described in natural african vectors. chrysops atlanticus will support the development of large numbers of l. loa to the infectiv ...19751057379
loa loa infection without microfilaraemia. 19751058558
[a case of loa-loa filariasis (author's transl)].a report about a case of loa-loa filariasis whereby after removal of a female worm out of the subconjunctival space no microfilariae but a schisslike edema of the attacked eye's retina was found. in this connection the author gave some observations on the particularies of loa-loa filariasis.19751059820
[filaria loa loa]. 19751060452
[does the engraving by de bruy from the year 1598 present an excision of eye-worm]. 19751105054
filarial worm (loa loa) in the anterior chamber. report of two cases.two nigerian patients with intraocular parasitism by adult loa loa worms are reported. whereas loa loa infestation of the subcutaneous tissues around the eye usually has no permanent effect on visual acuity, in the two cases reported the affected eye became blind.19751131358
specific and sensitive igg4 immunodiagnosis of onchocerciasis with a recombinant 33 kd onchocerca volvulus protein (ov33).the full length cdna of the immunodominant ov33 protein of onchocerca volvulus was expressed in e. coli using various vector constructs. expression was best with the vectors pgex2t and pcg808fx, yielding fusion protein ov33-gst and ov33-mbp, respectively. purified fusion protein ov33-gst and o. volvulus antigen extracts (ovag) were used to compare antibody responses (igm and igg-subclasses) of patients infected with o. volvulus, brugia malayi, wuchereria bancrofti, mansonella perstans/loa loa an ...19921281926
identification and characterization of a parasite antigen in the circulating immune complexes of onchocerca volvulus infected patients.a peg-elisa was used to demonstrate parasite specific immune complexes in a significant proportion (25/26) of onchocerca volvulus infection sera from sierra leone. the parasite antigen was detected using a peroxidase-conjugated rabbit serum raised to the bovine parasite o. gibsoni. controls including european control serum, endemic control serum and rh+ sera gave consistently low readings. characterization of the parasite component in the immune complexes by western blotting demonstrated a heat ...19921284095
a monoclonal antibody-based immunodiagnostic assay for onchocerciasis.five murine monoclonal antibodies raised against onchocerca volvulus cuticular extracts and termed movs (1-4 and 6) were selected based on reactivity with o. volvulus cryosections, and non-reactivity with cryosections of human skin and/or nodular tissue. two others movs 5 and 7 reacted with both. using the peroxidase-anti- peroxidase (pap) histochemical method, the target epitopes of mov 1 were located in the cuticle's basal and cortical layers, those of mov 2 in the cortical layer; whilst mov 3 ...19921381517
filariasis in gongola state nigeria. i: clinical and parasitological studies in mutum-biyu district.a total of 2,552 persons living in 9 villages along the benue river valley, mutum biyu district of gongola state, nigeria were examined between october and december 1989 for filariasis. it is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this state. 276 (10.8%) had wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for onchocerca volvulus. villages located near the benue river had higher prevalence rates than t ...19921416217
antibody-dependent cell-mediated immune reactions to loa loa microfilariae in amicrofilaraemic subjects.antibody-mediated mechanisms that could be important in controlling microfilaraemia in loa loa infected amicrofilaraemic adults (mf-ve) were studied. these subjects were selected as having a verified ocular passage of an adult l. loa but being amicrofilaraemic and without recent diethylcarbamazine treatment. sera from 37 mf-ve subjects were compared to 14 sera from heavily (greater than 4000 mf/ml) infected subjects (mf+ve) and 9 sera from caucasian control subjects for their reactions with l. l ...19921437242
there's a worm in my eye.to report a case of an unusual worm infestation of the eye.19921454024
cloning and characterization of a loa loa-specific repetitive dna.a loa loa ecori genomic library in lambda gt11 was screened with 32p-labeled l. loa dna and 1 repetitive clone, ll20, was isolated. an 800-bp rsa i fragment of ll20, which is l. loa specific, was subcloned into puc19 and the recombinant plasmid was designated prsa4. while the 3.8-kb eco ri fragment of ll20 cross-hybridized to other filarial dna under low stringency conditions, the 800-bp fragment of prsa4 was l. loa specific under the same conditions. further characterization of the insert of pr ...19921484545
