infective larvae of brugia: escape from mosquitoes into water and subsequent oral infectivity in jirds.published work showed that third-stage larvae (l-3s) escape into water from dead or dying, brugia pahangi-infected, aedes aegypti. the present study revealed the same escape phenomenon among b. pahangi-infected armigeres subalbatus, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and aedes togoi, and among brugia malayi-infected ae. aegypti and ae. togoi. l-3s maintained in water or in lum's solution for 3 hours retained infectivity when tested in orally or subcutaneously exposed jirds; furthermore, l-3s recovered f ...19768999
flight muscle ultrastructure of susceptible and refractory mosquitoes parasitized by larval brugia pahangi.on parasitization with larval brugia pahangi the infected flight muscle fibres of "resistant" anopheles labranchiae atroparvus undergo the following ultrastructural changes. the fibres become almost totally devoid of glycogen, their sarcoplasmic reticulum becomes elongate and closely associated with muscle fibrils. these fibrils degenerate and vesicles appear both within the degenerate fibril and within elements of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. vesicles accumulate around the worm and degenerate to ...197714324
studies with brugia pahangi 17. the anthelmintic effects of diethylcarbamazine.diethylcarbamazine (dec) was active in vitro against infective larvae and microfilariae of brugia pahangi but only at high concentrations. when fed to mosquitoes which were infected with b. pahangi it had little or no activity. in jirds it was inactive against b. pahangi microfilariae and adults when administered at 300 mg/kg for 5 days either by the intraperitoneal or oral route. in cats given 25 or 50 mg dec/kg intraperitoneally on 3 or 5 occasions it was not microfilaricidal, but most of the ...197826737
the lethal effects of the cibarial and pharyngeal armatures of mosquitoes on microfilariae.microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti and brugia pahangi were killed by the chewing action of the cibarial and pharyngeal armatures and other papillae and spines in the fore-gut of mosquitoes. the proportion of ingested microfilariae that were killed was largely dependent on the presence and shape of the cibarial armature. anopheles farauti no. 1 and anopheles gambiae species a and b have well developed cibarial armatures and killed 36 to 96% of the ingested microfilariae. culex pipiens fatigans ...197830190
studies with brugia pahangi. 18. anthelmintic effects of stibocaptate.stibocaptate (asiban, hoffman--la roche) killed third stage larvae of brugia pahangi in vitro at 50 p.p.m. but had no effect on microfilariae at 1 x 10(4) p.p.m no larvae developed in infected mosquitoes fed 1% stibocaptate in 10% sucrose. it was neither micro-nor macrofilaricidal in either jirds or cats but did affect embryogenesis.197831379
the in vitro cultivation of the infective larvae and the early mammalian stages of the filarial worm, brugia pahangi. 197943116
studies with brugia pahangi 10. an attempt to demonstrate the sharing of antigenic determinants between the worm and its hosts.infective stage brugia pahangi that were reared in aedes aegypti survived equally well in cats that had previously been immunized against mosquito tissue and in a normal cat. the survival of third, fourth, juvenile, adult and microfilarial stages of b. pahangi that were recovered from cats was similar in jirds that had been immunized against cat antigens and in normal jirds. host antigenic determinants were not detected on the surface of larvae in substantial amounts using fluorescent antibody t ...197550339
comparison of counting chamber sasa and standard smear methods of counting brugia pahangi microfilariae from cat blood. 197556783
studies on brugia pahangi. 13. the anthelmintic effect of compounds f151 (friedheim), hoe 33258 (hoechst) and their reaction product.f151 was a potent filaricide against adult brugia pahangi in cats and jirds. hoe 33258 did not kill adult worms in cats but had a marginal effect on adult worms in the peritoneal cavity of jirds. it was not immediately microfilaricidal in cats but the microfilarial counts of treated cats fell within a few weeks of treatment. the reaction product, or mixture, of these two compounds (v5851 = e) was strongly macrofilaricidal in cats and jirds.197664486
glycolytic end products of the adult dog heartworm, dirofilaria immitis.1. adult dog heartworms remained alive and motile for 24 hr without oxygen present and with only glucose available as a substrate. 2. lactate accounted for 55% of the carbon from the 1-14c-glucose utilized in 1 hr and 14co2 for 1.9%. 3. only traces of 14c were found in glycogen and no net accumulation of acetate was demonstrated. 4. dirofilaria immitis resembles litomosoides carinii in the percent of utilized glucose appearing as lactate but is more akin to brugia pahangi and dipetalonema viteae ...1979122581
ultrastructure of the microfilaria of brugia pahangi (buckley and edeson, 1956) buckley, 1958. 1977146402
the effects of stibophen on phosphofructokinases and aldolases of adult filariids.trivalent organic antimonials, such as stibophen, have been employed for the chemotherapy of schistosome and filariid infections. the effects of stibophen on adult litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema witei (= viteae), and brugia pahangi were examined. in vitro, lactate accumulation was markedly inhibited by the antimonials as was phosphofructokinase activities in homogenates. incubation of filariids with stibophen and determination of internal concentrations of hexose phosphate also indicated a d ...1975171364
