the effects of environmental and physiological conditions of culex tritaeniorhynchus on the pattern of transmission of japanese encephalitis virus. 19761011230
observations on mating behavior and survivorship of culex tritaeniorhynchus giles (diptera: culicidae) during late culex tritaeniorhynchus males and females from a laboratory strain and the progeny of wild-caught females were released at a rural village on the outskirts of lahore during late autumn to study mating behavior in nature at a time when population abundance was declining. although both released and endemic males were numerous, few recaptured females were inseminated. apparently during late autumn there normally is a cessation of mating activity as the population begins to enter the overwint ...1977614715
epidemiological studies on japanese encephalitis in kyoto city area, japan. iii. seasonal prevalence of virus infections in several pig populations shown by virus recovery from engorged culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus.when vector mosquitoes engorged by feeding on pigs are tested for virus recovery after incubation for 7 to 10 days, the results may show mosquito infection itself. therefore, seasonal prevalence of infection in each pig population can be estimated from course of the infection rate among mosquitoes. many mosquitoes of the main vector of japanese encephalitis virus, culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus, collected by light traps everyday or every other day in some pig sheds from 1967 to 1970 were tes ...1978215807
epidemiological studies on japanese encephalitis in kyoto city area, japan. iv. natural infection in sentinel pigs.natural infection with japanese encephalitis virus in three sentinel pigs held in separate experimental huts was examined daily by virus recovery from blood samples of the pigs and from mosquitoes after incubation for about 7 days from their blood feeding and by hi antibody titration of the blood samples. after a period of low infection rates, below 6%, for about two weeks in engorged culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus, high mosquito infections of over 30% from each viremic pig occurred for two ...1978213633
host preference of mosquito vectors of japanese encephalitis.the host preference of 4 culex mosquito species collected in miaoli and pingtung counties, taiwan was studied by capillary precipitin method. antisera to alum-precipitated sera of man, bovine, swine, rabbit, horse, dog, cat, mouse, chicken, duck, and pigeon were produced in rabbits and reacted with 758 mosquito blood meals among which reactions to one or more antisera. culex annulus and culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus showed a great avidity for pig, and culex fuscocephala for bovine. culex pi ...1975181218
experimental transmission of japanese encephalitis virus by culex tritaeniorhynchus and c. fuscocephalus.experimental transmission of japanese encephalitis virus from swine to baby chicks was accomplished using culex tritaeniorhynchus and culex fuscocephalus, two of three mosquito species in taiwan from which the virus has been recovered in nature. whereas neither species had become infective by the twelfth day, one of ten c. fuscocephalus and 11 of 51 c. tritaeniorhynchus were infective by the seventeenth day of extrinsic incubation as verified by viraemia in chicks fed upon by potentially infecti ...1975168819
evaluation of dursbanr and dowco 214 as mosquito larvicides in rice-fields.emulsifiable concentrates of dursbanr (chlorpyrifos) and dowco 214 (chlorpyrifos-methyl) were tested as mosquito larvicides using hudson knapsack sprayers on small plots of rice-fields on penang island. the mosquitoes found in these rice-fields are predominantly anopheles campestris and culex tritaeniorhynchus. at dosages of 14, 28 and 56 gm hectare-1, dursban is effective in maintaining the rice-fields free of anopheles larvae for at least 2, 3 and 7 days respectively. dowco 214 at 56 gm hectar ...197770078
japanese encephalitis virus plaque formation in culex tritaeniorhynchus cell monolayers. 197549929
a quantitative mosquito survey of 7 villages in punjab province, pakistan with notes on bionomics, sampling methodology and the effects of insecticides.a total of 451,337 female and male mosquitoes comprising 43 species in 9 genera were collected during a quantitative survey of 7 suburban and rural villages in the lahore area during 1976 and 1977 using larval, indoor resting, outdoor resting, biting and light trap collections at weekly intervals. culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most abundant species collected comprising 51.8% of the total specimens, followed by cx. quinquefasciatus (16.4%), cx. pseudovishnui (6.8%), an. subpictus (4.8%) and an. ...197835839
japanese encephalitis virus from pigs and mosquitoes in jakarta, indonesia.japanese encephalitis virus was isolated from 11 pools of culex tritaeniorhynchus and a single pool of c. gelidus mosquitoes at a pig-raising area near jakarta, west java, indonesia, during 1972-74. ten sentinel pigs placed in the area all developed haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against japanese encephalitis and the virus was isolated from the blood of 3.19757033
mosquito blood feeding patterns as a factor in the epidemiology of japanese encephalitis in southern india.determinations were made of the source of 16,330 bloodmeals from 10 species of culex mosquitoes, including recognized vectors of japanese encephalitis (je) virus, in two epidemiologically distinct areas in southern india. in madurai, where cases occurred sporadically and pigs were reared only in some villages, cx. tritaeniorhynchus, cx. pseudovishnui, and cx. vishnui had fed predominantly on cattle (89.2-91%), but less frequently on humans (2.1-6.2%) and on pigs and ardeid birds (0-0.1%). in nal ...19921320343
[observation on the effectiveness of repellent coating against mosquitoes].the present paper reports on the effectiveness of a repellent coating for the first time. the repellent coating was made by combining deta (n,n-diethyl-meta-toluamide) with slow-releasing reagent. with this coating employed in the laboratory against aedes aegypti, the rate of blood-sucking was 3.9-9.5% and the rate of protection was 88.9-95.3% for 1-720 days. during 1-77 days' field trial, the rpi (relative population index) was 0-8.98% in the day-time and 0.74-17.15 during the night-time agains ...19921307278