[inflammatory arthropathy caused by loa loa filariasis. a case]. 19921492089
human ecology and parasitic infections. 1. the effect of occupation on the prevalence of parasitic infections in calabar, nigeria.one thousand six hundred people belonging to three different occupational groups were randomly selected. blood, urine and stool specimens were collected from them and processed for the detection of any parasitic infections. the results show 28.5% infection rate with one or more species of intestinal parasites; 50.7% in the school children, 17.3% among the farmers, and 12% among the soldiers. results of blood examination showed 5.3%, 8.0% and 2.0% infection rates for p. falciparum in the school p ...19921512451
loiasis: a case of an unusual ocular foreign body.loiasis is a parasitic illness that is endemic in parts of central and west africa. in the united states, infection with loa loa is seen in natives from that region of africa and in those who have traveled to the area, often in the distant past. there can be significant differences in clinical manifestations between the two groups. we present a case of loiasis in an african native as well as a discussion of loa loa infection in natives and non-natives and current treatment strategies.19921514733
pulmonary involvement in loiasis.a 40-yr-old west african man presented acutely with pleural effusion. cytologic evaluation of the pleural fluid revealed loa loa microfilariae. no additional etiology for the pleural effusion could be identified, and antifilarial treatment with diethylcarbamazine led to a rapid resolution of the patient's symptoms and pulmonary abnormalities. loa loa must be considered as a treatable cause of eosinophilic pleural effusions in persons from endemic areas of west and central africa.19921554227
[foreign body granuloma on calcified loa loa filariasis]. 19921605509
population dynamics of loa loa and mansonella perstans infections in individuals living in an endemic area of the congo.a follow-up of loa loa and mansonella perstans microfilaremia was carried out in an adult population living in a highly endemic area of the congo. infection rates and parasite loads were found to be stable in the general population, both in the short-term (two months) and long-term (3-4 years) followup. the microfilarial status of most of the subjects examined did not change between tests. at the individual level, the microfilarial densities of l. loa and m. perstans also remained remarkably con ...19921621891
the improvement of maintenance conditions for wild-caught chrysops silacea and the production of infective larvae of loa loa.previous reports have shown that chyrsops silacea survive poorly in captivity. only 5% survive for more than 12 days, which is the time required for loa loa microfilariae to develop into infective larvae. improved maintenance conditions for c. silacea for the production of infective larvae were studied. wild-caught female c. silacea were allowed to feed to repletion on mandrills, (mandrillus sphinx), which were microfilaremic with human l. loa or on uninfected laboratory rats. under optimal cond ...19911684264
filariasis in gongola state nigeria. i: clinical and parasitological studies in mutum-biyu district.a total of 2552 persons living in 9 villages along the benue river valley, mutum-biyu district of gongola state, nigeria were examined between october and december 1989 for filariasis. it is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this state. 276 (10.8%) had wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for onchocerca volvulus. villages located near the benue river had higher prevalence rates than th ...19911804869
diagnosing multiple parasitic infections: trypanosomiasis, loiasis and schistosomiasis in a single case.a case is reported of a 32-year-old traveller with loiasis, schistosomiasis and african trypanosomiasis. the patient had been working in oil exploration in nigeria and gabon and presented with calabar swellings and carpal tunnel syndrome. serology for all 3 diseases was positive but microfilariae of loa loa and ova of schistosomiasis were not found. treatment with diethylcarbamazine and praziquantel was given for loiasis and schistosomiasis respectively. trypanosomes were isolated from a lymph n ...19911815342
