evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test to diagnose babesia equi infection in indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test for the diagnosis of babesia equi infections was evaluated. antigen prepared by conventional methods was of high quality in one instance and of lesser quality in a second when possible autofluorescence of the horse blood caused inconvenience in reading tests. tests on 14 horses shown by parasitological means to be either infected (9) or uninfected (5) produced reactions at dilutions of 1/270 to 1/7290 for infected and at 1/10 to 1/90 for uninfected ani ...1979395937
attempts to transmit babesia equi in laboratory animals. 1979462564
the identification of babesia equi in australia.a babesia parasite, isolated from the blood of a horse at bowral, new south wales, was identified on the basis of its morphological features, host specificity and serological reactions, as babesia equi (laveran 1901). the case was originally reported by churchill and best (1976, aust. vet. j. 52: 487) and is the first record of equine babesiosis in australia. in preliminary studies, the organism produced only a mild disease in an intact horse, but caused the typical clinical syndrome of acute ba ...1977612315
prevalence of latent cases of babesia equi infection in some parts of north west india as measured by the capillary agglutination test.the prevalence of babesia equi infection in north west india was assessed by means of the capillary tube agglutination (ca) test. the particulate antigen used in the test was potent and no cross reaction with other related haemaprotozoa was observed. the serological survey showed that from 323 horses from 3 localities there was an overall incidence of 50.1 per cent. in haryana the incidence was 38.3 per cent in the 196 horses tested, in uttar pradesh it was 47.2 per cent from 72 animals and in r ...1978631102
splenectomy in the horse.splenectomy was successfully performed on 2 aged horses to facilitate experimental studies of babesia equi infection. resection of part of the 17th rib provided the most acceptable approach and avoided many complications encountered on removing part of the 16th rib.1978687278
cell-mediated immune response in equine intradermal skin test, to demonstrate a delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction in babesia equi infection in donkeys, was developed. a skin reaction to b. equi antigen was elicited in vaccinnated, infected and carrier intact and splenectomised donkeys. the histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed infiltration of mononuclear cells and accumulation of oedematous fluid in the deeper layers of the dermis. a leucocyte migration inhibition test was developed and its specificity ...1977910301
babesiosis in the newborn foal.a short account is given of babesiosis (equine biliary fever) caused by the tick-borne protozoan babesia equi and b. caballi, endemic in the cape province of south africa. the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. in the absence of any prophylactic measures, prognosis is poor; control of the parasites in the tick-infested areas is essential.19751060872
equine piroplasmosis: leukocytic response to babesia equi (laveran, 1901) infection in chile. 19751192172
antibody to a recombinant merozoite protein epitope identifies horses infected with babesia equi.horses infected with babesia equi were previously identified by the presence of antibodies reactive with a merozoite surface protein epitope (d. p. knowles, jr., l. e. perryman, l. s. kappmeyer, and s. g. hennager. j. clin. microbiol. 29:2056-2058, 1991). the antibodies were detected in a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci elisa) by using monoclonal antibody 36/133.97, which defines a protein epitope on the merozoite surface. the gene encoding this b. equi merozoite epi ...19921280648
transmission and diagnosis of equine babesiosis in south africa.the transmission and prevalence of babesia equi and b. caballi are being studied. rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus an ixodid tick from namibia was identified as a new vector of b. equi, however, r. turanicus, previously reported to be a vector, failed to transmit both b. equi and b. caballi in the laboratory. the accurate diagnosis of b. caballi is being investigated because the nature of its low level parasitaemia does not allow easy detection in thin blood smears, routinely used for diagnosis, ...19921343683
demonstration of extrachromosomal dna from babesia equi extrachromosomal nucleic acid element was detected in high-molecular-weight dna preparations form babesia equi merozoites. this extrachromosomal element was shown to be dna rather than rna and had an apparent fragment size of about 9 kilobase-pairs (kb). hybridization experiments using purified 9-kb dna as a probe revealed sequence homologies with extrachromosomal dna from two other babesia species.19921480611
efficacy of buparvaquone as a therapeutic and clearing agent of babesia equi of european origin in horses.we evaluated the efficacy of buparvaquone in eliminating infection with babesia equi of european origin in carrier horses and in splenectomized horses with experimentally induced acute infection. when administered at the rate of 5 mg/kg of body weight, iv, 4 times at 48-hour intervals, buparvaquone prompted rapid abatement of parasitemia. however, secondary and tertiary recrudescent parasitemias invariably returned with establishment of the carrier state. buparvaquone, at the dosage evaluated, h ...19921510317
haematology of experimental babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in steroid immunosuppressed investigation was carried out to study the haematology of steroid immunosuppressed horses experimentally infected with babesia equi and ehrlichia equi, separately or simultaneously. horses infected with both pathogens showed less marked changes in their haematology than those inoculated with either pathogen separately. this appeared to result from early elimination of the more pathogenic babesia as ehrlichia spread through the granulocytes. the apparent suppression of babesia by ehrlichia is ...19921519411