arbovirus infections in sarawak: the role of the domestic pig.the possible role of pigs as arbovirus maintenance hosts and their importance as amplifier hosts was studied. blood samples from 464 pigs of all ages collected in 1962 and 1964 were tested against 10 arboviruses. antibodies to japanese encephalitis and getah viruses were particularly prevalent and their calculated monthly infection rates were 19-5% and 13-3% respectively. in 1969, 447 pigs were bled monthly throughout the year and the infection rates for japanese encephalitis virus were calculat ...19761265821
japanese encephalitis virus in northern taiwan, 1969-1973.sentinel pigs were bled and mosiquitoes were collected for isolation of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) between 1969 and 1973 in a rural area of northern taiwan which reported a high annual incidence of human cases. the study site included a farmyard, schools, a bat cave, rice paddies and a heronry. although culex annulus was collected in every month of the year, isolations were made only in midsummer and only from culex annulus and (once) from culex tritaeniorhynchus. these isolates were usua ...1976180845
a note on culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, 1901, in villages near delhi. 1976965070
kaikalur virus--a new arthropod-borne virus belonging to the simbu group isolated in india from culex tritaeniorhynchus (giles). 1977608738
japanese encephalitis virus in bangkok: factors influencing vector infections in three suburban unexpected outbreak of japanese encephalitis (je) in bangkok in 1985 led us to investigate the vector ecology of urban je from january 1986 to june 1987 at three suburban sites that displayed a wide range of factors imputed to influence je transmission. culex tritaeniorhynchus giles and cx. gelidus theobald, suspected vectors, comprised 71-96% of all mosquitoes collected by co2-baited cdc traps at the three sites. mean of mosquito abundance per two trap-nights per month ranged from 28 to 5,72 ...19921320699
japanese encephalitis in sri lanka--the study of an epidemic: vector incrimination, porcine infection and human disease.a prospective study of mosquito vectors, porcine infection and human disease was carried out during a japanese encephalitis (je) epidemic in the north central province of sri lanka (november-december 1987) and a subsequent non-epidemic year (1988). the epidemic involved 361 cases of human encephalitis, virologically confirmed by immunoglobulin m enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and was preceded 2-3 weeks earlier by sentinel porcine seroconversion. virus isolation and viral antigen dete ...19921329275
development of an attenuated strain for japanese encephalitis live virus vaccine for porcine develop japanese encephalitis live virus vaccine for the prevention of stillbirth in swine, an attempt was made to produce an attenuated virus. primary bovine kidney cell culture was used to carry out serial passages of a field strain at 30 degrees c for a long time. during these passages cloning was repeated with the character of reproductive capacity at given temperature (rct) and plaque sizes as markers. as a result, an attenuated s- strain was produced successfully. it was rct/37- and rct ...19751121330
growth of japanese encephalitis virus in culex tritaeniorhynchus cell cultures.ovarian cells from the mosquito culex tritaeniorhynchus established in continuous tissue cultures have been found to support the growth of japanese encephalitis virus with titers reaching as high as 10(7.36) micld50 per 0.03 ml. virus-cell cultures were serially subcultured 60 times over 300 days and the virulence of the virus was determined after each passage. a gradual loss in virus titer was observed, with titers always higher in the medium than in the cells. cytopathogenic effects were not o ...19751238028
japanese encephalitis virus in mosquito salivary glands.culex tritaeniorhynchus and c. pipiens mosquitoes were infected with japanese encephalitis virus either by intrathoracic injection or by membrane feeding. the virus maturation sites and the process of virus particle concentration in salivary gland cells were studied by electron microscopy. occurrence of mature virions was primarily associated with intracytoplasmic viral matrices which were extraordinarily large and had a perinuclear location in c. pipiens mosquitoes. the other sign of virus repl ...1979219722
susceptibility status of five species of japanese encephalitis vectors to insecticides from kolar district, karnataka.susceptibility tests were conducted on the adults of five species of mosquito vectors of japanese encephalitis (je) viz., culex tritaeniorhynchus, c. vishnui, c. pseudovishnui, c. gelidus and c. fuscocephala from kolar district, karnataka during 1990-91 against organo chloride compounds (ddt 4%, dieldrin 4%), organo phosphate compounds (malathion 5%, fenitrothion 1.0%), carbamate (propoxur 0.1%) and pyrethroid (deltamethrin--oms 0.025%). all the five species were found susceptible to malathion. ...19921337898
distribution of split 5.8s ribosomal rna in diptera.although the 5.8s ribosomal rna (rrna) of most eucaryotes consists of 155-170 nucleotides, in two dipterous species the 5.8s rrna consists of two pieces, 123 and 30 nucleotides in length. the distribution of split 5.8s rrna was studied in other diptera and the most closely related order siphonaptera to learn the origin of split 5.8s rrna. four species of mosquitoes, culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex pipiens molestus, aedes albopictus, anopheles sp. (culicidae) had a single 5.8s rrna consisting of a ...19921343775
a mark-release-recapture experiment with culex tritaeniorhynchus giles. 1978653789
horizontal and vertical estimates of immature survivorship for culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) in pakistan. 1979537004
arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during 1988 in the senegal river basin.during august and september 1988, we collected adult mosquitoes from 14 locations in the senegal river basin to search for evidence of rift valley fever (rvf) viral activity one year after the 1987 outbreak, which occurred along the senegal-mauritania border. more than 62,000 specimens representing 18 species in seven genera were collected with carbon dioxide-baited, solid-state army miniature light traps and sheep-baited traps. twenty virus isolations from culex, aedes, and anopheles mosquitoes ...19921361722