molecular cloning and characterization of recombinant parasite antigens for immunodiagnosis of onchocerciasis.immunological cross-reactivity among nematodes has hampered the development of specific serodiagnostic assays for onchocerciasis. in the present study, an onchocerca volvulus adult worm complementary dna expression library was differentially screened with human sera from patients infected with o. volvulus and with an omnibus anti-nematode serum pool comprised of sera from patients infected with brugia malayi, loa loa, wuchereria bancrofti, mansonella perstans, strongyloides stercoralis, ancylost ...19911840605
five cases of encephalitis during treatment of loiasis with diethylcarbamazine.five cases of encephalitis following treatment with diethylcarbamazine (dec) were observed in congolese patients with loa loa filariasis. two cases had a fatal outcome and one resulted in severe sequelae. the notable fact was that this complication occurred in three patients hospitalized before treatment began, with whom particularly strict therapeutic precautions were taken, i.e., initial dose less than 10 mg of dec, very gradual dose increases, and associated anti-allergic treatment. this type ...19911858969
health risks of foreign travel. preparing adults for jaunts abroad.preparing adult travelers for journeys abroad can be challenging and rewarding. prevention is the cornerstone of a safe, enjoyable trip. patient education and commonsense precautions may well prevent infection or disease. prophylaxis for diarrhea and malaria could save one day of illness or inconvenience on an expensive trip or may save a traveler's life. and the loa loa worm? the nurse fortunately waited until it crawled from under her cornea. then it was gently teased from under the bulbar con ...19911903886
[leukocytoclastic vasculitis due to hypersensitivity to microfilariae].a case of a caucasian girl with leukocytoclastic vasculitis, polyarthritis and eosinophilia is presented. a blood test showed microfilariasis, probably of the loa loa type. the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of filariasis is described. in the western literature revised, reactive arthritis has been described but none of the other clinical features of our case. the presence of circulating immune complex might explain the pathogenic mechanism. we believe that filariae shou ...19911912154
experimental infection of humans with filariae.this report summarizes the findings of the 17 published studies involving humans who have been experimentally infected with filarial parasites. over the past 60 years, 45 individuals have been deliberately infected with wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi, brugia pahangi, loa loa, mansonella perstans, mansonella ozzardi, and/or onchocerca volvulus. the findings from these experimental infections of humans have helped define microfilarial survival and periodicity within human hosts, the prepatent ...19911962076
the occurrence of loiasis, mansonellosis and wuchereriasis in the jarawa river valley, central nigeria.in a study to assess the status of filariasis in the jarawa river valley of the savanna area of nigeria, 940 self-selected residents from 10 villages were examined between march 1984 and april 1987. overall results showed 105 (11.2%) had microfilaraemia and/or clinical signs of filariasis. sixty-four (6.8%) and 20 (2.1%) persons, respectively, were infected with mansonella perstans and loa loa microfilariae (mff). four of the 28 villagers examined had wuchereria bancrofti mff in their night bloo ...19901980569
cloning and characterization of a species-specific repetitive dna sequence from loa loa.a genomic dna library of loa loa was constructed in lambda gt11 using ecori-digested dna from microfilariae isolated from two west african patients. screening with labeled l. loa dna yielded several potential repetitive dna clones. an mboi fragment of one of these, ll3m9, was identified and characterized. sequence analysis of ll3m9 revealed an 839-bp fragment with an unusual 356-bp region containing 37 copies of the hexamer cttagg, many of which are arranged in repeated motifs of 12, 27 and 63 b ...19912038361
effect of attraction factors on the sampling of chrysops silacea and c. dimidiata (diptera: tabanidae), vectors of loa loa (filaroidea: onchocercidae) filariasis.the effects of fire and human host density on chrysops silacea and c. dimidiata abundance and age structure was evaluated at sites of loa loa filariasis transmission in the congo rain forest. fire increased the catch of c. silacea 8.5-fold at ground level and 5-fold in the canopy, but did not modify the catch size of c. dimidiata. catch size increased 2-fold when a pygmy camp located near the collecting station was inhabited. the presence of fire did not alter the parity and loa loa infection ra ...19912056508