a monoclonal antibody defines a geographically conserved surface protein epitope of babesia equi merozoites.babesiosis is a tick-borne hemoparasitic disease affecting horses worldwide. to investigate mechanisms of immunity to this parasite, the antibody response of infected horses to babesia equi merozoite proteins was evaluated. immunoprecipitation of b. equi merozoite antigens with sera from infected horses revealed 11 major proteins of 210, 144, 108, 88, 70, 56, 44, 36, 34, 28, and 25 kda. monoclonal antibody (mab) 36/133.97, which binds to live merozoites, immunoprecipitated proteins of 44, 36, 34 ...19911711016
detection of equine antibody to babesia equi merozoite proteins by a monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci elisa) was developed to detect antibody to babesia equi. one hundred fifty-four equine serum samples from 19 countries were tested for antibody to b. equi by the complement fixation test and by ci elisa. the ci elisa and complement fixation test results agreed in 94% (144) of the serum samples tested. the 10 discrepant serum samples were retested and analyzed for ability to immunoprecipitate in vitro translation products from b. equi ...19911774334
dna probes for the detection of babesia caballi.a genomic library of babesia caballi dna was constructed in the plasmid vector puc13. the specificity of the clones for b. caballi was established by the lack of hybridization to babesia equi, babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and equine dna. two probes, pbc11 and pbc191, were isolated that could detect 0.25 ng and 0.125 ng of b. caballi dna, corresponding to a parasitaemia of 0.12% and 0.06% respectively. pbc191 could detect b. caballi parasites in the blood of an experimentally infected horse as ...19911866181
detection of babesia equi in infected horses and carrier animals using a dna probe.the ability of the babesia equi repetitive probes, pse2 and psb20, to detect parasites in blood from experimentally infected, naturally infected and carrier animals was tested using a spot hybridization assay. the clinical course of the experimentally infected horses was monitored using microscopy, indirect fluorescent antibody tests, packed cell volume, temperature and the probe assay. the probes sensitively monitored the parasite level during the development of the disease and correlated well ...19911897117
haemoparasites of equines: impact on international trade of horses.the geographical distribution of babesia equi and babesia caballi and their tick vectors is discussed. control of infections with these protozoa is hampered by the lack of a suitable antiprotozoal drug and a reliable serological test. no vaccine is available. ehrlichia risticii (the causal agent of potomac horse fever) and e. equi are rickettsial parasites which are difficult to control. little is known of their geographical distribution and vectors. early diagnosis is required for tetracycline ...19902132711
babesia equi and trypanosoma vivax infections in donkeys.six donkeys (equus asinus) were purchased locally. to screen them before and during trypanosoma vivax infection, thin and thick blood smears, temperature, haematocrit centrifuge technique (hct), packed cell volume (pcv), white blood cell counts, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) were done for babesia equi. for the ifat, an anti-horse conjugate was used. in spite of patent b. equi or t. vivax parasitaemia, the donkeys' temperatures remained below 38.5 degrees c; pcv was depresse ...19892626573
repetitive dna probes for the detection of babesia equi.this report describes dna probes for the identification of babesia equi. a genomic library of b. equi was constructed in puc13. several clones were identified that hybridized strongly to b. equi dna. clone pbe33 hybridized specifically to b. equi dna and did not hybridize to horse dna nor to dna from babesia caballi, babesia bovis or babesia bigemina. two subclones of pbe33 (psb20 and peh21) containing b. equi repetitive sequences, could detect 0.49 ng and 0.97 ng b. equi dna, respectively.19892710167
evaluations of buparvaquone as a treatment for equine babesiosis (babesia equi).we evaluated the efficacy of buparvaquone in eliminating babesia equi of european origin in carrier horses and in experimentally infected splenectomized ponies. when administered at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight, im, 4 times at 96-hour intervals, buparvaquone was effective in eliminating b equi carrier infection in 1 horse. such results could not be repeated at the same dosage or at 3.5 or 5 mg/kg, im. buparvaquone given at the rate of 4 to 6 mg/kg iv and/or im was therapeutically effecti ...19892729726
effects of intravenous corticosteroid on the pathogenicity of babesia equi infection of donkeys (equus asinus). 19883188726
serologic response of babesia equi-infected horses as measured by complement-fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody tests.both the complement-fixation test (cft) and the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) were conducted on weekly serum samples from nine arab geldings for 28 days before and 256 days after their exposure to babesia equi of european origin. on an average the ifat became positive 8 days before the cft and showed higher relative serum titer increases. both test procedures successfully detected infection and neither showed an appreciable drop in titer during this time frame, with the exception of ...19883279699
