visceral larva migrans and alveolar hydatid disease. dangers real or imagined.for both visceral larva migrans and alveolar hydatid diseases, it is the feces of companion animals that are the primary source of human infection. clearly, whatever is done to reduce this form of environmental contamination and the prevalence of the parasites' infective stages will help to protect the health of the human population in the united states and canada, particularly the children. very important are appropriate anthelmintic treatment programs, especially for t. canis, and proper contr ...1978356405
[a case of visceral larva migrans by toxocara cati infection with multiple liver granuloma]. 19911758089
[familial cases of toxocara cati infection]. 19751240485
incidence of toxocara canis and toxocara cati infections among stray dogs and cats in cairo and giza governorates, a.r.e. 19761025236
comparison of isolates and species of toxocara and toxascaris by biosynthetic labelling of somatic and es proteins from infective larvae.infective-stage larvae of three different isolates of toxocara canis were intrinsically ([35s]methionine) labelled in culture, to determine the presence of similarities or differences in the somatic and es antigens expressed between larvae derived from different hosts and different geographical regions. two other closely related ascaridids, toxascaris leonina which infects cats and dogs, and toxocara vitulorum (neoascaris vitulorum) which infects cattle, were also compared to t. canis larvae by ...19911780182
parasites, pets, and is important for the family physician to understand that patients' relationships with their pets play an important role in helping maintain mental and physical health yet provide the potential for causing illness in the patient. toxocara canis (dog roundworm) and toxocara cati (cat roundworm) are the ascarids most commonly responsible for vlm and ocular larva migrans in humans. these roundworms live in their adult stage in the small intestine of the dog and cat where their eggs are passed in ...19912011635
infection of an infant with an adult toxocara cati (nematoda). 1978671159
serologic differentiation between toxocara canis and toxocara cati. 19902121841
feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus, toxoplasma gondii, and intestinal parasitic infections in taiwanese cats.a population consisting of 70 breeder cats, 43 clinical cases, and 16 feral cats was examined for the presence of toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and feline leukaemia virus (felv). no oocysts of t. gondii were observed in 96 faecal samples; faecal samples were not available from the feral cats. other intestinal parasites identified included isospora felis (three cats), isospora rivolta (five), dipylidium canium (two), toxocara cati (four), toxascaris leonina (one), and an ...19902171713
[simultaneous toxoplasmosis and larval toxocariasis infection in the czechoslovak population].the authors discuss the coexistence of infection with toxoplasmosis and larval toxocariasis in man. both these zoonoses are the most widespread and most serious of all tissue parasitoses on the territory of the cssr. knowledge of the incidence and frequency of concurrent infections is important for the differential diagnosis and therapy. in the introduction the authors mention briefly the incidence of toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis in animal hosts on the territory of the cssr, deals with the dev ...19892713903
biochemical polymorphism in parascaris equorum, toxocara canis and toxocara cati.vertical starch gel electrophoresis was used to resolve proteins encoded by 18 gene loci in ascaridoid nematodes. estimates of genetic variability were made from population samples of the dog ascarid (toxocara canis), cat ascarid (toxocara cati), and the horse ascarid (parascaris equorum). levels of polymorphism and mean heterozygosity were high, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that the intestinal environment selects for monomorphism among endoparasites. most observed allele frequenc ...19862938002
[visceral larva migrans by toxocara cati with multiple nodules in liver]. 19883074148
intestinal helminthic infections of cats in calabar, nigeria.a study of intestinal helminthic infections of 52 cats (felis catus) was undertaken in calabar, nigeria. direct smear and zinc sulphate floatation technique were utilized. the following helminths were observed: toxocara cati (28.85%), ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.23%), trichuris felis (5.77%), dipylidium caninum (23.08%) and taenia taeniaeformis (9.61%). the worm burdens were generally low, ranging from 2 to 20 per cat. no definite pattern of infection was observed with regard to sex. trematodes w ...19883169644
species-specific and common epitopes on the secreted and surface antigens of toxocara cati and toxocara canis infective is widely accepted that the major cause of visceral larva migrans (vlm) in man is toxocara canis infection. this has been largely based on the detection of antibodies to this species. we have compared the antigens of t. canis and toxocara cati in order to establish whether assay for the former might be compromised by infection with the latter. comparisons were made by radioiodination of the surface and excretory/secretory (es) glycoproteins of the infective larvae of both species, immunopreci ...19872442693