a direct fluorescence technique for the rapid detection of sheathed microfilariae in blood smears.thick and thin blood smears containing microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti, loa loa, brugia malayi, brugia pahangi, brugia patei or acanthocheilonema viteae were prepared from either cryopreserved blood samples or from freshly collected blood, fixed in methanol and treated with a fluoresceinated lectin wheat germ agglutinin. sheathed microfilariae of w. bancrofti, l. loa, b. malayi, b. pahangi and b. patei in the blood smears could be easily detected and counted using a fluorescence assay. the ...19902074139
a highly specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody-based elisa for the detection of circulating antigen in bancroftian filariasis.a monoclonal antibody, og4c3, directed against antigens of onchocerca gibsoni (but not phosphorylcholine) has been used in a sandwich elisa to detect a circulating antigen of wuchereria bancrofti in human serum. the interfering effect of host antibody was reduced by first boiling one part of serum for 5 min in the presence of three parts of 0.1 m na2edta, ph 4.0. a total of 119 sera from individuals and 8 pooled sera from clinically and/or parasitologically defined cases of filariasis, plus 8 in ...19902075384
[serum filariasis due to loa loa and mansonella perstans in the continental area of equatorial guinea. preliminary results].for the first time, a parasitologic survey has been carried out in the niefang district (continental area of equatorial guinea) within a sample of 829 people aged of more than 10 years. parasitologic incidence was 27.1 p.c. for loa-loa and 66.3 p.c. for mansonella perstans. significant differences were noted in the prevalence and in the mean density of microfilariae of both species according to the altitude of the villages surveyed.19902077317
specific and cross-reacting antibodies in human responses to onchocerca volvulus and dracunculus medinensis infections.immunoelectroblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to identify non-cross-reacting antigenic components of dracunculus medinensis and the filarial worms onchocerca volvulus, loa loa, wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi, and mansonella ozzardi. parasite specific serodiagnostic elisa systems for onchocerciasis and dracunculiasis were devised based on these findings. phosphate buffered saline extracts of adult worms were passed through a column of monoclonal antibodies to phosphor ...19902138430
immunodiagnosis of dracunculiasis by falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (fast-elisa) and by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb) technique.the falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (fast-elisa) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb) technique were used to test human sera with dracunculus medinensis adult worm antigen in order to assess their potential value in the immunodiagnosis of dracunculiasis. the human sera used were from patients with prepatent and patent d. medinensis infections or from patients infected with other nematodes (onchocerca volvulus and loa loa) or trematodes (schistosom ...19902148463
report of imported cases of loa loa in venezuela. 19902152205
transmission indices of loa loa in the chaillu mountains, congo.a longitudinal entomological survey of the vectors of loiasis was conducted in the missama area (lekoumou region) in the congo from september 1987 to august 1989. the principal catching site was a palm grove surrounded by forest 3 km from the village. landing/biting densities of chrysops were measured by standardized fly catches lasting 11 hr carried out twice a month. vector landing densities were also assessed in the bantu and pygmy villages and in the fields. populations of chrysops from the ...19902221224
[current possibilities in the control of loa loa filariasis].loa loa is currently considered as a major pathogen in man. the clinical repercussions of this filariasis have been clearly established and treatment is considered essential. ivermectin, administered alone or with diethylcarbamazine presents interesting therapeutic possibilities. the review of vector control methods show that trapping is the only effective measure of protection. in order to reduce the endemicity of loaiasis, mass treatment with ivermectin could be envisaged immediately. however, ...19902241305
