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[glycogen synthetase and fructose diphosphatase activity in the tussues of mollusks (mytilus galloprovincialis) and crustacenas (balanus improvisus, carcinus maenas)].the level of the activity of the enzymes studied is rather similar in all the species investigated, being the highest in muscles and gills. seasonal changes in the activity of the enzymes in mussel tissues are closely related to reproductive periods and reflect changes in the level of glycogen synthesis.1976185853
[presence, isolation and chemical structure of a substance characteristic of cardiac tissue in carcinus maenas (l.): beta-alanylhistamine]. 1975240625
immunocytochemical identification of hyperglycemic hormone-producing cells in the eyestalk of carcinus maenas.antiserum raised in rabbits against extracts of sinus glands from carcinus annd shown by several criteria to contain antibodies directed against the neurosecretory hyperglycemic hormone was used to locate the hormone-producing perikarya in the optic ganglia. by means of the double antibody fluorescence technique, selective staining of the large neurosecretory perikarya of the medulla terminalis ganglionic x-organ (mtgxo) and their axons is obtained. the axon endings of the sinus gland are also s ...1979393402
carotenoids in the crab, carcinus maenas l. of ofotfjuord (nordland, norway). 19751139899
profilicollis botulus (van cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of british columbia.adults of profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in british columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, bucephala clangula (l.); barrow's goldeneye, b. islandica (gmelin); and greater scaup, aythya marila (l.). the identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, somateria mollissima (l.), from scotland and oldsquaw, clangula hyemalis (l.), from new brunswick. cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, hemigrapsus ...19892918442
amino acid distribution in the nervous system of the crab, carcinus maenas (l.). 19734352756
the effect of malonate on succinate metabolism in the excised gill of carcinus maenas. 19734709984
the electrophoretic heterogeneity of carcinus maenas hemocyanin. 19705439304
single and multiple visual systems in arthropods.extraction of two visual pigments from crayfish eyes prompted an electrophysiological examination of the role of visual pigments in the compound eyes of six arthropods. the intact animals were used; in crayfishes isolated eyestalks also. thresholds were measured in terms of the absolute or relative numbers of photons per flash at various wavelengths needed to evoke a constant amplitude of electroretinogram, usually 50 microv. two species of crayfish, as well as the green crab, possess blue- and ...19685641632
[identification and cytochemical study of an extranuclear basic protein in the spermatozoa of decapod crustaceans].extranuclear basic proteins have been detected in the capsule of the spermatozoa of three species of decapod crustaceans (nephrops norvegicus l., macrura; eupagurus bernhardus l., anomura; carcinus maenas penn., brachyura). their properties have been studied by cytochemical methods. their position inside the capsule of the spermatozoon has been specified with the aid of the electron microscope. present in a constant fashion in the three species cited, their relative importance is very variable. ...19676068078
purification and characterization of a cadmium-induced metallothionein from the shore crab carcinus maenas (l.).two metallothionein variants were purified from the midgut gland of crabs (carcinus maenas) exposed to a high cadmium concentration (2 p.p.m.). one of the variants was purified from crabs exposed to a low cadmium concentration (0.5 p.p.m.). the purification method involved acetone precipitation, gel filtration and reversed-phase h.p.l.c. the complete amino acid sequences of both variants have been elucidated by m.s. and automated sequence analysis on s-methylated proteins or fragments produced b ...19948110201
demonstration of co-resistance of haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin.studies were conducted to determine whether organisms which are resistant to ivermectin are also resistant to moxidectin. the mechanisms of action of moxidectin and ivermectin were compared by measuring the changes in membrane conductance they induced in leg muscle fibres of the common shore crab (pachygrapsus crassipes) by using standard micro-electrode techniques. meriones unguiculatus (jirds) were infected with ivermectin-resistant or -susceptible strains of haemonchus contortus, treated with ...19938362470
high-level secretion of hirudin by hansenula polymorpha--authentic processing of three different preprohirudins.a dna sequence coding for a subtype of the hirudin variant hv1 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast hansenula polymorpha from a strongly inducible promoter element derived from a gene of the methanol metabolism pathway. for secretion, the coding sequence was fused to the kex2 recognition site of three different prepro segments engineered from the mf alpha 1 gene of saccharomyces cerevisiae, the glucoamylase (gam1) gene of schwanniomyces occidentalis and the gene for a crustacean hyperglycem ...19958597538
crustacean cardioactive peptide in the sphinx moth, manduca sexta.the isolation, identification, and actions of crustacean cardiactive peptide (ccap) have been examined in the sphinx moth manduca sexta. a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to quantify ccap-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system. the ccap-like immunoreactivity from the abdominal cns was then purified, and its sequence was ascertained by amino acid analysis, mass spectral analysis, and hplc. these studies showed that the nervous system of m. sexta cont ...19938234018
isolation and identification of a cardioactive peptide from tenebrio molitor and spodoptera eridania.we isolated several cardioactive peptides from extracts of whole heads of the mealworm, tenebrio molitor, and the southern armyworm, spodoptera eridania, using a semi-isolated heart of manduca sexta for bioassay. we have now isolated from each species the peptide with the strongest effect on rate of contraction of the heart. the peptides were identified using micro edman sequencing and mass spectrometric methods. this cardioactive peptide has the same primary structure from both species: pro-phe ...19938129851
molecular cloning of two pigment-dispersing hormone (pdh) precursors in the blue crab callinectes sapidus reveals a novel member of the pdh neuropeptide family.a cdna library was established from the eyestalk ganglia of the blue crab callinectes sapidus. screening resulted in the isolation of a clone (497 bp excluding poly(a) tail) which encodes a beta-pdh previously found in several crustacean species. it displays high sequence similarity with a clone isolated from an eyestalk cdna library of the shore crab carcinus maenas, indicating the close phylogenetic relationship of both species. a second clone (414 bp exclusive of the poly(a) tail) encodes a n ...19947999056