the carbohydrate metabolism of brugia pahangi microfilariae.evidence is presented that the microfilariae of litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae and brugia pahangi have an aerobic requirement for motility, but possibly not for survival. in addition, the data suggest that in an in vitro anaerobic environment, b. pahangi microfilariae ferment glucose only as far as lactate. in an aerobic environment, however, the data are consistent with a portion of glucose being dissimilated via a one step oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate formed from glycolysis ...1977191584
immunofluorescent reactions with microfilariae: 1. diagnostic evaluation.microfilariae have been evaluated as antigen for the indirect immunofluorescent test in the diagnosis of filariasis. sonicated, unlike whole, microfilariae present no problems in handling on a slide. the cytoplasmic antigen that is exposed by sonication, unlike the sheath or cuticular antigen, reacts with filariasis sera irrespective of whether or not there is a detectable microfilaraemia. the cytoplasmic antigen of microfilariae of various species was marginally superior to dirofilaria adult wo ...1977339419
[diaplacental transmission of microfilaria of the species, brugia pahangi, in the cat].eight kittens born of two brugia pahangi infected cats have been studied for transplacental passed microfilariae. in the peripheral blood microfilariae could not be demonstrated at any time. however, in the lung of a young cat killed two days post partum ca. 30 microfilariae have been found (microfilaremia of the mother 90 mf/20 mm3). histological studies suggested two possibilities of transplacental passage--by blood and by secretion of the uterus glands.1979433386
brugia pahangi: uptake and incorporation of adenosine and thymidine. 1979437017
brugia pahangi and dirofilaria immitis: experimental infections in the ferret, mustela putorius furo. 1979446585
10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1979448608
thymidylate synthetase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1979454454
the uptake in vitro of dyes, monosaccharides and amino acids by the filarial worm brugia pahangi.the uptake in vitro of various substances by brugia pahangi was investigated using infective larvae obtained from aedes aegypti and worms removed from meriones unguiculatus at 2, 3, 10, 20 and 90 days post-infection. worms incubated in growth medium 199 containing 1% trypan blue possessed demonstrable dye in the oral orifice, the anterior oesophageal lumen and the external openings of the vulva and the cloaca or anus but the dye was not found in the gut lumen even after incubation for 24 h. no u ...1979481911
quantitative aspects of the development of mosquito transmitted brugia malayi and brugia pahangi and their distribution in jirds, meriones unguiculatus.twenty-two jirds, meriones unguiculatus, were exposed to the bites of 2250 females of aedes aegypti carrying an estimated total of 2464 larvae of brugia malayi, and 13 jirds were offered for blood feeding to 1450 mosquitoes infected with about 4460 larvae of brugia pahangi. on necropsy of the jirds, four months after feeding of the mosquitoes, a total of 88 adult filariae of b. malayi and 143 of b. pahangi were recovered in 20 and 13 jirds respectively. the majority of the adult filariae was obt ...1979483379
non-development of brugia pahangi in a refractory mosquito aedes malayensis. 1979496472
de novo synthesis of methionine in normal and brugia-infected aedes aegypti.crude extracts of normal, adult aedes aegypti were able to form methionine from homocysteine in the presence of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (mefh4) but not betaine. the requirements for the reaction, including a need for vitamin b12, s-adenosylmethionine (sam), and a reducing system, indicated that it was catalyzed by mefh4:homocysteine transmethylase (methionine synthetase). the general properties of a. aegypti methionine synthetase were found to be similar to those of the analogous enzyme from ba ...1979512751
the anthelmintic effects of flubendazole on brugia pahangi.the anthelmintic effects of flubendazole (methyl [5-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1-h-benzimidazol-2-yl] carbamate) (janssen pharmaceutica) were evaluated in jirds (meriones unguiculatus) and cats (felis cattus) infected with brugia pahangi. flubendazole was macrofilaricidal at 5 x 2.5 mg/kg and 1 x 25 mg/kg in jirds and 1 x 100 mg/kg in cats when administered by subcutaneous injection. it also killed developing larvae in jirds. it was not microfilaricidal.1979538808
successful vaccination of cats against brugia pahangi with larvae attenuated by irradiation with 10 krad cobalt 60.cats were vaccinated by the inoculation on 10 occasions of approximately 300 larvae of brugia pahangi which had been irradiated with 10 krad cobalt 60. they were challenged on 3 occasions with normal larvae of either b. pahangior b. patei. the vaccinated cats were resistant to challenge as demonstrated by either longer pre-patent periods or failure to become microfilaraemic and by having fewer third, fourth or adult worms than normal controls. although the vaccination procedure was unpractically ...1979551378
greater susceptibility of pd-4 inbred hamsters to brugia pahangi. 1979555082
comparative activity and properties of lactate dehydrogenase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and dihydrofolate reductase in normal and brugia pagangi-infected aedes aegypti.the amount of xanthine dehydrogenase (xdh), dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) in crude extracts of 4- to 5-day-old adult aedes aegypti was determined, and the properties of these enzymes were partially characterized. it was then found that the amount and other selected characteristics of xdh and ldh in extracts of female ae. aegypti processed 5 to 7 days and 12 to 14 days after they had fed upon either normal or brugia pahangi-infected jirds were indistinguishable f ...1977559068
