socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the nong wai irrigation area, khon kaen, northeast thailand.studies were carried out from june 1974 to may 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the nong wai pioneer agricultural project of khon kaen province, northeast thailand. the result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. it was found tha ...19761030856
mekong schistosomiasis. iii: a parasitological survey of domestic water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) on khong island, laos.of 103 water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) examined on khong island by means of the m.i.f.c. and hatching techniques, none were passing eggs resimbling those of the mekong schistosome. one buffalo calf was infected with orientobilharzia harinasutai and another with schistosoma spindale; this is the first time these parasites have been reported from laos. since the buffalo that were examined had constant and year-round access to a part of the mekong river that has been shown to be a site of heavy tra ...19751155989
larval stages of medically important flukes (trematoda) from vientiane province, laos. part ii. cercariae.the cercariae of five flukes, which are potential human parasites, opisthorchis viverrini (family opisthorchiidae), haplorchis taichui (heterophyidae), schistosoma spindale (schistosomatidae), fasciolopsis buski, and fasciola gigantica (fasciolidae) were found in freshwater snails from laos. the cercariae of the above species, recorded in laos for the first time, are illustrated and their morphology is briefly described. the snail helicorbis umbilicalis represents a new intermediate host of f. b ...19921290378
the large bandicoot rat, bandicota indica, a new host for schistosoma spindale, montgomery, 1906, in peninsular malaysia. 19921488714
the epidemiology of schistosoma spindale montgomery, 1906 in cattle in sri lanka.during 1988 and 1989, the mesenteric veins of 901 cattle were examined for the presence of schistosomes at the kandy slaughterhouse (sri lanka). the overall prevalence of infection was 31.2%. animals younger than 2 years were less infected (21.3%) than those older than 5 years (47.9%). based on the number of paired worms counted, three intensities of infection were recognized: low (1-20 pairs), moderate (21-100 pairs) and heavy (greater than 100 pairs). intensities increased with the age of the ...19911852491
pathology of natural infections of schistosoma spindale montgomery, 1906, in cattle.the pathology of natural schistosoma spindale infections in cattle in sri lanka was studied. hepatic lesions were moderate with periportal cell infiltration and periportal epithelioid cell granulomas within perilobular zones. submucosal and mucosal granulomas accompanied by cellular changes were present in the small and large intestine. two unusual observations included the migration of an adult worm from the mesenteric veins to the mucosa of the small intestine in one bull and the presence of e ...19902079559
finding and recognition of the bovine host by the cercariae of schistosoma spindale.the cercaria of schistosoma spindale finds and identifies its bovine host with at least five behavioral phases. (1) dispersal in and selection of midwater and water surface as the microhabitat are achieved by an intermittent swimming behavior with a weak geonegative but not photopositive orientation. (2) attachments are stimulated by host-specific higher temperatures of the substrate but not by chemical host signals. (3) remaining of the attached cercariae on the substrate is stimulated by host- ...19902336448
investigation on immunity induced by schistosoma spindale against s. mekongi in experimental investigation on immunity induced by schistosoma spindale cercariae (cattle and swamp buffalo schistosome) against s. mekongi (human schistosome) was conducted in swiss albino mice. the studies comprised the development patterns of homologous immunity of s. spindale and heterologous immunity induced by s. spindale against s. mekongi. the development pattern of homologous immunity was studied in mice with an immunization of 100 s. spindale cercariae. at one week intervals, between 2 to 16 week ...19883406801
serology of schistosoma spindale (montgomery, 1906). 19724560439
biological control by trematode antagonism. i. a successful field trial to control schistosoma spindale in northeast thailand. 19744839081
biological control by trematode antagonism. ii. failure to control schistosoma spindale in a field trial in northeast thailand. 19744839082
further field trial to control schistosoma spindale by trematode antagonism. 19715167566
natural occurence of schistosoma spindale in bandicota bengalensis in bombay together with a note on their possible role in the dissemination of schistosomiasis spindale in domestic ruminants. 19676070761
scanning electron microscopy of the tegumental surface of adult schistosoma spindale.the tegumental surfaces of adult male and female of schistosoma spindale were studied by scanning electron microscopy. in general, the body surface of the male appears to be fairly uniform from anterior end to posterior end. it is characterized by the presence of transverse ridges and papillae of various types. these papillae are distributed fairly regularly over the whole body surface of the worm. the tegument lining the gynecophoral canal of the male worm is covered with numerous spines inters ...19836658498