comparison of antibacterial activity in the hemocytes of different crustacean species.antibacterial activity in hemocytes of the squat lobster, galathea strigosa, the norway lobster, nephrops norvegicus, the common shrimp, crangon crangon, and the giant antarctic isopod, glyptonotus antarcticus, was investigated in vitro. for all species, the marine bacterium, psychrobacter immobilis, was used as the test organism, although with g. antarcticus, the gram positive bacteria, planococcus citreus and bs 68 (an isolate from antarctic waters), were also used. hemocyte lysate supernatant ...19957866773
modulation of membrane fluidity and lipidic metabolism in transformed rat fibroblasts induced by the sesquiterpenic hormone farnesylacetone.farnesylacetone is a natural terpene extracted from androgenic glands of the crustacean carcinus maenas and is capable of inhibiting proliferation, notably in transformed mammalian cells. flow cytometry with three lipophilic probes, diphenylhexatriene, trimethylammonium-diphenylhexatriene, and nile red, has revealed modifications of the lipidic metabolism in transformed fr3t3-mtt4 rat fibroblasts treated by farnesylacetone, including changes in membrane fluidity. farnesylacetone strongly increas ...19957736867
a highly conserved red pigment-concentrating hormone precursor in the blue crab callinectes sapidus.a cdna library was established from the eyestalk ganglia of the blue crab callinectes sapidus. one clone was isolated (644 bp excluding the poly(a) tail) which encodes the red pigment-concentrating hormone (rpch)-precursor, consisting of the 25 amino acid residue signal peptide, the rpch, and a 73 amino acid residue rpch-precursor related peptide. this clone displays high sequence similarity with a clone isolated from an eyestalk cdna library of the shore crab carcinus maenas, in accordance with ...19957611999
epizootiology of the parasitic dinoflagellate hematodinium sp. in the american blue crab callinectes sapidus.hematodinium sp. is a parasitic dinoflagellate that infects and kills blue crabs callinectes sapidus. periodic outbreaks of dinoflagellate infections with subsequent high host mortalities prompted a study of the epizootiology and distribution of the crab pathogen. hemolymph samples from over 13000 crabs were assessed for infections over 8 yr. moderate to high prevalences were found at several locations along the atlantic and gulf coasts of the united states. in the coastal bays of maryland and v ...200011145454
identification and ultrastructural characterization of a novel virus from fish.during routine investigations on fish, a virus (isolate df 24/00) with novel morphological features and hitherto undescribed morphogenesis was isolated from a white bream (blicca bjoerkna l.; teleostei, order cypriniformes). cell-free virions consist of a rod-shaped nucleocapsid (120-150x19-22 nm) similar to that seen in baculoviruses. the virion has a bacilliform shape (170-200x75-88 nm) reminiscent of rhabdoviruses with an envelope containing coronavirus-like spikes (20-25 nm). df 24/00 replic ...200111714959
molecular cloning of three distinct cdnas, each encoding a different adipokinetic hormone precursor, of the migratory locust, locusta migratoria. differential expression of the distinct adipokinetic hormone precursor genes during flight activity.three distinct cdnas encoding the preproadipokinetic hormones i, ii, and iii (prepro-akh i, ii, and iii), respectively, of locusta migratoria have been isolated and sequenced. the three l. migratoria akh precursors have an overall architecture similar to that of other precursors of the akh/red pigment-concentrating hormone (rpch) family identified so far. the akh i and ii precursors of l. migratoria are highly homologous to the schistocerca gregaria and schistocerca nitans akh precursors. althou ...19957559443
antioxidant enzymes and peroxisome proliferation in relation to contaminant body burdens of pahs and pcbs in bivalve molluscs, crabs and fish from the urdaibai and plentzia estuaries (bay of biscay).with the aim of studying levels of antioxidant and peroxisomal enzymes and the structure of peroxisomes in relation to body burdens of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), mussels mytilus galloprovincialis, oysters crassostrea sp., crabs carcinus maenas and mullets mugil cephalus were sampled in two basque estuaries (bay of biscay): urdaibai (laida, txatxarramendi, arteaga, and downstream a sewage treatment plant-stp) and plentzia. in general, animals sho ...200212062156
fine structure of the neurohemal sinus gland of the shore crab, carcinus maenas, and immuno-electron-microscopic identification of neurosecretory endings according to their neuropeptide contents.the sinus gland of the shore crab, carcinus maenas, is a compact assembly of interdigitating neurosecretory axon endings abutting upon the thin basal lamina of a central hemolymph lacuna. four types of axon endings are distinguishable by the size distribution, shape, electron density and core structure of their neurosecretory granules. one additional type of axon ending is characterized by electron-lucent vacuoles and vesicles. the axon profiles are surrounded by astrocyte-like glial cells. vari ...19921423493
[experimental study of vibrio parahaemolyticus (biotype 2) transfer from water and sediments to benthic marine food chain organisms].transfer of vibrio parahaemolyticus (biotype 2) from sediments to water and from water to benthic marine organisms was studied experimentally using a streptomycin-resistant strain. transmission by trophic pathways was also studied using reconstituted marine food chains (mytilus edulis, nereis diversicolor, carcinus maenas, scorpaena porcus, mus musculus). water colonization by sediments could be observed only at temperatures above 16 degrees c. sediments could well constitute a disseminating res ...1979487292
secondary immune response to bacteriophage t1 in the shore crab, carcinus maenas. 196414207295
immunochemical localisation of proliferating cells in mussel digestive gland tissue.the distribution of proliferating cells in the digestive gland of the common marine mussel, mytilus galloprovincialis lmk, was investigated by means of immunochemical techniques employing pc10, a commercial monoclonal antibody to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna). immunoblot analysis of digestive gland whole homogenates revealed a single crossreactive band of 36-37 kda, identical to the corresponding protein of rat liver and murine melanoma cells. a band of slightly higher electropho ...199910661321
endocrine cells in the gut of the shore crab carcinus maenas immunoreactive to crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone and its precursor-related peptide.the distribution and morphology of gut endocrine cells, which are immunoreactive to crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (chh) and the corresponding precursor-related peptide (cprp), have been described in the shore crab carcinus maenas. the cells are uniquely distributed throughout the fore- and hindgut, but were never observed in the midgut or associated caeca. expression of chh and cprp in the gut endocrine cells is generally restricted to premoult, although small numbers of immunoreactive cells ...200010805088