survey of adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) during irrigation development in the mahaweli project, sri lanka.a survey of adult mosquitoes was done during 1986-1987 in an area undergoing irrigation development in the mahaweli project of sri lanka. the study encompassed two 12-mo phases of settlement and irrigation, respectively. diurnal human bait catches yielded 1,427 female mosquitoes in 27 species. nocturnal collections (human bait, cdc light traps, indoor resting catches) produced a total of 30,491 females in 67 species. comparisons with an earlier survey in the predevelopment forest showed that the ...19911678784
evaluation of the water fern azolla microphylla for mosquito population management in the rice-land agro-ecosystem of south india.the floating water fern azolla microphylla kaulfess was evaluated as a biocontrol agent against mosquitoes breeding in rice fields in tamil nadu, south india. anopheles subpictus grassi, culex pseudovishnui colless and culex tritaeniorhynchus giles were the predominant species of mosquitoes, with peak densities of late instar larvae and pupae occurring during the second week after transplantation of rice seedlings of short-term (c. 80 days from transplantation to harvest) or medium-term (c. 95 d ...19911768923
distribution of biting culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) among pigs: effects of host size and behavior.the distribution of biting culex tritaeniorhynchus giles females among pigs was analyzed to determine the effect of host size and behavior on host selection by the mosquitoes. the number of cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected per sow was significantly greater than that on her piglets. sleeping piglets were attacked more frequently by mosquitoes than wakeful ones. the distribution of biting mosquitoes among different-sized piglets was aggregated compared with expected random distribution, and one of ...19911875372
susceptibility studies on culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, 1901, to insecticides in the state of goa.tests conducted on the adults of c. tritaeniorhynchus in goa during 1988-89 against organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides showed that the lc50 values against ddt and dieldrin after 1 h of exposure were 2.2 and 1.2 per cent respectively. the lt50 values against malathion (5%), fenitrothion (1%) and propoxur (0.1%) were 19, 22 and 35 min respectively. thus, taking into consideration the base-line data available for c. quinquefasciatus, the species can be considered susceptible ...19911937597
preliminary results of an entomological survey of the potential arbovirus vectors in the french territory of afars and issas.the preliminary results of an entomological survey of the potential arbovirus vectors in the french territory of afars and issas are exposed. 25 culicid species were recorded, specially anopheles gambiae, culex tritaeniorhynchus, c. univittatus, c. pipiens fatigans, aedes caspius, ae. vittatus, ae. arabiensis. ae. aegypti larvae were collected on a dhow arriving in djibouti. 5 species of ticks and 4 sandfly speices were also recorded. the epidemiological modalities of certain arboviroses in this ...197613940
studies on the japanese encephalitis vectors in amphoe muang, chiang mai, northern thailand.from february 1987 to january 1988, biological and ecological studies were made to obtain the basic knowledge of japanese encephalitis vectors, culex tritaeniorhynchus, cx. gelidus, and cx. fuscocephala, in amphoe muang, chiang mai, northern thailand. the following results were found. peaks in the population densities of the vectors as measured four times a month, by uv-light trap and human-baited trap collections, occurred during rainy season. the je vectors in rural areas showed a sharp rise i ...19892549646
experimental vertical transmission of japanese encephalitis virus by culex tritaeniorhynchus and other mosquitoes.vertical transmission of japanese encephalitis virus to the f1 adult stage was demonstrated in culex tritaeniorhynchus, cx. annulus, cx. quinquefasciatus, and armigeres subalbatus. transmission to the f1 larval stage was demonstrated in cx. pipiens, aedes vexans, ae. alcasidi, and a. flavus. in cx. tritaeniorhynchus, vertical transmission rates (the percentage of parent females transmitting to progeny) varied (12-100%). filial infection rates (the percentage of progeny infected) for a given mosq ...19892567124
japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes reared from field-collected immatures and in wild-caught males.immature stages of mosquitoes collected in je endemic areas of karnataka, india between 1985 and 1987 were reared to adults and processed for the detection and isolation of japanese encephalitis (je) virus in an attempt to find naturally occurring vertical transmission of the virus. males collected during 1985-1986 were also processed. a total of 15,785 adults reared from immatures and divided into 445 pools and 1,756 wild-collected males divided into 128 pools were processed using mosquito inoc ...19892577098
comparison of vector competence for west nile virus of colonized populations of culex tritaeniorhynchus from southern asia and the far colonized stocks of cx. tritaeniorhynchus from different geographic areas of southern asia and the far east were assayed for susceptibility to wn virus infection by membrane feeding and by intrathoracic inoculation. infected females also were tested for their ability to transmit virus to baby mice. no geographic pattern of differential susceptibility to wn virus infection was apparent from the experiments; however, the per os id50 of one strain from khulna, bangladesh was over 10-fold grea ...1979538499
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antigens of dirofilaria immitis (spirunida: filariidae) larvae in aedes albopictus and culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae).an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) method was developed for detecting the larval antigens of dirofilaria immitis (leidy) in aedes albopictus (skuse) and culex tritaeniorhynchus giles to replace the conventional dissection method. the assay was sensitive enough to detect 21.3 ng/ml (2.13 ng per microplate well) or more of the soluble antigen obtained from adult worms and an antigen amount corresponding to at least one larva at any developing stage. no inhibitory effect of host tissues w ...19892709386