[indirect immunofluorescence in filariasis. iii. comparison of microfilaremia and treatment. cuba, 1983].twenty six patients coming from endemic areas, with diagnosis of filariasis caused by wuchereria bancrofti, loa loa and manzonella (dipetalonema perstans) and 29 patients suspicious of suffering filariasis were studied by means of knott, membrane filter and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. results of microfilaremia were compared with antibody titers and it was verified that there was not relationship between these parameters. the suspicious patients presented higher antibody levels than t ...19902259783
loa loa disease. 19902261187
comparison of thick blood smear and saponin haemolysis for the detection of loa loa and mansonella perstans infections.in an endemic area, loa loa and mansonella perstans microfilariae were detected by the examination of 5 ml blood in respectively 7.4 and 26.2% of subjects who would have been erroneously considered amicrofilaraemic by the conventional method of two thick blood smears (40 microliters blood). correction factors to be applied to the results obtained with thick blood films in order to approach the true parasitological prevalences were 1.5 for l. loa and 1.6 for m. perstans. in addition, the analysis ...19902270002
calcifications of the breast probably due to loa loa.five cases of calcification of the breast due to filariasis in congolese women are reported. the cases were discovered during mammographies carried out for suspect carcinoma (4 cases) and benign tumor (1 case). the geographic origin of the patients, a past history of subconjunctival filarial migration in 2 individuals, the bilateral localization, and, above all, the radiographic appearance and size of the calcifications, suggested that the images were due to loa loa.19902301706
loa loa: identification of genomic dna clones expressing recombinant antigens. 19902323401
clinical manifestations of loiasis in an endemic area in the congo.the functional symptomatology of loiasis was studied in 101 congolese subjects living in a village in a highly endemic area. 27.7% of them were carriers of loa loa microfilariae. 5.9% were infected with mansonella perstans. no subjects were found to have dermal microfilariae. in anamnesis, 51.5% of them reported episodes of calabar swellings, 69.3% history of eyeworm and 10.9% episodes of subcutaneous migration of worms during the last 12 months. pruritus and secondary dermal lesions were freque ...19902339244
chrysops silacea and c. dimidiata: fly densities and infection rates with loa loa in the chaillu mountains, congo republic.the densities, infection rates with loa loa, and parous rates of chrysops silacea and c. dimidiata were studied in various ecological zones throughout the chaillu mountains in the people's republic of the congo. in the rainy season, c. dimidiata was the major vector in the forest, whereas c. silacea was predominant in the cleared forest zones. fly densities were higher in the forest (natural forest or palmgrove) than in the villages. parous and infection rates varied according to the ecological ...19902345921
[what is your diagnosis? reactive arthritis due to loa filaria (loa loa)]. 19902349407
macaca fascicularis, a nonpermissive host for the human filarial parasite loa loa.the ability of the filarial nematode loa loa to infect 2 species of primates was studied. the primate species selected were closely related to species known to be susceptible. a mandrill (mandrillus sphinx) and 6 cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascularis) were infected by subcutaneous injection of third-stage larvae of human l. loa from gabon. the mandrill developed microfilaremia with an estimated prepatent period of 147 days, but microfilariae were not detected in any of the cynomolgus monkeys. th ...19902352067
ecdysteroid-like compounds in the serum and urine of african patients infected with loa loa and mansonella perstans microfilariae.ecdysteroids are compounds related to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the insect moulting hormone. surprisingly, they have been found in serum and urine of patients infected with helminths. in these cases, the substances are assumed to be produced by the parasites and, therefore, might be used as a marker of parasitic infection. thus, we need to know exactly which species, at which developmental stage, can release ecdysteroids in such large quantities that they could be detected in the biological fluids of ...19902389319