comparative utilization of pyruvate by brugia pahangi, dipetalonema viteae, and litomosoides carinii.the metabolism of pyruvate by the adult filarial parasites brugia pahangi, dipetalonema viteae, and litomosoides carinii has been compared. istopic carbon-balance studies indicate the presence of significant pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in l. carinii but little or no activity in either b. pahangi or d. viteae. in all 3 helminths, the quantities of pyruvate that were completely oxidized to co2 and water were very small. the activities of some of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes of b. pahan ...1979571909
the exsheathment of brugia pahangi microfilariae under controlled conditions in vitro.two reproducible techniques for the exsheathment in vitro of microfilariae of brugia pahangi, and other sheathed microfilariae, are described. microfilariae were isolated from infected cat blood by filtration and suspended in hank's balanced salt solution. the first technique involved the incubation of isolated microfilariae for one hour in 20 mm cacl2 in a phosphate-free balanced salt solution, during which time approximately 90% of the microfilariae lost their sheaths. the second method of exs ...1979573989
the development of exsheathed microfilariae of brugia pahangi and brugia malayi in mosquito cell lines. 1979573990
the influence of the gene sb in culex pipiens on the development of sub-periodic brugia malayi and wuchereria bancrofti.the gene sb (filarial susceptibility, brugia pahangi) in culex pipiens controls the development also of sub-periodic b. malayi, but has no influence on the development of periodic wuchereria bancrofti (ceylon strain). c.p. fatigans (kuala lumpur), c.p. molestus (london) and aedes aegypti (re fm strain) were all susceptible to the ceylon strain of w. bancrofti, with susceptibility rate of 90.3%, 92.9% and 52.6% respectively. however, a low proportion of the larvae in a. aegypti developed to matur ...1977596959
increased susceptibility to infection with brugia pahangi in aged female jirds (meriones unguiculatus).female mongolian jirds, meriones unguiculatus, from 5 age groups of 2, 12, 16, 21, and 28 months, were infected with brugia pahangi. infections were followed for 125 days by weekly bleedings beginning 55 days postinoculation. jirds were then killed and adult parasites recovered. results showed a significant shortening of the prepatent period in the 12-, 21-, and 28-month-old groups. the proportion of gravid female worms did not vary significantly among the 5 groups. similarly, the ratio of femal ...1978627948
evidence that sulfisoxazole, an antibacterial sulfonamide, can adversely affect the development of brugia pahangi in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.the average number of infective larvae recovered from brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti was approximately one-half that recovered from the controls after the former group of infected mosquitoes had ingested a 1.0% solution of sulfisoxazole diolamine (sxz) in 10% sucrose-water for 4 consecutive days, beginning 4 days after infection. most of the filarial larvae from the sxz-treated mosquitoes were small and sluggish compared with those from the controls. there was no increased mortality of mo ...1978641660
the ultrastructural basis of abnormal development of brugia pahangi in refractory aedes aegypti.cuticular abnormalities in larval brugia pahangi at c. 12 hours post blood meal are the first signs of abnormal worm development in refractory aedes aegypti. normally developing b. pahangi undertakes large scale cuticular reorganization during the first larval stage, screting new cuticle to nearly six times the original volume. the inability of the first stage larva to carry out this cuticular reorganization in refractory a. aegypti is the basis of developmental abnormality. it is concluded that ...1978666399
studies with brugia pahangi. 15. cobalt 60 irradiation of the worm.infective larvae of brugia pahangi were irradiated at 10, 25 or 45 krads by means of a cobalt 60 source. in cats, 10 krads caused the worms to be stunted and sterile but allowed them to become 5th stage, migrate posteriorly into the afferent lymphatic, and produce pathology. 25 krads prevented the worms from developing beyond the early fourth stage and from migrating away from the popliteal lymph node. no gross pathological reacions were evident. 45 krads produced the same effects as 25 krads bu ...1978670669
studies with brugia pahangi. 16. precipitation antibody in infected cats detected by cats infected with normal, or irradiated, infective (l3) larvae of brugia pahangi counterimmunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of antibody to soluble antigens derived from microfilariae, adults and infective larvae of the same parasite. infected cats with a persistently high to moderate microfilaraemia gave positive precipitin reactions to l3, microfilarial and adult worm antigens. cats which had become amicrofilaraemic had antibody to l3 and microfilarial antigens but not to adult worm ...1978670670
methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and reductase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1978682069
studies on the effects of tetracycline on brugia pahangi infection in aedes togoi. 1978705417
serine transhydroxymethylase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1978722452
