mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997-2002 in a wetland in northeastern mississippi.the species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near iuka, ms, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a pcr-based method that allows identification of the host to species. culex erraticus (dyar & knab) composed 51.9% of the population during the 6-yr period with 295 f ...200415185956
epidemiology of west nile virus in connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003.two hundred and ten isolations of west nile virus (wnv) were obtained from 17 mosquito species in six genera in statewide surveillance conducted in connecticut from june through october, 1999-2003. culex pipiens (86), culex salinarius (32), culex restuans (26), culiseta melanura (32), and aedes vexans (12) were implicated as the most likely vectors of wnv in the region based on virus isolation data. culex pipiens was abundant from july through september and is likely involved in early season enz ...200415682518
new collection records of psorophora ciliata (fabricius), psorophora ferox (humboldt) and anopheles earlei vargas in connecticut (diptera: culicidae). 19714399113
ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. i - monthly frequency and climatic factors.the ecology of mosquitoes were studied (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. systematized monthly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 24, 943 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. coquillettidia chrysonotum was the most frequent collected mosquit ...200010656698
ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. ii - habitat distribution.the mosquito (diptera: culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 24, 943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. aedes scapularis, coquillettidia chrysonotum, cq. venezuelensis, wyeomyia dyari, wy. ...200010656699
age structure of adult mosquito (diptera: culicidae) populations from buenos aires province, order to detect seasonal trends in the age structure of adult mosquitoes from buenos aires province, argentina, female populations were sampled with cdc traps during 1989-1991 in punta lara and la plata. the mosquitoes were dissected and age-grouped according to ovarian tracheation and ovariolar stages. all runchomyia paranensis females were parous, suggesting that this species could be autogenous. aedes albifasciatus showed parous peaks following population peaks, with shorter delays in spri ...19979332579
evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses.partial e1 envelope glycoprotein gene sequences and complete structural polyprotein sequences were used to compare divergence and construct phylogenetic trees for the genus alphavirus. tree topologies indicated that the mosquito-borne alphaviruses could have arisen in either the old or the new world, with at least two transoceanic introductions to account for their current distribution. the time frame for alphavirus diversification could not be estimated because maximum-likelihood analyses indic ...200111581380
ilheus virus isolate from a human, ecuador. 200717582910
infection of mansonia perturbans and psorophora ferox mosquitoes with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. 195613297756
genome of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (mosquito iridescent virus).iridoviruses (ivs) are classified into five genera: iridovirus and chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and ranavirus, lymphocystivirus, and megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. until now, chloriridovirus was the only iv genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (iiv-3), also known as mosquito iridescent viru ...200616912294
arbovirus transmission by culex nigripalpus in florida, 2005.understanding the transmission patterns of west nile and st. louis encephalitis viruses (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv and slev) could result in an increased ability to predict transmission risk to humans. to examine transmission patterns between vector and host, we trapped mosquitoes in three florida counties from june to november 2005 by using chicken-baited lard can mosquito traps. these traps were used to monitor for presence of wnv and slev in mosquitoes and subsequent transmis ...200818533444
spatial dispersion of adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in a sylvatic focus of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.we studied the spatial localization of mosquitoes in sylvatic focus of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western venezuela to identify mosquito species potentially involved in the hypothesized transport of viruses out of enzootic foci. the following criteria were used to identify species with potential for virus export: (1) common in the forest and surrounding area, (2) feeding on a wide range of vertebrates; (3) long dispersal capabilities, and (4) established vectorial competence for enz ...200111761379
locating suitable habitats for west nile virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in shelby county, tennessee.since its first detection in 2001, west nile virus (wnv) poses a significant health risk for residents of shelby county in tennessee. this situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for wnv-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. using the mahalanobis distance statistic, we identified areas of shelby county that are e ...200818373868
host-feeding patterns of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central north carolina.aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. the host-feeding patterns of ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in wake county, raleigh, nc. hosts of blood-fed ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in new zealand white rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic h ...200616739414