isolation of pure babesia equi and babesia caballi organisms in splenectomized horses from endemic areas in south africa.both babesia equi and babesia caballi are endemic in large parts of south africa. attempts were made to obtain pure local isolates of both b. equi and b. caballi for the purpose of developing serological tests to study the epidemiology of equine babesiosis in this country. the indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to screen horses for b. equi and b. caballi in an endemic area. seven horses and 3 donkeys between 3 and 36 months of age that tested negative were subsequently splenectomized. t ...19883353098
imidocarb and parvaquone in the treatment of piroplasmosis (babesia equi) in equids.the therapeutic efficacies of imidocarb and parvaquone were tested against babesia equi of european origin in carrier horses and for induced acute infections in splenectomized ponies. imidocarb, at a dosage of 4 mg/kg of body weight, given im at 72-hour intervals 4 times, was ineffective in eliminating b equi-carrier infection in 9 mature geldings. a single im administration of 4 mg/kg was not therapeutic in acutely infected splenectomized ponies. when given at 3 different dosages and treatment ...19873434908
an investigation into the clinical pathological changes and serological response in horses experimentally infected with babesia equi and babesia caballi.serologically negative horses, as determined with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa), were infected with babesia equi and 60 days later with babesia caballi. the only clinical signs of disease observed in these animals were a febrile reaction and slight icterus. haematological changes included a drop in haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration, as well as lowered platelet counts. the serum concentrations of albumin, iron and phosphorus were lowered. mildly elevated serum bilirubin and ...19873444610
serodiagnosis of experimental and natural babesia equi and b. caballi infections.the sensitivity and specificity of the complement fixation (cf) test for the diagnosis of babesia infections in equines was assessed, using the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test as a reference. antibodies were first detected between 11 and 20 days post infection (dpi) in the cf test and between 7 and 14 dpi in the ifa test in ponies infected experimentally with b. equi (usda strain). the cf test became negative in four of five ponies 63-174 dpi although b. equi was demonstrated microscopi ...19863518217
experimental babesia equi infection in mature horses.nine 4-year-old arabian geldings were experimentally infected with babesia equi of european origin. all horses developed detectable parasitemia an average of 30 days after they were inoculated, which was accompanied by a decrease in pcv. the infections were generally mild with no animal deaths. all horses became serologically positive by the indirect fluorescent antibody test within an average of 23 days after they were inoculated and by the complement-fixation test 30 days after they were inocu ...19863530065
[babesia infections in horses, cattle and dogs in southern germany].babesia infections serologically diagnosed in horses, cattle and dogs in southern germany during the last few years are described. 321 sera of horses were examined for specific antibodies to babesia by means of cft and iif in 1984; 18 sera reacted to babesia equi and 4 to babesia caballi antigen. in a cattle breeding area in the western allgäu 13% of 1616 cattle reacted positive to babesia divergens antigen using iif and elisa; during the grazing season 1982 new latent infections were observed i ...19853892774
feeding mechanisms of babesia equi. 19744449092
equine piroplasmosis (babesia equi): therapeutic trials of imidocarb dihydrochloride in horses and donkeys. 19734748680
observations on babesia equi in the salivary glands of rhipicephalus evertsi. 19734802548
comparative morphologic features of babesia caballi and babesia equi. 19674965565
equine piroplasmosis: attempts to infect laboratory animals with babesia equi. 19695816364
cell-mediated immune response to babesia equi-transformed lymphoblastoid cells in vitro.the capacity of equine peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) to proliferate in the presence of babesia equi-transformed lymphoblastoid stimulator cells was tested in an autologous as well as in an allogenic one way mixed lymphocyte reaction (mlr). it was found that both autologous and allogeneic responder lymphocytes incorporated high amounts of 3h-thymidine. the incorporation of 3h-thymidine was lower in mlr using as stimulator cells lymphocytes from which the cell line had previously been establi ...19836232780
crystalline inclusions in erythrocytes parasitized with babesia equi following treatment of ponies with imidocarb.four splenectomized welsh ponies were infected with babesia equi. two ponies were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, and two were not treated. by light microscopic examination, 1% to 2% of the parasitized erythrocytes of treated ponies contained crystalline inclusions. the crystals were rectangular, diamond, or burr shaped. they occupied most of the erythrocytic cytoplasm, and, as a result, the remainder of the pale staining cytoplasm was inconspicuous in wright-giemsa-stained blood smears. th ...19806255836
use of schizont and piroplasm antigens of babesia equi in the indirect fluorescent antibody and complement fixation tests.eight ponies infected with babesia equi were investigated for their serological response to b. equi schizont and piroplasm antigen with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and complement fixation test (cft). piroplasm antigen was prepared from an infected splenectomized pony, while schizont antigen was produced from cultured lymphoid cells which contained b. equi macroschizonts. the ifat detected a rise in antibody titres to schizont antigen as well as to piroplasm antigen, but differe ...19836351413
