nitric oxide synthase (nos) in the brain of the cephalopod sepia officinalis.nitric oxide synthase-like protein (nos) is shown to be present in specific regions of the central nervous system (cns) of the cephalopod mollusc sepia officinalis (cuttlefish). nos activity, which is ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent, was determined by measuring the conversion of l-[(14)c]arginine in l-[(14)c]citrulline. the partially purified nos from brain and optic lobes exhibited on sds-page a band at 150 kda that was immunolabelled by antibodies raised against the synthetic peptide corresponding ...200011074443
binding of doxycycline to keratin, melanin and human epidermal tissue.doxycycline is licensed for the prophylaxis of malaria and recent research has indicated the feasibility of delivering this drug across the skin. the binding of doxycycline to keratin could influence skin permeation rates and it has been suggested that the interaction of anti-malarials with melanin may contribute to side effects, such as retinal damage. doxycycline hcl was incubated with keratin (bovine horn), melanin (sepia officinalis) and human epidermal samples (native and delipidised). dose ...200211879756
establishing structure-function relationships for eumelanin.the aggregation-dependent optical properties of eumelanin from human hair are examined. when aggregation is increased, the absorption spectrum extends to lower energy. the absorption spectra of oligomers isolated from black human hair and sepia officinalis are comparable and are in quantitative agreement with the reported action spectra for photoinduced oxygen consumption and free-radical generation by eumelanin. the agreement between the optical properties of human hair and squid eumelanins sug ...200212012453
toxicity of melanin-free ink of sepia officinalis to transformed cell lines: identification of the active factor as tyrosinase.the melanin-free ink of the cephalopod sepia officinalis is shown to contain a heat labile proteinaceous component toxic to a variety of cell lines, including pc12 cells. gel filtration chromatography indicated that the toxic component was concentrated in those fractions eluted at a molecular weight higher than 100 kda and exhibiting the highest tyrosinase activity. sds-page analysis of the active fractions displayed a single major band migrating at an approximate molecular weight of 100 kda, id ...200312901867
immunohistochemical study of collagens of the extracellular matrix in cartilage of sepia officinalis.we used various anti-collagen antibodies to perform indirect immunofluorescent staining of cartilage sections from cuttlefish (s. officinalis). on ultrathin sections and collagen fibril preparations from the same tissue, we performed immunostaining with colloidal gold. the extracellular matrix (ecm) of s. officinalis cartilage reacted intensely and homogeneously with an antibody directed against type i-like collagen isolated from the cartilage of cuttlefish and with anti-rat type v collagen anti ...199910563254
a calcium/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthase, nmdar2/3 receptor subunits, and glutamate in the cns of the cuttlefish sepia officinalis: localization in specific neural pathways controlling the inking system.chemical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical evidence is reported demonstrating the presence in the brain of the cuttlefish sepia officinalis of a ca2+-dependent nitric oxide synthase, nmdar2/3 receptor subunits, and glutamate, occurring in neurons and fibers functionally related to the inking system. nitric oxide synthase activity was concentrated for the most part in the cytosolic fraction and was masked by other citrulline-forming enzyme(s). the labile nitric oxide synthase could be partial ...199910461919
common cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) mortality at the national zoological park: implications for clinical management.six out of seven cuttlefish acquired by the smithsonian national zoological park in july 1998 died before 1 november 1998. postmortem examinations showed mantle ulcers, secondary bacterial infections, inanition, and cuttlebone fractures. the surviving cuttlefish developed a progressive focal mantle ulcer, was treated with oral chloramphenicol intermittently for 9 wk, and maintained a normal appetite and growth rate until death at 7 mo of age. the national zoological park pathology database showe ...200011428401
intramolecular localization of the functional units of sepia officinalis hemocyanin by immunoelectron microscopy.the quaternary structure of sepia officinalis hemocyanin (hc) as studied in immunoelectron microscopy with rabbit iggs and fab fragments raised against functional units (fu) soc, sod, soe, sof, sog, and soh and fragment soab. the architecture of immunocomplexes shows that (i) epitopes characteristic of fus soc and sog and of fragment soab are located in the two external tiers of fus, (ii) fus soh and soe or sod are located in arches. these results were confirmed using immunocomplexes made up of ...19989837726
significance of melanin binding and metabolism in the activity of 5-acetoxyacetylimino-4-methyl-delta2-1,3,4,-thiadiazolin e-2-sulfonamide.5-acetoxyacetylimino-4-methyl-delta2-1,3,4,-thiadiazoline -2-sulfonamide (compound (1)) is an ester prodrug that lowered intraocular pressure (iop) in albino new zealand rabbits, but was found to be inactive in pigmented dutch belt rabbits. in order to explain the differences in pharmacological activity for the two rabbit species, metabolism and melanin binding were studied. depending on the initial concentration, the binding of compound (1) to natural melanin (sepia officinalis) was 20-60%. the ...19989700021