mosquitoes infected with dengue viruses in brazil.dengue epidemics have been reported in brazil since 1985. the scenery has worsened in the last decade because several serotypes are circulating and producing a hyper-endemic situation, with an increase of dhf/dss cases as well as the number of fatalities. herein, we report dengue virus surveillance in mosquitoes using a flavivirus genus-specific rt-hemi-nested-pcr assay. the mosquitoes (culicidae, n = 1700) collected in the northeast, southeast and south of brazil, between 1999 and 2005, were gr ...201020624314
life cycle and epizootiology of amblyospora ferocis (microspora: amblyosporidae) in the mosquito psorophora ferox (diptera: culicidae).a natural population of psorophora ferox (humbold, 1820) infected with the microsporidium amblyospora ferocis garcia et becnel, 1994 was sampled weekly during a seven-month survey in punta lara, buenos aires province, argentina. the sequence of development of a. ferocis in larvae of p. ferox leading to the formation of meiospores followed the developmental pathway previously reported for various species of amblyospora. the natural prevalence of a. ferocis in the larval population of p. ferox ran ...200314535341
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
penetration and development of the mermithid nematode reesimermis nielseni in eighteen species of mosquitoes.the susceptibility of 18 species of mosquitoes to the infective stage of the mermithid nematode reesimermis nielseni was compared to that of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. thirteen species were more susceptible, with three anopheles species and culiseta inornata the most susceptible. aedes triseriatus, culex territans, and psorophora ferox were highly resistant. resistance to r. nielseni appeared to be behavioral, physical, or physiological, and some host species exhibited one or more types of ...197519308157
eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. to evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit eeev, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in connecticut, usa, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quant ...201021122215
host feeding patterns of connecticut mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).blood-engorged coquillettidia perturbans, psorophora ferox, culex, culiseta, and aedes mosquitoes were collected principally by sweep net from salt marsh and woodland habitats in connecticut. of the 570 mosquitoes tested, precipitin tests identified the origins of 517 blood meals and revealed distinct host feeding patterns. aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals; a. abserratus, a. cantator, and a. vexans showed selectivity for cattle and (or) horses. a. cantator also obtained blood from avian h ...197717310
host-seeking height preferences of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in north central florida suburban and sylvatic locales.the response of aedes albopictus to the bg-sentinel, omni-directional-fay-prince, and mosquito magnetx traps was evaluated in four suburban and four sylvatic habitats in north-central florida to ascertain potential height preference of this species. these traps, which are primarily designed to attract diurnal mosquitoes, were set at 1 and 6 m and were evaluated during 40 trapping periods over 4 mo. we collected 45,640 mosquitoes, representing 26 species from 10 genera, the most common being aede ...200919645296
a tyrosine-to-histidine switch at position 18 of the ross river virus e2 glycoprotein is a determinant of virus fitness in disparate hosts.arthritogenic alphaviruses are human pathogens maintained in nature through alternating replication in vertebrates and mosquitoes. using chimeric viruses, we previously reported that replacement of the pe2 coding region of the t48 strain of ross river virus (rrv-t48) with that from the attenuated dc5692 strain, which differ by 7 amino acids, resulted in an attenuated disease phenotype in a mouse model of rrv-induced rheumatic disease. here, we demonstrate that introduction of one of these amino ...201323514884
ecology of culiseta melanura and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from walton county, fl, during winter period 2013-2014.winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) in northern florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic eeev winter transmission. light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (november-april) of 2013 and 2014 in walton county, fl. overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the st ...201526336227
experimental transmission of mayaro virus by aedes aegypti.outbreaks of mayaro fever have been associated with a sylvatic cycle of mayaro virus (mayv) transmission in south america. to evaluate the potential for a common urban mosquito to transmit mayv, laboratory vector competence studies were performed with aedes aegypti from iquitos, peru. oral infection in ae. aegypti ranged from 0% (0/31) to 84% (31/37), with blood meal virus titers between 3.4 log(10) and 7.3 log(10) plaque-forming units (pfu)/ml. transmission of mayv by 70% (21/30) of infected mo ...201121976583
mosquito surveillance for west nile virus in southeastern 2001, west nile virus (wnv) was identified among dead american crows and bluejays in five counties in southeastern wisconsin. in response to the introduction of wnv, a pilot mosquito surveillance program was initiated in these five southeastern wisconsin counties during the summer of 2002. forty sites were selected for surveillance one night each week during a 17-week period. mosquitoes were collected in carbon dioxide-baited light traps and gravid traps. during the study period 31,419 mosqui ...200315931283