susceptibility of aedes albopictus and culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) collected in miki city, japan, to dirofilaria immitis (spirurida: filariidae).female aedes albopictus (skuse) and culex tritaeniorhynchus giles from miki city, japan, were examined for susceptibility to infection by dirofilaria immitis. third-stage larvae were detected from day 7 in 10-40% of ae. albopictus and from day 10 in 20-60% of cx. tritaeniorhynchus, irrespective of microfilarial intake, which varied from 500 to 15,000 microfilariae per ml. the number of third-stage larvae in the labium usually varied from one to three per mosquito up to day 21, confirming the abi ...19892795613
a longitudinal study of the prevalence of japanese encephalitis virus in adult and larval culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in northern females and larvae of culex tritaeniorhynchus were collected year-round for 3 1/2 years at a site near taipei, taiwan. one hundred sixty-four isolates of japanese encephalitis (je) virus were obtained from approximately 142,000 adult females and 1 isolate of the virus was obtained from approximately 382,000 larvae. virus was recovered from adult females every year, except the first, beginning in may. the single larval isolate was from specimens collected in june. the vertical transmission ...19892729510
beneficial role of a nonpathogenic orbi-like virus: studies on the interfering effect of m14 virus in mice and mosquitoes infected with japanese encephalitis virus.m14 virus, isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes collected in a beijing suburb, was identified as a noncytopathogenic orbi-like virus. it was found to interfere with the growth of japanese encephalitis (je) virus, a mosquito-borne virus which infects humans, pigs, and horses in much of asia, including china. je virus is transmitted by c. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and causes encephalitis in humans and horses and abortion in pigs. because it had potential as an interfering agent for ...19852999029
monitoring culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) abundance in cow sheds by in situ counting.the number of culex tritaeniorhynchus giles counted in situ on five sheets of paper was compared with that of mosquitoes captured in a nozawa blacklight trap at two cow sheds in tsu city, japan, to evaluate the effectiveness of the in situ counting method. the total number of cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected on 27 lighttrap-nights (434,362) was greater than that counted in situ on 270 paper samples (18,093). a highly significant temporal correlation (kendall's tau = 0.54) was shown between the nu ...19911941918
arbovirus infections in sarawak, october 1968--february 1970 tembusu and sindbis virus isolations from mosquitoes.thirty isolations of tembusu virus and four of sindbis virus were obtained from approximately 280 000 mosquitoes collected between october 1968 and february 1970 in sarawak, particularly from k. tijirak, a land dyak village 19 miles south of kuching. twenty-two isolations of tembusu virus and two of sindbis virus were from culex tritaeniorhynchus; two of tembusu virus and two of sindbis virus came from culex gelidus. tembusu virus was active throughout the year at k. tijirak, the highest infecti ...1975235907
some observations on the behavior of culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus, the prinicipal vector of japanese encephalitis in japan. 19684306200
ecological studies on culex tritaeniorhynchus as a vector of japanese the republic of korea, light-trap assessments and collections from cows and pigs after sunset were highly successful in monitoring the seasonal abundance of c. tritaeniorhynchus, the primary vector of japanese encephalitis. the dates and duration of the population peaks at semirural suburbs of seoul and pusan were markedly different from those at a rural rice-growing site. the main breeding sites in these three areas were, respectively, swamps, marshes, and ricefields. the overall adult densi ...19734363396
epidemiological studies on japanese encephalitis in kyoto city area, japan. ii. annual patterns of virus dissemination on virus recoveries from unfed culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus.annual patterns of dissemination of japanese encephalitis virus in vector mosquitoes have been investigated at the main collection station from 1965 through 1973 at some other stations from 1969 through 1971. the virus was recovered usually from culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus during a period of about a month from july to august every year till 1969, and from august to september after 1970, although at some of the stations the virus was recovered intermittently for longer or shorter terms. hi ...1978207914
genetic studies of two new mutants in linkage group 3 of the mosquito culex tritaeniorhynchus. 19734787717
insecticidal resistance of culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) in japan: genetics and mechanisms of resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. 19873694623
insecticidal resistance of culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) in japan: a country-wide survey of resistance to insecticides. 19873694624
epidemiological studies on japanese encephalitis in kyoto city area, japan. i. evidence for decrease of vector mosquitoes.mosquito collections by using light traps have been carried out at 10 to 11 stations in kyoto city area at intervals of about 10 days every year. mean percent indexes (mpi), being calculated from the data of mosquito collections, were used for comparison of the annual abundance of mosquitoes. it is no doubt that culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus has decreased recently and this decrease is correlated with the reduction of human patients of japanese encephalitis. wide use of two herbicides, cnp a ...1978207913
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from anopheles annularis and anopheles vagus in lombok, indonesia.three strains of japanese encephalitis (je) virus were recorded from mosquitoes collected in lombok, indonesia, during march 1979, from pools of anopheles vagus, an. annularis and culex tritaeniorhynchus respectively. this is believed to be the first report of isolation of je virus from an. vagus. the frequencies of je viral infection in zoophilic anopheles species were higher than in cx tritaeniorhynchus, the principle vector of je virus in asia. the low frequency of infection in cx tritaeniorh ...19853832495
the mode of development of japanese encephalitis virus in the mosquito culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus as observed by the fluorescent antibody technique. 19674296895