the effect of halofuginone, wellcome 993 c, oxytetracycline, and diminazene diaceturate on babesia equi-infected lymphoblastoid cell cultures.the efficacy of halofuginone (dl-trans-7-bromo-6-chloro-3,3-(3-hydroxy-2-piperidyl) acetonyl-4-(3h) quinazolinone), wellcome 993 c (2-hydroxy-3-cyclohexyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and oxytetracycline, all of which have been shown to have a schizonticidal effect in the treatment of bovine theileriosis, and the babesicidal drug diminazene diaceturate, were tested against the schizont stages of babesia equi in cell culture. the in vitro test system measured dna synthesis in treated and untreated cell l ...19846502356
ultrastructural study on the development of babesia equi (coccidia: piroplasmia) in the salivary glands of its vector ticks.the formation of babesia equi sporozoites in the salivary glands of three tick species (hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, h. a. excavatum, rhipicephalus turanicus) was studied by electron microscopy. the development was identical in all three vectors. on the 8th day post repletionem kinetes of b. equi had invaded alveoli of the nymphal salivary glands and were transformed to sporonts bounded by a single membrane. the sporonts were polymorphous bodies each with a highly lobed nucleus and numerous m ...19836631774
fine structure of babesia equi laveran, 1901 within lymphocytes and erythrocytes of horses: an in vivo and in vitro study.the development of babesia equi (piroplasmia) in the vertebrate host was studied by electron microscopy. the tick-borne sporozoites initiated an exoerythrocytic schizogony in lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro. in lymphocyte cultures the schizonts of b. equi lay as fissured bodies directly within the host cell forming numerous cytomeres. these cytomeres were bordered by a single membrane and contained polymorphous nuclei. merozoite differentiation was initiated at several places by protrusions app ...19836827432
a comparison of the complement fixation and immunofluorescent antibody tests in a survey of the prevalence of babesia equi and babesia caballi in horses in the sultanate of oman.the incidence of antibodies to babesia equi and b. caballi in horses in the royal stables of his majesty the sultan of oman was assessed by complement fixation (cf) and immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) tests. two series of samples taken with a 2-year interval, mainly from animals reared in oman, indicated a stable but high prevalence of antibodies. on the 2 occasions 94.6 and 97.7% respectively were positive to b. equi by ifa and 76.8 and 75.0% were positive by cf. for b. caballi the correspondi ...19806989066
establishment of babesia equi-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines. 19827072319
evidence of maternal antibodies to babesia equi and b caballi in foals of seropositive mares. 19827084196
[comparative study of antibody levels and immunoglobulins igm and igg in a babesia equi infection]. 19827159371
complement fixation tests for equine piroplasmosis (babesia equi and b caballi) performed in the uk during 1976 to 1979.the results of complement fixation (cf) test for equine piroplasmosis on sera from horses destined for international movement from great britain and ireland are presented and analysed. no horses born and continuously resident in the british isles were found carrying cf antibodies to either babesia equi or b caballi. positive animals were found to have association with the following countries where known tick vectors occur: spain, portugal, belgium, france, poland, ussr and arabian gulf countries ...19817250098
babesia equi (laveran 1901) 1. development in horses and in lymphocyte culture.the vertebrate development of babesia equi from infected hyalomma marginatum in morocco was investigated in vitro and in vivo. it was demonstrated that the sporozoites of b. equi initiate a phase of exo-erythrocytic schizogony in lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. on the other hand, sporozoites did not invade erythrocytes in vitro. the complete vertebrate life cycle of b. equi was simulated in vitro, from the invasion of lymphocytes by sporozoites, to the development of macro- and microschiz ...19817345686
ultrastructure of babesia equi in ponies treated with imidocarb.four splenectomized ponies were infected with babesia equi. two ponies were not treated, and two were treated with 5 mg of imidocarb/kg of body weight when 20% of their erythrocytes were parasitized. the nucleus of the parasite in erythrocytes from blood smears of nontreated ponies was roundish, deep red-staining, and usually composed two-thirds of the organism. the parasite in erythrocytes from blood smears of treated ponies was swollen and vacuolated except for an area just beneath the plasma ...19807369599
quantitative epidemiological studies on the prevalence of babesiosis in horses in kuwait.racehorses imported into kuwait were tested for serum antibodies to babesia equi and b. caballi by complement fixation (cf) and indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) tests. the prevalence of b. equi was high (77.1% by ifa) whereas that of b. caballi was much lower (11.4%). data for b. equi showed that infection was acquired after about 6 months at risk and that in the following 12 months animals had antibody levels detectable by both cf and ifa tests by 24 months the cf reaction was no longer dete ...19807456126
conserved recombinant antigens of anaplasma marginale and babesia equi for serologic diagnosis.the competitive inhibition elisa (ci-elisa) format overcomes problems associated with antigen purity since the specificity of the ci-elisa depends solely on the monoclonal antibody (mab) used. therefore, the ci-elisa format is well suited for use with recombinant antigens. molecular clones expressing a conserved 19 kda protein of anaplasma marginale and a 34 kda protein of babesia equi were derived and characterized. the 19 kda a. marginale protein, conserved in all recognized anaplasma species, ...19957597796