expression of arginine kinase enzymatic activity and mrna in gills of the euryhaline crabs carcinus maenas and callinectes sapidus.phosphagen kinases catalyze the reversible dephosphorylation of guanidino phosphagens such as phosphocreatine and phosphoarginine, contributing to the restoration of adenosine triphosphate concentrations in cells experiencing high and variable demands on their reserves of high-energy phosphates. the major invertebrate phosphagen kinase, arginine kinase, is expressed in the gills of two species of euryhaline crabs, the blue crab callinectes sapidus and the shore crab carcinus maenas, in which ene ...200010903154
isolation and characterisation of five neurotoxic and cardiotoxic polypeptides from the sea anemone anthopleura elegantissima.five toxins (ape 1 to ape 5) of the sea anemone species anthopleura elegantissima (brandt) have been isolated from a toxic by-product fraction of its concentrated crude watery-methanolic extract, prepared previously for the isolation of a neuropeptide (the head-activator) by schaller and bodenmüller (proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 78 (1981) 7000) from 200kg sea anemones. toxin purification was performed by desalting of the starting material by dialysis (mwco 3500) against distilled water, anion exch ...200111072049
expression of crustacean (callinectes sapidus) molt-inhibiting hormone in insect cells using recombinant baculovirus.molt-inhibiting hormone (mih) negatively regulates the synthesis of ecdysteroid molting hormones by crustacean y-organs. we report here the expression of blue crab (callinectes sapidus) mih in insect cells using recombinant baculovirus. insect sf9 cells were transfected with recombinant baculovirus containing a dna insert encoding the c. sapidus mih prohormone (signal sequence plus mature hormone). the construct was designed to yield a mature, fully processed recombinant mih (recmih). several ba ...200211754021
[sarcolemmic membrane of various species: data on its enzymatic characterization and chemical composition].a sarcolemmal enriched fraction, f1, was obtained from the skeletal muscle of rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus l.), hamster (mesocricetus auratus wateth.), chicken (gallus gallus l.), frog (rana ridibunda seoane), young carp (carassius carassius l.) and the marine crab (carcinus maenas l.). in this fraction, 5'-nucleotidase and na+ + k+-atpase (as membrane markers) showed higher specific activities than in the three other fractions separated after centrifugation in a discontinuous sucrose gradient; ...19827146587
the hyperglycemic neuropeptide of the terrestrial isopod, porcellio dilatatus. ii. immunocytochemical demonstration in neurosecretory structures of the nervous system.by use of an rabbit antiserum raised against the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) of the shore crab, carcinus maenas, chh-producing perikarya were detected in the brain of the isopod, porcellio dilatatus, by the double-antibody immunofluorescence technique. the course of the secretory axons to the neurohemal organ, the sinus gland, could be traced. the sinus gland also exhibited strong fluorescence. the reaction was very specific, no other structures gave appreciable immunofluorescence. th ...19846383952
identification of hemocyanin in the cyanocytes of carcinus maenas. 19734586177
temperature effects on axonal conduction in callinectes sapidus (rathbun) and carcinus maenas (l.). 1975236872
sodium/proton antiporter in the euryhaline crab carcinus maenas: molecular cloning, expression and tissue distribution.gill epithelial cells of euryhaline crustaceans demonstrate net inward transport of sodium ions, possibly via apical na+/h+ antiporters, na+/k+/2cl- cotransporters or na+ channels working in series with the basolateral na(+) + k(+)-atpase. we have identified and sequenced the cdna coding for a crustacean na+/h+ antiporter, starting with mrna isolated from gills of the euryhaline green shore crab carcinus maenas. the complete 2595-base-pair cdna includes an open reading frame coding for a 673-ami ...19979104780
opsonic activity of cell adhesion proteins and beta-1,3-glucan binding proteins from two crustaceans.a beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (beta gbp) from the shore crab carcinus maenas was purified from plasma by precipitation of the protein at low ionic strength. the protein had a molecular mass of 110 kda, and was shown to affinity precipitate with laminarin, a soluble beta-1,3-glucan, and to cross-react with an antiserum directed toward beta gbp from the crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus. also, a protein from the haemocytes of c. maenas with a molecular mass of 80 kda was found to mediate cell ...19948050614
membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase from the crab gill: purification, characterization, and comparison with mammalian cas.carbonic anhydrase (ca) was purified from the gills of the shore crab carcinus maenas using affinity chromatography and hplc. the predominantly membrane-bound ca was found to share several features with mammalian ca iv. its apparent molecular weight of 36 kda was reduced to 33 kda by treatment with pngase f, suggesting that crab ca is a glycoprotein with one n-linked oligosaccharide chain. more than half of the membrane-bound crab ca was released from membranes by treatment with a phosphatidylin ...19948037456
histopathological effects of trypanorhynch metacestodes in the digestive gland of a novel host, carcinus maenas (decapoda).the green crab carcinus maenas was introduced to australian temperate waters in the late 1800s, has since become established, and is now considered to be a pest. we undertook an extensive parasite survey to find potential natural enemies of c. maenas and found it to be infected in australia by 2 species of larval trypanorhynch tapeworm, trimacracanthus aetobatidis and dollfusiella martini. we describe the gross pathology and histopathology of the parasites' new host (c. maenas) and note that the ...200415038453
in ovo cultivation of microphallus primas (trematoda: microphallidae) metacercariae to ovigerous adults and the establishment of the life-cycle in the laboratory.this investigation reports for the first time the establishment of a trematode life-cycle in the laboratory using in ovo cultivation of the adult stage. microphallus primas metacercarial cysts were removed from carcinus maenas crabs and chemically excysted. using a modification of the technique developed by fried (1962) the released metacercariae were grown in fertile hen's eggs to ovigerous adult flukes. these were removed from the under surface of the chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos ...19911780184