use of rotary shadowing electron microscopy to investigate the collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix of cuttle-fish (sepia officinalis) and chicken cartilage.collagen fibrils isolated from sternal cartilage of chick embryo and chondrocranium of cuttle-fish (sepia officinalis) were examined with the electron microscope after rotary showing. the aim was to determine whether collagen fibrils from s. officinalis cartilage contained collagen molecules similar to the type ix collagen of vertebrate cartilage. cartilage from both sources presented a highly variable appearance and only occasionally did preparations contain fibrils having the structure describ ...19989569684
a comparison of 3h-cocaine binding on melanin granules and human hair in vitro.the in vitro experiments on the interaction of 3h-cocaine and melanin from sepia officinalis confirmed the existence of drug binding sites on melanin granules. the results suggested that the binding of 3h-cocaine to melanin could be analyzed by assuming that the binding to the surface of pigment granules is analogous to the adsorption of a drug on a solid and follows langmuir adsorption isotherm type i. scatchard analysis indicated heterogeneity of binding sites. structural and chemical alterati ...19979168320
subcellular localization and function of melanogenic enzymes in the ink gland of sepia officinalis.the ink gland of the cuttlefish sepia officinalis has traditionally been regarded as a convenient model system for investigating melanogenesis. this gland has been shown to contain a variety of melanogenic enzymes including tyrosinase, a dopachrome-rearranging enzyme and peroxidase. however, whether and to what extent these enzymes co-localize in the melanogenic compartments and interact is an open question. using polyclonal antibodies that recognize the corresponding sepia proteins, we have bee ...19979169609
isolation, characterization and immunocytochemical localization of caldesmon-like protein from molluscan striated muscle.a 140-kda polypeptide present in the striated muscle of pecten maximus and sepia officinalis was purified to homogeneity and its main properties were investigated using biochemical and cytochemical approaches. the protein was found to be similar to chicken gizzard caldesmon. it is a heat-stable protein. it cross-reacts immunologically with anti-(gizzard caldesmon) antibody, binds to calmodulin-sepharose in a ca2+-dependent manner, cosediments with f-actin filaments and acts in the absence and pr ...19892531664
isolation of mrna from membrane-bound polysomes synthesizing sepia officinalis haemocyanin in xenopus laevis oocytes.isolation and translation in xenopus laevis oocytes of the mrnas from the nuclear pellet and the cytoplasmic supernatant of the branchial glands from sepia officinalis, homogenized in the presence of vanadyl-ribonucleoside complexes, revealed that the membrane-bound polysomes for haemocyanin sedimented together with the nuclei. centrifugation on a 15-50% sucrose gradient of these polysomes, released by treatment with triton x-100, yielded a major peak of heavy ones. the messenger fraction, isola ...19872436622
brain vascular volume, electrolytes and blood-brain interface in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis (cephalopoda).cephalopod molluscs have complex brains and behaviour, yet little is known about the permeability of their blood-brain interface. this paper presents studies on the brain fluid and electrolyte compartments of the cuttlefish sepia, as a preliminary to characterization of the permeability of the blood-brain interface in this group. sepia is shown to be a satisfactory experimental animal, and techniques are described for anaesthesia, cannulation, and tissue and fluid analysis. our ionic analyses of ...19852416911
electron spin resonance imaging of mouse b16 x-band electron spin resonance (esr) imaging apparatus with a pin-hole te102 mode cavity and a rapid scan coil was constructed. using this apparatus, esr imaging of melanin in mouse b16 melanoma was observed for the first time. the esr spectrum of b16 melanoma is similar to that of natural melanin extracted from sepia officinalis in microwave power dependence.19901963815
myocarditis in the common cuttlefish (sepia officinalis).this report describes five cases of myocarditis in the common cuttlefish, sepia officinalis. both the systemic heart and the branchial hearts exhibited inflammatory lesions. vibrio species were isolated from four of these cases.19902365845
the cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of sepia officinalis (mollusca, cephalopoda): an immunocytochemical study.our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. we have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. we found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, gfap, and a ...200415208084
melanin standard method: empirical formula 2.natural melanins are composed of two distinct portions; a protein fraction and a chromophoric backbone. there is no unequivocal evidence for covalent bonding between these two fractions, and standard protocols used in protein purification have failed to separate the protein fraction from the chromophoric fraction. in order to study the chromophoric backbone, many workers have resorted to harsh isolation and purification protocols that are now known to degrade and damage the chromophoric portion. ...19921287627
allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis (mollusca: cephalopoda) from the ne atlantic and mediterranean.the atlantic-mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. however, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the atlantic and mediterranean. eleven samples of the cuttlefish sepia officinalis around the iberian peninsula, one from the canary islands, and another from fiumicino (italy) were screened for 33 allozyme lo ...199910504425
electrophoretic and immunochemical study of collagens from sepia officinalis cartilage.electrophoretic and western blot studies were conducted on collagen fractions extracted from sepia officinalis (cuttlefish) cartilage using a modified salt precipitation method developed for the isolation of vertebrate collagens. the antibodies used had been raised in rabbit against the following types of collagen: sepia i-like; fish i; human i; chicken i, ii, and ix; rat v; and calf ix and xi. the main finding was that various types of collagen are present in sepia cartilage, as they are in ver ...200212204335
