changes in carbohydrate metabolism of pila globosa in response to crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.hyperglycemia was caused in the snail pila globosa by the injection of the hyperglycemic hormones obtained from fresh water crabs (oziotelphusa senex senex) and marine tiger prawns (penaeus monodon). tissue glycogen and total carbohydrates presented a significant decrease which indicated that the source of hyperglycemia was the tissue carbohydrates. the hyperglycemic principles also increased the tissue phosphorylase activity and provided evidence for a possible action of the crustacean hypergly ...19921382680
progesterone metabolism in vitro in the decapod crustacean, penaeus monodon.thin-layer chromatography (tlc) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) with on-line detection of radioactive steroids were applied to identify metabolites of [4-14c]progesterone incubated in vitro with prawn ovary. there was extensive metabolism of progesterone by stage ii (vitellogenic) ovary of penaeus monodon. the most abundant metabolites were 5 alpha-pregnane derivatives together with two minor metabolites, 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one and 1,4-pregnadiene-3, ...19921398023
estimation of the dietary riboflavin required to maximize tissue riboflavin concentration in juvenile shrimp (penaeus monodon).the riboflavin requirements of marine shrimp (penaeus monodon) were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial. juvenile shrimp (initial mean weight, 0.13 +/- 0.05 g) were fed purified diets containing seven levels (0, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg diet) of supplemental riboflavin. there were no significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency ratios and survival of shrimp over the dietary riboflavin range. the riboflavin concentrations in shrimp bodies increased with the increasing vitamin sup ...19921453232
the midgut chymotrypsins of shrimps (penaeus monodon, penaeus japonicus and penaeus penicillatus).the midgut chymotrypsins (ec of three species of shrimps, penaeus monodon, penaeus japonicus and penaeus penicillatus were purified and studied in detail to clarify previous ambiguity in their identification. in each of the species there are two major forms of chymotrypsin, both single-chained with three disulfide bonds. one has a pi of 3.2 and mr 27,000 or 28,000, while the other has a pi of 3.0 and mr 25,000 or 26,000. the n-terminal amino acid sequences of the p. monodon enzymes are ...19911657178
crustacean hyperglycemic hormone induced alterations in millepede (spirostreptus asthenes) carbohydrate metabolism.following intersegmental injection of the hyperglycemic hormone (hgh) obtained from fresh water crab (oziotelphusa senex senex) and marine tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), hemolymph sugar concentration was significantly increased in millepede (spirostreptus asthenes). glycogen and total carbohydrates of fat body decreased in injected animals indicating that the source of hyperglycemia was carbohydrates from the fat body. correlating with the decreased glycogen content, phosphorylase activity of th ...19911725740
the basic isoelectric form of alpha-l-fucosidase from the hepatopancreas of the shrimp penaeus monodon (crustacea: decapoda).1. alpha-l-fucosidase was purified ca 10,889-fold to homogeneity from penaeus monodon, with a final spec. act. of 31,250 u/mg of protein. 2. by using sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the monomers of shrimp alpha-l-fucosidase were discovered to have mol. wts of 63,000 and those of human placental enzyme, 46,000 and 20,000. since the active shrimp alpha-l-fucosidase was found to have a mol. wt of 233,000 by superose 12 fplc, it was concluded that the purified shrimp enzyme was tetrameric. 3 ...19911764918
isolation of a bacterium resembling pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon).during attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin b, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer in ...19911781677
collagenolytic activity of crustacean midgut serine proteases: comparison with the bacterial and mammalian enzymes.1. we have investigated the collagenolytic activity of the following serine proteases: proteinase k, subtilisin novo, staphylococcal endoproteinase glu-c, streptomyces pronases, the trypsins and chymotrypsins from shrimp midgut and bovine pancreas. 2. by assays on both the insoluble 3h-collagen fibrils and the soluble type i collagen, it was demonstrated that the shrimp midgut serine proteases, and less efficiently, the pronases from streptomyces griseus, could hydrolyze collagen while the other ...19911782759
in vivo decondensation of chromatin and nucleolar fibrillar component by leucaena leucocephala ingredient.feeding of the shrimp, penaeus monodon, with diets containing leaf meal of the leguminous shrub, leucaena leucocephala, resulted in complete chromatin decondensation of hepatopancreas cells. the fibrillar component of the nucleolus was decondensed in parallel, whereas the granular component remained intact. this unique combination of nuclear signs was accompanied by only moderate alterations of other cell organelles. our findings therefore demonstrate an encouraging possibility to manipulate the ...19911794061
the carotenoids of wild and blue disease affected farmed tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon, fabricus).1. the main carotenoids in wild penaeus monodon exoskeleton were astaxanthin di- and mono-esters, astaxanthin, and beta-carotene. 2. wild p. monodon exoskeleton contained on average 26.3 ppm total carotenoid; normally pigmented farmed shrimp had a similar concentration (25.3 ppm). 3. exoskeletons of farmed "blue" p. monodon (i.e. blue-coloured, as opposed to the normally red-blue/black banded shrimp) contained significantly less total carotenoid (4.3-7 ppm). the only major carotenoid being astax ...19911873990
thiamin requirement of juvenile shrimp (penaeus monodon).in a 9-wk feeding trial, juvenile shrimp (penaeus monodon) were fed semipurified diets containing seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg diet) of supplemental thiamin hydrochloride. the dietary thiamin level required for optimal growth in p. monodon was found to be approximately 14 mg/kg diet based on hemolymph (blood) thiamin analysis. the minimum dietary thiamin level that produced substantial shrimp growth was approximately 13 mg/kg diet. shrimp fed unsupplemented diets (thiamin c ...19911941262
the midgut trypsins of shrimp (penaeus monodon). high efficiency toward native protein substrates including collagens.two shrimp trypsins have been purified from the midguts of penaeid shrimps by various chromatographies and hplc. the molecular masses of them are 27 and 29 kda, respectively. they show the typical specificity of trypsin for substrates and inhibitors, and their n-terminal amino-acid sequences are homologous to those of other trypsins. the shrimp enzymes are very acidic (pi less than or equal to 2.4), and show distinctively low km for the synthetic amide substrates. they also hydrolyse various nat ...19901963309
the presence of a thyrotropin-releasing hormone-like factor in the grass shrimp (black tiger prawn, penaeus monodon)immunoreactive (trh) has been detected in acid and methanol extracts of hepatopancreas, in grass shrimp (black tiger prawn, penaeus monodon). the evidence provided by the stimulation of thyrotropin (tsh) release from perfused rat anterior pituitary glands in vitro following the application of hepatopancreas extracts (she) reflected the presence of trh-like substance in the shrimp. however, the molecular weight of the trh-like substance estimated by gel filtration in she was greater than that of ...19902124182