ascarid infections of cats and dogs.the ascarids toxocara canis, toxocara cati, and toxascaris leonina are probably the most common gastrointestinal helminths encountered in small animal practice. both t. canis and t. cati can cause serious disease in kittens and puppies; t. leonina is generally less pathogenic. prenatal transmission assures that virtually all puppies are born infected with t. canis. transmammary transmission is probably the major route of infection for kittens with t. cati. in addition, all three species of worm ...19873328391
biochemical and immunological systematics of some ascaridoid nematodes: genetic divergence between congeners.vertical starch gel electrophoresis and trefoil immunodiffusion were used to study the systematics of some ascaridoid nematodes. within the ascarididae, the time scale of divergence was too great for intergeneric electrophoretic comparisons. congeneric electrophoretic comparisons of baylisascaris procyonis (host--raccoon) versus baylisascaris transfuga (host--black bear), and toxocara canis (host--domestic dog) versus toxocara cati (host--domestic cat) yielded nei genetic distance coefficients o ...19873114467
zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats at new bussa, kainji lake area, nigeria.a survey of the dog and cat population at new bussa revealed a significant high frequency of potential helminths of public health importance. this include hookworm ancylostoma spp.; echinococcus granulosa, dipylidium caninum in dog; and opisthorchis felineus, toxocara cati and capillaria hepatica in cat. the rural conditions of the area is an important factor in understanding the role cat and dog may play in spread of uncommon human parasites.19853833831
prevalence of chlamydia, toxoplasma, toxocara and ringworm in farm cats in south-west england.the prevalence of infection with chlamydia psittaci, toxoplasma gondii, toxocara cati and microsporum canis was examined in 51 cats on 22 sheep farms in the bristol area. serum antibody to c psittaci and t gondii was present in 45 per cent and 47 per cent of cats, respectively. at the time of sampling c psittaci was isolated from 6 per cent of the cats, t cati was identified in 63 per cent of faecal samples but neither t gondii nor m canis was isolated. when examined according to the farm of ori ...19873672827
[ultrasonographic findings of hepatic granuloma by toxocara cati migration]. 19873330792
[gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of cats in the cities of bologna, florence and milan].the results of a parasitological survey carried out on 116 cats found dead in bologna, firenze and milano was reported. the parasites identified were: toxocara cati (49.1%); toxascaris leonina (3.4%); ancylostoma tubaeforme (9.5%); ollulanus tricuspis (3.4%); dipylidium caninum (41.4%); taenia taeniaeformis (11.2%); mesocestoides lineatus (1.7%); spirometra sp. (0.9%); coccidia (12.9%). the autopsies' results were compared with coprological ones in order to assess their reliability.19853870646
anthelmintic efficacy of flubendazole paste against nematodes and cestodes in dogs and cats.small dogs and cats, naturally infected with nematodes and cestodes, were used in a critical test under laboratory conditions to determine the palatability and efficacy of flubendazole as a past formulation. subsequently, a control test in dogs was conducted under field conditions. a 4.4% past formulation was given at a dosage of 22 mg/kg of body weight once a day for 2 or 3 consecutive days. in a critical test in dogs, the efficacy against toxocara canis was 97.4% after a 2-day administration a ...19854083589
ocular nematodiasis: results with toxocara cati-infected mice. 19715167882
the prevalence of toxocara cati and other parasites in liverpool cats. 19724675710
visceral larva migrans--an immunofluorescent examination of rabbit and human sera for antibodies to the es antigens of the second stage larvae of toxocara canis, toxocara cati and toxascaris leonina (nematoda). 19665327555
migration of toxocara cati larvae in mice. 19685690282
larva migrans of toxocara cati in visceral organs of experimental animals. 19715152845
toxocara cati in a new mammalian host. 19734714724
experimental studies on toxascaris leonina. iv. development of eggs of three ascarids, t. leonina, toxocara canis and toxocara cati, in dogs and cats. 19685692326
transmammary passage of toxocara cati in the cat. 19715541213
experimental studies on toxascaris leonina. vi. experimental infection of mice, chickens and earthworms with toxascaris leonina, toxocara canis and toxocara cati. 19685750134
[eosinophilic meningitis following toxocara cati infection]. 19695762479
[eosinophilia in white mice in experimental toxocariasis and recurrent ascariasis].twenty-five white mice were experimentally invaded by the larvae of toxocara cati, and their blood count was followed. on the seventh day after invasion the number of eosinophil leucocytes started to increase and the maximum (28%) was reached on the twenty-first day. after 45 days the mice were newly invaded by eggs of ascaris suum. the number of eosinophil leucocytes increased again and reached its maximum on the fourteenth day (26%). the increased eosinophilia in mice was observed until the 20 ...19826812263
toxoplasma gondii from toxocara cati. 19665945168
visceral larva migrans by toxocara cati. 19827076106