long-term retention of neurotoxic beta-carbolines in brain neuromelanin.beta-carbolines show structural resemblance to the neurotoxic n-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and are metabolized to mitochondrial toxicants. humans are continuously exposed to low levels of beta-carbolines through cooked food, coffee, alcoholic beverages and tobacco smoke. beta-carbolines have previously been detected in higher levels in the pigmented substantia nigra than in the cortex of humans. the distribution of 3h-labelled harman and norharman in the brain of pigmented and al ...200414767717
complementary dna cloning and molecular evolution of opine dehydrogenases in some marine invertebrates.the complete complementary dna sequences of genes presumably coding for opine dehydrogenases from arabella iricolor (sandworm), haliotis discus hannai (abalone), and patinopecten yessoensis (scallop) were determined, and partial cdna sequences were derived for meretrix lusoria (japanese hard clam) and spisula sachalinensis (sakhalin surf clam). the primers odh-9f and odh-11r proved useful for amplifying the sequences for opine dehydrogenases from the 4 mollusk species investigated in this study. ...200415565272
n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-like immunoreactivity in the brain of sepia and octopus.ionotropic glutamate receptors have been subdivided into n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) and ampa/kainate classes. nmda receptor subunit 2a and 2b immunoreactivity is shown to be present in specific regions of the central nervous system (cns) of the cephalopod molluscs sepia officinalis and octopus vulgaris. an antibody that recognizes both mammalian nmdar2a and nmdar2b subunits equally was used. sds-page/western blot analysis performed on membrane proteins revealed an immunoreactive band at 170 kda ...200415300790
description of vibrio alginolyticus infection in cultured sepia officinalis, sepia apama, and sepia pharaonis. 200314583547
cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: d-aspartate, l-aspartate and the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of d-asp (d-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods sepia officinalis, loligo vulgaris and octopus vulgaris. d-asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. in neonatal s. officinalis, the concentration of d-asp in the retina is 1.8+/-0.2 micromol/g of tissue, and in the optic lobes it is 5.5+/-0.4 micromol/g of tissue. in adult animals, d-asp is found at a concentration of 3.5+/-0.4 mic ...200515491279
immunocytochemical localization of protein p27bbp in human skin and invertebrate (sepia officinalis) integument.the protein p27bbp (alias eif6) occurs in yeast and mammalian epithelial cells. it is essential for ribosome genesis and has also been implicated in the functionality of integrins and intermediate filaments. by immunoblot, we show that homogenized integument from sepia officinalis (cephalopoda, mollusca) contains a protein with immunological properties that closely resemble those of p27bbp. we also demonstrate, by immunogold electron microscopy with an indirect immunoreaction technique on ultrat ...200515902496
accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, sepia officinalis.domoic acid (da) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. although da has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about da accumulation in these molluscs. this study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of da detected in the common cuttlefish, sepia officinalis, which is one of the most studied cephalopod species in the world. domoic aci ...200515961171
variation of heavy metal concentrations (ag, cd, co, cu, fe, pb, v, and zn) during the life cycle of the common cuttlefish sepia officinalis.the developmental changes in the concentration of 8 essential and non-essential heavy metals (ag, cd, cu, co, fe, pb, v, zn) in the tissues (digestive gland, cuttlebone and whole animal) of the common cuttlefish sepia officinalis collected in the bay of the river seine were monitored from the end of the embryogenesis until the adult reproductive stage. compared to embryos, juveniles after hatching displayed much higher concentrations of ag, cu, fe and zn, suggesting an efficient incorporation fr ...200616336990
response of female cuttlefish sepia officinalis (cephalopoda) to mirrors and conspecifics: evidence for signaling in female cuttlefish.cuttlefish have a large repertoire of body patterns that are used for camouflage and interspecific signaling. intraspecific signaling by male cuttlefish has been well documented but studies on signaling by females are lacking. we found that females displayed a newly described body pattern termed splotch toward their mirror image and female conspecifics, but not to males, prey or inanimate objects. female cuttlefish may use the splotch body pattern as an intraspecific signal, possibly to reduce a ...200616408230
synthetic melanin is a model for soluble natural eumelanin in uva-photosensitised superoxide production.studies to uv-irradiate natural eumelanins in vitro have used insoluble pigment obtained by acid hydrolysis, which lacks melanoprotein. eumelanin synthesised in the presence of a protein is not insoluble, and the insoluble form of melanin from acid hydrolysis may not have the same physicochemical properties as the natural pigment synthesised in vivo in the melanosome. here we investigated radical production by three natural eumelanins exposed to solar levels of uva; sepia melanin from sepia offi ...200616446096
organochlorine compounds (pcbs, pcdds and pcdfs) in seafish and seafood from the spanish atlantic southwest coast.concentrations and congener specific profiles of pcdd/fs and pcbs were determined in edible fish and seafood species from the coast of huelva, in the spanish southwest atlantic coast. five fish species, namely wegde sole (dicologoglossa cuneata), common sole (solea vulgaris), white seabream (diplodus sargus), sardine (sardina pilchardus), angler fish (lophius piscatorius), two shellfish species (donax trunculus and chamelea gallina), common cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) and prawns (parapenaeus ...200616483635