a comparative study of alkaline phosphatases among human placenta, bovine milk, hepatopancreases of shrimp penaeus monodon (crustacea: decapoda) and clam meretrix lusoria (bivalvia: veneidae): to obtain an alkaline phosphatase with improved characteristics as a reporter.1. alkaline phosphatases were purified from human placenta, bovine milk, shrimp and clam with a final spec. act. of 67,000, 32,000, 22,000 and 15,000 u/mg of protein respectively. 2. the alkaline phosphatase from meretrix lusoria is unique with its thermostability at 65 degrees c for 30 min; whereas the remaining enzymes studied, including the human placental alkaline phosphatase, are inactivated and have negligible activities. 3. the alkaline phosphatase from penaeus monodon can be differentiat ...19902225775
existence of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like factor in the grass shrimp (black tiger prawn, penaeus monodon)the immunological and biological gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh)-like activities in the acid extract of shrimp hepatopancreas (she) were studied. the immunological activity determined by a gnrh radioimmunoassay was 22.3 +/- 2.7 ng per ml of she. she increased luteinizing hormone (lh) release from rat anterior pituitary glands (aps) in vitro, and its biological activity was 42.9 +/- 28.5 ng per ml. no immunological activity was found in the acid extracts of eye ball, eye stalk, nerve and he ...19902257769
effects of phosphamidon and lindane on the limb regeneration of penaeid prawn, penaeus monodon. 19892466503
detection of a baculovirus in the tiger prawn penaeus postlarval penaeus monodon from a hatchery in asia a baculovirus was detected in the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas by electron microscopy. the baculovirus was identified as the monodon baculovirus (mbv).19892763758
cytomorphic studies of the thoracic ganglia of the prawn penaeus monodon (fabricius) (order: decapoda; suborder: macrura; family: penaeidae). 19854054754
toxic effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.the toxic effects of linear alkybenzene sulfonate (las) on the larvae and juveniles of tiger prawn penaeus monodon were tested. the 24-hr lc50 values of las were 0.06, 0.10, and 3.11 ppm for the zoea 2nd substage, mysis 2nd substage (m2), and postlarva 12th substage (pl12) of the tiger prawn, respectively. the 48-hr lc50 values of las were 0.07, 1.03, and 4.36 ppm for m2, pl12, and postlarva 15th substage of the tiger prawn, respectively. the hepatopancreatic glutathione (gsh) in juvenile tiger ...19937507819
purification of the delta isoenzyme of protein kinase c from the hepatopancreas of the shrimp penaeus monodon with phosphorylation on tyrosine residues.the delta isoenzyme of protein kinase c (pkc-delta), purified from the plasma membrane of the hepatopancreas of the shrimp penaeus monodon is specifically phosphorylated at tyrosine residues, as demonstrated by specific dephosphorylation by phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase from the hepatopancreas of the shrimp penaeus monodon. the specific activity of purified pkc-delta was 200 units/mg of protein. the subunits of m(r) 66,000, 62,000, and 58,000 of pkc-delta were not autophosphorylated after t ...19957650514
toxic effects of dissolved copper on penaeus merguiensis and penaeus monodon. 19957663095
use of non-radioactively labeled dna probes for the detection of a baculovirus from penaeus monodon by in situ hybridization on fixed tissue.clones isolated from a genomic library of the baculovirus pmsnpv (= mbv) were used to prepare dna probes for detection of pmsnpv in shrimp tissue. davidson's afa fixed shrimp tissues were probed using dna that had been labeled with the hapten, digoxigenin, by an in situ hybridization assay. the dna probes readily distinguished pmsnpv-infected from uninfected shrimp tissue. the reactions were localized to the hepatopancreas and midgut, the sites where this virus is detected by standard histologic ...19947822460
penaeid prawns and associated luminous bacteria.luminous bacteria associated with the exoskeleton, gill and gut of penaeid prawns, penaeus indicus h. milne edwards and penaeus monodon fabricius in mangalore waters were isolated, identified and quantified. two species of bacteria, vibrio harveyi and vibrio fischeri were recorded, the former was dominant in the exoskeleton and gill of both the penaeids. gut of prawns supported exclusive and dense populations of v. harveyi suggesting that the species is well adapted to proliferate in this microe ...19947866726
quantification of vitamin c requirements for juvenile shrimp (penaeus monodon) using polyphosphorylated l-ascorbic acid.the vitamin c requirements of marine shrimp (penaeus monodon) for optimal growth were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial using polyphosphorylated l-ascorbic acid (c2pp), a stable derivative of l-ascorbic acid (c1). juvenile shrimp (0.55 +/- 0.01 g) were fed purified diets containing graded levels (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg diet) of supplemental c2pp or a high dosage of c1 (2500 mg/kg diet). their weight gain, survival, feed efficiency and c1 storage in hepatopancreas and muscle were used to ...19947931713
immunostimulation of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) hemocytes for generation of microbicidal substances: analysis of reactive oxygen species.nbt staining was used to determine the presence of superoxide anions (o2-) produced by tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) hemocytes attached to a coverslip. when cells were treated with beta-glucan, blue granules were observed in 41% of studied hemocyte cytoplasm. for zymosan-treated, pma-treated, and control cells, the percentages of hemocytes showing similar blue granules were 31, 9, and 5%, respectively. a comparison of stimulative effects on 15 hemocyte suspensions, each collected from a single ...19948001699
toxicity of nickel ores to marine organisms.queensland nickel proposes to import new caledonian (ballande) and indonesian (gebe) nickel ores, one option being ship-to-barge transfer in halifax bay, north queensland. because small amounts of ore may be split during the unloading and transfer operations, it was important to investigate the potential impact of the spilt ore on the ecological health of the bay. long-term leaching of the ores with seawater showed that only nickel and chromium (vi) were released from the ores in sufficient conc ...19948029690
purification and amplification of dna from penaeus monodon-type baculovirus (mbv).the purpose of this paper was to purify and amplify the dna fragment of penaeus monodon-type baculovirus (mbv). using 30-50% caesium chloride gradients, mbv virions and occlusion bodies with density parameters of 1.28-1.29 and 1.32-1.33 g/ml, respectively, were purified. two oligonucleotide primers have been successfully designed and utilized for the amplification of a dna fragment of mbv. after 35 amplification cycles of the mbv dna fragment, a large amount of amplified product with an approxim ...19938228316