studies with brugia pahangi 19. anthelmintic effects of mebendazole. 1978726004
studies with brugia pahangi. 20. an investigation of 23 anthelmintics using different screening techniques.23 anthelmintics were tested against brugia pahangi microfilariae and infective larvae in vitro and in aedes aegypti infected with b. pahagi and jirds (meriones unguiculatus) infected with a b. pahangi/patei hybrid. there was little correlation between the results obtained in vitro and in infected insects and the results obtained in these tests gave no indication of the activity in jirds. three of the compounds were macrofilaricidal in jirds and these were tested in cats infected with b. pahangi ...1978734717
the exsheathment and migration of brugia pahangi microfilariae in mosquitoes of the aedes scutellaris species complex.studies on the aedes scutellaris complex of mosquitoes showed that refractory and susceptible species can be distinguished by reference to the proportion of brugia pahangi microfilariae which reach the thorax within three hours of a feed. migration ceased approximately 1 1/2 hours after feeding in refractory species, in which only 50% of the ingested worms reached the thorax, in susceptible species over 95% of the ingested microfilariae reached the thorax, and migration lasted for three hours af ...1978736663
the first stage larva of brugia pahangi in aedes togoi: an ultrastructural study. 1978748209
a comparison of syngeneic laboratory rat-strains as hosts for brugia pahangi. 1976841656
chemotherapeutic effects of a nitrodiphenylaminoisothiocyanate (c9333-go/cgp4540) on jirds infected with brugia pahangi. 1977869112
brugia pahangi: effects of age and filarial infection on jird (meriones unguiculatus) lymphocyte function. 1977891701
susceptibility to brugia pahangi of geographical strains of culex pipiens fatigans.five strains of culex pipiens fatigans from kuala lumpur, tanga, bobo dioulasso, ibadan and maracay were tested for susceptibility to brugia pahangi. the mosquitoes were membrane-fed on infected blood in which the parasite density ranged from 1-3 to 20-4 mff/mm(3). the susceptibility rates were low, and were not directly related to the parasitaemia. if the susceptible individuals represent homozygotes for the gene sb (the gene controlling susceptibility to b pahangi in c. pipiens), the gene freq ...1977921367
the effect of anticoagulant on the early migration of brugia pahangi microfilariae in culex pipiens susceptible or refractory to b. pahangi. 1977921368
the fate of ingested brugia pahangi microfilariae in susceptible and refractory strains of culex pipiens and aedes aegypti.the uptake and migration of microfilariae of brugia pahangi in susceptible and refractory culex pipiens and aedes aegypti were compared after membrane-feeding the mosquitoes on infected blood and anti-coagulant. there was no difference between the strains within each species in the pattern of migration, but in c pipiens only 24% of the microfilariae reached the thorax whereas in a. aegypti 73-6% were successful. in both susceptible strains the filariae in the thorax developed normally to maturit ...1977921369
oral transmission of brugia pahangi and dipetalonema viteae to adult and neonatal jirds. 1976943376
brugia pahangi: histopathological study of golden hamsters. 1976950002
survival and migration of infective brugia pahangi larvae administered orally to neonatal jirds. 1976957049
effects of gamma radiation on development of brugia pahangi in a susceptible strain of aedes aegypti. 1976957050
oral transmission of brugia pahangi to dogs.oral transmission of brugia pahangi, already demonstrated in jirds, has now been accomplished in dogs. beagle puppies, four anesthetized and two unanesthetized, were exposed to b. pahangi by instilling third-stage larvae (l-3s) into the mouth. infections matured in all the dogs, and adult worms were recovered mainly from the mandibular, retropharyngeal, and axillary lymphatics. worms were relatively numerous and peripheral microfilaremia developed in the dogs exposed under anesthetic, while worm ...1976962002
observations on the basal follicle numbers developed per female of two strains of aedes aegypti after being fed on hosts with different levels of microfilariae of brugia pahangi. 1976965782
effects of larval treatment with the insect development inhibitor ph60:40 on the vectorial capacity of aedes aegypti (l.) for brugia pahangi (buckley and edeson).the effects of ph60:40, an insect development inhibitor, on fourth instar larvae of aedes aegypti were investigated. apart from delayed lethal action, possible effects on the vectorial capacity of brugia pahangi were investigated. two strains of a. aegypti were used, one ddt-susceptible and a good filarial vector and the other ddt-resistant and a refractory vector. a baseline exposure was found which caused only low mortalities in both strains. the treatments did not have any appreciable effect ...1976971004
brugia malayi, brugia pahangi, and brugia patei: pulmonary pathology in jirds, meriones unguiculatus. 1976976421
brugia pahangi: depressed mitogen reactivity in filarial infections in the jird, meriones unguiculatus. 1976976426
studies with brugia pahangi. 14. intrauterine development of the microfilaria and a comparison with other filarial species.the intrauterine development of brugia pahangi embryos was followed from after fertilization to birth, using light and electron microscopy. the origin and development of the sheath of the microfilaria and its possible role in the nutrition of the developing embryo were particularly investigated. comparisons were drawn with the intrauterine development of other filarial species. the egg shell of the b. pahangi embryo is distinct from the oolemma and forms the sheath of the microfilaria. it is sug ...19761010923