preparation and use of media for protease-producing bacterial strains based on by-products from cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) and wastewaters from marine-products processing factories.cuttlefish powder (cfp) from sepia officinalis by-products was prepared and tested as a fermentation substrate for microbial growth and protease production by several species of bacteria: bacillus licheniformis, bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacillus cereus bg1, and vibrio parahaemolyticus. all microorganisms studied grew well and produced protease activity when cultivated in medium containing only cfp indicating that the strains can obtain their carbon and nitrogen source requireme ...200816962303
the surface oxidation potential of melanosomes measured by free electron laser-photoelectron emission microscopy.a technique for measuring the photoionization spectrum and the photoelectron emission threshold of a microscopic structured material is presented. the theoretical underpinning of the experiment and the accuracy of the measurements are discussed. the technique is applied to titanium silicide nanostructures and melanosomes isolated from human hair, human and bovine retinal pigment epithelium cells, and the ink sac of sepia officinalis. a common photothreshold of 4.5 +/- 0.2 ev is found for this se ...200717007561
transscleral visible/near-infrared spectroscopy for quantitative assessment of melanin in a uveal melanoma phantom of ex vivo porcine eyes.optical spectroscopy has been used as a supplement to conventional techniques for analyzing and diagnosing cancer in many human organs. because ocular tumors may be characterized by their different melanin content, we investigated the feasibility of using transscleral visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (vis/nirs) to estimate the quantity of melanin in a novel uveal melanoma phantom of ex vivo porcine eyes. the phantoms were made by injecting a freshly prepared suspension of 15% (wt/vol) gelatin, ...201019941854
photoprotection of human retinal pigment epithelium cells against blue light-induced apoptosis by melanin free radicals from sepia officinalis.cultured retinal pigment epithelium (rpe) cells can phagocytize large foreign particles. heterogeneous melanin aggregates from sepia officinalis, a species of cuttlefish, were fed to cultured human rpe cells to produce cells laden with sepia melanin. blue light-induced apoptosis (blia) assays were performed by flow cytometry on parallel cultures consisting of rpe cells isolated from independent eyes and evenly divided into two cultures, one fed sepia melanin and one containing only native melani ...200617075067
o-diphenol oxidase activity of molluscan hemocyanins.diphenoloxidase activities of two molluscan hemocyanins, isolated from the marine snails rapana venosa and garden snails helix vulgaris were studied using o-diphenol and l-dopa as substrates. the dimers of h. vulgaris hc show both, diphenol (k(m)=2.86 mm and k(cat)=4.48) and l-dopa activity due to a more open active sites of the enzyme and better access of the substrates. the k(m) value of molluscan h. vulgaris hc is very close to those of helix pomatia and sepia officinalis hcs, but several tim ...200818162195
occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from seawater organisms caught in campania region: preliminary study.environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals is a public health concern: drugs administered to humans and animals are excreted with urine or faeces and attend the sewage treatment. the main consequences of use and abuse of antibiotics is the development and diffusion of antibiotic resistance that has become a serious global problem. aim of the study is to evaluate the presence of antimicrobial residues and to assess the antimicrobial resistance in bacteria species isolated from different wild ...201425027759
treating hot flushes in menopausal women with homeopathic treatment--results of an observational study.there is great controversy concerning treatment for menopausal symptoms. we evaluated homeopathic treatments for hot flushes and their effect on quality of life in menopausal women.200818194760
evidence for the presence of molecules related to the neuropeptide cgrp in two cephalopods, sepia officinalis and nautilus macromphalus: comparison with its target organ distribution.calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) is a neuropeptide mainly involved in brain and cardiovascular functions in mammals. we investigated its presence and potential roles in two cephalopods, sepia officinalis and nautilus macromphalus. cgrp-like, but not calcitonin (ct)-like, molecules were detected by specific radioimmuno- and radioreceptor assays in the brain, optic lobes, branchial heart or afferent branchial vein and kidney. gel exclusion chromatography of cephalopod brain extracts, followe ...200617202833
enhanced melanin fluorescence by stepwise three-photon excitation.the fluorescence of eumelanin (from sepia officinalis and black human hair) was activated and enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude by exposure to near-infrared radiation. no activation or enhanced emission was observed when the samples were heated up to 100┬░c. the near-infrared irradiation caused obvious changes to the eumelanin and could be seen by fluorescence and bright field imaging. the area of enhanced emission appeared to originate from a region with changes in the morphology of ...201121668873