determination of the specific gravity of certain helminth eggs using sucrose density gradient centrifugation.the specific gravities of ten species of helminth eggs were determined using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. fecal or egg concentrate was layered over a 3 to 54% sucrose density gradient. the gradient was then centrifuged at 800 g for 20 min, allowing 5 min for acceleration and 5 for deceleration. bands formed were identified and measured. refractive index was measured at the middle of narrow bands, or at the level at which the concentration of eggs was highest, in the case of wide band ...19826890102
toxocara cati and other intestinal parasites of cats. 19666008459
human infection with adult toxocara cati. 19695817973
north island kiwi, apteryx australis mantelli (apterygiformes: aves): a new host for toxocara cati (nematoda: ascaridoidea) in new zealand. 19827077446
changes in the blood picture of white mice experimentally infected with various species of ascarids.the blood picture was studied in white mice experimentally infected with ascaris suum, toxocara cati, and toxascaris leonina. in mice infected with a. suum, maximum number (17%) of eosinophiles occurred on day 28 p.i. in mice infected with t. cati, the eosinophilia increased already from the first day after infection, reaching the maximum (26%) on day 21 p.i. in mice infected with t. leonina, the eosinophilia increased from day 7 to day 28 p.i. and a slightly increased number of eosinophiles per ...19836862317
infection with adult toxocara cati. 19695813552
mebendazole paste as an anthelmintic in random source research cats.mebendazole paste, administered per os daily for 3 days, at dose levels of 22 mg/kg and 33 mg/kg was highly effective in removing ancylostoma tubaeforme from naturally infected cats. the 22 mg/kg dose gave the highest efficacy (95.5% critical and 98% controlled). the same product at 11 mg/kg, 22 mg/kg, or 33 mg/kg was 100% effective in removing toxocara cati from naturally infected cats. both 11 mg/kg and 22 mg/kg dose levels were highly efficacious against the common tapeworm, dipylidium caninu ...19827144129
the intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in southwest south-west germany between 1975 and 1980, 3,573 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 84 badgers (meles meles), 47 stone martens (martes foina), and 387 cats (felis catus) were examined for intestinal helminths. in foxes the extent of infections was: taenia crassiceps 24%, t. polyacantha 8%, t. taeniaeformis 0.6%, t. serialis 0.5%, mesocestoides leptothylacus 20%, mesocestoides sp. 0.2%, toxocara canis 32%, toxascaris leonina 3%, uncinaria stenocephala 26%. one to three foxes harboured t. hydatigena, t. ...19827072323
glomerular lesions associated with infestation with toxocara cati. 19827157622
anthelmintic effect of febantel/praziquantel paste in dogs and cats.a paste formulation of 3.4% febantel and 0.34% praziquantel was given in soft food at a rate of 0.29 g/kg of body weight, once daily for 3 days to dogs and cats. eleven of 12 dogs were naturally infected with ancylostoma caninum, 10 with trichuris vulpis, 2 with toxocara canis, 5 with taenia sp, and 3 with dirofilaria immitis. ten of 11 cats were naturally infected with toxocara cati, 2 with ancylostoma tubaeforme, 3 with taenia sp, 5 with capillaria aerophila, and 1 with paragonimus kellicotti. ...19846703448
improved method for recovering ascarid and other helminth eggs from soil associated with epizootics and during survey studies.two noncentrifugal and 5 centrifugal flotation methods for the recovery of infective baylisascaris procyonis eggs from contaminated soil were evaluated after an epizootic of fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in bobwhites. all involved the use of inexpensive, readily available materials and routine procedures. in all but 1 of the methods, sizes of the soil samples were 30 g; in 1 centrifugal method, the sample size was 1 g. the centrifugal methods included various combinations of (i) anionic deter ...19836683477
helminth parasites of wild cats in north-east scotland.three cestode species, namely taenia taeniaeformis batsch, 1786, taenia pisiformis (bloch, 1780) and mesocestoides litteratus (batsch, 1786) and one nematode species, toxocara cati schrank, 1788, were found in wild cats collected in grampian region, scotland. of the 41 cats examined, 25 were felis silvestris, 12 were feral felis catus and four were hybrids of f. silvestris and f. catus.19807229325
possible role of histamine in the genesis of pulmonary arterial disease in cats infected with toxocara cati.kittens between 12 and 20 weeks of age were orally dosed with 6000 infective ova of toxocara cati. animals were sacrificed at intervals between one and eight weeks after infection to study the development of pulmonary arterial lesions. after two weeks, marked leucocyte infiltration and mild thickening of the media of some of the smaller arteries was apparent histologically . cellular inflammatory activity progressively increased up to four weeks after infection when intimal proliferation was evi ...19846202045
toxoplasma gondii: transmission through feces in absence of toxocara cati eggs.when incubated at room temperature (23 degrees c) for 3 to 14 days, feces from cats infected 4 to 8 days with toxoplasma gondii, and free of toxocara cati eggs, produced toxoplasmosis in mice. results indicate that the nematode egg is not necessary for transmission of the parasite.19695813385