immunocytochemical demonstration of the neurosecretory x-organ complex in the eyestalk of the crab carcinus maenas.an antiserum was obtained by immunizing rabbits with sinus gland extracts from carcinus maenas. the antiserum is almost exclusively directed against neurosecretory material in the medulla terminalis x-organ (mtgxo), as demonstrated by the peroxidase--antiperoxidase (pap) staining method in light and electron microscopic studies. radioimmunological binding studies indicate the presence of antibodies against the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) or the black pigment dispersing hormone (bpdh) ...1979511601
cloning of a crustin-like, single whey-acidic-domain, antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the european lobster, homarus gammarus, and its response to infection with bacteria.degenerate pcr was used to isolate a 221-base pair nucleotide sequence of a new crustin-like antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the european lobster, homarus gammarus. rapid amplification of cdna ends was used to extend the sequence to determine the complete open reading frame and un-translated regions. the inferred amino acid sequence of this peptide was found to be similar to crustin-like peptides isolated for several species of shrimp as well as the shore crab, carcinus maenas. the ...200616144710
amino acid sequence of a peptide with molt-inhibiting activity from the kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus.six major peptides (pej-sgp-i-vi) that belong to the chh family have been isolated from the sinus gland extracts of the kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus. by in vitro assay using the y-organ of the crayfish procambarus clarkii, pej-sgp-iv was found to be active in inhibiting ecdysteroid synthesis. we determined the complete amino acid sequence. pej-sgp-iv consists of 77 amino acid residues, with both free aimno- and carboxyl-termini. the sequence of pej-sgp-iv shows considerable similarity to that ...19968801521
pcr cloning and expression of the molt-inhibiting hormone gene for the crab (charybdis feriatus).a pcr-based genomic dna walking technique was used to clone the gene for the molt-inhibiting hormone of the crab, charybdis feriatus. several overlapping genomic clones were isolated, and the mih gene for the crab was reconstructed. dna sequence determination of the overlapping clone reveals that the mih gene spans 4.3kb and consists of three exons and two introns. exons 1 and 2 carry a coding sequence for the signal peptide, and exons 2 and 3 consist of coding sequence for the mature peptide. t ...19989931416
inter-population variability in the reproductive morphology of the shore crab (carcinus maenas): evidence of endocrine disruption in a marine crustacean?environmental contaminants that are capable of causing endocrine disrupting effects are currently a major cause for concern. these chemicals are known to influence the reproductive development of vertebrates by mimicking or antagonising the actions of endogenous hormones. however, little is known regarding their potential effects on invertebrates. here we examine variations in the reproductive morphology of the shore crab (carcinus maenas) for evidence of endocrine disruption. crabs were collect ...200415823302
[inhibition of biological methylations by t,t-farnesylacetone, a constituant of the androgenic gland of the male crab, carcinus maenas].t, t-farnesylacetone 1 and hexahydrofarnesylacetone 2 have been previously identified in extracts from the androgenic gland of the male crab carcinus maenas. these compounds inhibit in vitro the methylation of e. coli b trna and of calf thymus histones with s-adenosylmethionine methyl-14c as methyl donor and methylases from crab testis. rat liver or a 1-adenine methylase from a mouse plasmocytoma (1 is approximately 200 times more active than 2).1977411588
complete primary structure of the molt-inhibiting hormone (mih) of the mexican crayfish procambarus bouvieri (ortmann).the amino acid sequence of mih was elucidated by means of digestions with specific proteases, manual edman degradation, and mass spectrometry. mih consists of a 72-residue peptide chain (molecular mass 8322 da) with six cysteines forming three disulfide bridges that connect residues 7-43, 23-39, and 26-52. it has blocked n- and c-termini and lacks tryptophan, histidine, and methionine. mih shows striking similarity to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) isomorphs of procambarus bouvieri ( ...19968735961
critical salinity, sensitivity, and commitment of salinity-mediated carbonic anhydrase induction in the gills of two euryhaline species of decapod crustaceans.two euryhaline species of decapod crustaceans, carcinus maenas and callinectes sapidus, were subjected to a series of acute low-salinity challenges, and changes in carbonic anhydrase (ca) activity in the gills were monitored in order to characterize the nature of salinity-sensitive ca induction. ca activity is uniformly low in all gills of both species at high salinity, but at a critical salinity of 27 ppt, ca induction occurs in the posterior, ion-transporting gills, with ca activity approximat ...200515612006
differential sensitivity of three marine invertebrates to copper assessed using multiple biomarkers.understanding how biomarkers relate to each other on exposure to particular contaminants in different species is key to their widespread application in environmental management. however, few studies have systematically used multiple biomarkers in more than a single species to determine the variability of sublethal effects of a particular contaminant. in this study, three marine invertebrates, the shore crab carcinus maenas, the common limpet patella vulgata and the blue mussel mytilus edulis, we ...200415129769
farnesylacetone, a sesquiterpenic hormone of crustacea, inhibits electron transport in isolated rat liver mitochondria.farnesylacetone (c18 h30 0) is a male hormone extracted from the androgenic gland of crab, carcinus maenas. appropriate enzymatic assays, as well as spectrophotometric studies, indicate that micromolar concentrations of farnesylacetone interact with the electron transport pathway of rat liver mitochondria. by the use of artificial electron donors and electron acceptors, it is shown that farnesylacetone immediately inhibits the electron transfer within complex i (nadh ubiquinone reductase activit ...19892561085
antilipopolysaccharide factor (alf) of mud crab scylla paramamosain: molecular cloning, genomic organization and the antimicrobial activity of its synthetic lps binding domain.antilipopolysaccharide factors (alfs) are small basic proteins that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (lps) and have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. in this study, we describe the isolation of the full-length cdna encoding for alf peptide (alfsp) of mud crab, scylla paramamosain by sequencing a hemocyte cdna library and using the rapid amplification cdna end (race) method. a full-length alfsp cdna of 614 bp contains an open reading frame (orf) of 372 bp, encoding 123 amino acid ...200717368541