continuous in vitro cultivation of erythrocytic stages of babesia equi.the protozoan parasite babesia equi, a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis, was continuously cultivated in horse erythrocytes. the parasites were isolated from a carrier horse at a time when no parasite was detected in a thin blood smear. the culture medium consisted of modified medium 199 supplemented with 40% non-heat-inactivated horse serum in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% co2, 2% o2, and 93% n2 at 37 degrees c. parasites were detected after 2 days in culture. when the percentage ...19957624296
epidemiological aspects of equine babesioses in a herd of horses in brazil.epidemiological studies of babesia equi and b. caballi were undertaken in a herd of 120 pastured horses in rio de janeiro, brazil. the area where the horses were held was shown to be highly endemic for both babesia spp., i.e. the prevalence of b. equi antibodies in horses aged 6 months or older ranged from 90.6% to 100% as determined by the immunofluorescence antibody (ifa) test, and the prevalence of b. caballi antibodies as determined by western blot ranged from 59.4% to 65.5%. from the herd, ...19957676590
cloning and expression of two genes from babesia equi merozoites and evaluation of their diagnostic potential.high-titre equine immune sera were used to screen a lambda gt 11 expression library of babesia equi cdna fragments. two cdna clones which did not cross-hybridize to each other were studied. both clones hybridized specifically to dna from b. equi but not to dna from b. caballi, b. divergens or b. ovis. recombinant proteins were expressed as glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins with apparent molecular weights of 40 kda and 75 kda. polyclonal antibodies directed against the 40 kda and 75 ...19957780445
new findings in the development of babesia (theileria) equi (laveran, 1901) in the salivary glands of the vector ticks, hyalomma species.the development of the piroplasm babesia equi was studied by light microscopy in the salivary glands of three different hyalomma species during and after the engorgement of nymphs on experimentally infected horses and after adults had fed on a vertebrate host following ecdysis. the stock of b. equi used was isolated from a horse imported from turkmenistan (cis) in 1991. the findings, being identical in all three hyalomma species, differ with regard to the chronological order of the development s ...19947855118
liposomal diamidine (imidocarb): preparation and animal studies.diamidine (imidocarb, 3,3'-di-imidasolin-2-yl carbonylide dihydrochloride), a babesicidal drug, was encapsulated in liposomes to reduce the toxicity of the drug and to increase its therapeutic index. liposomes were prepared from the mixture of egg yolk phosphatidyl choline and cholesterol (1:1 molar ratio) by a reverse-phase evaporation technique. liposomes used in the study were of diameter 1.5-2.5 microns and contained 53 mg/ml (0.125 m) of diamidine. animal tests were performed in three anima ...19947884627
identification of antigens diagnostic for european isolates of babesia equi by two-dimensional electrophoresis and western blotting.a lysate of babesia equi-infected erythrocytes (usda strain) was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analysed by western blotting. nine major antigens or antigen groups with mol. wts. ranging from 43 to 19 kda were recognized by sera from horses experimentally infected with the usda strain. four antigens or antigen groups were also recognized by some or all sera from horses infected with b. caballi or not infected with babesia spp. of the remaining five antigens, four were recognize ...19948036229
the development of babesia (theileria) equi (laveran, 1901) in the gut and the haemolymph of the vector ticks, hyalomma species.the development of the piroplasm babesia equi was studied by light microscopy in the gut and the haemolymph of three different hyalomma species during and after the nymphs had engorged on parasitaemic horses. the stock of b. equi used was isolated from a horse imported from turkmenistan (cis) in 1991. the existence of gamogony was identified by the occurrence of gamonts and gametes in the gut contents of the nymphs at between 3 and 4 days after infestation of the nymphs, before the ticks dropped ...19948073015
a babesia equi gene encodes a surface protein with homology to theileria species. 19938114813
babesia equi erythrocytic stage continuously cultured in an enriched medium.babesia equi was continuously cultured through 90 passages in an enriched chemically defined basal medium (hl-1) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and serum replacement factors, including lipid-rich bovine serum albumin, bovine insulin, and human transferrin. cryopreservation and subsequent recovery of b. equi were easily achieved. inoculation of a splenectomized and an intact horse with cultured infected erythrocytes resulted in parasitemias and b. equi in vitro reisolation from both ani ...19948158466
specific immune responses are required to control parasitemia in babesia equi infection.horses possessing a normal immune system and spleen often control infection caused by babesia equi. however, splenectomized horses are unable to control b. equi infection and usually succumb to the infection. to investigate the role of the spleen in the control of b. equi infection in the absence of specific immune responses, two 1-month-old foals with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) and two age-matched normal foals were inoculated with b. equi. the scid foals became febrile seven days p ...19948168957