biochemical and immunochemical characterization of surface and excretory-secretory antigens of loa loa microfilariae.detergent solubilized extracts of 125iodogen surface-labelled loa loa microfilariae revealed a relatively simple profile of two strongly labelled molecules of 23 and 67 kda for blood microfilariae and several strongly labelled molecules of 23, 40, 42-67 kda for in vitro born microfilariae. in addition, there were other weakly labelled molecules which were resolved after prolonged autoradiographic exposure. surface molecules of 28, 29, and 33 kda were unique to blood microfilariae, a 14.4 kda mol ...19882464765
steroid and gonadotropin hormone levels in young african women with filarial infection.serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (dheas), testosterone (t), progesterone (p), estradiol (e2), prolactin (prl), cortisol (f) and gonadotropins (fsh, lh) were analysed by radioimmunoassay for 125 schoolgirls aged 14-16, in a zone of endemic filariasis 3 days after menses. two groups were identified: the infected group in which 38 subjects had circulating loa loa and or mansonella perstans microfilariae as determined by the knott's concentration technique, and the non-infected group ( ...19892533954
current considerations on a loa loa simian reservoir in the congo. 19892566264
hypogonadism and ecdysteroid production in loa loa and mansonella perstans filariasis.possible endocrinological repercussions of infection with loa loa and mansonella perstans filariae were studied in gabonese subjects. microfilaremic males were compared with amicrofilaremic controls. in the infected group 13/105 subjects (12%) presented only abnormally low serum levels of testosterone (less than 4 ng/ml), 25/105 (24%) only abnormally high serum levels of gonadotrophins, fsh (greater than 15 miu/ml) and lh (greater than 20 miu/ml), and 22/105 (21%) presented anomalies in both tes ...19892571252
the host preferences of chrysops silacea and c. dimidiata (diptera: tabanidae) in an endemic area of loa loa in the congo.the analysis of 404 blood meals from chrysops silacea and c. dimidiata which had been collected in the forests of the chaillu mountains (people's republic of the congo) has demonstrated for the first time that both species also feed on non-human hosts. for both species the feeding patterns are fairly similar. however, man remains the main host in 89-90% of the cases. c. silacea and c. dimidiata took 6 and 4% respectively of their blood meals from hippopotamuses, 2 and 0% from rodents, 2 and 4% f ...19892604456
occular loiasis in a zambian woman.asymptomatic infection with loa loa, an eye worm, is reported in a 32-year old zambian woman. the patient revealed up to 28% eosinophilia but microfileraemia was not noticed. one gravid female parasite 56 x 0.56 mm, extracted from lower lid of left eye of the patient, is described. treatment with diethylcarbamazine (dec) extended over three weeks was successful against another parasite in tissues.19892606031
loa loa and mansonella perstans filariasis in the chaillu mountains, congo: parasitological prevalence.1934 bantus and 379 pygmies were investigated for loa loa and mansonella perstans filariasis in 7 villages in the chaillu forest of the congo. bantus were more frequently infected with l. loa than pygmies (18.9% of microfilariae carriers compared with 10.6%). in individuals over 30 years of age, males were more frequently infected than females. microfilarial densities increased until the age of 20 years and then remained stable. parasite load was not significantly different in the two ethnic gro ...19892617607
differential recognition of loa loa antigens by sera of human subjects from a loiasis endemic zone.somatic antigens of loa loa adult worms with molecular weights of 15-180 kda were identified by western blot analysis using sera from 3 categories of parasitologically and clinically defined subjects from a loiasis endemic zone. sera of occult, amicrofilaremic (ol), and 'resistant' individuals with no clinical signs of infection (r) reacted with an antigen of 160 kda; sera of highly microfilaremic individuals (ml) did not. ml sera strongly reacted with an antigen of 18 kda which was recognized o ...19892641644
intraocular filariasis: a brief review.fifty-six cases of human intraocular filariasis have been reported. in 6, the objects interpreted as filariae may have been artifacts. in 8, a motile worm that apparently was not a filaria was observed. in the remainder, a motile filaria or filaria-like worm was observed, but in only 6 cases were the filariae removed from the eye, described, and identified. three of these were identified as dipetalonema spp., and one each as wuchereria, dirofilaria, and loaina. in 10 cases, filariae were removed ...19892644857