ultrastructural study on the spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of the metacercariae of microphallus primas (digenea), a parasite of carcinus maenas.the thread-like spermatozoon of the crab parasite microphallus primas was studied by electron microscopy. a survey of the head region of the spermatozoon reveals three features hitherto unknown in platyhelminthes spermatozoa. the first is the aberrant inclusion of the nucleus within one of the two axonemes, limited to the head end region. the second is the coexistence, in the same axoneme, of two patterns, 9 + 0 (doublets without dynein arms) and 9 + "1". the third is the presence of a layer of ...19902310565
inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the gills of two euryhaline crabs, callinectes sapidus and carcinus maenas, by heavy metals.two subcellular fractions of gill tissue, cytoplasm and basolateral membranes, from two species of euryhaline decapod crustaceans, callinectes sapidus and carcinus maenas, acclimated to low salinity, were isolated via differential centrifugation. carbonic anhydrase activity from both fractions was titrated against a variety of heavy metals in vitro. the metals ag(+), cd(2+), cu(2+) and zn(+) showed inhibitory action against the enzyme. ki values for these metals against cytoplasmic ca from c. sa ...200212458188
cyp330a1 and cyp4c39 enzymes in the shore crab carcinus maenas: sequence and expression regulation by ecdysteroids and xenobiotics.cytochrome p450 enzymes (cyp enzymes) catalyse important metabolic reactions of exogenous and endogenous substrates, including steroid hormones. here, we report the first two cyp sequences from the shore crab, carcinus maenas. two complete cdnas isolated from crab hepatopancreas encode cyp enzymes named cyp330a1, the first member of a new family, and cyp4c39. cyp330a1 is closest related to members of the cyp2 family (37.3% identical to mouse cyp2j6) and cyp4c39 is most identical to crayfish cyp4 ...200314521903
diluting the founder effect: cryptic invasions expand a marine invader's range.most invasion histories include an estimated arrival time, followed by range expansion. yet, such linear progression may not tell the entire story. the european green crab (carcinus maenas) was first recorded in the us in 1817, followed by an episodic expansion of range to the north. its population has recently exploded in the canadian maritimes. although it has been suggested that this northern expansion is the result of warming sea temperatures or cold-water adaptation, canadian populations ha ...200616959635
a novel bacterial disease of the european shore crab, carcinus maenas molecular pathology and epidemiology.several rickettsia-like diseases have been reported in arthropods (insects and crustaceans), some of which result in significant losses of economically important species such as shrimp and crabs. this study reports on the molecular pathology of a recently emerged disease of the european shore crab, carcinus maenas, termed milky disease - named as a result of the unusual milky appearance of the haemolymph (blood). this disease was more prevalent (>26 %) during summer months when the water tempera ...200717768229
purification and characterization of a proline-rich antibacterial peptide, with sequence similarity to bactenecin-7, from the haemocytes of the shore crab, carcinus maenas.antibacterial peptides are important for non-specific host defence in many animals. they have been extensively characterized from mammals, amphibians, insects and chelicerates but have not so far been found in crustaceans. here we report the presence of several constitutive antibacterial proteins, active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in the haemocytes of the shore crab, carcinus maenas. these proteins have molecular masses of > 70 kda, approximately 45 kda, approximately ...19968856051
ontogeny of osmoregulatory structures and functions in the green crab carcinus maenas (crustacea, decapoda).the ontogeny of osmoregulation, the development of branchial transporting epithelia and the expression of the enzyme na+/k+-atpase were studied in carcinus maenas (l.) obtained from the north sea, germany. laboratory-reared zoea larvae, megalopae and young crabs were exposed to a wide range of salinities, and hemolymph osmolality was measured after 24 h exposure time (72 h in juveniles). zoea i larvae slightly hyper-regulated in dilute media (10.2 per thousand and 17.0 per thousand ) and osmocon ...200414668316
an integrated approach using bioaccumulation and biomarker measurements in female shore crab, carcinus maenas.the shore crab carcinus maenas, was used as a biomonitoring organism to measure the potential impact that the mining spill in the guadalquivir estuary (sw, spain), in 1998 may have exerted on local biota. female intermoult c. maenas were exposed to dissolved cadmium, copper and zinc at concentrations found in local waters following the spill (3 microgl-1 cd, 15 microgl-1 cu, 700 microgl-1 zn). groups of shore crabs were exposed for 21 days to these metals, both singularly and in combination. res ...200515620755
rapid assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) exposure in decapod crustaceans by fluorimetric analysis of urine and haemolymph.polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are ubiquitous and potentially harmful contaminants of the coastal and marine environment. studies of their bioavailability, disposition and metabolism in marine organisms are therefore important for environmental monitoring purposes. detecting pah compounds in the biological fluids of marine organisms provides a measure of their environmental exposure to pahs. in the present study, the shore crab carcinus maenas was exposed to waterborne pyrene for 48h. u ...200415003698
temperature-dependent physiological response of carcinus maenas exposed to copper.the effect of temperature on the heart rate (fh) of carcinus maenas exposed to a sublethal nominal concentration (0.5 mg l(-1)) of copper is reported. adult, intermoult males (4 cm carapace width) were collected from stavanger fjord (norway) in august (seawater temperature=17 degrees c) and maintained in the laboratory (fed ad libitum) at 5, 15 and 25 degrees c for 7 days. following this holding period, crabs were exposed to waterborne copper at the same temperature. after 3 days of exposure, in ...200415178113
first confirmation of human diarrhoeic poisonings by okadaic acid esters after ingestion of razor clams (solen marginatus) and green crabs (carcinus maenas) in aveiro lagoon, portugal and detection of okadaic acid esters in phytoplankton.a new outbreak of human diarrhoeic poisonings (dsp) with esters of okadaic acid (oa) was confirmed after ingestion of razor clams (solen marginatus) harvested at aveiro lagoon (nw portugal) in the summer of 2001. accumulation of marine toxins in second order consumers was investigated in the edible parts of a shellfish predator abundant at aveiro lagoon, the green crab carcinus maenas. okadaic acid was found, also in a predominant esterified form. levels in edible parts (comprising mainly viscer ...200212076653
toxicokinetics of heavy metals from a mining spill using carcinus maenas.the knowledge of the reproduction and growth background related to the shore crab carcinus maenas promotes the use of this crab as a model crustacean to asses the potential for endocrine disruption in crustaceans. in addition, an enzyme linked inmunosorbent assay (elisa), sensitive to the shore crab vitellogenin in serial hemolymph samples allows determination of the extent of disruption of the process of vitellogenesis in female crabs and its likely impact on reproductive output. intermoult fem ...200415178121