size of blood meals of aedes albopictus and culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) feeding on an unrestrained dog infected with dirofilaria immitis (spirurida: filariidae).blood meal volume was determined for two species of mosquitoes, aedes albopictus (skuse) and culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, recently demonstrated to be natural vectors of canine heartworm in japan. when fed on unrestrained dogs, volumes were from 1 nl to 6 microliters in both species, but percentages of engorged mosquitoes were 45.2-64.3% for ae. albopictus and 11.9-22.2% for cx. tritaeniorhynchus. ae. albopictus preferred to feed on human bait versus canine bait when both were exposed concurren ...19892585448
identification of the host range of culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes on okinawa, ryukyu islands. 19685699968
[comparative studies on diapause responses between culex tritaeniorhynchus and culex pipiens pallens].by comparing the diapause responses between locally hibernating species, c. pipiens pallens, and c. tritaeniorhynchus the overwintering way of which is yet unknown, we found the relative identities of these 2 species in their ovarian diapause criteria, change of the mid-gut and the behaviour of refusing blood feeding. the increases in body weight and fatty contents in the dispersed tritaeniorhynchus were much less than those in diapause pipiens species. moreover, their ability to resist low temp ...19892766496
culex tritaeniorhynchus and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) as natural vectors of dirofilaria immitis (spirurida: filariidae) in miki city, japan.natural infections with dirofilaria immitis (leidy) in a population of mosquitoes and dogs and its antibodies in a human population were surveyed in miki city, a rural area of japan, to reveal ecological features of this arthropod-borne zoönotic parasite. microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic infection rates in 190 dogs were 52.6 and 9.0%, respectively, as determined by the hematocrit centrifuge method and the indirect fluorescent antibody test. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test for ...19892769708
notes on laboratory colonization of culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus, the principal vector of japanese encephalitis in japan. 19684310242
absence of viraemia in cattle after experimental infection with japanese encephalitis virus.cow calves were infected with japanese encephalitis virus (jev) by parenteral inoculation. one batch was reinfected with jev, followed by west nile virus (wnv), while another batch was reinfected directly with wnv. no viraemia due to either jev or wnv was demonstrated in any of the calves. culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes fed on 4 of the calves infected with jev during the first 10 d had no detectable virus, nor did they transmit the virus by bite to susceptible baby chickens. in another exper ...19882855679
disease-bearing insects brought in by international aircraft into singapore.fifty-seven (17.3%) of 330 incoming aircraft landing at changi international airport were found to harbour mosquitoes and other insects on board. the frequency of insects detected in aircraft from the southeast asian countries varied from 7.1% to 32.2%. live insects were found in 5 (6.1%) of 82 aircraft disinsectized by the "block away" method. the species of mosquitoes brought in were: culex quinquefasciatus (96), culex tritaeniorhynchus (1), aedes albopictus (2) and aedes aegypti (1). none of ...19852862709
virus isolations from mosquitoes collected during the 1982 japanese encephalitis epidemic in northern thailand.from 16 june to 15 august, 1982 cdc light traps were used to collect mosquitoes in the province of kamphaengphet, n. thailand. 353,042 mosquitoes comprising 59 species were collected and identified, and 345,173 were placed in pools for attempted virus isolation by inoculation of c6/36 aedes albopictus mosquito cell cultures. viruses were isolated from 63 mosquito pools. these comprised 56 flaviviruses, identified as 35 isolates of japanese encephalitis (je) virus strains, 18 strains of tembusu ( ...19862885948
new spiroplasmas from insects and flowers: isolation, ecology, and host association.eight spiroplasma strains from insects and one from spring flowers failed to react with antisera specific for any of the 11 described spiroplasma groups, with sera directed against spiroplasma group i subgroups, or with sera directed against two unnumbered groups previously reported to occur in tabanid flies. strains, all from maryland, were isolated from the hemolymph of the spotted cucumber beetle diabrotica undecimpunctata and the lampyrid beetle ellychnia corrusca, and the guts of the cantha ...19872889699
a longitudinal study of japanese encephalitis in suburban bangkok, thailand.a one-year study of japanese encephalitis (je) in a small focus of transmission was conducted in suburban bangkok in 1985. monthly data were collected on weather, vector density, sentinel pig and chick je antibody seroconversions, and epidemiology as related to human je cases. the primary vector species were found to be culex gelidus and culex tritaeniorhynchus; from which one isolate each was obtained in march and june, respectively. pig je antibody seroconversion peaked in april (the hottest m ...19872896391
the pathogenesis of japanese encephalitis virus in culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes.culex tritaeniorhynchus were inoculated intrathoracically with mosquito and human strains of japanese encephalitis virus and maintained at 26 degrees c or 32 degrees c. virus titration and localization of viral antigen by avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining were done at intervals up to 21 days. marked differences were noted in the tempo of organ involvement at the 2 temperatures; at both there was initial infection of fat body cells followed by selective infection of the central nervous syst ...19873445354
a simple technique for colonization of culex tritaeniorhynchus giles. 19817343608
[agriculture-health interface in the field of epidemiology of vector-borne diseases and the control of vectors].this paper is a review of the interactions between agriculture and vector borne diseases. rain forest clearing makes possible the development of heliophilous species of anophelines and snails leading to an increase of malaria and schistosomiasis in africa. but in asia, clearing is a control method against anopheles balabacensis, an important malaria vector. clearing of forest galleries is followed by the disappearance of shore-dwelling tsetse flies. woodcutters and pioneer farmers are contaminat ...19902208469