toxoplasma gondii: fecal forms separated from eggs of the nematode toxocara cati.cats excreted the protozoan toxoplasma gondii in feces, generally between 5 to 12 days after ingesting mice with chronic toxoplasmosis. toxoplasma gondii and eggs of the nematode toxocara cati occurring together could be separated by washing them through sieves that retained the eggs. this finding negates the postulated role of toxocara cati in the transmission of toxoplasmosis.19695813386
helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, lynx rufus (schreber), from nebraska.cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, lynx rufus (schreber), in nebraska from 1977 to 1979. of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: south dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; kansas, 3/2; and wyoming, 1/1. helminths recovered included: mesocestoides corti hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), taenia rileyi loewen, 1929 (67%), taenia pisiformis (bloch, 1780) gmelin, 1790 (27%), taenia macrocystis (diesing, 1850) lühe, 1910 (19%), phy ...19853998960
a survey of helminths in stray cats from copenhagen with ecological autopsy of 230 adult stray cats, 120 from backyards and 110 from gardens, the intestinal tract was scrutinized for helminths. the prevalence of toxocara cati, taenia taeniaeformis and dipylidium caninum was found to be 79%, 11% and 14%, respectively. comparisons were made with the results of previous danish investigations. the prevalence of toxocara cati was found to be independent of time of collection and the sex and habitat of the cats and identical in cats with or without taenia. this ind ...19846538054
feline respiratory tract disease in investigation of feline respiratory tract disease (frd) was made involving 65 affected cats (group 1) and 65 control cats (group 2) matched for age, sex, and residence. feline calicivirus strains (fcv), feline herpesvirus-1 (fhv-1), or both, were isolated from 59% of group 1 cats and from 7% of group 2 cats. isolation of these viruses showed a significantly greater (p < 0.05) relative risk for group 1 cats. virus isolations were three times more frequent from males than from females older tha ...19806255833
a coprological survey of parasites of wild neotropical conjunction with an ecological study of jaguars in the cockscomb basin of belize, central america, fecal samples from jaguars (panthera onca), jaguarundis (felis yagouaroundi), ocelots (felix pardalis), and pumas (felix concolor) were examined for parasite products (eggs, larvae, and oocysts). of the 45 samples examined, 39 (86.7%) were positive for parasite products, 23 of 25 (92%) jaguar samples were positive, as were all of the puma (4/4) and ocelot (8/8) samples. four of 6 samples from un ...19863783346
the finding of eggs of toxocara cati in droppings of fattened pigs. 19807189213
anthelmintic efficacy of febantel combined with praziquantel against ancylostoma tubaeforme, toxocara cati, and taenia taeniaeformis in cats.forty cats, each harboring 2 or 3 parasitic infections (ancylostoma tubaeforme, toxocara cati, and/or taenia taeniaeformis), were used to titrate the anthelmintic efficacy of a paste containing 3.4% febantel and 0.34% praziquantel. the cats were allotted into 4 groups (10 cats/group). for 3 consecutive days, the cats were given febantel/praziquantel at 5/0.5 mg/kg/day, 10/1 mg/kg/day, 15/1.5 mg/kg/day, or a blank paste vehicle (control) at 0.29 g/kg of body weight. the recommended dosage of 10 m ...19863767110
[prevalence of protozoans helminths among cats purchased for experimental use in the kanto area].prevalence of protozoan and helminth parasites in adult cats for experimental use obtained from kanto area, japan during the period of 1973-74 (91 cats) and 1980-81 (80 cats) was investigated by means of autopsy, fecal examination and serological tests. no protozoa were found in blood smear specimens. the rate of positive toxoplasma antibody tests was 65.4% (hemagglutination test) in 1973-74 and 26.3% (latex agglutination test) in 1980-81. oocysts of coccidia found in feces were isospora felis a ...19836653679
humoral immune response of cats to paragonimus infection.the time course of humoral immune response to paragonimus siamensis was studied in 10 cats experimentally infected with either 30 or 60 matacercariae and the antibody produced was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), complement fixation test (cft), and immunoelectrophoresis (iep) test. with elisa and cft, antibodies was detected as early as 2nd week after infection and the cats remained positive throughout the 12 week period of observation. in contrast, the iep test was persist ...19817342322
parasite prevalence in free-ranging farm cats, felis silvestris animals tested were positive for feline leukemia virus antigen and chlamydia psittaci antibodies, but all were positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1) and rotavirus. they had antibodies to feline parvovirus (96%), feline coronavirus (84% and cowpox virus (2%). antibody to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was found in 53% of animals, which were less likely to be infected with haemobartonella felis, and had higher fhv antibody titres than cats without ...19968620914