haemolymph parasite of the shore crab carcinus maenas: pathology, ultrastructure and observations on crustacean haplosporidians.a protozoan parasite with some features of haplosporidians is described from the european shore crab carcinus maenas. the parasite establishes a systemic infection through the haemal sinuses and connective tissues. intracellular stages of the parasite were found within reserve inclusion, connective tissue, and muscle cells, while free forms were present in all haemal spaces. a uninucleate stage appeared to develop to a multinucleate plasmodial stage following multiple mitotic divisions of the nu ...200415212293
ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs.the excretory transport of toxic ammonia across epithelia is not fully understood. this review presents data combined with models of ammonia excretion derived from studies on decapod crabs, with a view to providing new impetus to investigation of this essential issue. the majority of crabs preserve ammonotely regardless of their habitat, which varies from extreme hypersaline to freshwater aquatic environments, and ranges from transient air exposure to obligate air breathing. important components ...200415579545
molt-inhibiting hormone from the tropical land crab, gecarcinus lateralis: cloning, tissue expression, and expression of biologically active recombinant peptide in yeast.molt-inhibiting hormone (mih), a member of the crustacean hyperglycemic neuropeptide hormone family, inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland or y-organ (yo). a cdna encoding mih of the land crab (gel-mih) was cloned from eyestalk ganglia (eg) by a combination of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the cdna (1.4 kb) encoded mih prohormone containing a 35 amino acid signal peptide and a 78 amino acid mature pept ...200717094991
expression of recombinant eyestalk crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the tropical land crab, gecarcinus lateralis, that inhibits y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis in vitro.crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, molting, reproduction, and osmoregulation in decapod crustaceans. chh elevates glucose levels in the hemolymph by stimulating glycogenolysis in target tissues. it also inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland, or y-organ (yo), possibly as a response to environmental stress. chh acts via binding to a membrane receptor guanylyl cyclase, which is expressed in most tissues, ...200918595002
molt-inhibiting hormone immunoreactive neurons in the eyestalk neuroendocrine system of the blue crab, callinectes sapidus.the production of ecdysteroid molting hormones by crustacean y-organs is negatively regulated by a neuropeptide, molt-inhibiting hormone. it is generally agreed that molt-inhibiting hormone is produced and released by the eyestalk neuroendocrine system. in the present study, immunocytochemical methods were used to detect molt-inhibiting hormone immunoreactive neurons in eyestalk ganglia of the blue crab, callinectes sapidus. the primary antiserum used was generated against molt-inhibiting hormon ...200118088946
identification and developmental expression of mrnas encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (ccap) in decapod crustaceans.full-length cdnas encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (ccap) were isolated from several decapod (brachyuran and astacuran) crustaceans: the blue crab callinectes sapidus, green shore crab carcinus maenas, european lobster homarus gamarus and calico crayfish orconectes immunis. the cdnas encode open reading frames of 143 (brachyurans) and 139-140 (astacurans) amino acids. apart from the predicted signal peptides (30-32 amino acids), the conceptually translated precursor codes for a single co ...200616985202
seasonal fluctuations of tissue mercury contents in the european shore crab carcinus maenas from low and high contamination areas (ria de aveiro, portugal).the main objective was to study the seasonal variation of mercury concentrations in different tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas and gills) of carcinus maenas from low and high hg contaminated areas, a valuable resource in temperate estuaries and a possible pathway for human uptake. individuals of two size classes (around 35 and 55 mm cephalothorax wide) were captured monthly between march 1999 and may 2000 in two areas of ria de aveiro: in the main navigation channel that connects the lagoon to th ...200616824552
the role of biomarkers to assess oil-contaminated sediment quality using toxicity tests with clams and crabs.a 28-d bioassay was conducted with two invertebrate species with different feeding habits, the clam ruditapes philippinarum and the shore crab carcinus maenas. the purpose of the present study was to assess the quality of sediments affected by oil spills in different areas of the spanish coast. the organisms were exposed to environmental samples of oil-contaminated sediments during four weeks and, after the experiment, a suite of biomarkers of exposure was measured: the phase one detoxification ...200818198936
dietary preference and digestive enzyme activities as indicators of trophic resource utilization by six species of crab.the digestive physiology and stomach contents of six crab species from a variety of habitats were investigated to provide an indication of their digestive capability and dietary preferences. stomach contents varied between species, but the key enzymes present were generally consistent with the types of dietary material being ingested. nectocarcinus integrifons (red rock crab) consumed large quantities of seagrass and had high cellulase activity (0.02+/-0.004 units mg-1) to digest the constituent ...200515713811
identification of putative crustacean neuropeptides using in silico analyses of publicly accessible expressed sequence tags.the development of expressed sequence tags (ests) for crustacean cdna libraries and their deposition in publicly accessible databases has generated a rich resource for peptide discovery in this commercially and ecologically important arthropod subphylum. here, we have conducted in silico searches of these databases for unannotated ests encoding putative neuropeptide precursors using the blast program tblastn, and have predicted the mature forms of the peptides encoded by them. the primary strate ...200818321503
enzymatic biomarkers in the crab carcinus maenas from the minho river estuary (nw portugal) exposed to zinc and mercury.zinc and mercury are common contaminants of estuaries and coastal ecosystems where they may induce adverse effects on the biota. carcinus maenas is a key-species in several european estuaries, living in close association with the sediment where a considerable number of environmental contaminants, including zinc and mercury may accumulate. in the present study, the acute effects of zinc and mercury on c. maenas from the minho river estuary (nw portugal) were investigated by using the activity of ...200716949639