sympatric occurrence of schistosoma incognitum and schistosoma spindale in rodents. 19807403947
humoral and cell mediated immune responses against schistosoma spindale in balb/c mice.(balb/c mice were infected with cercariae of schistosoma spindale by tail immersion technique and by dropping some cercariae from a pipet onto the outer surface of the pinna of the ears. groups of mice were removed on days 10, 20 and 30 and tested for humoral and cell mediated immune responses using either adult worm or cercarial antigen. on day 50 the mice were sacrificed and the worm burden was determined for each mouse. this method resulted in an infectivity rate of 89.7%. there was a signifi ...19947825008
small subunit (18s) ribosomal rna gene divergence in the genus entire 18s rrna gene sequence from schistosoma spindale (1990 bases) and partial 18s rrna gene sequences from s. haematobium (1950 bases) and s. japonicum (1648 bases) have been determined. together with the previously published sequence of the s. mansoni 18s rrna gene, these data encompass the 4 recognized schistosoma species groups. although schistosoma 18s rrna genes are highly conserved, the sequences permit a preliminary molecular phylogeny to be established for the genus. this identifie ...19938414669
outbreak of cercarial dermatitis in epidemic of cercarial dermatitis caused by schistosoma spindale cercaria occurred in november 1988 in a district called chaiya, surajthani province, in southern thailand.19938440550
molecular phylogeny of schistosoma species supports traditional groupings within the genus.phylogenetic relationships among 9 blood flukes (7 schistosome species, a spirorchid, and a sanguinicolid) were inferred from nucleotide sequences of the d1 domain of large subunit rrna and the v4 region of small subunit rrna. these sequences were more conserved than those examined by previous authors and thus may provide insight into deeper-level relationships. analyzed separately and combined by 3 methods, these data yielded congruent trees that were well supported by bootstrap resampling. the ...19968604099
helminth infections of sheep in north sumatra, indonesia.gastrointestinal tracts of 73 indigenous sheep were obtained from the medan abattoir in north sumatra, indonesia, and examined for the presence of helminths. a total of 13 species of helminths, eight nematodes, one cestode and four trematodes were encountered. all sheep were infected by more than one species of nematodes. trichostrongylus colubriformis, t. axei and haemonchus contortus were the most common species. the intensity of the nematode infections was very high: the average burden was ov ...19968720574
studies on animal schistosomes in peninsular malaysia: record of naturally infected animals and additional hosts of schistosoma spindale.surveillance studies on cercarial dermatitis were carried out in paddy growing areas in peninsular malaysia. it was observed that dermatitis in paddy planters occurred in paddy fields which were cultivated using animals such as bafflos or fields where domestic animals were allowed to graze during the off planting season as these animals harbored the parasite. the causative agent of cercarial dermatitis was schistosoma spindale. a total of 215 small mammals trapped from alor setar and 126 trapped ...19979444010
incrimination of schistosoma spindale as a causative agent of farmer's dermatitis in assam with a note on liver pathology in mice.cercarial dermatitis of paddy field workers in assam is very common. however, it is not known which species of animal schistosomes, is its causative agent in assam. studies in two dermatitis affected villages of dibrugarh district revealed that cercariae of schistosoma spindale were involved in its aetiology. indoplanorbis exustus was the only snail species found infected with apharyngeate brevifurcate schistosome cercarie. experimental infection of the laboratory animals with the dermatitis cau ...19989842157
development of female schistosoma spindale in the guinea pig. 195713451626
on the discovery and prevalence of schistosoma spindale (montgomery, 1906) in thailand. 196314044252
a study of schistosoma spindale in thailand. 196514287304
the complete mitochondrial genomes of schistosoma haematobium and schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms.complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the schistosomes schistosoma haematobium and schistosoma. spindale have been characterized. s. haematobium is the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis in humans and s. spindale uses ruminants as its definitive host; both are transmitted by freshwater snail intermediate hosts. results confirm a major gene order rearrangement among schistosomes in all traditional schistosoma species groups other than schistosoma japonicum; i.e., species groups s. m ...200616464618
freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of thailand according to the water resource development projects.the study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in thailand during 1999-2004. a total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. the snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: ampullariidae, bithyniidae, buccinidae, potamiopsidae, stenothyridae, thiaridae, viviparidae, planorbidae and lymnaeidae. the clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: amblemidae and corbiculidae. fifteen species ...200717539279
a dna sequence-based study of the schistosoma indicum (trematoda: digenea) group: population phylogeny, taxonomy and historical biogeography.partial (dna) sequences were collected for 2 mitochondrial loci (srrna and lrrna, the rrns and rrnl rrna genes respectively) for schistosoma indicum group species from 4 southeast asian countries. the samples included 7 populations, 4 of which were previously unstudied. in 11 cases the combination of locus and population was new. the aim of the study was to provide a phylogeny based on new independent data and multiple populations (earlier studies had mostly used a common set of field samples or ...200717822572
visceral schistosomiasis among domestic ruminants slaughtered in wayanad, south india.this short communication reports the prevalence of visceral schistosomiasis by worm counts from the mesentery of domestic ruminants of the hilly district of wayanad, located in kerala, one of the states in south india. we found 57.3, 50, and 4.7% of cattle, buffaloes and goats, respectively, had visceral schistosomiasis upon slaughter at a municipal slaughter house in kalpetta. our findings show that the prevalence of schistosoma spindale infection is very high in wayanad in comparison to previo ...200718613541
orientobilharzia species: neglected parasitic zoonotic agents.parasites of the genus orientobilharzia belong to platyhelminthes, trematoda, digenea, schistosomatidae, and the type species is orientobilharzia turkestanicum. o. turkestanicum was first described by skrjabin from cattle in russian turkestan in 1913. adult worms of orientobilharzia species live in the portal veins or intestinal veins of cattle, sheep and other mammals, and often cause orientobilharziasis in china, india, mongolia, pakistan, iraq, iran in asia, and russia and turkey in europe. m ...200919081387
the complement fixation reaction in asiatic schistosomiasis employing cercarial antigen (schistosoma spindale). 194720290668
effect of crude extract of solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae.the ethanolic crude extract from solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of schistosoma mansoni, and indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. the bioassays were carried ...201020578514
fasciola gigantica: production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin b3.a number of monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against a recombinant cathepsin b3 (rcatb3) of fasciola gigantica were produced in balb/c mice. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were assessed by indirect elisa and immunoblotting techniques. six stable clones, namely 1c4, 1e9, 2e5, 2f9, 5b4, 5d7 were obtained. all moabs reacted with rcatb3 at molecular weight (mw) 37 kda as well as the glycosylated peptide at 55-75 kda and with the native catb3 at mw 37 kda in wb extracts of metacercariae (met) ...201120736007
the complete mitochondrial genome of orientobilharzia turkestanicum supports its affinity with african schistosoma spp.orientobilharzia turkestanicum is a blood fluke of many mammals and causes orientobilharziasis that is also a neglected parasitic zoonosis because the cercaria of o. turkestanicum can infect humans and cause cercarial dermatitis. the present study determined the complete sequence of mt genome of o. turkestanicum and revised its phylogenetic position based on mt gene content and arrangement. the complete mtdna sequence of o. turkestanicum was 14,755 bp in length, which is slightly larger than the ...201121930247
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific to 16 kda antigen of paramphistomum gracile.a number of monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against the 16 kda antigen of paramphistomum gracile (16 kdaagpg) were produced in vitro by hybridoma technique. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were evaluated by elisa and immunoblotting assays. seven moab clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1d10, 2d7, 3b10, 3d9, 4f1, 4g4, and 5g12. it was found to be igm and kappa light chain isotypes. by immunoblotting and elisa, all moabs reacted with purified 16 kdaagpg at molecul ...201727770198
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin l1 of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against a recombinant cathepsin l1 of fasciola gigantica (rfgcatl1) were produced in vitro by fusion of balb/c mice spleen cells immunized with rfgcatl1 and mouse myeloma cells. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were evaluated by indirect elisa and immunoblotting techniques. seven moab clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1e10, 1f5, 3d11, 4b10, 4d3, 4e3 and 5e7. clones 1e10, 1f5 and 3d11 were igm, whereas clones 4b10, 4d3, 4e3 and 5e ...201424736227