quantifying the vitamin k requirement of juvenile marine shrimp (penaeus monodon) with menadione.a feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary vitamin k requirement for juvenile marine shrimp, penaeus monodon. purified diets with eight levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) of supplemental menadione were fed to p. monodon (mean weight 1.33 +/- 0.05 g) for 12 wk. each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. shrimp fed diets supplemented with vitamin k (5-320 mg/kg) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher weight gain and feed efficiency than those fed the unsup ...19948308577
specific phosphorylation of membrane proteins of mr 44,000 and mr 32,000 by the autophosphorylated insulin receptor from the hepatopancreas of the shrimp penaeus monodon (crustacea: decapoda).the insulin receptor, purified from the hepatopancreas of the shrimp penaeus monodon, is a hydrophobic heterodimer of subunits with relative masses (mr) of 70,000 and 58,000, as estimated by fplc on superose 12 and sds-page. only the subunit of mr 70,000 was autophosphorylated after the addition of insulin. the autophosphorylation occurred specifically at tyr residues, as demonstrated by the specific subsequent dephosphorylation by the phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase from the hepatopancreas o ...19938409897
n-acetyltransferase, hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase and melatonin in the optic lobes of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the activities of the enzymes n-acetyltransferase (nat) and hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase (hiomt) and the hormone melatonin were studied in the optic lobe of the subadult giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. compared with the level in other species, a relatively high level of nat activity that was temperature- and ph-dependent were observed. the nat enzyme had a relatively high maximum velocity (vmax, 100 pmol/hr/micrograms protein) and low michaelis constant (km, 22 microm), when tryptamine ...19958531052
[preliminary studies of the immunization of shrimp (penaeus monodon) against vibrio infections].there is a great demand for an applicable vaccine against bacterial infections of prawns, especially vibriosis. the results of the tests that had been carried out can be evaluated as promising and indicate that the vaccination of prawns against bacterial diseases is possible. nevertheless it is still necessary to increase the scale of research on this subject, above all, the basics of the immuno-system of prawns. adult prawns should be vaccinated to check if they are able to pass their immuno-pr ...19958651898
isolation of vibrio harveyi from diseased kuruma prawns penaeus japonicus.outbreaks of high mortality among the cultured kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus without overt gross signs occurred during august and december of 1994 in i-lan, taiwan. eleven luminous bacterial strains were isolated from the hepatopancreas of moribund prawns from five different farms by use of tryptic soy agar (tsa, supplemented with 2% nacl) and/or thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (tcbs) agar. these strains, together with our two previously unpublished isolates, were characterized and identi ...19968662185
virulence of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from diseased tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.outbreaks of mass mortality among cultured tiger prawns (penaeus monodon) with white spotted syndrome (wss) in the carapace occurred in the summer of 1994 in i-lan, taiwan. a swarming strain val was isolated from hemolymph of the moribund prawns with tryptic soy agar (tsa, supplemented with 1% nacl, oxoid) and/or thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (tcbs, difco) agar. this strain was characterized and identified to be vibrio alginolyticus. the strain was susceptible to antibiotics such as chlo ...19968867464
toxic effects of blooms of marine species of oscillatoriales on farmed prawns (penaeus monodon, penaeus japonicus) and brine shrimp (artemia salina).benthic and planktonic blooms of species of oscillatoriales coincided with mortalities of penaeus monodon during four episodes at australian prawn farms. oscillatoria corakiana was the dominant planktonic species at 65-90,000 cells/ml, but spirulina sp., lyngbya sp., oscillatoria sp. and nodularia sp. were also identified from the water column, benthic layers or surface mats. the levels and variety of vibrionaceae in prawn tissue, suggest that mortalities were caused by secondary infections of b ...19968875773
isolation and characterization of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from diseased kuruma prawn, penaeus japonicus.outbreaks of serious mortality among cultured kuruma prawns (penaeus japonicus) with white spotted syndrome in the carapace occurred in the summer of 1993 in i-lan, taiwan. a swarming bacterium, strain swy, was isolated from the hepatopancreas of the moribund prawns using tryptic soy agar supplemented with 1% nacl and/or thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar. this strain was characterized and identified as vibrio alginolyticus on the basis of a number of biochemical tests. the swy strain w ...19968936369
isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.bacteria phenotypically resembling members of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete group of the domain bacteria were isolated from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon. a selective medium designed in the light of planctomycete antibiotic resistance characteristics was used for this isolation. planctomycetes were isolated from both healthy and monodon baculovirus-infected prawn postlarvae. the predominant colony type recovered from postlarvae regardless of viral infection s ...19978979353
development of a non-radioactive gene probe by pcr for detection of white spot syndrome virus (wssv).combining primers created from the sequence information of two baculo-like viruses of penaeid shrimp, baculovirus penaei (bp) and monodon baculovirus (mbv), produced a 750 bp band on a 0.8% agarose gel using white spot syndrome virus (wssv), from penaeus monodon, as the dna template. the pcr fragment was ligated to a plasmid vector, (pgem-t) and transformed, creating a 3.7 kbp clone. the dna insert was sequenced, and the original primer pair was located. using restriction enzymes, the insert was ...19979015290
toxicity of cyanide, iron-cyanide complexes, and a blast-furnace effluent to the banana prawn, penaeus monodon. 19979115149
purification and characterization of a cysteine protease produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi.the purification and characterization of an extracellular protease produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi strain 820514, originally isolated from diseased tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), was presented in this paper. the purification steps included ammonium sulfate precipitation, with columns of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion exchange on fast protein liquid chromatography. the protease is an alkaline cysteine protease, heat labile, inhibited by iodoacetamide, iodoacetic a ...19979175557
random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers for determination of genetic variation in wild populations of the black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) in thailand.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was used to amplify the genome of black tiger prawns (penaeus monodon) to detect dna markers and assess the utility of the rapd method for investigating genetic variation in wild p. monodon in thailand. a total of 200 ten-base primers were screened, and 84 primers yielded amplification products. six positive primers that gave highly reproducible rapd patterns were selected for the analysis of three geographically different samples of thai p. monod ...19979200837