filariases.it is apparent that there are many similarities among the various filariae. besides a common life cycle, with an arthropod vector and human hosts, there are similarities in the diseases that they produce. this clinical picture takes one of two main courses: (1) characteristic disease produced by the presence of adult nematodes in their target tissue, which distinguishes typical cases for each of the filariae, and (2) the systemic hypersensitivity reactions to the circulating microfilaria, which ...19892670375
clinical and biological study of loa loa filariasis in congolese.clinical and biological evaluations were carried out on 84 congolese patients with parasitologically confirmed loa loa filariasis (without concurrent infection with other filariae) and on 98 controls without filariasis. on the patients, 72 presented with microfilaremia; another 12 with negative blood tests were seen towards the end of an episode of subconjunctival migration of the adult worm. the incidence and severity of the clinical signs depended upon the method of recruitment. the 3 most com ...19892679158
[the inner body of loa loa microfilariae. morphologic and physiopathologic data].the innenkörper is visible in 80% of the cases of microfilariae loa loa we have studied and stained at ph 7.2. in thick blood film, however, it was not visible. it lies between the middle of the body and the g1 = r1, cell. the central viscus rarely take the form of a single elongated mass, it most often appears moniliform with 2 to 5 granular masses and it is sometimes reduced to a few number of granulations. its average length is 34 microns. as with w. bancrofti it would appear to have the role ...19892743515
[32 cases of recurrent localized edema on return from the tropics].thirty-two patients have been hospitalised in marseilles since 1979 for recurrent oedema following their return from a tropical region. in spite of strong suspicion, the diagnosis of loa loa was confirmed only five times. one patient was diagnosed with filariasis due to mansonella perstans. the diagnosis of loiasis was usually presumptive and there were often wide variations in the laboratory findings. two patients were thought to have an allergic reaction to diethylcarbamazine. another patient ...19892743518
[the efficacy and tolerance of ivermectin (mectizan) prescribed for the patient with multiple filarial infections (loa loa/onchocerca and/or m. perstans)].administration of ivermectin (mectizan) in loa loa filariasis induces a significant decrease of microfilaria load within 3 to 15 days. the excellent tolerability of the drug in patients infested simultaneously by o. volvulus and loa loa allows to use ivermectin in mass treatments in geographical areas where the same patients can be affected by several filariasis. there is almost no efficacy against mansonella perstans. a second administration one month after the first one in loa loa affected pat ...19892743519
loa loa in a sri lankan expatriate from nigeria.a worm was extracted from the subconjunctival space of the left eye in a 14-year old sri lankan girl, who returned to sri lanka in 1983 after spending six years in nigeria. it was identified as a male loa loa. a history of evanescent (calabar) swellings was obtained. she also had significant eosinophilia. microfilariae were not detected in the blood. this is the first case of loa loa infection reported from sri lanka.19892758511
presence of loa loa microfilariae in ascitic fluid. 19892760510
haemoparasites of blood donors in calabar.the study of haemoparasites in our blood donors revealed the following parasite prevalences: microfilaria (mf) of loa loa (1.3%); dipetalonema perstans (15.6%); loa loa and d. perstans (0.2%), plasmodium falciparum (3.3%), plasmodium malariae (1.0%) and a mixture of p. falciparum and p. malariae (0.2%). no trypanosomes were observed in the 480 blood samples screened. there were more cases of d. perstans infection in the 24-30 year age group, indicating their increased exposure frequencies. match ...19892763348
[prevention of human loa loa filariasis]. 19892782772
[loa loa filariasis, encephalitis and treatment with notézine: an underestimated complication?]. 19892782773
filarial orchitis: a cause of male infertility in the tropics--case report from nigeria.a young nigerian male, previously well, presented with a three month history of unilateral orchitis and testicular pain which had failed to respond to conventional antimicrobial therapy. exploration revealed non-specific epididymo-orchitis. histology of testicles and peritesticular tissue/nodules showed testicular atrophy and granulomatous changes suggestive of filarial genital infection. there was marked spermatogenic arrest, and oligoasthenozoospermia. his blood contained microfilaria loa loa, ...19892805057