[intestinal geohelminthosis in man and domestic animals in the riverside sections of the valdivia river basin, chile].in march-october 1987 were analyzed 1295 coprological specimens in a sample of the human population who lives in riverside localities in the valdivia river basin, chile. a 23.6% of examined persons presented infection by one or more helminth species. the prevalence of infection by ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura and trichostrongylidae gen. sp. were 15.5, 12.7 and 0.2%, respectively. the prevalence of human ascariosis and trichuriosis were greater in pre-school and school children. the ...19958762668
role of small mammals in the epidemiology of toxocariasis.studies were conducted on the role of small mammals in maintaining toxocariasis foci in urban, rural and montane biotopes. the lowest relative density of small mammals was recorded in the urban locality and the highest in the rural and montane localities. anti-toxocara antibodies were most frequently detected in synanthropic and hemisynanthropic species mus musculus, apodemus agrarius and micromys minutus--32.0, 30.4 and 25.0%, respectively. the highest seropositivity was found in small mammals ...19957885737
intestinal helminths of the red fox (vulpes vulpes l.) in galicia (northwest spain).the intestinal helminth fauna of 201 specimens of vulpes vulpes, captured in galicia (northwest spain), was investigated. eight species were found: toxocara canis (23% of host specimens), toxocara cati (0.5%), toxascaris leonina (1%), uncinaria stenocephala (28%), seuratascaris numidica (0.5%), taenia crassiceps (23%), mesocestoides litteratus (2.5%) and dipylidium caninum (0.5%). we discuss possible relationships between human population density and the prevalence of infection of fox by intesti ...19958834508
anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin in naturally parasitized cats.ivermectin was administered per os [( po]; n = 15) or subcutaneously [( sc]; n = 3) to naturally parasitized cats at 10 (n = 6), 100 (n = 6), or 300 (n = 6) micrograms/kg of body weight. nontreated control cats were given sterile isotonic saline solution po (n = 5) or sc (n = 1). qualitative fecal examinations were performed on each cat 1 day before treatment and 14 days after treatment. cats were euthanatized 14 days after treatment, at which time parasites from the gastrointestinal tracts were ...19873592364
[ascaridiasis zoonoses: visceral larva migrans syndromes].the syndrome of visceral larva migrans is a zoonotic disease due to the migration in human of nematodes larval, specially ascarid. since the larvae fail to complete their migrating cycle in humans, the diagnosis of toxocariasis infection remains only serologic. we have been able to demonstrate by the technique of agar diffusion and the western-blotting method that the etiology due to toxocara canis was twice as much frequent as the one due to toxocara cati in the syndrome of visceral and ocular ...19948076198
intestinal parasites of cats purchased in seoul.fecal samples of cats purchased in seoul were examined for helminth ova or protozoan oocysts from december 1987 to march 1988. out of the 41 samples, 31 (75.6%) were positive and 60 (146.3%) were cumulative positive for parasites. the followings were identified in the samples: eggs of toxocara cati, clonorchis sinensis, metagonimus sp., pharyngostomum cordatum, spirometra erinacei, taenia taeniaeformis and oocysts of isospora sp. from nine autopsied cats, larvae of anisakis simplex, adults of c. ...19938297895
pcr-based methods for identification of potentially zoonotic ascaridoid parasites of the dog, fox and cat.genomic dna was extracted from ascaridoid nematodes collected from dogs, foxes and cats. a region spanning the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of the ribosomal dna of each sample was amplified by pcr. representative its-2 products for each nematode species (toxocara canis, toxocara cati and toxascaris leonina) were sequenced. restriction sites were identified for use as genetic markers in a pcr-linked rflp assay. the three species could be differentiated from each other and from other ...19979386794
toxocara cati: hatching of second stage larvae.a method for hatching second-stage larvae of toxocara cati is described. whole adult worms are processed by centrifugation in the presence of hypochlorite which allows the grinding step to be eliminated. the technique is more rapid and a high yield is obtained.19979567507
hematology, intestinal parasites, and selected disease antibodies from a population of bobcats (felis rufus) in central arkansas.eight bobcats with adjoining or overlapping home ranges were examined. hematological values were within previously reported ranges. six bobcats demonstrated antibody titers to toxoplasma gondii. isospora spp., taenia taeniaeformis, spirometra mansoides, physoloptera rara, toxocara cati, strongyloides spp., trichurus spp., capillaria spp., and ancyclostoma spp. were found also in the animals examined. the mean number of parasite species per host was 4.1. all bobcats tested negative for serum anti ...19883352091
use of ivermectin in treatment of aelurostrongylus abstrusus and toxocara cati infection in a cat.ivermectin, administered at a rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, sc, successfully removed toxocara cati infection from a young cat. a second treatment at a higher rate (400 micrograms/kg) was necessary to eliminate infection with the lungworm aelurostrongylus abstrusus. the drug apparently was tolerated well, and it appears to have several advantages over previously reported treatments for lungworm infections in cats.19873583886