passive immunization of the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon, using rabbit antisera to vibrio harveyi.passive immunization, toxicity neutralization and the persistence of passive protection in the tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) were investigated using rabbit antisera to the formalinized extracellular products (ecp) (r alpha ecp) and/or formalinized bacterial cells (r alpha bc) of luminescent vibrio harveyi strain 820514 originally isolated from diseased tiger prawns. rabbit antiserum to bovine serum albumin (r alpha bsa) or phosphate-buffered saline (pbs, ph 7.2) both served as controls. the toxi ...19979248078
glucan-induced disease resistance in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).non-specific disease resistance induced by yeast cell wall extract, beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, was demonstrated in the tiger shrimp. in this study beta-1,3-1,6-glucan was administered to shrimps by immersion before culturing and orally during the culturing period. challenge of the treated shrimps with the virulent pathogens, vibrio vulnificus and viral agents extracted from the white spot syndrome victims, yielded promising results. the tolerance of glucan-treated shrimps was slightly enhanced to stre ...19979270870
effects of extracellular products of vibrio alginolyticus on penaeid prawn plasma components.the effects of both crude extracellular products (ecp) and a partially purified protease of vibrio alginolyticus on the plasma components of kuruma prawn (penaeus japonicus) and tiger prawn (p. monodon) were studied using crossed immunoelectrophoresis (cie). a component of the plasma, tentatively identified as coagulogen, apparently disappeared after incubation with the ecp, while the amount of a component tentatively identified as haemocyanin decreased. the coagulogen and an unknown component ( ...19979281857
phenoloxidase activity of hemocytes derived from penaeus monodon and macrobrachium rosenbergii.the phenoloxidase (po) activity of hemocyte lysate supernatant (hls) from both tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (macro-branchium rosenbergii) was examined by treating hls with various factors, such as an increase in temperatures from 25 to 70 degrees c, one of four elicitors (beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, zymosan, heat-killed vibrio cells, and lipopolysaccharide), trypsin, one of three protease inhibitors (soybean trypsin inhibitor, p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate, and benzami ...19989446734
multidrug- and metal-resistant strains of klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from penaeus monodon of the coastal waters of deltaic sundarban.marine shrimp of the species penaeus monodon were collected from the coastal region (haroa) of the deltaic sundarbans of west bengal, india during the premonsoon period in 1996. klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the alimentary canal and gills of the shrimp as the sole isolate. all 10 isolated strains were resistant to erythromycin (30 micrograms/ml), ampicillin (100 micrograms/ml), furazolidone (100 micrograms/ml), and penicillin (100 iu). these strains were able to grow in the presence of ...19989543720
chitin but not chitosan supplementation enhances growth of grass shrimp, penaeus monodon.the effect of chitin, poly-beta-(1 --> 4)-n-acetyl-glucosamine, and chitosan, a polymer of glucosamine obtained by the deacetylation of chitin, on growth and nutrient digestibility was studied in grass shrimp, penaeus monodon. shrimp were fed for 8 wk diets containing no supplement (control) or 2, 5 or 10 g/100 g chitin or chitosan. each diet was fed to triplicate groups of shrimp with a mean initial body weight of 0.45 +/- 0.05 g. significantly higher body weight gains were observed in shrimp f ...19989567002
a preliminary study of ribosomal dna polymorphism in the tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.the preliminary study of rdna polymorphisms in p. monodon showed that inter- and intraindividual polymorphisms of rdna were clearly observed in this species. individual-specific rdna restriction patterns were observed when digested with bamhi and saci. the intergenic spacers (igs) region of p. monodon rdna plays an important role in length heteroplasmy at both between- and within-individual levels in this species.19989701643
diurnal variation and effects of feeding on blood glucose in the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.previous studies on crustacea have demonstrated significant diurnal rhythms in blood glucose. however, glucose concentration in the blood of food-deprived penaeus monodon, held in indoor or outdoor tanks, did not exhibit a diurnal rhythm under photoperiods of 8 h light and 16 h darkness (8l: 16d) or under a 13.5l: 9.5d photoperiod, with simulated or natural full moon conditions. prawns held on photoperiods of constant light, 20l : 4d, 16l : 8d, 12l : 12d, 8l : 16d, 4l : 20d, or continuous darkne ...19989754534
colourimetric pcr-based detection of monodon baculovirus in whole penaeus monodon postlarvae.the development of a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay is described to detect low concentrations of monodon baculovirus (mbv) dna from total penaeus monodon postlarval dna. a modified dna extraction procedure was also developed to circumvent problems associated with co-purification of pcr inhibitors in total dna extracted from whole postlarvae. this method involved mechanical disruption of frozen prawn material immediately followed by phenol extraction at high temperature. an assessme ...19989763125
experimental transmission of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) from crabs to shrimp penaeus monodon.white spot syndrome virus (wssv) of the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon is a recently discovered baculo-like virus disease which is currently the cause of very serious and widespread losses in the shrimp industry in thailand and elsewhere in asia. three suspected crab carriers of this virus commonly found in shrimp-rearing areas were investigated. these were sesarma sp., scylla serrata and uca pugilator. all these crabs could be infected with wssv by injection and they sustained heavy viral in ...19989789973
histopathology of cultured shrimp showing gross signs of yellow head syndrome and white spot syndrome during 1994 indian epizootics.two epizootics of cultured shrimp occurred in india in 1994. the first case of mass mortalities of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon in july 1994 was very similar to that caused by yellowhead virus (yhv) infection with regard to gross clinical signs, host species and size of shrimp affected, but it was histologically atypical. very interestingly, intranuclear inclusions typical of a white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection were present in shrimp showing gross signs of yellow head syndrome, suggesti ...19989789974
genetic structure in wild populations of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) using randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis.randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was used to examine genetic variation in wild black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. specimens were collected from five geographically separated locations (satun-trang, phangnga, and medan in the andaman sea and chumphon and trad in the gulf of thailand). a total of 100 p. monodon individuals were investigated using seven arbitrarily selected primers. fifty-eight (72.5%) of eighty reproducible rapd fragments ranging in size from 200 to 2200 bp wer ...19989852621