environmental monitoring of domingo rubio stream (huelva estuary, sw spain) by combining conventional biomarkers and proteomic analysis in carcinus maenas.element load, conventional biomarkers and altered protein expression profiles were studied in carcinus maenas crabs, to assess contamination of "domingo rubio" stream, an aquatic ecosystem that receives pyritic metals, industrial contaminants, and pesticides. lower antioxidative activities - glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, catalase - were found in parallel to higher levels of damaged biomolecules - malondialdehyde, oxidized glutathione -, due to oxidative lesions promo ...201019815320
molecular cloning of a cdna encoding putative molt-inhibiting hormone from the blue crab, callinectes sapidus.a cdna library was constructed using poly(a+) rna isolated from eyestalk neural ganglia of the blue crab, callinectes sapidus. the library was screened using a probe generated by pcr based on the published amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from the shore crab, carcinus maenas. dna sequence analysis of one positive clone revealed a 339 bp open reading frame encoding a 78-residue putative molt-inhibiting hormone and a 35-residue signal peptide. the deduced amino acid sequence of c. sa ...19957537497
an in situ postexposure feeding assay with carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations.this study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab carcinus maenas (l.) based on postexposure feeding. it consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). a precise method for quantifying feeding, using the polychaeta hediste (nereis) diversicolor müller as food source, was first developed. the sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by c ...200616002194
biochemical responses of the shore crab (carcinus maenas) in a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system (obidos lagoon, portugal).a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system (obidos lagoon, portugal) was monitored combining water/sediment quality parameters and carcinus maenas biomarkers (accumulated metals, oxidative stress and biotransformation responses). two confined branches (barrosa and bom-sucesso) were surveyed and compared with a reference area. both crab genders from barrosa exhibited activation of hepatopancreas cat, gpx and gst, pointing out this area as the major impacted in the lagoon. females captured ...200919187961
predicted sub-populations in a marine shrimp proteome as revealed by combined est and cdna data from multiple penaeus species.abstract:201021067619
milky hemolymph syndrome (mhs) in spiny lobsters, penaeid shrimp and crabs.black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, european shore crab carcinus maenas and spiny lobster panulirus spp. can be affected by milky hemolymph syndrome (mhs). four rickettsia-like bacteria (rlb) isolates of mhs originating from 5 geographical areas have been identified to date. the histopathology of the disease was characterized and a multiplex pcr assay was developed for detection of the 4 bacterial isolates. the 16s rrna gene and 16-23s rrna intergenic spacer region (isr) were used to examine the ...201021387989
a study of the mechanisms by which the cercariae of microphallus primas (jag, 1909) stunkard, 1957 penetrate the shore crab, carcinus maenas (l).this study established the mechanisms by which microphallus primas cercariae penetrate the crab carcinus maenas in which they form metacercarial cysts. light and electron microscopy were used to investigate cercarial features and to follow the fate of cercariae released in close proximity to crabs. it was shown that cercariae were carried in respiratory currents into crabs' branchial chambers where each enveloped itself in a transparent penetration cyst on the gill lamellae. when cercariae were ...200516174417
spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: invasive versus native species.organisms ranging from paramecia to humans tend to explore places that have been least recently explored, which is referred to as spontaneous alternation. although organisms rely on different sources of information in alternating between places, the emergent behavioral pattern is likely advantageous during exploration and foraging. under this rationale, continuous spontaneous alternation performance of the invasive green crab, carcinus maenas was assessed and compared with the native blue crab, ...200919379799
crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) neuropeptidesfamily: functions, titer, and binding to target tissues.the removal of the eyestalk (s) induces molting and reproduction promoted the presence of regulatory substances in the eyestalk (es), particularly medulla terminalis x-organ and the sinus gland (mtxo-sg). the pcr-based cloning strategies have allowed for isolating a great number of cdnas sequences of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) neuropeptides family from the eyestalk and non-eyestalk tissues, e.g., pericardial organs and fore- and hindguts. however, the translated corresponding neurope ...201020026335
urinary pah metabolites as biomarkers of exposure in aquatic environments.while immunoassays have been extensively applied to evaluate environmental contamination, to date they have rarely been used for the analysis of biological fluids outside of human medicine. these media are important because pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and their metabolites become concentrated in tissues, body fluids, and excreta, thereby offering a measure of exposure to biologically available contaminants. such analyses also provide a nondestructive tool for monit ...200415180061
isolation and characterisation of two antimicrobial peptides from haemocytes of the american lobster homarus americanus.two antimicrobial peptides from haemocytes of the american lobster, homarus americanus h. milne edwards 1837, were isolated and partially characterised - the first such description for this species. cap-2, an approximately 12kda peptide, contained amino acid sequences corresponding to the predicted sequence for hoa-crustin. crustins are whey acidic protein (wap) domain - containing peptides isolated from crustacean haemocytes. cap-2 did not have any activity towards the gram positive coccus aero ...200818499476
[amitoses in the digestive gland of the grass crab (carcinus maenas)]. 20154451463
[cytochemical observations of hemocytes in decapod brachyuran crustacea (author's transl)].hemocytes from two species of crabs, eriocheir sinensis and carcinus maenas, have been submitted to different cytochemical reactions in order to bring out the nature of granules' content, either by specific coloration or be enzymatic digestion. light as well as electron microscopy has been used. the granules appeared to be made essentially of basic proteins, rich in arginin and disulfide bridges but poor in tyrosin. these proteins are linked with nonglycogenic carbohydrates. glycogen deposits of ...2002127769