evaluation of the efficacy and safety of two formulations of pyrantel pamoate in cats.the efficacy of paste and granule formulations of pyrantel pamoate against concurrent infections of toxocara cati and ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats was examined in a controlled trial. three groups of 8 cats received either no medication (controls) or pyrantel pamoate in paste or granule formulations at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight. after administration of the paste formulation, fecal egg counts of a tubaeforme and t cati were decreased by 98.6 and 96.4%, respectively, and 100% of hookwor ...19902368952
toxocara canis: monoclonal antibodies to larval excretory-secretory antigens that bind with genus and species specificity to the cuticular surface of infective larvae.when maintained in culture, the infective-stage larvae of toxocara canis produce a group of excretory-secretory antigens. monoclonal antibodies to these antigens have been produced and partially characterized. hybridomas were made using spleens from mice that had been given 250 embryonated eggs of t. canis followed by immunization with excretory-secretory antigens. monoclonal antibodies were first screened against excretory-secretory antigens using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ...19873315735
aspects of toxocara epidemiology: toxocarosis in dogs and cats.toxocara canis and toxocara cati are common roundworms of dogs and cats. in this review the life cycles of these parasites are described, including the various routes of transmission, such as transplacental, transmammary infection, and infection through paratenic hosts. the somatic and tracheal migration in the body of the hosts after infection with toxocara eggs or larvae is discussed, with special reference to age resistance and differences between dog and cat. the clinical symptoms and pathol ...19979347222
toxocara cati-induced ocular toxocariasis. 19989869809
[toxocara ova in parks and sand-boxes in the city of utrecht].an investigation was carried out for the presence of toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and children's sand-boxes in the city of utrecht. the pollution of parks with the eggs of the dog's ascarid toxocara canis is comparable with reports from other european cities. the eggs of toxocara cati were found in small numbers only. interestingly there was no difference between parks with or without formal exclusion of dogs. most sand-boxes are polluted with the eggs of the ascarid of cats t. cati. incid ...19938211920
helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in belgium.this study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. of 2324 faecal flotations (nacl 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of toxocara canis (17.4%), toxascaris leonina (10.1%), uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and ce ...19912024431
anthelmintic efficacy of milbemycin d against toxocara cati and ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats.anthelmintic efficacy of milbemycin d was evaluated against toxocara cati and ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats. twelve cats naturally infected with each nematode species were allocated among 2 groups of 6 animals each, and milbemycin d was orally administered to the 2 groups of cats in doses of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg body weight, respectively. in all the cats infected with t. cati, fecal egg counts decreased followed by their disappearance from the feces and 2-35 worms were excreted int ...19911836368
prevalence of enteric zoonotic organisms in determine prevalence of enteric zoonotic organisms in cats in north-central colorado.200010707683
the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate against ascarids and hookworms in cats.the purposes of this study were to evaluate pyrantel pamoate administered orally at 20 mg/kg body weight for the removal of induced or natural infections of ancylostoma tubaeformae and toxocara cati in cats and to compare the efficacy of paste (40 mg base/g) and granule (80 mg base/g) formulations. thirty cats of mixed breeding and various ages with natural and/or induced infections of a. tubaeformae and t. cati were assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) non-medicated controls; (2) past ...19912048286
[survey on toxocara cati in domestic cats].a total of 542 domestic cats aged from 1 month to 20 years were investigated for toxocara cati (t. cati) by means of fecal examination. the cats were classified in the groups according to their kept environment (indoor or outdoor) and age (1-6 month, 7 month-1 year, 2-3 year, 4-5 year and over 6 year). the indoor kept cats were major in all ages, and the friendly relationship was suggested between domestic cats and humans. the parasitic rates of t. cati a higher percentage was noted in the group ...200011109764