dietary biotin requirement for maximum growth of juvenile grass shrimp, penaeus monodon.a feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary biotin requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, penaeus monodon. purified diets with eight levels (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg) of supplemental biotin were fed to p. monodon (mean weight 0. 26 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. shrimp fed diets supplemented with biotin (0.2-20.0 mg/kg) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency rat ...19989868198
putative spawner-isolated mortality virus associated with mid-crop mortality syndrome in farmed penaeus monodon from northern australia.beginning in 1994, farms in northern australia experienced a higher than normal mortality rate in 12 to 15 g prawns from growout ponds. the farmers named this problem mid-crop mortality syndrome (mcms). intramuscular injection of filtered (450 nm), cell-free extracts of moribund prawns from these ponds killed healthy prawns between 5 to 30 d post-injection. a 20 nm virus was visualized by electron microscopy from a 1.4 g ml-1 band recovered from caesium chloride gradients of extracts from the mo ...19989891733
the hemolymph clottable proteins of tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and related species.a clottable protein was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) by sequential deae anion-exchange chromatography. the protein formed stable clots in the presence of ca2+ and the transglutaminase in hemocyte lysate. it is thermostable at temperatures up to 66 degrees c. the molecular mass of the clottable protein was determined to be 380 kda by sds-page and maldi-tof mass spectrometry, and the protein exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. the size and amino ac ...19989972292
dietary pantothenic acid requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, penaeus monodon.a feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary pantothenic acid (pa) requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, penaeus monodon. purified diets with seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) of supplemental pa were fed to p. monodon (mean weight 0.88 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. the level of pa detected in the unsupplemented diet was 0.02 mg/kg. each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. feed efficiencies (fe) and protein efficiency ratios were highest in shrimp fed t ...199910082780
mitochondrial dna diversity in three populations of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.: mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtdna-rflp) was utilized for determination of genetic variation and population structure in penaeus monodon collected from satun (the andaman sea) and surat and trat (the gulf of thailand). twenty-eight composite haplotypes were generated from 52 restriction profiles of p. monodon mtdna digested with 11 restriction endonucleases. the size of the entire p. monodon mitochondrial genome was estimated to be 15.913 +/- 0.177 kb. the averag ...199910373619
identification of abundant and informative microsatellites from shrimp (penaeus monodon) genome.microsatellites were isolated from p. monodon genomic libraries by direct sequencing of recombinant clones without probe screening. forty-nine out of 83 clones sequenced contained 99 microsatellite arrays of three or more repeats. when five or more and ten or more repeats were considered, 28 and 14 microsatellites were detected, respectively. the 99 microsatellites were classified as perfect (75%), imperfect (6%), compound perfect (3%) and compound imperfect (16%). the abundance of di-, tri-, te ...199910376307
cysteine protease is a major exotoxin of pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi in the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.the role of an extracellular cysteine protease, produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi strain 820514 originally isolated from diseased tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), in the disease process in the prawns was studied. the protease was lethal to p. monodon with an ld50 value of 0.3 microgram protein g-1 prawn. the lethal toxicity of the extracellular products (ecp) of the bacterium was neutralized by pre-incubation of the ecp with rabbit antiserum to the cysteine protease. pre-incubation of ...199910389258
molecular cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.a cdna encoding shrimp, penaeus monodon, prophenoloxidase (propo) was obtained by screening a hemocyte library by plaque hybridization using a propo cdna fragment from freshwater crayfish, pacifastaceus leniusculus, as a probe. the 3,002 bp cdna contains an open reading frame of 2,121 bp and a 881 bp 3'-untranslated region. the molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (688 amino acids) is 78,700 da with an estimated pi of 5.8. two putative copper binding sites are present and they have ...199910402205
active immunisation of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) against vibriosis in thailand.mechanisms of host defence in crustaceae and vibriosis in shrimp and methods for its prevention are discussed as introduction. the own work deals with the development of a site-specific multivalent anti-vibrio vaccine and its application in thailand. the vaccine was produced in a continuous bioreactor system from field strains of vibrio alginolyticus, v. harveyi, v. parahaemolyticus and v. vulnificus, purified through ultrafiltration, and inactivated by formalin. it was applied to penaeus monodo ...199910486986
ovarian function in the giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) as determined by in vitro bioassay.ovary tissue fragments of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon were incubated in vitro with l-methionine[35s] plus l-cysteine[35s] as a metabolic labeling reagent. the labeled cytoplasmic and secreted proteins synthesized in vitro during incubations under various conditions were subjected to sds polyacrylamide electrophoresis and visualized by autoradiography. vitellogenin (vg) was immunologically identified and shown to be actively synthesized and released into the incubation medium. the synth ...199910521326
tissue-specific expressed sequence tags from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.: expressed sequence tag data were generated from complementary dna libraries created from cephalothorax, eyestalk, and pleopod tissue of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). significant database matches were found for 48 of 83 nuclear genes sequenced from the cephalothorax library, 22 of 55 nuclear genes from the eyestalk library, and 6 of 13 nuclear genes from the pleopod library. the putative identities of these genes reflected the expected tissue specificity. for example, genes for dige ...199910525681