cultivation and phylogenetic characterization of a newly recognized human pathogenic intraerythrocytic protozoan (wa1) recently isolated from a patient in washington state was shown to be morphologically identical to babesia microti but biologically and genetically distinct. continuous growth of wa1 was established in stationary erythrocyte cultures. hybridization of a chemiluminescent babesia-specific dna probe to southern blots of restriction enzyme-digested genomic dna showed that wa1 could be distinguished from other babesia species that were antigenically cross-reactive ...19948169390
protein characterization of babesia equi piroplasms isolated from infected horse erythrocytes.proteins of babesia equi piroplasms were characterized. the piroplasms of b. equi were purified by lysis of infected horse erythrocytes with n2 gas cavitation followed by separation in percoll density-gradient centrifugation. the relative molecular weights (mr) of major proteins separated by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were 18, 28, 30, 41, 43, 54, 66.5, and 96 kda. immunoblot analysis using serum from an experimentally infected horse revealed six imm ...19938295900
advances in the diagnosis of some parasitic diseases by monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.advances in diagnostic assays for parasitic diseases include the use of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) in antigen capture and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-elisa). antigen capture elisas for anaplasma marginale and cryptosporidium parvum provide direct detection of these parasites during clinical disease, and the c-elisa format has been adapted for detection of anti-babesia equi, anti-a. marginale and anti-bluetongue virus antibodies. false-positive results may occur ...19938400383
equine piroplasmosis an update on diagnosis, treatment and prevention.two haemoprotozoan parasites, babesia caballi and babesia equi, can cause equine piroplasmosis. due to the presence of potential tick vectors in areas so far unaffected by equine babesias, import and export regulations often require the serum testing of animals for evidence of infection. although the complement fixation test (cft) has been recommended for detecting the presence of antibodies to babesia spp., it has been demonstrated to have several disadvantages, including false-positive results ...19968680838
case report: field-acquired subclinical babesia equi infection confirmed by in vitro culture.a horse with no prior clinical history of equine piroplasmosis tested negative for babesia caballi and babesia equi in the complement fixation test before importation into the united states from france. after 5 years in residence in the united states, the animal tested serologically positive for b. equi by the complement fixation test, the immunofluorescent antibody test, and western blot analysis. the carrier status of the horse was confirmed by culture of b. equi parasites. in vitro culture of ...19979003619
monoclonal antibodies against babesia caballi and babesia equi and their application in serodiagnosis.the production of monoclonal antibodies to the bloodstages of the haemoprotozoan parasites babesia caballi and babesia equi and the characterization of their corresponding antigens are described. species specific and immunogenic proteins of both parasites were identified using sds-page, western blotting and elisa. these proteins were then electroeluted from sds-page gels and used to immunize balb/c mice for hybridoma production. one monoclonal antibody (mab), designated bc5.37.70.27 (bc5), recog ...19979066047
equine babesiosis associated with strenuous exercise: clinical and pathological studies in jordan.clinical, haematological and pathological studies were undertaken in jordan in a stud of 103 racing horses clinically suffering from babesiosis and apparently healthy animals. out of 47 horses which participated in strenuous exercise, three mares showed sudden onset of immobility and reluctance to move and two mares died. clinical examination revealed that these five horses (group 1) had fever, anorexia, weakness and severe icterus and, in two mares, haemoglobinuria. haematological examination r ...19979187024
serodiagnosis of babesia equi infection--a comparison of dot-elisa, complement fixation test and capillary tube agglutination test.the present study aimed to develop dot-elisa, complement fixation test (cft) and capillary tube agglutination test (cat) for serodiagnosis of babesia equi infection and to compare their sensitivity with each other. for this study, sequential serum samples were collected from four donkeys experimentally infected with b. equi up to 90 days post infection (p.i.). b. equi antigen was prepared from the blood of a donkey showing more than 80% parasitaemia. dot-elisa, cf and ca tests were standardized ...19979195726
in vitro cultivation of babesia equi: detection of carrier animals and isolation of means of an in vitro culture technique, 75 samples of horse blood were examined for babesia equi, a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis. at the time of culture initiation, 15 samples were microscopically positive for b. equi, and this was subsequently confirmed by culture diagnosis. sixty samples showed no parasites in giemsa-stained thin blood smears. however, after the culturing process, parasites were found in blood smears of 36 of these samples. the sensitivity of the in vitro culture ...19979204504
a sero-epidemiological survey of equine piroplasmosis in the northern and eastern cape provinces of south africa.serum samples from yearling thoroughbred horses (n = 176) in the magisterial districts of colesberg, venterstad, and wodehouse in the northern and eastern cape provinces were collected between september and november 1995 to determine the prevalence of antibodies to babesia equi and babesia caballi in these regions. samples were examined for specific antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. the 95% confidence intervals for the prevalence of serum antibodies in the 3 districts comb ...19969284032
prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in central mongolia.antigen for the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was routinely prepared from infected erythrocytes from horses experimentally infected with babesia equi and babesia caballi. with the successful establishment of in vitro cultures of b. equi and b. caballi, it is now possible to employ culture-derived antigens in this test. in this study, in vitro-propagated b. equi- and b. caballi-infected erythrocytes were used as antigen in the ifat. various modifications to an established protocol had ...19979352563
ultrastructure of sporogony in babesia equi in salivary glands of adult female boophilus microplus ticks.the development of babesia equi was studied in the salivary glands of adult female ticks, boophilus microplus, using a transmission electron microscope (tem). engorged nymphs were obtained from splenectomized foals experimentally infected with b. equi and fed in the adult phase for 5 days on rabbits. sporogony in b. equi involves the development of sporoblasts and sporozoites, which form from finger-like projections on the surface and through radial budding. mature sporozoites (2.0 x 1.1 microns ...19989491430
genetic and biochemical analysis of erythrocyte-stage surface antigens belonging to a family of highly conserved proteins of babesia equi and theileria species.erythrocyte-stage babesia equi expresses a 34-kda immunodominant antigen recognized by antibody from persistently infected horses worldwide. this erythrocyte-stage surface protein, equi merozoite antigen-1 (ema-1) is encoded by a single copy gene, and was previously shown to share 33% amino acid identity with similar sized proteins of theileria sergenti and t. buffeli. a mean homology of 31% amino acid identity extends to similar sized proteins of t. parva, t. annulata and t. mutans. genomic and ...19979497033
babesiosis in china.the importance of babesiosis in livestock in china is discussed and mainly focused on bovine and equine babesiosis. babesiosis is still one of the most important diseases affecting livestock and has caused great economic loss. nine species of babesia have been recognized in livestock: b. bigemina, b. bovis, b. major, b. motasi, b. ovis, b. perroncitoi, b. trautmanni, b. equi (theileria equi), b. caballi. the distribution of babesia follows the distribution of the tick vectors. the main vectors o ...19979512738
sporogony and experimental transmission of babesia equi by boophilus microplus.the development of babesia equi in salivary glands of adult female boophilus microplus was observed under a light microscope using semithin sections stained with toluidine blue. engorged nymphs were obtained from splenectomized foals experimentally infected with b. equi. as adults, they were then fed on rabbits for 5 days and the salivary glands of manually collected individuals were removed at intervals of 24 h. sporozoites were found in type iii granular acini cells between the 2nd and 5th day ...19989580425
identification of b cell epitopes of a 30 kda babesia equi merozoite surface protein.a 30 kda immunodominant surface antigen (p30) of babesia equi has been used as a diagnostic antigen. the b cell epitopes on this molecule recognized by horse sera and monoclonal antibody (mab) against p30, 36/133.97, were determined. a synthetic peptide of p30 with amino acid sequence of 123fyqevlfkgfeav135 exhibited strong positive reaction with the infected horse sera. in contrast, mab 36/133.97 recognized different region of p30, as peptide synthesized with amino acid sequence of 27asgavvdfql ...19989637288
seroprevalence of babesia equi among horses in israel using competitive inhibition elisa and ifa assays.sera from 361 horses were tested by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifa) and by competitive inhibition elisa (celisa), to detect antibodies to babesia equi. the concordance between the assays was 95.7%. application of a cutoff based on a calculated percent inhibition of < 20% gave a total of 22 discrepant results, while only 8 sera negative by the celisa were found positive by the ifa when a cutoff of > 20% inhibition was used. approximately one-third of all the horses tested were fou ...19989650862
monoclonal antibody against babesia equi: characterization and potential application of antigen for serodiagnosis.monoclonal antibody (mab) beg3 was produced against babesia equi parasites to define a species-specific antigen for diagnostic use. the mab reacted with single, paired, and maltese cross forms of b. equi, and no reaction was observed with this mab on acetone-fixed babesia caballi, babesia ovata, or babesia microti parasites in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. confocal laser and immunoelectron microscopic studies showed that the antigen which was recognized by this mab was located on ...19989650921
redescription of babesia equi laveran, 1901 as theileria equi mehlhorn, schein 1998.the horse-parasitizing species babesia equi laveran, 1901 was redescribed as theileria equi mehlhorn, schein 1998 and, thus, transferred from one valid genus to another. this transfer was needed since it turned out that this horse parasite showed the relevant characteristics of theilerians with regard to biological data, morphological features, biochemical properties, and molecular biological relationships.19989660136
babesia equi field isolates cultured from horse blood using a microcentrifuge method.babesia equi, a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis, was isolated from horses in the chaco province of argentina, a known piroplasmosis endemic region. fifteen b. equi field isolates were acquired by culture from 23 actively working horses from 2 ranches. the horses appeared healthy with no clinical signs or histories indicative of equine piroplasmosis. all 23 horses had b. equi-specific antibody activity by the indirect fluorescent antibody test and 18 were also complement fixation test pos ...19989714196