a comparison of the efficiency of the nuclepore and millipore filtration systems for detecting microfilariae.using brugia pahangi or dirofilaria immitis as the test organisms no significant difference could be detected between nuclepore and millipore filters. it was found that 0.7% of microfilariae passed through the millipore and 1% through the nuclepore filters. no microfilariae were lost from the nuclepore membrane during the staining process.19761030840
studies with brugia pahangi. iii: histological changes in the affected lymph nodes of infected cats.cats infected with brugia pahangi by single or repeated inoculation of infective larvae for different periods of time, were autopsied and the affected lymph nodes examined histologically, stained with methyl green and pyronin y, haematoxylin and eosin, lendrum's eosinophil stain, mallory's trichrome stain or the may-grunwald giemsa technique. in single infections, there was initially a cell-mediated type immunological response which was characterized by proliferation of mononuclear thymus-depend ...19751079129
studies on brugia pahangi 9. the longevity of microfilariae transfused from cat to cat.microfilariae in whole uncentrifuged cat blood were transfused from infected to normal cats. the recipient cats were bled frequently and the life-span of the microfilariae in the peripheral circulation was determined; the life-span on microfilariae in different cats was ver variable. microfilariae were detected fro 2-136 days after inoculation. in immunized cats microfilariae could not be detected 18 hours after inoculation. any attempt to concentrate or clean the microfilariae caused them to di ...19751127214
studies on filariasis. iv. the rate of escape of the third-stage larvae of brugia pahangi from the mouthpart of aedes togoi during the blood meal.the rate of escape of the third-stage larvae of brugia pahangi from aedes togoi which were allowed to probe on a cat and a mouse at time intervals of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds was studied. the rate of escape of third-stage larvae at all time intervals was greater during probing on the cat than on the mouse, and was in a logarithmic linear relation to the length of probing time by the mosquito host. the greatest loss (91.35%) of third-stage larvae was in mosquitoes which fed on a cat until ful ...19751127218
rapid morphological transformations of spermatozoa in the uterus of brugia pahangi (nematoda, filarioidea).mature, umated male and female brugia pahangi worms were implanted into the peritoneal cavity of gerbils, allowed to mate, and then recovered and examined by means of electron microscopy. the proximal portion of the uterus of female worms recovered in copula contained a morphologically heterogenous population of sperm ranging from a rigid, nonmotile form to the mature ameboid sperm. the immotile sperm are identical in morphology to sperm found within the seminal vesicle of the male. the in utero ...19751127564
brugia pahangi: effects upon the flight capability of aedes aegypti. 19751149863
repeated infections of brugia pahangi in the jird, meriones unguiculatus.male jirds, meriones unguiculatus, were subcutaneously inoculated in the groin with 1 to 5 doses of infective-stage larvae of brugia pahangi at weekly or monthly intervals. when a dose of either 25 or 75 larvae or 4 weekly doses of 25 larvae were given, 15-16% of the larvae were recovered as adults approximately 4 to 7 months post inoculation. only 8-10% of the larvae were recovered if 4 weekly or 5 monthly doses of 75 larvae each were given. after an inoculation of 75 larvae, 25% of the worms w ...19751166345
studies with brugia pahangi. 11. measurement of lymph flow in infected cats.rates of lymph flow in cats were measured by calculating the disappearance of radioactive colloidal gold (198au) from the feet of (1) uninfected cats, (2) cats infected for various periods after primary infection with brugia pahangi, and (3) cats repeatedly challenged with b. pahangi infective larvae over long periods. the results of the study showed that (1) there is great variation in gold disappearance rates in different cats in all 3 groups above, (2) the cat lymphatic system is functionally ...19751166346
structural and functional studies on the lymphatics of cats infected with brugia pahangi. 19751166486
developmental effects of brugia pahangi (nematoda: filarioidea) to high temperature in susceptible genotypes of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae). 19751195293
brugia pahangi: susceptibility and macroscopic pathology of golden hamster. 19751204713
micro-organisms in filarial larvae (nematoda).unusual bodies have been described in the hypodermal tissues of larval dirofilaria immitis and brugia pahangi. ultrastructural evidence indicates that these bodies are probably gram-negative micro-organisms. it appears that the presence of large numbers of these bodies in an early embryo may affect development adversely. their importance at later stages of development of filariae is not known.19751228988
the homocytotropic and hemagglutinating antibody responses to brugia pahangi infection in the multimammate rat (mastomys natalensis).homocytotropic and hemagglutinating antibody responses were followed in multimammate rate (mastomys natalensis) infected with brugia pahangi. homocytotropic antibodies were detected by both active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis using an antigen prepared from dirofilaria immitis. the homocytotropic antibody response was first evident at 3 weeks after infection and increased progressively until after patency. it then waned gradually and was absent at 33 weeks after infection (or 20 weeks after ...19761259087