molecular cloning and characterization of a hemolymph clottable protein from tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).to investigate the coagulation system in crustacean decapoda, a homodimeric glycoprotein of 380 kda was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) by sequential deae anion exchange chromatography. the purified protein was coagulated by the shrimp hemocyte transglutaminase in the presence of ca2+. the clottable protein contains 44% alpha helices and 26% beta sheets as determined by circular dichroism spectra. its conformation is stable in buffer of ph 4-9. to solve its primary ...199910561606
hemostasis of tiger prawn penaeus monodon affected by vibrio harveyi, extracellular products, and a toxic cysteine protease.the effects of bacterial cells, extracellular products (ecp) and a purified cysteine protease of vibrio harveyi on hemostasis and plasma components of tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) were studied. the clotting ability of the hemolymph withdrawn from moribund prawns pre-injected with the bacteria, ecp, cysteine protease of pbs (control) was observed for 2 h at 25 c. of these, only the control group was clottable while all the other groups were unclottable. a component of the plasma, previously iden ...199910575544
maternal transmission of immunity to white spot syndrome associated virus (wssv) in shrimp (penaeus monodon).beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, derived from bakers' yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used in the present study to investigate the extent to which glucan is able to protect spawners from white spot syndrome associated virus (wssv), and whether this protection (if any) can be passed on to hatchlings via maternal transmission of immunity. results showed that fewer spawners in the glucan-injected groups showed the clinical symptoms of red body coloration and white spots on the shell during the 15 days betw ...199910579383
immunochemical analysis and immunocytochemical localization of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the eyestalk of macrobrachium rosenbergii.heptapeptide (yanavqv-nh2 = t-) and octapeptide (yanavqtv-nh2 = t+), the putative c-terminus of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) from the eyestalk of the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii, was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis and conjugated to bovine serum albumin, then used for immunization in swiss mice. specificity of the antisera against both peptides was determined by indirect immunoperoxidase elisa. the best response of antiserum against each peptide was us ...199910582322
electrophoretic characterization of a novel cysteine protease produced by vibrio harveyi.electrophoretic characterization of a novel cysteine protease produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi, originally isolated from diseased tiger prawn penaeus monodon in taiwan, is demonstrated in the present study using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native page), sodium dodecyl sulfate-page (sds-page), crossed immunoelectrophoresis (cie) and isoelectric focusing (ief) gels. the protease has a pi of 6.4 and exhibits a fast-migrating feature in native-page and cie gels indicatin ...199910608698
estimation of the dietary vitamin a requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, penaeus monodon.two growth experiments were conducted to estimate the minimal dietary vitamin a requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, penaeus monodon. in expt. 1, purified diets containing 0, 1,500, 3,000, 15, 000, 30,000, 45,000 and 60,000 retinol equivalent (re)/kg (i.e., 0, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 150,000, 200,000 iu/kg) of supplemental vitamin a (retinyl acetate) were fed to p. monodon (mean initial weight 0.97 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. in expt. 2, diets with 0, 600, 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, 3,000, 3,600, ...200010613772
characterization and pcr detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (hpv) from penaeus monodon in thailand.hepatopancreatic parvovirus (hpv) causes disease in several species of penaeid shrimp. heavy infections may result in poor growth and reduced production for shrimp farmers. from one southern thai shrimp pond with a high prevalence of hpv infection, 790 shrimp were sampled randomly and the hepatopancreas (hp) removed. most hp were preserved in liquid nitrogen. however, every 10th hp (79 total) was divided into 2 parts appropriately fixed for examination by transmission electron microscopy (tem) a ...199910627152
establishment of cell culture systems from penaeid shrimp and their susceptibility to white spot disease and yellow head viruses.monolayer cultures were established from ovary, heart, lymphoid tissue and peripheral hemocytes of penaeid shrimps including penaeus monodon, p. japonicus and p. penicillatus. the most favorable conditions for the culture of penaeid shrimp cells in vitro was in cmrl and l-15 tissue culture media when used within an osmolarity range of 620--760 mmol/kg. the optimal maintenance temperature was 25 degrees c for tissues of p. japonicus and 28 degrees c for tissues of p. monodon and p. penicillatus. ...199910627672
early attempts at production of prawn cell lines.this report describes some unsuccessful attempts to produce continuous cell lines from penaeid prawn tissues in the late 1980s. this information is presented so that others might save time by not repeating the unsuccessful measures that were attempted. the osmolarity of penaeus monodon haemolymph was measured at 687 mosmol/kg (n = 10). of the media tested, the best medium for cell growth and maintenance was shown to be double strength l-15, supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and 10% praw ...199910627673
studies on primary cell cultures derived from ovarian tissue of penaeus part of a bioassay approach to investigate ovarian development and function, primary cell cultures were derived from penaeus monodon ovaries at various stages of maturation. these cultures were established in modified grace's or modified 2x l-15 media. various supplements including growth factors, vitamins and minerals were trailed. four morphologically different types of cells (epithelioid, fibroblastic, rounded, and epithelioid with large nuclei) were maintained for up to 17 months. epithel ...199910627674
primary cell cultures isolated from penaeus monodon prawns.we have devised a cell culture system for penaeus monodon prawn cells that uses a defined synthetic medium. organs were removed from adult prawns ranging in size from 13--19cm rostrum-to-telson length. cultures consisted of either a blend of hematopoietic and lymphoid cells or ovarian cells. the cells divide rapidly in culture, doubling on average once per week for 5 to 6 weeks. these cultures continue to survive for at least 5 months but the rates of cell division are low after the first 5--6 w ...199910627675
progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in thailand.primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, in double-strength leibovitz's l-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/l nacl, 15% shrimp meat extract. the optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in l-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees c and incubation in a normal atmosphere. however, basal medium supplemented ...199910627677
sulfakinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. isolation, identification andtissue localization in the tiger prawn penaeus monodon.the sulfakinin (sk) family of neuropeptides are characterized by a c-terminal octapeptide sequence that begins with two acidic residues (most commonly dd), and ends with yghmrf-nh2, usually with the tyrosyl residue sulfated. so far, sulfakinins have only been identified in insects and the present study was initiated to investigate if the family is more widely distributed within the arthropods. purification of an extract of the central nervous system of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon has r ...200010672025