detection of antibodies against paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin: in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.several cell-wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and helminthes. among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. in the present study, melanin particles from p. brasiliensis were injected into balb/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodi ...201121813659
systematic analysis of animals used in medieval azerbaijan order to study the special composition of animals used in the medieval medicine of azerbaijan, a wide range of medieval sources on medicine and pharmacognosy from the collection of the institute of manuscripts of the azerbaijan academy of sciences in baku has been studied. about 40 medieval sources from the 10-18th centuries including 17 manuscripts in turkic, persian and arabic have been selected as the objects of this study. as a result, 150 species of animals described in medieval azerbaij ...200617153727
skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms.the complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. to simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. materials used were al(2)o(3) particles, melanin ...200717473339
bacteriological and biochemical assessment of marinating cephalopods, crustaceans and gastropoda during 24 weeks of storage.the quality and safety parameters of mixed marinated seafood salad containing common octopus (octopus vulgaris), shrimp (parapenaeus longirostris), european squid (loligo vulgaris), sea snail (rapana thomasiana) and common cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) at 4 degrees c during storage of 24 weeks were investigated. in addition, the nutritional value in terms of proximate and fatty acid composition of seafood salad was also determined. sensory scores of seafood salad in terms of appearance, odour, ...200819086240
mechanical performance and in vivo tests of an acrylic bone cement filled with bioactive sepia officinalis promote osteointegration, bioactive cuttlebone particles containing collagen were used to fill an acrylic cement, varying filler concentration (0-50 wt%). cuttlebone was characterized by x-ray diffraction, plasma atomic emission and ft-ir. mechanical properties of the filled cement were determined following astm procedures, included stress-strain, compression, bending, and fracture toughness tests. for in vivo tests, three groups of seven adult healthy rabbits were prepared to make an implant ...201020040157
steroidogenesis in the brain of sepia officinalis and octopus vulgaris.the presence of vertebrate-like steroids, steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptors has been reported exclusively in cephalopods gonads. the role played by these steroids has been also recently investigated. we here give evidence of steroidogenic activity in the brain of cephalopods. the activity of two key steroidogenic enzymes: 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd) and 17beta-hsd is present in the lobes of the nervous system of both sepia and octopus. such enzymes convert pregnenolone to ...201020036911
edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. this behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. there is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the mottle and the disruptive body patterns. broadly speaking, the mottle is displayed on continuous ...200920055546
metal concentrations in digestive gland and mantle of sepia officinalis from two coastal lagoons of portugal.concentrations of both essential (fe, cu, zn) and non essential (cd, hg and pb) metals were measured in the digestive gland and mantle of female cephalopods sepia officinalis captured in two distinct lagoons in portugal: aveiro lagoon, with a history of anthropogenic and industrial pollution, and formosa lagoon receiving urban effluents. we provide evidence for the following: (1) the digestive gland is the main target organ for both essential and non essential metals, frequently containing conce ...200919010515
analysis of novel angiotensin i-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) muscle proteins.the angiotensin i-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) proteins by treatment with various bacterial proteases were investigated. the hydrolysate generated by the crude enzyme from bacillus mojavensis a21 displayed the highest ace inhibitory activity, and the higher inhibition activity (87.11 +/- 0.92% at 2 mg/ml) was obtained with hydrolysis degree of 16%. this hydrolysate was fractionated by size exclusion chromatogra ...201020180574
localization of ion-regulatory epithelia in embryos and hatchlings of two cephalopods.the tissue distribution and ontogeny of na(+)/k(+)-atpase has been examined as an indicator for ion-regulatory epithelia in whole animal sections of embryos and hatchlings of two cephalopod species: the squid loligo vulgaris and the cuttlefish sepia officinalis. this is the first report of the immunohistochemical localization of cephalopod na(+)/k(+)-atpase with the polyclonal antibody alpha (h-300) raised against the human alpha1-subunit of na(+)/k(+)-atpase. na(+)/k(+)-atpase immunoreactivity ...201020127256
influence of degree of hydrolysis on functional properties and angiotensin i-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of protein hydrolysates from cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) tunisia the cuttlefish-processing industry generates large amounts of solid wastes. these wastes, which may represent 35% of the original material and constitute an important source of proteins, are discarded without any attempt at recovery. this paper describes some functional properties and the angiotensin i-converting enzyme (ace)-inhibitory activity of protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) by-products with crude enzyme extract from bacillus lichenif ...201020583200