vector-host interactions of culiseta melanura in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in southeastern virginia.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern usa. culiseta (cs.) melanura is the primary vector of eeev in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-atlantic region. the objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in ...201526327226
west nile virus infection in mosquitoes in the mid-south usa, 2002-2005.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) was first detected in the tennessee valley and in alabama in august 2001. in summer 2002, intensive viral activity was seen, but in subsequent years, viral activity settled into an enzootic pattern. here, we report an analysis of viral activity in the mosquito fauna in the mid-south from 2002 (the first year viral activity was detected in mosquitoes) through 2005. eight mosquito species were infected with wnv during 2002. however, vira ...200717294929
isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected in the amazon basin region of part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the amazon basin region of peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in loreto department, peru, for arboviruses. mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on vero cells for virus. in total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the alphavirus (eastern equine en ...200516366001
host associations of mosquitoes at eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in connecticut, usa.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus, with active transmission foci in freshwater hardwood swamps in eastern north america, where enzootic transmission is maintained between the ornithophilic mosquito, culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds. the role of other locally abundant mosquito species in virus transmission and their associations with vertebrate hosts as sources of blood meals within these foci are largely unknown but are of importa ...201627577939
culicidae (diptera) selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of chaco, argentina.studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by culicidae in three different environments in the province of chaco, argentina. mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). the mosquitoes were collected between june 2001-may 2002. during the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within di ...023903970
intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm.arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. the factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such a ...201323335900
exploring genomic, geographic and virulence interactions among epidemic and non-epidemic st. louis encephalitis virus (flavivirus) louis encephalitis virus (slev) is a re-emerging arbovirus in south america. in 2005, an encephalitis outbreak caused by slev was reported in argentina. the reason for the outbreak remains unknown, but may have been related to virological factors, changes in vectors populations, avian amplifying hosts, and/or environmental conditions. the main goal of this study was to characterize the complete genome of epidemic and non-epidemic slev strains from argentina. seventeen amino acid changes were ...201526312485
north american wetlands and mosquito control.wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. there is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by ...201223222252
modeling occurrence of urban mosquitos based on land use types and meteorological factors in korea.mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. it is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analys ...201526492260
crouching tiger, hidden trouble: urban sources of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) refractory to source-reduction.our ultimate objective is to design cost-effective control strategies for aedes albopictus, the asian tiger mosquito, an important urban nuisance and disease vector that expanded worldwide during the last 40 years. we conducted mosquito larval surveys from may through october 2009 in the city of trenton, new jersey, usa, while performing intensive monthly source-reduction campaigns that involved removing, emptying, or treating all accessible containers with larvicides and pupicides. we examined ...201324167593
fever versus fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus.two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (denv) and yellow fever virus (yfv), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by aedes aegypti mosquitoes. sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in west africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and aedes mosquitoes. these extensive similarities render the differences in the ...201323523817
predicting the mosquito species and vertebrate species involved in the theoretical transmission of rift valley fever virus in the united states.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental africa to madagascar and the arabian peninsula. the establishment of rvfv in north america would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. published and unpublished data on rvfv vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the united states were combined ...201425211133
urban mosquito fauna in mérida city, méxico: immatures collected from containers and storm-water drains/catch basins.we examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from november 2011 to june 2013 in mérida city, méxico. a wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. in total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. the most commonly collected species were aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (n = 60,961) a ...025429168
preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting a wetland study site in tuskegee national forest, al, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. we collected 12,888 female mosq ...200818666530
mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the delmarva peninsula.a study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from july to september) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the e.a. vaughn wetland management area on the maryland delmarva peninsula, usa. study marshes are characteristic of atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. in the autumn of 2008 (october and november) ditches were plugged near their ...201121909293
west nile virus infection in mosquitoes, birds, horses, and humans, staten island, new york, 2000.west nile (wn) virus transmission in the united states during 2000 was most intense on staten island, new york, where 10 neurologic illnesses among humans and 2 among horses occurred. wn virus was isolated from aedes vexans, culex pipiens, cx. salinarius, ochlerotatus triseriatus, and psorophora ferox, and wn viral rna was detected in anopheles punctipennis. an elevated weekly minimum infection rate (mir) for cx. pipiens and increased dead bird density were present for 2 weeks before the first h ...200111589172
emergence of a new arbovirus disease in brazil. iii. isolation of rocio virus from psorophora ferox (humboldt, 1819).a newly described flavivirus was responsible for a large encephalitis epidemic in são paulo state, brazil. the etiologic agent, rocio virus, was isolated from human patients and sentinel mice. the natural history of the virus is unknown although presumed to be arthropod-borne. rocio virus was isolated from a single pool containing 19 psorophora ferox of 47 pools (283 specimens) of this species tested. the positive pool contained 16 deplete, 2 gravid, and 2 engorged mosquitoes. no isolations were ...19816110335
isolation of buggy creek virus (togaviridae: alphavirus) from field-collected eggs of oeciacus vicarius (hemiptera: cimicidae).alphaviruses (togaviridae) rarely have been found to be vertically transmitted from female arthropods to their progeny. we report two isolations of buggy creek virus (bcrv), an ecologically unusual alphavirus related to western equine encephalomyelitis virus, from field-collected eggs of cimicid swallow bugs (oeciacus vicarius horvath), the principal vector for bcrv. ten percent of egg pools were positive for bcrv, and we estimated minimum infection rates to be 1.03 infected eggs per 1,000 teste ...200919351091
isolations of jamestown canyon virus (bunyaviridae: orthobunyavirus) from field-collected mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in connecticut, usa: a ten-year analysis, 1997-2006.jamestown canyon virus (jcv) (bunyaviridae: orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis belonging to the california serogroup. it has a wide geographic distribution, occurring throughout much of temperate north america. white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus are the principal amplification hosts, and boreal aedes and ochlerotatus mosquitoes are the primary vectors. a 10-year study was undertaken to identify potential mosquito vectors in connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of inf ...200818386967
resting and energy reserves of aedes albopictus collected in common landscaping vegetation in st. augustine, florida.the resting behavior of aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in st. augustine, fl. energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified john w. hock backpack aspirator during june ...024199497
delayed egg hatching of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae) pending water agitation.mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. however, we have found that anopheles gambiae giles, an important vector of malaria in africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the f ...024897850
mosquito oviposition behavior and vector control.the burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. the selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. the dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of ovipositio ...201627869724
spatial and temporal distribution of resting female mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the coastal plain of north carolina.the spatial and temporal distribution of 28 species of female mosquitoes resting in natural (swamp, woods, and swamp-woods ecotone) and human-made (beneath bridges) habitats in blackwater stream-associated ecosystems in duplin county, n.c., was determined by sampling with a d-vac vacuum aspirator during 1984 and 1985. two types of resting distributions were evident. in type one, species including aedes atlanticus dyar & knab, ae. canadensis (theobald), ae. triseriatus (say), and psorophora ferox ...19921353797
arboviruses isolated from mosquitos and man in the capital of surinam, and in parts of the coastal plain and the savannah belt 47 strains of arbovirus were isolated from mosquito pools and from sentinel mice. most of the strains (51%) were of the mucambo type. the other types were guama, bimiti, una, catu, restan, maru, and kwatta. culex portesi was found to be the principal vector of all but one (maru) types. other vectors found to be carriers of arboviruses were psorophora ferox, mansonia venezuelensis, and aëdes serratus. the highest p ...19753002
ecology of potential west nile virus vectors in southeastern louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of culex quinquefasciatus.a study of west nile virus (wnv) ecology was conducted in st. tammany parish, louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. a total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. wnv was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. significantly more positive poo ...201323478575
west nile virus-infected mosquitoes, louisiana, 2002.human cases of west nile virus (wnv) disease appeared in st. tammany and tangipahoa parishes in southeastern louisiana in june 2002. cases peaked during july, then rapidly declined. we conducted mosquito collections from august 3 to august 15 at residences of patients with confirmed and suspected wnv disease to estimate species composition, relative abundance, and wnv infection rates. a total of 31,215 mosquitoes representing 25 species were collected by using primarily gravid traps and co2-bait ...200516229769