characterization of two japanese encephalitis virus strains isolated in thailand.two strains of japanese encephalitis (je) virus were isolated from a pool of culex tritaeniorhynchus captured in 1992 and another pool of cx. vishnui captured in 1993, in chiang mai area, northern thailand. these two strains, thcmar44/92 and thcmar67/93, could not be identified either as nakayama or jagar01 subtype by the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) and the neutralization (n) tests using immune sera raised against these standard je virus strains. reverse transcription-polymerase chain react ...19957487488
[low virulent strains of jbe virus isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus in indonesia]. 19853995575
[taxonomic studies on culex tritaeniorhynchus giles and culex vishnui theobald. 9. re-examination of the upright forked scales covering the vertex of the adult insect]. 19685692204
larval survey of surface water-breeding mosquitoes during irrigation development in the mahaweli project, sri lanka.a survey of ground water-breeding mosquitoes was done during 1986-1987 in an area undergoing irrigation development in the mahaweli project of sri lanka. forty-nine species were collected during the 12-mo phase of humans settlement and infrastructure construction, and 42 species during the succeeding 12-mo period under irrigated rice culture. development resulted in the elimination of some preexisting breeding habitats, the modification of others, and the creation of new habits. the overall chan ...19901977912
mosquito collection in endemic areas of japanese encephalitis in hokkaido, japan.a study was conducted during 1985 and 1986 to evaluate the roles of mosquito species as possible vectors of japanese encephalitis (je) virus in hokkaido. the number of culex tritaeniorhynchus was very low among the four pig farms where outbreaks of abortion caused by je virus were observed in swine populations. at one farm near sapporo, only one cx. tritaeniorhynchus was found among a total of 510 mosquitoes collected during the survey period from july to october 1985, even when je virus activit ...19892575185
susceptibility of culex (culex) tritaeniorhynchus giles adults and larvae to insecticides in delhi area. 19836672087
urbanization and its effects on the ecology of mosquitoes in macau, southeast asia.recent urbanization in macau has resulted in the precipitous decline to zero in populations of several anopheline vectors of malaria while providing optimal habitat for the population increase in culicines. of 18 species of mosquitoes reported in macau in recent years, 15 species are included here. culex quinquefasciatus, culex sitiens, and aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. notes are provided for anopheles sinensis, armigeres magnus, armigeres subalbatus, culex foliatus, culex fus ...19947707061
evaluation of permethrin-impregnated mosquito-nets against mosquitoes in yishan county, guangxi province, china, where malaria and brugian filariasis are transmitted by vectors belonging to the anopheles hyrcanus pallas group, a study was conducted from june to november 1986 to evaluate the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated mosquito bednets to reduce man/vector contact. in three experimental villages a total of 246 mosquito nets were treated with permethrin ec at a dosage of 0.5 g/m2. control bioassays (1 h exposure) of treated nets gave up to 100% mortality ...19882908784
mosquito (diptera: culicidae) and predator abundance in irrigated and rain-fed rice fields in north sulawesi, indonesia.immature mosquito species composition and abundance were studied in irrigated and rain-fed rice fields of north sulawesi, indonesia. irrigated rice fields were characterized by the prevalence of aquatic macrophytes and cyprinodont larvivorous fish, aplocheilus panchax (hamilton), but abundance per dip of most aquatic insect predators was lower than that in rain-fed rice fields. anopheles peditaeniatus (leicester), culex vishnui theobald, and culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, were dominant in both i ...19957616528
vector competence of culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus. 19806988591
a simplified new method for the identification of arboviruses: virus detection using enzyme immunoassay on cultured cells.a simple new method is reported for the identification of arbovirus isolates and the titration of arboviruses. horseradish peroxidase conjugated staphylococcus aureus protein a was used for the indirect staining of virus antigens grown in an aedes albopictus cell line, c6/36 cells. thirty-five isolates from culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes were examined by this method and 20 of these were identified as japanese encephalitis virus (jev). these results were confirmed by immunofluorescent assay a ...19846094608
dual infections of culex tritaeniorhynchus with west nile virus and nosema algerae.culex tritaeniorhynchus females infected with the microsporidian nosema algerae, and uninfected control females were compared for susceptibility to infection with west nile (wn) virus and for the ability to transmit virus. when fed on a high titered dose fo virus, 95% of the control females became infected, whereas only 65% of the n. algerae-infected females were infected with wn virus. however, at two lower viral doses, no differences in susceptibility were observed. no significant differences ...19816790696
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from the republic of the philippines.a total of 33, 274 mosquitoes was collected from tagudin, ilocos sur province, philippines during july 1977. isolates made from one pool of culex tritaeniorhynchus and one pool of c. vishnui were identified as japanese encephalitis virus (jev) by a micro-neutralization test using reference hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluids. this is the first known isolation of jev from the philippines.19806108000
additional isolations of japanese encephalitis virus from the philippines.japanese encephalitis virus was isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex bitaenorhynchus and anopheles annularis mosquitoes collected from san jose, nueva ecija, south central luzon in the philippines. this is the second report of the isolation of the virus from mosquitoes in the philippine islands.19807221693