the localization of enzyme activities in the pancreatic appendages of sepia officinalis l. (cephalopoda).in this study, enzyme activities of the pancreatic appendages of the ductus hepatopancreas (the so-called "pancreas") in sepia officinalis l. have been demonstrated by light and electron micicroscopical methods: malate dehydrogenase, monoamine oxidase, acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, adenosine triphosphatase and carbonic anhydrase were shown by the former, and monoamine oxidase, catalase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, choline esterase (non-specific), alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphat ...2003153895
mercury contamination in human hair and some marine species from sfax coasts of tunisia: levels and risk assessment.the aim of this study was to measure the mercury (hg) contents of three marine fish and common seafood species (diplodus annularis, sarpa salpa and sepia officinalis) at two sampling sites in the gulf of gabes, i.e. sidi mansour (polluted site) and kerkennah (control site). these species are frequently consumed by the population living at the sfax coasts of tunisia, particularly by the families of fisherman. additionally, the hair mercury levels of 55 volunteers (28 women, 27 men) were analysed ...201021136288
how egg case proteins can protect cuttlefish offspring?sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. de novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. a proteomic approach in sds-page coupled with ms unveiled a new egg case protein family: sepecps, for sepia officinalis egg case proteins. n-glycosylation was demonstrated by pas staining sds-pa ...201526168161
molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coccidian cephalopod parasites aggregata octopiana and aggregata eberthi (apicomplexa: aggregatidae) from the ne atlantic coast using 18s rrna sequences.the coccidia genus aggregata is responsible for intestinal coccidiosis in wild and cultivated cephalopods. two coccidia species, aggregata octopiana, (infecting the common octopus octopus vulgaris), and a. eberthi, (infecting the cuttlefish sepia officinalis), are identified in european waters. extensive investigation of their morphology resulted in a redescription of a. octopiana in octopuses from the ne atlantic coast (nw spain) thus clarifying confusing descriptions recorded in the past. the ...201323498588
prey capture by the cuttlefish (sepia officinalis l): an experimental study of two strategies.this study shows that the size of the prey (carcinus maenas ) relative to the predator (sepia officinalis ) is of importance in the choice between two types of attack: either capture by ejection of the two extensible tentacles, or capture by jumping on the prey. small crabs are preferentially captured by the first method and large crabs by the second. other factors which may explain the observed variations, include previous experience of the predator and the behaviour of the prey.198424923825
comparative study on biochemical properties and antioxidative activity of cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) protein hydrolysates produced by alcalase and bacillus licheniformis nh1 proteases.antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) using alcalase 2.4 l and bacillus licheniformis nh1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (dh) were determined. for the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide ph range. the antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (cphs) increase with increasing dh. in addition, all cphs exhibited antio ...201122312455
different excitation-contraction coupling mechanisms exist in squid, cuttlefish and octopod mantle muscleexcitation-contraction (ec) coupling was studied in central zone mantle muscle fibres of a squid (alloteuthis subulata), a cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) and an octopod (eledone cirrhosa). thin slices of muscle were used for twitch experiments and enzymatic isolation of single fibres for whole-cell patch-clamp studies. the current required for a supramaximal twitch response during direct stimulation of muscle slices was lower for squid than for cuttlefish. in squid, but not in cuttlefish, the cu ...19979359892
evidence for a cysteine-histidine thioether bridge in functional units of molluscan haemocyanins and location of the disulfide bridges in functional units d and g of the betac-haemocyanin of helix functional units d and g from the betac-haemocyanin of the gastropod helix pomatia, aminoacid analysis in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide showed the occurrence of seven cysteine residues. titration with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), however, did not reveal any free thiol group. pepsinolysis at ph 2.0 followed by amino acid analysis and partial sequencing of the cysteine-containing peptides showed that six cysteine residues are involved in the formation of three disulfide bridges at ...19979342242
an ion-exchange column chromatographic method for the isolation of octopine from sepia officinalis l. muscle. 1976335917
contractile properties of obliquely striated muscle from the mantle of squid (alloteuthis subulata) and cuttlefish (sepia officinalis)the mechanical properties of obliquely striated muscle fibres were investigated using thin slices of mantle from squid alloteuthis subulata and cuttlefish sepia officinalis. brief tetani or twitch stimuli were used as this pattern is likely to occur during jetting of the intact animal. the length­active force relationship for twitches and tetani (0.1s, 50hz) was similar to that of vertebrate cross-striated fibres. passive force at the length giving maximum tetanic force was 0.13±0.05p ...19979320349
the structure of some cephalopod statoliths.the statoliths of sepia officinalits, octopus vulgaris, alloteuthis subulata and taonius megalops have a smooth outline, but an irregular shape. they have projections and indentations. the statoliths from a pair of statocysts are usually quite similar in size and shape, and the general pattern is probably maintained throughout the size range of the species. statoliths from large animals are marginally larger than those from smaller ones. the statolith usually occupies only a small part of the ca ...19761000602