organization of a skeletal muscle insertion in the crab carcinus maenas. 20051265957
experimental evidence for latent developmental plasticity: intertidal whelks respond to a native but not an introduced predator.animals with highly inducible traits may show no inducible response when exposed to a related but wholly novel cue. this appears to be true for the intertidal whelk nucella lamellosa faced with a voracious introduced predator. in the laboratory, we exposed whelks to effluent from two species of predatory crab, the native red rock crab cancer productus and the invasive european green crab carcinus maenas. nucella and cancer have a long shared history in the northeast pacific, whereas potential in ...200818522925
accumulation and histopathological damage in the clam ruditapes philippinarum and the crab carcinus maenas to assess sediment toxicity in spanish ports.the degree of contamination and toxicity in sediment from four spanish ports (cádiz, huelva, pasajes and bilbao) was assessed in the present study. two marine invertebrate species, the shore crab carcinus maenas and the clam ruditapes philippinarum, were exposed to the different sediments under laboratory conditions for 28 days. relationships were developed among metal contamination (as, cd, cr, cu, fe, hg, mn, ni, pb and zn) in sediments, metal accumulation in gill tissues and histopathological ...200818313100
pathogenesis and autointerference in a virus disease of crabs.the course of an infection apparently caused by a filterable virus of the blood of the shore crab. carcinus maenas, has been experimentally studied in this host both at roscoff, france. where it was originally found, and at woods hole, mass., where the local species was also found susceptible. although a portion of the infected animals die with the symptoms of inadequate blood clotting, recovery of this function occurred promptly in about two-thirds of the animals. half of the animals that recov ...20164857421
contaminant effects in shore crabs (carcinus maenas) from ria formosa lagoon.defence and damage biomarkers signals were studied in female and male shore crabs carcinus maenas transplanted between two sites at ria formosa lagoon (south of portugal). the cross transplantation occurred during 6 days at a hypothetical reference site (ramalhete), and a contaminated site (olhão). dna unwinding technique was used for dna integrity measurement. general enzymatic antioxidant responses in gills and hepatopancreas (catalase and gills glutathione peroxidase activities increase) show ...200919426829
crustin expression following bacterial injection and temperature change in the shore crab, carcinus maenas.the expression of carcinin, a crustin-type antimicrobial protein, in the crab, carcinus maenas, was studied following in vivo challenge with planococcus citreus, a gram-positive bacterium known to be killed by the encoded protein. real-time pcr analyses reveal that injection of p. citreus failed to elicit any significant changes in expression at 0-24h post-injection although there was a small, but significant, down-regulation at 84h in crabs held at 15 degrees c but not those at 5 or 20 degrees ...200818343497
identification and immunocytochemical localization of proctolin in pericardial organs of the shore crab, carcinus maenas.the occurrence of proctolin (arg-tyr-leu-pro-thr) in crab neurohemal pericardial organs (pos) has been demonstrated by isolation of the pentapeptide by hplc and manual microsequencing according to the dabitc-pitc double coupling technique. from one pair of pos approximately 5.4 pmol were obtained (= 45 pmol/mg protein). immunocytochemically, an extensive system of positive structures was found in both whole mount preparations and semithin sections, consisting of numerous varicose fibres of varyi ...20102872661
operant punishment of eye elevation in the green crab, carcinus maenas.extension of the eye after reflex withdrawal was suppressed by punishing each extension with a brief puff of air. experimental animals showed a decrease in the rate of responding, and an increase in the latency to the next response during 30-min sessions. the effect of punishment per se was controlled for by the use of yoked animals that received punishments whenever the experimental (master) animals did. this control group did not show the increased latency, and kept the eye erect for most of t ...20133675520
field validation of a battery of biomarkers to assess sediment quality in spanish ports.two marine invertebrates, the crab carcinus maenas and the clam ruditapes philippinarum, were used as bioindicator species to assess contamination when exposed in situ to sediment from different sites from four spanish ports cadiz (sw spain), huelva (sw spain), bilbao (ne spain) and pasajes (ne spain). in an attempt to determine sediments toxicity, a combination of exposure biomarkers was analyzed in both species: metallothionein-like-proteins (mtlps), ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod), glutat ...200817582664
structural confirmation and occurrence of azaspiracids in scandinavian brown crabs (cancer pagurus).in 2005 and 2006, azaspiracids were for the first time detected in brown crabs (cancer pagurus) from the west coast of sweden and the north and north-west coast of norway. azaspiracids are marine toxins that have been detected in blue mussels in europe in recent years. on some occasions, they have been responsible for human intoxications with symptoms similar to those occurring by consumption of shellfish contaminated with okadaic acid group toxins. while the latter toxin group has been reported ...200817936866
crustacean molt-inhibiting hormone: structure, function, and cellular mode of action.in crustacea, secretion of ecdysteroid molting hormones by y-organs is regulated, at least in part, by molt-inhibiting hormone (mih), a polypeptide neurohormone produced by neurosecretory cells of the eyestalks. this article reviews current knowledge of mih, with particular emphasis on recent findings regarding the (a) structure of the mih peptide and gene, (b) levels of mih in eyestalks and hemolymph, (c) cellular mechanism of action of mih, and (d) responsiveness of y-organs to mih. at least 2 ...200919000932
similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes.background. neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. methods. the blast+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. such reads were th ...201627257538
novel use of a whole cell e. coli bioreporter as a urinary exposure biomarker.bacterial bioreporters have substantial potential for contaminant assessment but their real world application is currently impaired by a lack of sensitivity. here, we exploit the bioconcentration of chemicals in the urine of animals to facilitate pollutant detection. the shore crab carcinus maenas was exposed to the organic contaminant 2-hydroxybiphenyl, and urine was screened using an escherichia coli-based luciferase gene (luxab) reporter assay specific to this compound. bioassay measurements ...200919238974
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