west nile virus in pakistan. iii. comparative vector capability of culex tritaeniorhynchus and eight other species of mosquitoes.eight species of mosquitoes from pakistan were compared with culex tritaeniorhynchus as experimental vectors of west nile (wn) virus. when fed by the membrane or cotton-pledget methods on a dose of wn virus 100% infective for cx tritaeniorhynchus, 95% and 73% of the females of cx fuscocephala and cx pseudovishnui became infected, respectively. cx quinquefasciatus, cx univittatus, aedes albopictus, ae. caspius, ae. indicus and ae. lineatopennis were all significantly less susceptible than cx trit ...19826134362
population dynamics of some pakistan mosquitoes: temporal changes in reproductive status, age structure and survivorship of anopheles culicifacies, an. stephensi and culex tritaeniorhynchus.the reproductive biology and age-structure of female anopheles culicifacies, an. stephensi and culex tritaeniorhynchus were studied at rural punjabi villages near lahore, pakistan, during 1976-1980. both anopheles remained gonotrophically active throughout the year with blood-fed, gravid, parous and virgin females collected during all months. culex tritaeniorhynchus populations bifurcated into reproductively active, non-overwintering and reproductively inactive, overwintering populations in octo ...19863729600
abundance of three mosquito vectors in okinawa with relevance to disease risk.the abundances of three mosquito vectors on okinawa were determined using new jersey light traps and compared with data from an identical survey in 1969. the focal distribution of the primary vector of japanese encephalitis (je), culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, indicates that exposure risks are not uniform throughout the island. the populations of the primary vectors of je and malaria appear to be declining, resulting in significant changes in the relative abundances of mosquito species. these ch ...19957617223
getah virus in aedes vexans nipponii and culex tritaeniorhynchus: vector susceptibility and ability to transmit.vector competences of aedes (ae.) vexans nipponii (nip.) and culex (cx.) tritaeniorhynchus to getah virus were assessed by using a membrane feeding technique. the getah virus was present at high titer in both species of mosquitoes after 21 days of extrinsic incubation at 28 degrees c. infection rates on 21 post-feeding were 100 per cent (4/4) for ae. vexans nip. at a virus dosage of 10(5.3) pfu/ml and 60 per cent (3/5) for cx. tritaeniorhynchus at similar virus dosage. more than 10(3.5) pfu of v ...19836312927
transovarial transmission of japanese encephalitis virus by culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. 19806250416
isolation of a newly recognized alphavirus from mosquitoes in vietnam and evidence for human infection and disease.during studies of arboviral epidemiology in vietnam, five virus isolates were recovered from culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. three of the five isolates were identified as strains of japanese encephalitis virus, but the others, collected at me tri village, hanoi, were shown to represent an alphavirus, for which we propose the name me tri virus. this newly recognized virus is most closely related to semliki forest virus. the two isolates appear to be antigenic subtypes of a single virus, and e ...19957625527
correlation of population indices of female culex tritaeniorhynchus with japanese encephalitis viral activity in kapuk, indonesia.nineteen consecutive monthly light trap collections of mosquitoes were made between october 1978 and april 1980 in kapuk, indonesia. kapuk is a small suburb of jakarta where pigs are raised in close proximity to rice paddies which are breeding sites for culex tritaeniorhynchus. japanese encephalitis (je) virus is believed to be endemic and has been recovered from mosquitoes and pigs in the area on several occasions. a total of 18,435 female cx. tritaeniorhynchus were allocated to 359 pools of ap ...19854071204
overwintering strategies of mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) on warmer islands may predict impact of global warming on kyushu, japan.mosquito overwintering was studied on tanegashima and yakushima, islands south of kyushu, to predict the impact of global warming on northern kyushu where mosquitoes overwinter in diapause. on tanegashima and yakushima, the following 5 types of overwintering strategies were recognized: (1) continued reproduction without diapause (2 anopheles spp., 2 culex spp., 2 aedes spp.); (2) diapausing female adults but a few adults from late-developing larvae may emerge in midwinter (2 anopheles spp. and 9 ...19968667392
[control of arboviral encephalitis in china (author's transl)].japanese b encephalitis is the most important and widespread arbovirus disease in china. except tibet and sinjiang autonomous regions, it occured in every province. jbe virus were isolated from six species of culex, three species of aedes, one species of anopheles and lasiohelea. the main vector of jbe virus in china is culex tritaeniorhynchus. the main spreading reservoir host, no doubt, is the pig, but the persistant reservoir is not clear yet. vaccination of the children under ten years is an ...19806255282
relationship between number of human japanese encephalitis cases and summer meteorological conditions in nagasaki, japan.analysis of epidemiological and meteorological data for nagasaki prefecture, southwest japan, for the period 1950-1979, showed a correlation between size of epidemics of human japanese encephalitis (je) and weather factors. it was demonstrated that during the period 1950-1969 the epidemic size (es) had two types of correlation: es correlated inversely with total summer precipitation, and es correlated directly with mean summer temperature. the fact that in the 1970s there were fewer cases of je ...19836297324
studies on adult mosquito vectors of japanese encephalitis in a pig farm in selangor, malaysia.mosquito collections were carried out for a period of one year from january to december 1992 in a pig farm in sungai pelek, selangor, malaysia. a total of 41,022 mosquitos belonging to 52 species and 20 genera were collected. culex tritaeniorhynchus and cx. gelidus, the important vectors, comprised 63% of all mosquitos collected. both these species were collected in large numbers during the wet months of may and december. the other predominant species in that area were cx. fuscocephala, cx. quin ...19947855662