studies with brugia pahangi 12. the activity of levamisole.the effects of levamisole on adults, third stage infective larvae, and microfilariae of brugia pahangi were studied in in vitro culture and in vivo against developing stages in the vector mosquito and in infected cats. in vitro the drug was effective only at dose levels much higher than can be tolerated by mammals. it was active against the developmental stages of the worm in the vector aedes aegypti. the drug was strongly microfilaricidal in cats but less effective against adult worms.19761262689
characterization of a muscle-associated antigen from wuchereria bancrofti.a recombinant clone, wbn1, isolated from a genomic expression library of wuchereria bancrofti and showing restricted specificity at the dna level (southern and pcr analyses) for wuchereria bancrofti and brugia malayi has been previously described. sequence analysis of wbn1 indicated that it had notable similarity to myosin. further characterization using in situ hybridization has localized the mrna in the muscle of the adult parasite and in the microfilariae. rabbit polyclonal antiserum, raised ...19921283597
immunocytochemical localisation of an fmrfamide-like peptide in the filarial nematodes dirofilaria immitis and brugia pahangi.immunocytochemical techniques were used to detect fmrfamide-like immunoreactivity in adults of the filarial nematodes dirofilaria immitis and brugia pahangi. an fmrfamide-like peptide was also located in third- and fourth-stage larvae of d. immitis. positive immunoreactivity was observed in all parasites examined, irrespective of developmental stage. the major areas of positive immunoreactivity were located in the anterior nerve ring, lateral/dorso-ventral nerves, cephalic papillary ganglia and ...19921350345
the isolation of the sheath/epicuticle of brugia pahangi microfilariae. 19921354935
immunologic characterization of jird lymphocyte responsiveness to brugia pahangi ribosomal protein s13.ribosomal protein s13 of the nematode brugia pahangi is recognized by b and t cells from parasite-infected animals. to identify helper t cell sites on the protein, 15 overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the entire molecule (bp17.4) were tested for their ability to stimulate lymph node and spleen cells of peptide-immunized and recombinant antigen-immunized jirds. lymph node cells from animals immunized with peptides 6, 8, 9, 13, and 14, corresponding to bp17.4 amino acids (aa) 50-70, 70-90, 8 ...19921385208
brugia pahangi infections in immune-compromised rats demonstrate that separate mechanisms control adult worm and microfilarial numbers.the immunological basis of resistance to brugia pahangi infection in rats was studied. infections were investigated in athymic rnu/rnu rats and in rats treated with the immuno-suppressive agents cyclosporin a (csa) or cyclophosphamide (cy). the recovery of adult worms in normal rats was 1-2% in comparison to 12.2% recovery in athymic rats. csa and cy treated rats did not have increased adult worm burdens. microfilarial (mf) levels (expressed as mf per ml per adult worm) were highly elevated in b ...19921437230
antibodies against somatic antigens and excreted/secreted products of brugia pahangi in rats with patent and non-patent infections.the humoral responses of sprague-dawley rats infected with brugia pahangi were examined for up to 6 months after infection by elisa, immunoblotting, and ifat. in 2 experiments, 50% and 62.5% of rats developed patent, microfilaraemic infections. mean adult worm burdens at autopsy were approximately 2% of the inoculum, and only patent rats yielded living adult worms. igg antibody levels against crude somatic extracts (cse) of all parasite stages and against adult excreted/secreted (es) products we ...19921461684
identification of circulating parasite acetylcholinesterase in human and rodent the present study, the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (ache) from filarial parasites was identified in sera from humans infected with onchocerca volvulus as well as in mastomys natalensis infected with brugia pahangi. the enzyme was present in immune complexes precipitated with cold 4% polyethylene glycol. the infected sera showed 3-4 times more ache activity than did normal sera, and enzyme activity could be demonstrated in 5% polyacrylamide gels by specific staining. the enzyme from infected s ...19921480604
the expression of small heat shock proteins in the microfilaria of brugia pahangi and their possible role in development.development of the microfilariae of brugia pahangi in the mammalian host is blocked until uptake by a mosquito vector when the developmental cycle is re-initiated. comparison of the profile of polypeptides labelled in microfilariae cultured at mammalian temperature (37 degrees c) or mosquito temperature (28 degrees c) revealed a complex of low-molecular-weight proteins (18 kda and 22-24 kda) synthesized only in microfilariae at 37 degrees c. the synthesis of these proteins was also induced by tr ...19921484546
expression of small heat shock proteins by the third-stage larva of brugia pahangi.changes in proteins synthesised by the infective third-stage larvae (l3) of the filarial nematode brugia pahangi were examined with respect to the temperature shift encountered by the parasite as it migrates from insect to mammal, and the presence of serum in the culture medium. while the synthesis of a number of polypeptides is regulated by the temperature shift of the l3 from 28 degrees c to 37 degrees c in vitro, there is no evidence that serum has any significant effect on protein synthesis. ...19921484547