kinetic characterization of tissue-specific isozymes of octopine dehydrogenase from mantle muscle and brain of sepia officinalis. functional similarities to the m4 and h4 isozymes of lactate dehydrogenase. 1983217684
optic gland implants and their effects on the gonads of octopus.1. optic glands transplanted from one octopus vulgaris into another cause enlargement of the gonads and ducts of the recipient. 2. enlargement occurs whether or not the gland was secreting when implanted and regardless of the sex of the donor or recipient. 3. glands derived from eledone moschata or octopus macropus implanted into o. vulgaris are as effective as glands derived from o. vulgaris. 4. implants derived from sepia officinalis or loligo vulgaris appear to be ineffective.19951206347
a fibre matrix model for the restricting junction of the blood-brain barrier in a cephalopod mollusc: implications for capillary and epithelial permeability.a model is proposed for the novel restricting junction forming the blood-brain barrier in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefish sepia officinalis. the model is based on electron-microscopic findings, from both thin-section and freeze-fracture material, the distribution of electron-dense tracers, and radioisotopic measurements of permeability using small non-electrolytes. biochemical properties of sepia plasma proteins are also considered. it is proposed that an effective blood-brain barrier is ac ...19921588349
natural waste materials containing chitin as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs: batch and continuous this work three natural waste materials containing chitin were used as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs, namely the anodonta (anodonta cygnea) shell, the sepia (sepia officinalis) and the squid (loligo vulgaris) pens. the selected dyestuffs were the cibacron green t3g-e (ci reactive green 12), and the solophenyl green ble 155% (ci direct green 26), both from ciba, commonly used in cellulosic fibres dyeing, the most used fibres in the textile industry. batch equilibrium studies showed that the ...200516140355
electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood-brain barrier in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood-brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefish sepia officinalis. gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer for in vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously, and allowed to circulate for 10-35 min b ...19921588347
probing the surface calcium binding sites of melanosomes using molecular rulers.melanosomes have the capacity to bind significant concentrations of calcium, suggesting there are surface binding sites that enable cations to access the interior of fully pigmented melanosomes. the surface of melanosomes is known to contain significant concentrations of carboxylate groups which likely are the initial biding sites for calcium, but their arrangement on the surface of the melanosome is not known. in various calcium proteins, a bidentate coordination by two carboxylate groups is th ...201425157748
hydrophilic prodrug approach for reduced pigment binding and enhanced transscleral retinal delivery of celecoxib.transscleral retinal delivery of celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory and anti-vegf agent, is restricted by its poor solubility and binding to the melanin pigment in choroid-rpe. the purpose of this study was to develop soluble prodrugs of celecoxib with reduced pigment binding and enhanced retinal delivery. three hydrophilic amide prodrugs of celecoxib, celecoxib succinamidic acid (csa), celecoxib maleamidic acid (cma), and celecoxib acetamide (caa) were synthesized and characterized for solubility ...201222256989
ovarian and sperm regulatory peptides regulate ovulation in the oyster crassostrea gigas.for more than six decades, several studies have shown that genital products to entering the mantle cavity via the incurrent siphon, initiate in oyster, strong and rhythmic contractions of the adductor muscle (am). in order to characterize the regulatory peptides capable of triggering am contractions, we focused on the identification of putative myotropic peptides from genital products. two experimental approaches were developed. the first one, based on a mass spectrometry screening of the male g ...200616493672
[electron microscopic studies on aggregata eberthi from the intestine of sepia officinalis (sporozoa, coccidia). i. the ultrastructure of the merozoites, macrogametes and spores]. 19694988769
immunoelectron-microscopic study of g-protein distribution in photoreceptor cells of the cephalopod sepia officinalis.previous studies suggest that more than one single light-stimulated transduction pathway seems to be present in photoreceptor cells of invertebrates. accordingly, more than one light-dependent g-protein has been detected in squid photoreceptor cells. two different antibodies were used to locate the distribution of g-proteins in sepia photoreceptors. one antiserum (anti-g alpha-common) has been raised against the peptide cgagesgkstivkqmk. this sequence is found in most g alpha-protein subunits, i ...19957645009
[electron microscopic studies on aggregata eberthi from the intestine of sepia officinalis (sporozoa, coccidia). ii. the development of the microgametes]. 19704193434
irbp-like proteins in the eyes of six cephalopod species--immunochemical relationship to vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (irbp) and cephalopod retinal-binding protein.sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were used to examine soluble proteins from the eyes of six species of cephalopods i.e. lolliguncula brevis, sepia officinalis, octopus maya, octopus bimaculoides, rossia pacifica and loligo opalescens. all species had a protein ("irbp") with molecular weight virtually identical with vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (irbp) averaging 132,400 +/- 700 (n = 6). "irbp" reacted on nitrocellulose blot transfers with rabbit antibovi ...19883195063