generation of recombinant oropouche viruses lacking the nonstructural protein nsm or nss.oropouche virus (orov) is a midge-borne human pathogen with a geographic distribution in south america. orov was first isolated in 1955, and since then, it has been known to cause recurring outbreaks of a dengue-like illness in the amazonian regions of brazil. orov, however, remains one of the most poorly understood emerging viral zoonoses. here we describe the successful recovery of infectious orov entirely from cdna copies of its genome and generation of orov mutant viruses lacking either the ...201526699638
diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the pacific coast of mexico.the abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the pacific coast of mexico. diversity was estimated using the shannon index (h'), similarity measures and cluster analysis.201424450800
spatial-temporal analysis of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae: orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the northeastern united states, 1997-2012.cache valley virus (cvv) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of north and central america. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. cvv has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. a 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates o ...025325321
dispersal of culex mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from a wastewater treatment facility.a mark-recapture project examined dispersal and flight distances of culex mosquitoes from a wastewater treatment plant in albany, ny, during 2007 and 2008. a self-marking device was constructed to mark egressing mosquitoes with fluorescent marking powder. mosquitoes were recaptured using 30 cdc miniature light traps located within a 2.0 km radius of the marking site. a total of 13 and 10 marked culex mosquitoes were recaptured in 2007 and 2008, respectively. culex mosquitoes traveled a minimum o ...022308769
commensal viruses of mosquitoes: host restriction, transmission, and interaction with arboviral pathogens.recent advances in virus detection strategies and deep sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of a multitude of new viruses that persistently infect mosquitoes but do not infect vertebrates. these are usually referred to as insect-specific viruses (isvs). these novel viruses have generated considerable interest in their modes of transmission, persistence in mosquito populations, the mechanisms that restrict their host range to mosquitoes, and their interactions with pathogens tr ...201728096646
ecological characterization of the aquatic habitats of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in enzootic foci of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western venezuela.we studied the aquatic mosquito habitats in and around enzootic foci of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (vee) in western venezuela. specimens were sampled for 5 mo in three types of vegetation: tall lowland tropical forests, short inundated/secondary growth forests, and pastures/herbaceous vegetation around forests. ground pools, flooded pastures, swamps, ponds, and canals predominated. we used a multivariate statistical approach to quantitatively assess the relationships of mosquito specie ...200515962775
mosquito-host interactions during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis in eastern panama.mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from aruza abajo, ...201324339965
phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology.phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. the generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address.200920028549
the juan non-ltr retrotransposon in mosquitoes: genomic impact, vertical transmission and indications of recent and widespread contrast to dna-mediated transposable elements (tes), retrotransposons, particularly non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-ltrs), are generally considered to have a much lower propensity towards horizontal transfer. detailed studies on site-specific non-ltr families have demonstrated strict vertical transmission. more studies are needed with non-site-specific non-ltr families to determine whether strict vertical transmission is a phenomenon related to site specificity or a more gener ...200717620143
feeding habits of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in an area of sylvatic transmission of yellow fever in the state of são paulo, brazil.the reintroduction of sylvatic yellow fever in the state of são paulo after about six decades was confirmed in the northwestern region in 2000, where in 2008 there also occurred an important epizootic. the purpose of this study was to investigate the feeding habits of culicids potentially involved in the sylvatic transmission of the virus in this region.201525810711
an experimental model of meningoencephalomyelitis by rocio flavivirus in balb/c mice: inflammatory response, cytokine production, and histopathology.abstract. rocio virus (rocv) is a flavivirus, probably transmitted by culex mosquitoes and maintained in nature as a zoonosis of wild birds. rocio virus caused a human epidemic of severe encephalitis that lasted from 1973 to 1980 in the ribeira valley, in the southeastern coast of brazil. after this outbreak, serologic evidence of rocv circulation has been reported and public health authorities are concerned about a return of rocv outbreaks in brazil. we show here a study on the pathogenesis and ...201121813860
ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. iii. daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence.the ecology of mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) was studied in areas of the serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. the influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. sabethini species we ...200011080757
reemergence of yellow fever: detection of transmission in the state of s+úo paulo, brazil, 2008.following yellow fever virus (yfv) isolation in monkeys from the s+úo jos+® do rio preto region and two fatal human autochthonous cases from the ribeir+úo preto region, state of s+úo paulo, brazil, two expeditions for entomological research and eco-epidemiological evaluation were conducted.201121739073
evaluation of butanone, carbon dioxide, and 1-octen-3-ol as attractants for mosquitoes associated with north central florida bay and cypress swamps.field studies were conducted to determine the responses of mosquitoes found in north central florida bay and cypress swamps to carbon dioxide (co2), light, butanone, and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), alone and co2 in combination with each of the others. the response of these mosquito species to 5 co2 release rates (2, 20, 100, 200, and 2,000 ml/min) of co2 was also determined. the use of co2 resulted in a response in all the species studied; the pattern of response to increasing co2 levels varied from ...19989813827
schools as potential risk sites for vector-borne disease transmission: mosquito vectors in rural schools in two municipalities in colombia.dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in colombia. vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. the objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmissi ...201526375902
classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of chaco, classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between june 2001-october 2003 in the subtropical province of chaco, argentina. data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. data on the permanence, temperature, ph, turbidity, ...201121739026
endemic venezuelan equine encephalitis in the americas: hidden under the dengue umbrella.venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) is an emerging infectious disease in latin america. outbreaks have been recorded for decades in countries with enzootic circulation, and the recent implementation of surveillance systems has allowed the detection of additional human cases in countries and areas with previously unknown vee activity. clinically, vee is indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases and confirmatory diagnosis requires the use of specialized laboratory tests that are ...201121765860
sequence and secondary structure comparisons of its rdna in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) of the mosquito aedes aegypti, and the its2 of six related species, a. simpsoni, a. albopictus, a. vexans, a. triseriatus, haemagogus mesodentatus, and psorophora ferox are reported. intraspecific variation in a. aegypti its1 is 1.07% among four clones from three individuals, and in the its2 is 1.17% among 15 clones from four individuals. in a. simpsoni, intraspecific its2 variation is 0.46% among 10 clones from a single individual. a ...19921364170
allethrin-based mosquito control device causing knockdown, morbidity, and mortality in four species of field-caught mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).a mosquito control device marketed for spatial repellency, the thermacell mosquito repellent appliance, was evaluated in semifield trials against multiple field-caught species of mosquito. using paper and mesh cages, mosquito test groups of at least 30 mosquitoes were suspended in a 2,337 cubic foot outdoor space while two thermacell repellent devices were active. after 30 min of treatment, cages were moved to the laboratory to observe knockdown, morbidity, and mortality for 24 h. species tested ...201526335485
spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (diptera, culicidae) in vale do ribeira in the south-eastern brazilian atlantic forest.mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. aedes serratus (theobald), aedes scapularis (rondani) and psorophora ferox (von humboldt) are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in vale do ribeira, located in the atlantic forest in the southeast of the state of são paulo, brazil. the objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. result ...201222331150
field evaluation of three botanical repellents against psorophora ferox, aedes atlanticus, and aedes mitchellae.three botanical natural repellents, swamp buddy bug chaser (ai 12% plant-based essential oils), all sport (ai plant-based essential oils, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, and octisalate), and geraniol (ai 25% geraniol oil and lemongrass extract) were evaluated at a field site in elkton, florida, to determine the protection time provided against psorophora ferox, aedes atlanticus, and ae. mitchellae. these three products provided different protection times against biting mosquitoes. geraniol provided ...200919852232
weather and landscape factors associated with adult mosquito abundance in southwestern georgia, u.s.a.mosquito community composition and population dynamics were compared to weather variables and land use/cover data during 2008 to determine which variables affected population dynamics at the j.w. jones ecological research center in southwestern georgia. models relating adult mosquito distributions to weather variables and time of year were compared using akaike's information criterion (aic) model selection. precipitation, temperature, humidity, and keetch-byram drought index were important facto ...201122129398
ecological aspects of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the gallery forest of brasília national park, brazil, with an emphasis on potential vectors of yellow fever.we analyzed the vertical and monthly distributions of culicid species in the gallery forest of brasília national park, with an emphasis on the potential vectors of yellow fever (yf).201424142367