molecular cloning and analysis of autonomous replicating sequence of candida maltosa.a candida maltosa chromosomal dna fragment which confers high frequency transformation of c. maltosa and autonomous replication of recombinant plasmids was cloned and sequenced. analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned dna revealed a sequence homologous for c. maltosa autonomously replicating sequence (ars) elements. vector prj1 for c. maltosa was constructed, which contained a 1.3 kb ars sequence, picem-19h and the ade1 gene of c. maltosa. southern blot analysis suggested that the copy ...19921514324
brugia pahangi: effects of maternal filariasis on the responses of their progeny to homologous challenge infection.granulomatous lesion formation and immune responses to brugia pahangi infections were compared in age-matched male progeny of homologously infected and uninfected female jirds. infections initiated in 2-week-old offspring yielded mean +/- sd adult worm recoveries of 6.0 +/- 5.7 and 4.2 +/- 5.4 in offspring from infected or uninfected mothers, respectively. infections initiated in 4-week-old offspring resulted in an mean +/- sd recovery of adult worms of 11.3 +/- 11.3 and 10.2 +/- 5.8 in offsprin ...19921582479
comparative susceptibility of species a, b and c of anopheles quadrimaculatus complex to infection with subperiodic brugia malayi and brugia pahangi (nematoda: filarioidea).susceptibilities of natural populations of sibling species a, b and c of the anopheles quadrimaculatus complex and the colonized strain a to subperiodic brugia malayi and brugia pahangi were compared. all 3 sibling species showed varying degrees of susceptibility to both b. pahangi and b. malayi, and they were considerably more susceptible to b. pahangi than to b. malayi. the rate and intensity of infection to b. pahangi were highest for species a (66.2% and 7.4 l3/female, respectively) and lowe ...19921583491
effect of testosterone on the eosinophil response of c57bl/6 mice to infection with brugia pahangi.the kinetics of peripheral and bone marrow eosinophil responses of c57bl/6 mice against brugia pahangi infection were compared between both sexes, and the effects of testosterone on these eosinophil responses were examined. at the early phase of infection (7 to 10 days), female mice showed significantly higher peripheral eosinophil response than did males, and on day 5, 7 and 10 postinfection bone marrow eosinophil responses were also high in females. live infective larvae but not dead ones coul ...19921601641
cats with single brugia pahangi infections: relationship between parasitological status and humoral responses to somatic and surface parasite antigens.cats given a single inoculation of brugia pahangi infective larvae (l3) were retrospectively allocated into three groups according to parasitological outcome of infection. recognition of somatic and surface antigens of b. pahangi by sera from each group was compared by elisa, immunoelectroblotting, and immunoprecipitation techniques. in cats that never became microfilaraemic mean serum igg antibody levels against somatic extracts from adult male worms, l3, and microfilariae (mf) were higher than ...19921625909
brugia pahangi: production of a monoclonal antibody reactive with the surface of infective larvae.monoclonal antibodies against infective third-stage larvae (l3) of brugia pahangi were generated from mice immunized with l3 antigens. the monoclonal antibodies were l3 stage-specific or stage-nonspecific. a bpg1 monoclonal antibody (igg1 subclass) showing l3 stage-specificity was examined in detail. bpg1 recognized the surface of b. pahangi l3 and also reacted with the surface of brugia malayi l3 but not with the surface of filarial worms of other genera, such as acanthocheilonema viteae and li ...19921639160
induction of protective immunity to brugia pahangi in jirds by drug-abbreviated infection.protective immunity of homologous challenge infection was examined in jirds after drug-abbreviated infection with brugia pahangi. mebendazole (mbz) treatment at the early prepatent (5-7 weeks of post infection) or the late prepatent (7-9 weeks of post infection) period was highly effective in causing almost complete eradication of the primary infection. after challenge infection, the worm burden was significantly reduced 19% (31.1 in average) and 77% (9.5) to that of the controls (38.8 and 41.7) ...19921640090
repeated infection of cats with brugia pahangi: parasitological observations.cats were repeatedly inoculated with infective larvae of brugia pahangi. on parasitological grounds they could be divided into 5 groups. group i--most cats (some 70%) became microfilaraemic (mf+) and retained high levels of microfilariae (mf) in their blood for over 2 years. in some group i cats mf counts stabilized at high levels whilst in others mf counts continued to increase. large numbers of fecund adult worms were recovered from their lymphatics. adult counts were not made on the cats in t ...19921641240
in vitro development of brugia pahangi and brugia malayi in cultured mosquito vitro cultivation of brugia pahangi and subperiodic brugia malayi one-day old larvae to infective stage larvae (l3) within thoraces excised from aedes aegypti (black eye, liverpool) and anopheles quadrimaculatus was attempted. the mosquito thoraces were excised under aseptic conditions, 24 h after a blood meal on either b. pahangi- or b. malayi-infected jirds. the excised thoraces were washed aseptically and inoculated into a diphasic media. a nutrient agar base was overlaid with either grace ...19911671619