the complete mitochondrial genome of gastrothylax crumenifer (gastrothylacidae, trematoda) and comparative analyses with selected the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the mitochondrial (mt) genome of gastrothylax crumenifer and compared it with other selected trematodes. the full mt genome of g. crumenifer was amplified, sequenced, assembled, analyzed and then subjected to phylogenetic analysis. the complete mt genome of g. crumenifer is 14,801 bp in length and contains two rrna genes, two non-coding regions (lnr and snr), 12 protein-coding genes, and 22 transfer rna genes. the gene organization of the g. crumen ...201627021180
copro-pcr based detection of bovine schistosome infection in india.schistosomosis and amphistomosis are the two economically important and widely prevalent snail-borne trematode infections in grazing cattle of southern india. acute infections are symptomatically similar and difficult to detect by routine microscopy for eggs. the present study was directed towards the development of a copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-pcr) for detection of bovine schistosome species, using custom-designed primers targeting 18s and 28s ribosomal rna as well as mitochondrial ...201626693890
the complete mitochondrial genome of orthocoelium streptocoelium (digenea: paramphistomidae) for comparison with other digeneans.orthocoelium streptocoelium is a common paramphistome species parasitizing the rumen and/or reticulum of small ruminants, leading to significant losses. this study first determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of o. streptocoelium. the complete mt genome of o. streptocoelium was amplified, sequenced, assembled, analysed and then compared with those of other digeneans. the entire mt genome of o. streptocoelium is 13,800 bp in length, which is smaller than those of other digeneans except ...201727030161
the schistosoma indicum species group in nepal: presence of a new lineage of schistosome and use of the indoplanorbis exustus species complex of snail hosts.from 2007-2014, 19,360 freshwater snails from the terai and hilly regions of nepal were screened for cercariae of mammalian schistosomes. based on analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i, 12s, 16s and 28s sequences (3,675bp) of the cercariae recovered, we provide, to our knowledge, the first report of the schistosoma indicum species group in nepal. five samples of schistosoma nasale, nine of schistosoma spindale and 17 of schistosoma sp. were recovered, all from the snail indoplanorbis ex ...201526385438
evaluation of a polyclonal antibody based sandwich elisa for the detection of faecal antigens in schistosoma spindale infection in bovines.schistosomosis is a common parasitic infection in animals prevalent in cattle in asia and africa, where it is estimated that at least 165 million animals are infected. out of the 10 species reported to naturally infect cattle only schistosoma nasale and schistosoma spindale have received particular attention, because of their recognized veterinary significance. although animal schistosomes may, under rare conditions favouring intensive transmission, act as important pathogens in endemic areas oc ...201324431540
efficacy of dot-elisa using different antigens in detecting anti-schistosome antibodies among bovines in field conditions.schistosomosis has been recognised as one of the major parasitic diseases of livestock and human beings. schistosoma spindale is the major cause of visceral schistosomosis among bovines of kerala state. besides pathology in animals, it has been long known that cercariae of s. spindale are a common cause of dermatitis in human beings in asia. however, detection of this disease based on coprology has underestimated the prevalence of this economically important disease among cattle of the state. an ...201627065623
detection of schistosoma spindale ova and associated risk factors among malaysian cattle through coprological survey.the present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of schistosoma spindale ova and its associated risk factors in malaysian cattle through a coprological survey. a total of 266 rectal fecal samples were collected from six farms in peninsular malaysia. the overall infection rate of s. spindale was 6% (16 of 266). schistosoma spindale infection was observed in two farms, with a prevalence of 5.4% and 51.9%, respectively. this trematode was more likely to co-occur with other gastro-intesti ...201526164875
schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (canis aureus).this report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (canis aureus) housed in amirthi zoological park, javadu hills, vellore. the animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. the eggs were identif ...201525698875
standardization of dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine visceral schistosomiasis.bovine visceral schistosomiasis has been reported as an important disease entity as it affects animal health, productivity, causes economic losses due to liver condemnation, and produces a high morbidity. this study was conducted to standardize an easy, reliable dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (elisa) for the diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis caused by schistosoma spindale and to know the prevalence rate in and around hyderabad.201728620259
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