potential sympatric vectors and mammalian hosts of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in southern mexico.arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. we studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern mexico. mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in calakmul (campeche) and montes azules (chiapas), between november 2010 and august 2011. spleen samples from 146 bats and 14 rodents were tested for molecula ...201728384059
association of vectors and environmental conditions during the emergence of peruvian horse sickness orbivirus and yunnan orbivirus in northern peru.since 1983, cases of diseased donkeys and horses with symptoms similar to those produced by alphaviruses were identified in two departments in northern peru; however serological testing ruled out the presence of those viruses and attempts to isolate an agent were also unproductive. in 1997, also in northern peru, two new orbiviruses were discovered, each recognized as a causative agent of neurological diseases in livestock and domestic animals and, at the same time, mosquitoes were found to be i ...201526611971
potential for mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from florida to transmit rift valley fever virus.we evaluated aedes atlanticus dyar and knab, aedes infirmatus dyar and knab, aedes vexans (meigen), anopheles crucians wiedemann, coquillettidia perturbans (walker), culex nigripalpus theobald, mansonia dyari belkin, heinemann, and page, and psorophora ferox (von humboldt) from florida to determine which of these species should be targeted for control should rift valley fever virus (rvfv) be detected in north america. female mosquitoes that had fed on adult hamsters inoculated with rvfv were inc ...201324180117
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis (nematoda: filarioidea) in mosquitoes from northeast arkansas, the united states.a mosquito survey was conducted to identify which species of mosquitoes carry dirofilaria immitis (leidy) (nematoda: filarioidea), dog heartworm, in northeast arkansas. using polymerase chain reaction, mosquitoes were analyzed for d. immitis, dirofilaria repens railliet & henry, and acanthocheilonema dracunculoides cobbold. mosquitoes were collected from april to october 2009 using black light ultraviolet traps baited with dry ice. sixteen mosquito species were identified. d. immitis was identif ...201323926787
mosquito communities in nova iguaçu natural park, rio de janeiro, brazil.abstract. in order to gather information on the culicid fauna of nova iguaçu municipal park, rio de janeiro, brazil, adult and immature stages were collected with the centers for disease control and prevention miniature light traps, and dippers and suction tubes, respectively. in all, 828 adult and 990 immature specimens were collected belonging to 12 genera. among the species collected were aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, ae. fluviatilis, ae. scapularis, haemagogus leucocelaenus, and psorophora ...201425102590
adult mosquitoes parasitized by larval water mites in pennsylvania.a survey of water mite larvae parasitizing adult mosquitoes was conducted throughout pennsylvania. in total, 929,873 individuals and 46 species of mosquitoes were collected from 6,499 sites, and mites were examined from a subset of the parasitized mosquitoes. from 282 of the sites, 1,836 mosquitoes were parasitized by 4,769 mites, with a mean intensity of 2.6, ranging from 1 to 31. twenty-one species of mosquitoes representing aedes, anopheles, coquillettidia, culex, ochlerotatus, orthopodomyia, ...201322924904
body size, blood feeding activity, and fecundity of psorophora howardii, psorophora ciliata, and psorophora ferox (diptera: culicidae).field-collected female psorophora howardii (coquillett), psorophora ciliate (f.), and psorophora ferox (humboltd) mosquitoes were tested in laboratory conditions to measure body size, blood engorgement duration, bloodmeal size, fecundity, and egg morphology. mean bloodmeal size was significantly different among the three species of mosquitoes, whereas there was no difference in blood engorgement duration. mean body weights and wing lengths of ps. howardii and ps. ciliata were significantly great ...201424724287
swarming and some other habits of mansonia perturbans and psorophora ferox (diptera: culicidae). 19644385538
identifying psorophora horrida females in north carolina (diptera:culicidae).morphological characters to separate psorophora horrida (dyar and knab) and psorophora ferox (von humboldt) females are identified and defined. in addition to the 3 characters used to separate these 2 species in published keys, an additional 6 characters were found. of the total of 9 characters identified, 6 are reliable at the 100% level, based on north carolina specimens. these additional characters will assist greatly in identifying ps, horrida specimens. variation or hindtarsomere 4 of ps. h ...19969046482
comparing the egg ultrastructure of three psorophora ferox (diptera: culicidae) populations.characterising the external morphology of mosquito eggs is important, since it facilitates the identification of material from breeding sites and contributes to the understanding of species biology and group systematics. therefore, was to compare eggs from different psorophora ferox populations using scanning electron microscopy (sem). eggs were obtained from adult female of ps. ferox collected in the poços das antas biological reserve (reserva biológica de poços das antas, rio de janeiro, brazi ...201729091117
a checklist of the mosquitoes of maine with new state records.a revised checklist of the mosquito fauna known to occur in maine is reported. in addition we are detailing the finding of eight new state records in five genera, that is, anopheles barberi, culiseta minnesotae, ochlerotatus dorsalis, oc. japonicus, oc. riparius, oc. taeniorhynchus, psorophora ferox, and uranotaenia sapphirina. locality records are given.200616878418