[loa loa filariasis: cause of severe eosinophilia].two cases of very high hypereosinophilia (28,160 and 11,232/mm3) observed in congolese patients are presented. although microfilaraemia was not detectable, loiasis was diagnosed, given the clinical manifestations, epidemiological data, history of sub-conjunctival migration of the adult worm (in one case), spectacular recovery (clinical and biological) after treatment with diethylcarbamazine. this "allergic form" of filariasis is often considered unusual in indigenous subjects.19892805187
activation of the alternative complement pathway in normal human serum by loa loa and brugia malayi infective stage larvae.infective stage larvae (l3) of loa loa and brugia malayi upon in vitro incubation with normal human serum activated the alternative complement pathway. c3 conversion products were detected on larval cuticles by eosinophil adherence and by immunofluorescence with c3c antiserum. no evidence for cuticle binding of igg, iga, igm, clq, or c4 was found by immunofluorescence. l3-induced c3 activation was inhibited by 10 mm edta but unaffected by 10 mm mg++-egta. human sera deficient in c2, c4, or c6 in ...19852862778
loa loa--a pathogenic parasite. 19862875289
aseptic knee effusion with loa loa microfilariae in the articular fluid. 19892929230
platelet mediated killing of larvae from different filarial species in the presence of dipetalonema viteae stimulated ige antibodies.the platelets from normal rats interact with microfilariae of dipetalonema viteae in vitro in the presence of antibodies leading to the killing of the parasite. the antibody involved in this reaction is identified as ige because the absorption of immune rat serum on anti-rat ige column or the pretreatment of platelets with anti-fc epsilon receptor resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of killing of microfilariae. this antibody, which mediates platelet activity towards microfilari ...19852933630
filariasis in the igwun river basin, nigeria: an epidemiological and clinical study with a note on the vectors.in a cross-sectional, epidemiological and parasitological study of human filariasis, 845 individuals were examined in settlements along the igwun basin, imo state, nigeria. four different filarial nematode species were identified. two hundred and fifty-six (30.3%) of the individuals examined were positive for onchocerca volvulus, 113 (13.4%) for mansonella perstans, 76 (9.6%) for wuchereria bancrofti and 77 (9.1%) for loa loa. microfilarial rates increased with age of individuals and showed a te ...19883041931
identification of a surface antigen on loa loa microfilariae the recognition of which correlates with the amicrofilaremic state in man.filarial infections induce a spectrum of disease in their natural hosts, and by correlating immunity found in individuals with their disease pattern, one may delineate non-pathogenic, protective mechanisms. loa loa is causal of mild to moderate pathology, and it is unique among the human filaria in that adult worms are occasionally visible during subconjunctival migration. to study immune mechanisms controlling microfilaremia, sera from 15 subjects with amicrofilaremic occult loiasis (ol) were c ...19883049808
diethylcarbamazine prophylaxis for human loiasis. results of a double-blind study.to determine whether infection with loa loa could be prevented in temporary residents of endemic areas, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of diethylcarbamazine as a chemoprophylactic agent. diethylcarbamazine (300 mg) or placebo was taken orally once a week by peace corps volunteers serving in gabon, cameroon, and the central african republic. the participants were assessed clinically and with serologic and parasitologic testing before and yearly during their two ...19883166107
ivermectin in loiasis and concomitant o. volvulus and m. perstans infections.two clinical studies were carried out in gabon, africa to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ivermectin in the treatment of patients with loa loa infection. in the first study, 35 patients received single oral doses of ivermectin, 5-200 mcg/kg body weight. blood microfilariae levels did not decrease after a single oral 5, 10, 30, or 50 mcg/kg dose of ivermectin, but levels did decrease after doses of 100, 150, and 200 mcg/kg. the most efficacious dose was 200 mcg/kg; mean blood m ...19883195695
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