toxocariasis: serological diagnosis by indirect antibody competition elisa.toxocariasis is caused by infection of man by toxocara canis and toxocara cati larvae, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. non specific reactions are observed mainly due to cross-reactivity with ascaris sp antigens. this investigation aimed at developing and evaluating an indirect antibody competition elisa (iace) employing a specific rabbit igg anti-toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens as the com ...199910413956
ocular larva migrans caused by toxocara cati in mongolian gerbils and a comparison of ophthalmologic findings with those produced by t. elucidate the pathogenic potential of toxocara cari, we observed the ophthalmologic changes of the fundi in mongolian gerbils, meriones unguiculatus, after oral inoculation of 17 embryonated eggs/g body weight. ophthalmic conditions in 8 t. cati-infected gerbils were monitored using an ophthalmoscope from day 0 to day 156 and were compared with those of 57 t. canis-infected gerbils. the results showed that t. cati larvae migrated into the eye of the gerbil and then elicited ophthalmic changes ...200011128493
a survey of helminths in domestic cats in the pretoria area of transvaal, republic of south africa. part 1: the prevalence and comparison of burdens of helminths in adult and juvenile cats.the helminths found in 1,502 necropsied cats were examined. the findings indicated that 65% of the cats were infested. the most prevalent helminths encountered were ancylostoma tubaeforme (41%), ancylostoma braziliense (25%), dipylidium caninum (23%), toxocara cati (11%), taenia taeniaeformis (7.7%), ancylostoma caninum (3.3%), joyeuxiella fuhrmanni (2.5%), ancylostoma ceylanicum (1.4%), and physaloptera praeputialis (1.3%). the following helminths were recorded in fewer than 1% of the cats: cen ...19892634770
[frequency of toxocara cati eggs in domestic cats in mexico city and the state of mexico].toxocariosis is a zoonosis which has been widely studied in dogs. however, not much is known about this parasitosis in cats. the aim of the present work was to determine the frequency of toxocara cati in domestic cats in mexico city and the state of mexico. feces of 660 domestic cats were studied by the faust concentration-floating test; 401 samples were from cats living in mexico city of which 308 lived in houses and 93 in apartments; 231 were from urban areas of the state of mexico and 28 from ...19979497534
gastrointestinal parasites of cougars (felis concolor) in washington and the first report of ollulanus tricuspis in a sylvatic felid from north america.gastrointestinal helminths including two species of cestodes (taenia omissa and t. ovis krabbei) and three species of nematodes (toxocara cati, cylicospirura subequalis and ollulanus tricuspis) are reported from two free-ranging cougars (felis concolor) in washington (usa). ollulanus tricuspis is reported for the first time from cougars and represents the first occurrence of this parasite in a sylvatic felid from north america.19921548792
internal parasites of feral cats from the tasmanian midlands and king island.eighty-six feral cats from a sheep grazing area in the tasmanian midlands and 21 from king island were examined for internal parasites. major food items in order of decreasing prevalence in stomach contents were insects, lizards, birds, rodents and frogs in the midlands, and rodents, birds, insects, and lizards on king island. feral cats from the midlands had 4 cestode, 7 nematode, 2 trematode and 3 protozoan parasites as follows: spirometra erinacei (66.3%), taenia taeniaeformis (2.3%), dipylid ...1976985246
[the ocular form of larval toxocariasis in the czech republic].the damage of the eye is one of the clinical syndromes of the toxocara infection, caused by the migration activity of the toxocara canis and toxocara cati larvae. ocular larva migrans (olm) lesions mostly occur unilaterally and frequently are diagnosed as retinoblastoma. the typical symptoms of olm are presented in our publication. the first signs of the ocular infection most often include diminished vision, leukocoria, red eye and strabismus. inflammatory intraocular reaction, caused as a respo ...200212046249
single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp)-based mutation scanning approaches to fingerprint sequence variation in ribosomal dna of ascaridoid this study, we assessed single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp)-based approaches for their capacity to fingerprint sequence variation in ribosomal dna (rdna) of ascaridoid nematodes of veterinary and/or human health significance. the second internal transcribed spacer region (its-2) of rdna was utilised as the target region because it is known to provide species-specific markers for this group of parasites. its-2 was amplified by pcr from genomic dna derived from individual parasites a ...19989694283
gastro-intestinal parasites of feral cats in new south wales.a total of 146 feral cats from several localities in new south wales were examined for the presence of gastro-intestinal parasites. the cestodes recorded, and their prevalence, were taenia taeniaeformis (21.9%), spirometra erinacei (61.0%) and dipylidium caninum (11.6%). one animal contained 31 t. serialis scolices considered to be the contents of a recently ingested coenurus serialis. the common nematodes encountered and their prevalence were toxocara cati (21.9%) and ancylostoma spp (23.3%). u ...1976962738