lethal attribute of serine protease secreted by vibrio alginolyticus strains in kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus.toxicity of the extracellular products (ecp) and the lethal attribute of serine protease secreted by five pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus strains from various sources in kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus were studied. the ecps of organisms originally isolated from diseased kuruma prawn or small abalone haliotis diversicolor supertexta were more lethal (ld50 value of 0.48 or 0.41 microg protein/g prawn) than those from diseased tiger prawn p. monodon, yellowfin porgy acanthopagrus latus or horse mac ...200010739107
detection of australian gill-associated virus (gav) and lymphoid organ virus (lov) of penaeus monodon by rt-nested pcr.a highly sensitive test based on reverse transcription followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-npcr) was developed to detect the australian yellow-head-like viruses, gill-associated virus (gav) and lymphoid organ virus (lov) of penaeus monodon. the rt-npcr detected viral rna in as little as 10 fg lymphoid organ total rna isolated from gav-infected p. monodon. amplification of serial dilutions of a gav cdna clone showed that the nested pcr was sufficiently sensitive to detect a single ge ...200010768283
monodon baculovirus from australia: ultrastructural observations.the cytopathology, virogenesis and replication of monodon baculovirus (mbv) in penaeus monodon from australia are described. electron-dense unenveloped nucleocapsids, not previously described for mbv, are shown in the cytoplasm and attached to the nuclear envelope of infected hepatopancreatocytes. these nucleocapsids comprise a missing link in the published literature on the replication cycle of mbv by providing evidence for the means by which the viral genome travels from the plasma membrane of ...200010768284
two polymorphic microsatellite markers from novel penaeus monodon ests. 200010782220
the haemocytic origin of lymphoid organ spheroid cells in the penaeid prawn penaeus monodon.studies on lymphoid organ spheroid (los) cells of penaeus monodon were undertaken. phenoloxidase and peroxidase assays showed that los cells have characteristics similar to semi-granular and, in particular, large granular haemocytes. the mean percentage of los cells positive for phenoloxidase and peroxidase was 85 +/- 23 and 82 +/- 23%, respectively. there was no significant difference between the sites of phenoloxidase and peroxidase activity in los cells (t = 1.617, df = 29, p > 0.05). the rel ...200010782341
diagnosis of penaeus monodon-type baculovirus by pcr and by elisa of occlusion bodies.the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon is a valuable aquaculture product in taiwan. two specific diagnostic methods were established for p. monodon-type baculovirus, one using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technology and the other enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technology. monodon-type baculovirus (mbv) was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation from occlusion bodies of mbv-infected postlarvae of p. monodon. mbv dna was subsequently purified from the occlusion bodies and its pre ...200010782342
inhibition of luminescence and virulence in the black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) pathogen vibrio harveyi by intercellular signal antagonists.expression of luminescence in the penaeus monodon pathogen vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is n-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in v. harveyi are coregulated. in this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone ...200010788385
five crustacean hyperglycemic family hormones of penaeus monodon: complementary dna sequence and identification in single sinus glands by electrospray ionization-fourier transform mass spectrometry.five novel neuropeptides, designated pm-sgp-i to -v, of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) family have been identified from the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon by isolation of the preprohormone genes from an eyestalk complementary dna library. on the basis of sequence similarity, the encoded peptides have been classified as chh-like type i hormones, which include all known chhs and the molt-inhibiting hormone (mih) of the lobster homarus americanus. consistent with chh type i preprohor ...200010804243
gill-associated virus of penaeus monodon prawns: an invertebrate virus with orf1a and orf1b genes related to arteri- and coronaviruses.a 20089 nucleotide (nt) sequence was determined for the 5' end of the (+)-ssrna genome of gill-associated virus (gav), a yellow head-like virus infecting penaeus monodon prawns. clones were generated from a approximately 22 kb dsrna purified from lymphoid organ total rna of gav-infected prawns. the region contains a single gene comprising two long overlapping open reading frames, orf1a and orf1b, of 4060 and 2646 amino acids, respectively. the orfs are structurally related to the orf1a and orf1a ...200010811931
the penaeus monodon chitinase 1 gene is differentially expressed in the hepatopancreas during the molt cycle.we have isolated a full-length chitinase complementary dna from the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon that encodes a 621 amino acid protein possessing the functional domains of the chitinase protein family. the penaeus monodon chitinase 1 (pmchi-1) gene product is 81.8% identical to a chitinase 1 protein expressed in the hepatopancreas of penaeus japonicus. analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) indicates that pmchi-1 messenger rna is detectable in the hepatopancreas and ...200010811951
differential expression of ras in organs and embryos of shrimp penaeus monodon (crustacea: decapoda).total rna from shrimp hepatopancreas of penaeus monodon showed three prominent bands that react with the shrimp ras probe, a 239-bp product, of approximately 4.8 kb (r1), 3.1 kb (r2) and 1.3 kb (r3) on the northern blot. the r1 is the least abundant. analyses of total rna from gill and heart were similar to each other. the highest expression of ras was observed in the gill, while a negligible signal was detected with the ras probe in muscle. ras expression is developmentally regulated in embryon ...200010818265
the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the crustacean penaeus monodon: are malacostracan crustaceans more closely related to insects than to branchiopods?the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon (arthropoda, crustacea, malacostraca), is presented. the gene content and gene order are identical to those observed in drosophila yakuba. the overall at composition is lower than that observed in the known insect mitochondrial genomes, but higher than that observed in the other two crustaceans for which complete mitochondrial sequence is available. analysis of the effect of nucleotide bias on codon compo ...200010833192