enzootic mosquito vector species at equine encephalitis transmission foci in the república de panamá.the identification of mosquito vector species present at arboviral enzootic transmission foci is important to understand transmission eco-epidemiology and to propose and implement prevention and control strategies that reduce vector-borne equine encephalitis transmission. the goal of this study was to identify mosquito species potentially involved in the transmission of enzootic equine encephalitis, in relation to their abundance and diversity at three endemic regions in the república de panamá. ...201728937995
emergence of new insect-restrictive viruses in the amazon region.the complete genome was determined for 12 viruses isolated from 8 different pools of mosquitoes (culex sp. and psorophora ferox) collected at brejeira farm, canaan dos carajas, para state in northern brazil. eight of the viruses were distantly related to piura virus, hereafter designated as brejeira virus; the other 4 were similar to wallerfield virus.201525792052
molecular identification of blood meals in mosquitoes (diptera, culicidae) in urban and forested habitats in southern brazil.the study of host associations of mosquitoes (diptera, culicidae) provides valuable information to assist in our understanding of a variety of related issues, from their life-history to the entomological surveillance of pathogens. in this study, we identified and characterized mosquito blood meals from both urban and forested areas in the city of paranaguá, state of paraná, brazil, by analyzing the amplification of host dna ingested by mosquitoes under different storage conditions and digestion ...201930779816
description of the eggs of psorophora ciliata and psorophora ferox (diptera: culicidae, aedini) from the east of the brazilian state of santa catarina using scanning electron microscopy.scanning electron microscopy was used to examine and describe the egg of psorophora ciliata, which was not previous adequately described, and the egg of ps. ferox, which exhibited regional variation. eggs of ps. ciliata have long tubercles (length 26.7±1.72 µm) in the outer chorion, surrounded by a hexagonal reticulation. the micropyle (external diameter, to the outer edge of the collar, 26.59 µm; internal diameter 20.8 µm) is surrounded by an irregular collar with a thickness of 14.97 ±0.63 µm. ...201830313978
sugar meal composition of five north central florida mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) as determined by gas chromatography.gas chromatography was used to analyze sugars found in individual crops fed on by wild caught adult anopheles quadrimaculatus s.l. (say), coquillettidia perturbans (walker), culex nigripalpus theobald, culiseta melanura (coquillett), and psorophora ferox (von humboldt) from several north central florida locations. a wide range of sugars was found, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, turanose, melezitose, trehalose, raffinose, erlose, and traces of arabinose, rhamnose, and several unkn ...199910467774
[mosquitoes (diptera: culiciadae) as potential vectors of arboviruses in the urabá region, northwest of colombia].studies directed to investigate ecological parameters of sylvatic mosquitoes populations permit the establishment of risk levels in the transmission of arboviruses and provide the basis for recommendations to health authorities about prevention, surveillance and control.201223242299
first record of psorophora ferox in durango state, mexico.during august-november of 2018, mosquito collections were conducted with the intention of monitoring the presence of arboviruses in durango state, mexico. species collected included psorophora (janthinosoma) ferox. in mexico, 24 species of the genus psorophora have been previously reported, whereas in the state of durango, only 2 species have been reported: psorophora (grabhamia) columbiae and ps. (gra.) signipennis. this is the 1st record of ps. ferox and the subgenus janthinosoma in durango. w ...201931647711
twenty years of surveillance for eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in new york state from 1993 to 2012.the year 1971 was the first time in new york state (nys) that eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) was identified in mosquitoes, in culiseta melanura and culiseta morsitans. at that time, state and county health departments began surveillance for eeev in mosquitoes.201829941031
detection of novel and recognized rna viruses in mosquitoes from the yucatan peninsula of mexico using metagenomics and characterization of their in vitro host ranges.a metagenomics approach was used to detect novel and recognized rna viruses in mosquitoes from the yucatan peninsula of mexico. a total of 1359 mosquitoes of 7 species and 5 genera (aedes, anopheles, culex, mansonia and psorophora) were sorted into 37 pools, homogenized and inoculated onto monolayers of aedes albopictus (c6/36) cells. a second blind passage was performed and then total rna was extracted and analysed by rna-seq. two novel viruses, designated uxmal virus and mayapan virus, were id ...201830412047
dna barcodes and evidence of cryptic diversity of anthropophagous mosquitoes in quintana roo, mexico.culicidae mosquitoes are potential vectors of pathogens that affect human health. the correct species identification, as well as the discovery and description of cryptic species, is important in public health for the control and management of specific vectors. in the present study, the diversity of anthropophagous mosquitoes in quintana roo, at the border between mexico and belize, was evaluated using morphological and molecular data (coi-dna barcoding). a total of 1,413 adult female specimens w ...201931031936
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