nematode infections of the eye: toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute many parts of the world, parasitic infections of the eye are a major cause of blindness. the parasites toxocara canis, onchocerca volvulus, taenia solium, ancylostoma caninum, and cysticercus celulosae all have been responsible for blinding ocular infections. the nematodes t. canis and toxocara cati are parasitic roundworms that infect dogs (toxocarosis), other canidae, and cats. ocular toxocariasis is an uncommon worldwide infection caused by the nematode larvae of t. canis, commonly found i ...200111734685
prevalence of sarcocystis infection and other intestinal parasitisms in cats from a humane shelter in ohio.feces of 1,000 cats from a humane shelter in columbus, ohio were examined for evidence of intestinal parasitisms. prevalences (in percentage of oocysts or helminth eggs) were: sarcocytis sp, 0.2; toxoplasma-like sp, 1.0; isospora felis, 6.2; isopora rivolta, 3.2; toxocara cati, 25; capillaria sp, 1.3; ancylostoma sp, 9.4; uncinaria sp, 0.2; and taenia sp, 0.5. infectivity of coccidia found in feces was tested by oral inoculation into mice and by feeding inoculated mice to cats. toxoplasma-like o ...1976815229
toxocara cati: an underestimated zoonotic agent.the role of toxocara cati as a zoonosis is reviewed. it is suggested that, despite case histories of human infection in the literature, historical factors have led to t. cati being under-recognized as a zoonosis, particularly when compared with the prominence given to toxocara canis in dogs. differentiation of the two infections remains challenging even today. it is recommended that further work be conducted to facilitate differentiation so that the importance of t. cati as a zoonosis can be cle ...200312689646
parasite richness and abundance in insular and mainland feral cats: insularity or density?hosts living on islands carry few parasite species, and the prevalence and intensity of directly transmitted parasites are often higher in insular than in mainland populations. however, it is unclear whether density or other features of insular populations can be responsible for the pattern observed. we compared the parasite richness, prevalence and intensity of parasites between 2 feral populations of cats living either at low density on an island (kerguelen) or at high density on the mainland ...200111510679
[an epidemiological study on zoonoses in korea]helminthic zoonoses are of significant importance to the public health and to the socioeconomic consequences especially in lost-meat, animal products and animal labor. for past several decades in korea, it has been recognized that endoparasitic infections among domestic animals are extremely common and many of the helminth parasites of man have been acquired from, or are shared with domestic animals. however, there was no survey of a nationwide scale on the prevalence of animal helminthiasis; an ...198112902720
[resistance of toxocara cati eggs to heat]. 195313169147
a survey of toxocara canis and toxocara cati prevalence in the new york city area. 195813578117
helminth fauna of eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) in estonia.thirty-seven carcasses of eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) collected and examined in estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. parasites identified and their prevalence included diphyllobothrium latum (5%), taenia pisiformis (100%), taenia laticollis (41%), taenia hydatigena (3%), taenia taeniaeformis (3%), toxocara cati (68%), and trichinella spp. (22%). the only significant relationships (p < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of t. pisiformis and t. l ...200415362842
[diagnosis of the early phase of larval toxocariasis using igg avidity].the term avidity used to express the strength of the bond between a serum specimen and a multivalent antigen. it is known that the avidity increases with time after antibody challenge and measurement of the avidity has been used diagnostically. recently an assay measuring the igg avidity of various virus infections and of toxoplasmosis was used to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. our study was focused on the method to distinguish acute and chronic toxocara infection, zoonosis cau ...200111329729
a study on the morphology of early larval stages of toxocara cati (schrank, 1788). 19827106655
the life history and development of toxocara cati (schrank 1788) in the domestic cat. 195613322456
[infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the netherlands].to determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. the association between potential risk factors and the occurrence of an infection was also tested. infections with helminths and/or protozoa were found in 160 samples (52.5%). toxocara cati was found in 86 cats (28.2%), cystoisospora felis in 59 cats (19.3% ...200414737808
comparison of igg-elisa and igg4-elisa for toxocara serodiagnosis.diagnosis of human toxocariasis, caused by toxocara canis or toxocara cati, normally relies on a combination of the presence of clinical signs and symptoms backed by positive serology. the use of toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (tes) in elisa assays increases the test specificity. however, in tropical countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic, cross-reactivity from antibodies to these intestinal parasites poses a significant limitation for toxocara serodiagnosis. to increase th ...200515589798
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