accumulation of nitrite in the tissues of penaeus monodon exposed to elevated ambient nitrite after different time periods.penaeus monodon (29.42 +/- 0.39 g) that had been exposed individually to 0.001 (control), 0.07, 0.36, 0.72, and 1.44 mm nitrite in 25 ppt sea water were examined for the nitrite accumulation in hemolymph, gill, eyestalk, heart, foregut, midgut, hepatopancreas, and muscle and nitrite uptake after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. concentration of nitrite in the tissues increased directly with ambient nitrite and exposure time except for muscle. p. monodon following 48-h exposure to 0.36 mm ...200010871421
a new bacterial white spot syndrome (bwss) in cultured tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and its comparison with white spot syndrome (wss) caused by virus.this paper describes a new bacterial white spot syndrome (bwss) in cultured tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. the affected shrimp showed white spots similar to those caused by white spot syndrome virus (wssv), but the shrimp remained active and grew normally without significant mortalities. the study revealed no evidence of wssv infection using electron microscopy, histopathology and nested polymerase chain reaction. electron microscopy indicated bacteria associated with white spot formation, and wi ...200010907134
ultrastructure of white spot syndrome virus development in primary lymphoid organ cell cultures.primary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of penaeus monodon were used to investigate in vitro propagation and morphogenesis of white spot syndrome virus (wssv). double-strength leibovitz's l15 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum, ph 7.5, with a final osmolarity of 530 +/- 5 mosm kg-1 was identified as the most suitable culture medium. in this medium, the lymphoid cells remained viable for more than 1 wk. migrating cells were inoculated with wssv, and the consequent cytopathic effects d ...200010918977
study on the free amino acid levels in the hemolymph, gill, hepatopancreas and muscle of penaeus monodon exposed to elevated ambient ammonia.tiger shrimp penaeus monodon following 24 h exposure to 0.002 (control), 0.072 and 0.718 mm ammonia were examined for the free amino acid (faa), ammonia and urea levels in the hemolymph, gill, hepatopancreas and muscle. control shrimps contained total faa in hemolymph (1.19 µmol ml(-1)), gill (21.81 µmol g(-1)), hepatopancreas (100.81 µmol g(-1)) and muscle (239.54 µmol g(-1)). glycine and arginine were the major contributors to the total faa pool, and made up of 90% of the total faa in the musc ...200010930648
recovery of penaeus monodon from functional anaemia after exposure to sublethal concentration of nitrite at different ph levels.tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (14.79+/-0.19 g) which had been exposed individually to 0.72 mm nitrite at ph 6.8, 8.2 and 9.8 after 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h were examined for the water nitrite concentration, hemolymph nitrite, oxyhemocyanin, protein and osmolality levels. same parameters were examined for shrimp depurated in nitrite-free water after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following 48 h exposure to nitrite. in the nitrite-exposed test, nitrite influx, hemolymph nitrite and osmotic differential (medium osm ...200010930651
microsatellite polymorphism and the population structure of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in thailand.genetic variation and differentiation of thai penaeus monodon from five geographic locations (chumphon, trad, phangnga, satun, and trang) were investigated using five microsatellite loci (cupmo18, di25, di27, cscupmo1, and cscupmo2). the number of alleles across the five loci ranged from 19 to 30, and heterozygosities ranged from 0.49 to 0.95. the mean number of alleles and effective number of alleles per locus were 21.0 to 26.6 and 13.1 to 20.4, respectively. the average heterozygosity across a ...200010960123
development of a monoclonal antibody specific to yellow head virus (yhv) from penaeus monodon.a monoclonal antibody specific to yellow head virus (yhv) was produced from a mouse immunized with gill extracts prepared from laboratory-reared penaeus monodon dually infected with yhv and white spot syndrome virus (wssv). one clone designated v3-2b specifically bound to native and sds-treated viral specific antigens. immunocytochemical studies of infected gills revealed viral specific immunoreactivities in the cytoplasm of gill tissue and in haemocytes. no antibody binding was observed in gill ...200010986642
white spot syndrome virus (wssv) in cultured penaeus monodon in the philippines.the prevalence and geographic distribution of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection among cultured penaeid shrimp in the philippines was determined from january to may, 1999, using pcr (polymerase chain reaction) protocol and western blot assays. a total of 71 samples consisting of 18 post-larvae (pl) and 53 juvenile/adult shrimp samples (56 to 150 days-of-culture, doc) were screened for wssv. of the 71 samples tested, 51 (72%) were found positive for wssv by pcr: 61% (31/51) after 1-step p ...200010986648
antibiotic- and metal-resistant strains of vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from shrimps.enteropathogenic strains of vibrio parahaemolyticus were isolated from shrimps, penaeus monodon collected from the region of the deltaic sundarbans (west bengal, india). about 63% of the isolated strains were resistant to ampicillin, cephalexin, and kanamycin. however, all these strains were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and norfloxacin. the isolated strains were resistant to ni2+] (75%), cu2+ (87%), and co2+ (37%), but all the strains were resistant against cd2+, zn ...200010990273
three functionally diverged major structural proteins of white spot syndrome virus evolved by gene duplication.white spot syndrome virus (wssv) is an invertebrate virus causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp. the oval-to-bacilliform shaped virions, isolated from infected penaeus monodon, contain four major proteins: vp28, vp26, vp24 and vp19 (28, 26, 24 and 19 kda, respectively). vp26 and vp24 are associated with the nucleocapsid and the remaining two with the envelope. forty-one n-terminal amino acids of vp24 were determined biochemically allowing the identification of its gene (vp24) in the w ...200010993943
purification and characterization of calpastatin from grass prawn muscle (penaeus monodon).calpastatin, a specific calpain inhibitor was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity from grass prawn (penaeus monodon) muscle by 100 degrees c heat-treatment, deae-sephacel, and q-sepharose chromatographs. no significant change in the inhibitory activity of crude calpastatin was observed even after 20 min incubation at 100 degrees c, ph 7.0. the purified prawn calpastatin had a molecular weight (m(r)) of 80 and 88.7 kda determined by sds-page and sephacryl s-200 hr gel filtration, respective ...200010995281
immunomodulation by dietary beta-1, 3-glucan in the brooders of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the present study evaluated the effectiveness of beta-1,3-glucan derived from schizophyllum commune in enhancing shrimp survival as well as haemocyte phagocytosis and superoxide anion production in brooder penaeus monodon. pond-reared p. monodon adults (135 +/- 25 g) stocked in outdoor or indoor tanks were fed either a test diet containing beta-1,3-glucan (2.0 g kg(-1) or a glucan-free control diet for 40 days. their survival was compared. the brooders reared in indoor tanks were analysed at day ...200011016585
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