host feeding patterns of culex vishnui sub group of mosquitoes in dibrugarh district of assam.the host feeding patterns of three species of mosquitoes belonging to vishnui sub group, culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex vishnui and culex pseudovishnui, the most prevalent species in dibrugarh district were determined by analysing their blood meals. all 3 species were found be essentially zoophilic. high percentage of pig feeding was observed in culex tritaeniorhynchus (40 per cent) and culex vishnui (35.3 per cent) in comparison to other prevalent species in this area. in contrast culex pseudov ...19947868835
studies on the mosquito vectors of japanese encephalitis virus in mandya district, karnataka, india.entomological investigations were carried out in areas affected by japanese encephalitis (je) in mandya district, karnataka, india, from 1983 to 1988, to determine species composition and the density of mosquito vectors, in relation to the incidence of je cases. je cases occurred in two spells in a year, one during april-june (summer epidemic) and another during october-december (winter epidemic). there was very high incidence of je cases in extensively irrigated areas and a low incidence in som ...19947855661
first isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from the mosquito, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, 1901 (diptera: culicidae) in gorakhpur district, uttar pradesh.a strain of japanese encephalitis (je) virus has been isolated from a pool of female mosquitoes of c. tritaeniorhynchus, using c. bitaeniorhynchus cell line. this is the first report of je virus isolation from mosquitoes in gorakhpur district of uttar pradesh, north india.19947927565
japanese encephalitis vaccine (2-8 strain) and parent (sa 14 strain) viruses in culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes.the japanese encephalitis vaccine virus (je 2-8) and its parent virus (je sa 14) strains were compared for their ability to infect, to replicate in, and to be transmitted by culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. both viruses replicated in the mosquitoes after intrathoracic infection. the je 2-8 vaccine was transmitted to 1/36 (3%) of suckling mice bitten by intrathoracically infected mosquitoes; however, the parent je sa 14 strain was transmitted to 46/46 (100%) of the mice bitten. in oral infecti ...19827072902
elisa for detecting dengue and japanese encephalitis viral antigen in indirect elisa has been developed for detecting two viruses in triturated, experimentally infected mosquitoes: dengue (den) in aedes aegypti (l.) and ae. albopictus (skuse) and japanese encephalitis (je) viral antigen in culex tritaeniorhynchus giles. den antigen from four strains of the virus, representing each of the four serotypes, and je antigen were captured with a polyclonal anti-flavivirus igg and detected with a monoclonal antibody (4g2) that reacts with all flaviviruses. minimum vira ...19947979627
[a survey on infection rate of japanese encephalitis virus in culex tritaeniorhynchus in beijing area]. 19836675847
genetic variation for west nile virus susceptibility in culex tritaeniorhynchus.mutant and geographical strains of culex tritaeniorhynchus were compared for west nile (wn) virus susceptibility by feeding on a high-titered blood-virus suspension. eleven strains also were selected from 2-21 generations for an increase and/or a reduction of oral susceptibility using 90% and 10% infective virus doses, respectively. only one of the 20 strains tested, e ma, was significantly less susceptible than the control strain. in the selection experiments, none of the strains showed a consi ...19846476219
[comparative infectivity of japanese encephalitis vaccine strain (2-8) and its parent strain (sa14) viruses in culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes]. 19836233028
effect of intermittent irrigation on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and larvivorous predators in rice fields.effect of intermittent irrigation to facilitate rice production on rice-field mosquitoes and larvivorous predators was studied in saga, japan. mosquitoes and associated taxa were sampled by dipping in two rice fields subject to intermittent irrigation and in one rice field that remained flooded throughout the study period of approximately 1 mo. with the onset of intermittent irrigation, larval mosquito (culex tritaeniorhynchus giles and anopheles sinensis wiedemann) abundance decreased; reirriga ...19938096247
effect of rice culturing practices on seasonal occurrence of culex tritaeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) immatures in three different types of rice-growing areas in central japan.seasonal occurrence of culex tritaeniorhynchus giles immatures was surveyed, together with detailed observations on the rice cultivation practices, weekly in three different types of rice field habitat from 1982 to 1985. despite early water introduction and seedling transplantation, a late seasonal peak of density and abundance of first instars were observed at terraced rice fields (ye) with continuous water in- and outflow through sluices in a hilly area. in contrast, immature populations incre ...19957608915
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes collected in sabak bernam, selangor, malaysia in 1992.detection and isolation of japanese encephalitis (je) virus were attempted from female mosquitoes collected in kampong pasir panjang, sabak bernam, selangor, from may to november 1992. a total of 7,400 mosquitoes consisting of 12 species in 148 pools were processed and inoculated into aedes albopictus clone c6/36 cell cultures. of these, 26 pools showed the presence of viral antigens in the infected c6/36 cells by specific immunoperoxidase staining using an anti-je virus polyclonal antibody. pre ...19957616198
comparative evaluation of bioassay and elisa for detection of japanese encephalitis virus in field collected mosquitos.comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and bioassay (virus isolation in toxorhynchites splendens larvae and identification by immunofluorescence test using virus specific monoclonal antibody) was carried out in order to define a suitable strategy for monitoring japanese encephalitis virus infection in field mosquitos. a total of 8,850 adult female mosquitos in 177 pools (culex tritaeniorhynchus 91, cx. vishnui 59 and cx. fuscocephala 27) collected from an endemic are ...19958525426
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