the expression of the mr 30,000 antigen in the third stage larvae of brugia pahangi.the expression of the mr 30,000 surface antigen in the third stage larvae (l3) of brugia pahangi has been investigated. the antigen could be detected only with great difficulty in the mosquito derived l3 externally labelled with 125i but was more easily labelled in 24 and 48 h post-infective larvae harvested from the vertebrate host. labelling of a detergent extract of mosquito derived l3 with 125i demonstrated that the mr 30,000 antigen was indeed present in this life cycle stage, presumably in ...19911673024
haemolymph monophenol oxidase activity in armigeres subalbatus infected with brugia pahangi.the activity of monophenol oxidase can be elicited in the haemolymph of armigeres subalbatus by both blood and filaria-infected blood feeding. haemolymph collected from both blood-fed and filaria-infected mosquitoes was investigated using a quantitative radiometric assay that measured the amount of tritiated water formed during the hydroxylation of l-[3,5-3h]tyrosine to dopa. enzyme activity in filaria-infected mosquitoes was found to be significantly lower than that found in the blood-fed mosqu ...19911680109
a proline-rich structural protein of the surface sheath of larval brugia filarial nematode parasites.both cdna and genomic dna sequences have been isolated which encode a proline-rich precursor protein of the sheath from microfilariae, the first stage larvae of the filarial nematode parasites brugia pahangi and brugia malayi. this 22-kda protein is soluble only under reducing conditions and is extensively cross-linked by both disulfide and nonreducible bonds. immunogold electron microscopy shows that the protein is localized exclusively in the sheath, a vestigial remnant of the eggshell, which ...19911710216
synthesis and biological activity of certain alkyl 5-(alkoxycarbonyl)-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamates and related derivatives: a new class of potential antineoplastic and antifilarial agents.a series of methyl and ethyl 5-(alkoxycarbonyl)-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamates (7-19) and methyl 5-carbamoyl-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamates (24-34) have been synthesized via the reaction of an appropriate alcohol or amine with the acid chloride derivatives 6a or 6b at room temperature. reaction of an alcohol with acid chloride 6a at reflux temperature afforded transesterified products 20-23 in good yield. treatment of methyl 5-amino-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamate with substituted benzoyl chlorides f ...19921738146
effect of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine on the migration of brugia pahangi microfilariae into the haemocoel of aedes aegypti.two strains of aedes aegypti (l.), differing in their susceptibility to brugia pahangi (buckley & edeson), were examined with regard to the effect on the proportion of microfilariae migrating from the mid-gut, of specific carbohydrate supplements in the infecting bloodmeal. n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac), a sugar also present on the microfilarial sheath, significantly increased the migration rate. this enhancement is greater for the refractory strain of ae.aegypti. the use of sucrose as a contr ...19911773126
a recombinant clone of wuchereria bancrofti with dna specificity for human lymphatic filarial order to understand the immune response to wuchereria bancrofti and to aid in the diagnosis of w. bancrofti infections, recombinant antigens were identified from a w. bancrofti genomic expression library made in lambda gt11 using a pool of sera from infected indian patients. one of the recombinant clones, lambda wbn1, containing a 2.5-kb insert, reacted strongly to a pool of sera from patients with lymphatic filariasis but not to normal human sera. in addition, this clone showed restricted sp ...19911857386
altered adult worm location in young male jirds infected with brugia pahangi.male jirds (meriones unguiculatus) were inoculated subcutaneously with 100 brugia pahangi l3 each at 2, 6, 10, and 15 wk of age to compare their susceptibility and pathologic reactivity to infection. adult worm recoveries (mean +/- sd) ranged from 24.1 +/- 15.1 to 36.4 +/- 13.9 at 60 days postinfection. no significant difference in susceptibility was measured among the 4 age groups. jirds infected at 2 wk of age had significantly fewer (alpha less than or equal to 0.025) testicular and intralymp ...19911865273
mosquito host influences on development of filariae.a brief review is presented of the literature relating to factors which limit the capacity of filariae to develop in mosquitoes, with particular emphasis on immune mechanisms. most insects respond to bacterial infection by the production of potent antibacterial proteins, but little is known of this aspect of the immune response in mosquitoes or of the possible influence of immune proteins on the fate of filarial infections in mosquitoes. a summary account is given of recent experiments with the ...19911888212
antifilarial cellular responses detected in a haitian pediatric population by use of a microblastogenesis assay.previous reports have demonstrated age-related shifts in antifilarial humoral immune responses in 6- to 10-year-old haitian children; the responses consisted of elevated parasite-specific igg2 and igg3 in amicrofilaremic children and elevated igg4 in microfilaremic children. in this study, the cell-mediated immune responses to soluble adult and microfilarial extracts of brugia pahangi, determined by use of a microblastogenesis assay, were examined. capillary blood samples were collected by finge ...19911894942
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