lipid fluidity of the outer segment membranes from cephalopod retina.membranes from the retina outer segments of squid (loligo sp.) were isolated by sucrose continuous gradient. in these membranes, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were shown to be the most abundant lipids, while rhodopsin was the predominant protein. steady-state fluorescence depolarization of the probe 1,6 diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was employed to characterize the microviscosity of the photosensitive membranes and of the vesicles prepared from their lipid extract. the lipid fluid ...19854007072
melanin standard method: titrimetric analysis.melanin isolated from the ink sac of sepia officinalis (sepia melanin) has been proposed as a standard for natural eumelanin, and a standard mild isolation and purification protocol for sepia melanin has been developed (zeise, doctoral dissertation, johns hopkins university, 1991). the goal of the present work, developed using sepia melanin, was to quantify the bioavailable carboxylic acid groups present in melanin particles. bioavailability is governed by the accessibility of carboxy groups to ...20051287626
biochemical aspects of the visual process. xi. light-stimulated ion movements in the retina of the cuttlefish (sepia officinalis). 20165099689
biochemical aspects of the visual process. x. distribution and movements of ions in the dark-adapted retina of the cuttlefish (sepia officinalis). 20165099688
molecular cloning of a peroxidase mrna specifically expressed in the ink gland of sepia officinalis.a full-length cdna encoding a peroxidase has been assembled from two different overlapping cdna clones isolated from the cdna library of sepia officinalis ink gland and 5' race procedure. the cdna of 2898 bp contains an open reading frame of 2778 bp corresponding to a protein of 926 amino acids. the protein shows 76% identity with a peroxidase isolated from the light organ of the squid euprymna scolopes and approximately 30% identity with mammalian peroxidases. northern blot analysis of mrna fro ...19979294004
the dual nature of haemocyanin in the establishment and persistence of the squid-vibrio symbiosis.we identified and sequenced from the squid euprymna scolopes two isoforms of haemocyanin that share the common structural/physiological characteristics of haemocyanin from a closely related cephalopod, sepia officinalis, including a pronounced bohr effect. we examined the potential roles for haemocyanin in the animal's symbiosis with the luminous bacterium vibrio fischeri. our data demonstrate that, as in other cephalopods, the haemocyanin is primarily synthesized in the gills. it transits throu ...201424807261
emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. to examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. we show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. on t ...201424549606
evolution of molluscan hemocyanin structures.hemocyanin transports oxygen in the hemolymph of many molluscs and arthropods and is therefore a central physiological factor in these animals. molluscan hemocyanin molecules are oligomers composed of many protein subunits that in turn encompass subsets of distinct functional units. the structure and evolution of molluscan hemocyanin have been studied for decades, but it required the recent progress in dna sequencing, x-ray crystallography and 3d electron microscopy to produce a detailed view of ...201323454609
phylogeny of selected sepiidae (mollusca, cephalopoda) based on 12s, 16s, and coi sequences, with comments on the taxonomic reliability of several morphological characters.phylogenetic relationships among 11 species of sepiids from japanese waters and sepia officinalis from mediterranean were studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12s rrna, 16s rrna, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i genes. these three genes had been analyzed in an atlantic species s. elagans and was obtained from database. in the two-gene set analysis (16s+coi), sequence data of another 4 species were added from database. we also studied morphological characters of radulae, tentacu ...200616702767
alternative diets for maintaining and rearing cephalopods in captivity.the requirement of live marine prey for cephalopod mariculture has restricted its practicality for inland research laboratories, commercial enterprises and home aquarists. we evaluated acceptability and resultant growth on: (a) frozen marine shrimps, (b) live and frozen marine polychaete worms, (c) live and frozen marine crabs, (d) frozen marine fishes, (e) live adult brine shrimp, (f) live freshwater fish and (g) live freshwater crayfish. the diets were presented for periods of 2 to 11 weeks to ...19892761235
surgical excision of mycotic (cladosporium sp.) granulomas from the mantle of a cuttlefish (sepia officinalis).an adult female european cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) from a public aquarium presented with an eruptive skin lesion of the dorsal mantle. radiographs, hemolymph collection, and excisional biopsy were performed using anesthesia with ethanol 1.5-3% in seawater. elastic and freely mobile skin permitted closure with minimal tension following wide excision around the lesions, which did not appear to penetrate deep to the underlying cuttlebone. biopsy revealed hemocyte granulomas surrounding thin, s ...200617315438
diversity of apostome ciliates, chromidina spp. (oligohymenophorea, opalinopsidae), parasites of cephalopods of the mediterranean sea.chromidina spp. are enigmatic apostome ciliates (oligohymenophorea, opalinopsidae) that parasitise the renal and pancreatic appendages of cephalopods. only four species have been described, among which only three have been formally named. no dna sequence has been reported so far. to investigate chromidina spp. diversity, we sampled cephalopods in the mediterranean sea off tunis, tunisia, and identified two distinct chromidina spp. in two different host species: loligo vulgaris and sepia officina ...201627530149
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