phylogenetic analysis of theileria and babesia equi in relation to the establishment of parasite populations within novel host species and the development of diagnostic tests.the divergence of parasites is important for maintenance within an established host and spread to novel host species. in this paper we have carried out phylogenetic analyses of theileria parasites isolated from different host species. this was performed with small subunit ribosomal rna sequences available in the data bases and a novel sequence amplified from theileria lestoquardi dna. similar phylogenetic studies were carried out with sequences representing the major merozoite/piroplasm surface ...19989763287
expression of murine early embryonic antigens, ssea-1 and antigenic determinant of ema-1, in embryos and ovarian follicles of a teleost medaka (oryzias latipes).stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (ssea-1) and the antigenic determinant of monoclonal antibody ema-1 are expressed in a stage-specific manner in mouse early embryos. to study whether these antigens generally exist in fish, expression of the antigens was examined in embryos, ovarian follicles, and adult tissues of a teleost medaka (oryzias latipes), using immunohistochemical techniques. in 1-cell-stage embryos, these carbohydrate antigens were found in numerous cytoplasmic granules in the blast ...199910400391
molecular detection of babesia equi and babesia caballi in horse blood by pcr amplification of part of the 16s rrna gene.babesia equi and babesia caballi are tick-borne haemoparasites that may cause babesiosis of equidae. in southern europe b. equi is enzootic and infections may occur asymptomatically and more frequently than those due to b. caballi. complement fixation test (cft) is the official serological test for the diagnosis of equine babesiosis, but it has low sensitivity during early and latent stages of the disease. with the aim of developing more sensitive and rapid direct diagnostic alternatives, pcr sy ...199910435792
seroepidemiologic studies on babesia equi and babesia caballi infections in brazil.horses from six stud farms representing the most frequent types of horse breeding in brazil were tested for babesia antibodies by the ifa test. the farms are located at the tropic of capricorn at an altitude of 472-715 m where temperatures below 0 degrees c may occur. horses of conventional stud farms were infested with dermacentor nitens, amblyomma cajennense, and boophilus microplus. infestation with bo. microplus was associated with direct or indirect contact of horses with cattle, and was no ...199910447188
control of equine piroplasmosis in brazil.the importance of equine piroplasmosis control in endemic countries has increased in recent years and plays an important role to maintain the international market open to the horse industry. the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (babesia equi or theileria equi and babesia caballi) in brazil--a country where the disease occurs endemically--in different climatic conditions, and to evaluate the results of a strategy for tick control in order to decrease ...199910486829
erythrocyte associated haemato-biochemical changes in babesia equi infection experimentally produced in donkeys.equine babesiosis, caused by babesia equi and transmitted by ticks is of major economic importance in india. the adverse effects which b. equi organism and its metabolites inflict on red blood cells have not been reported. erythrocytes were analysed for red cell membrane phospholipids, proteins and haemoglobin (hb) concentration and plasma for malondialdehyde (mda) in b. equi carrier donkeys before splenectomy (< 1% parasitaemia) and after splenectomy at 1-5, 5-15, 15-50 and >50% parasitaemia. b ...199910488734
purification of a 28 kda babesia (theileria) equi antigen and a 29 kda spurious erythrocyte antigen from in vitro culture through ion exchange extract of in vitro cultivated babesia equi was fractionated using a monoq anion exchange column. separation of a 28 kda b. equi antigen from a 29 kda spurious erythrocyte antigen, both of which were intensely immunoreactive, was achieved by chromatography of the infected erythrocyte proteins. using tricine-sds-page, the 28 kda antigen of b. equi showed multiple band resolution, while the 29 kda antigen was consistently resolved as a single band. the 29 kda antigen was identified in both infe ...199910489204
epidemiological aspects of babesia equi in horses in minas gerais, brazil.the prevalence of babesia equi in two climatic regions of minas gerais state was determined using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) with blood samples obtained from horses in two slaughterhouses. of 399 samples, 241 (60.4%) showed a positive reaction. anti-b. equi antibody was detected in every county studied, the prevalence being 59.7% for horses in the area where the temperature rises above 18 degrees c in winter and 61.4% in the area where it remains below 18 degrees c, indicating ...199910543367
inhibitory effect of monoclonal antibodies on the growth of babesia caballi.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against babesia caballi (usda strain) to define a species-specific antigen for use in diagnosis and vaccine development. eight positive clones of b. caballi mabs determined by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test were selected for purification and further characterisation. confocal laser microscopy showed that the antigens recognised by the mabs were located on the surface/cytoplasm, central part, and/or anterior end of b. caballi parasites, with fi ...199910616924
expression of babesia equi merozoite antigen-2 by recombinant baculovirus and its use in the this study, the gene encoding babesia equi merozoite antigen-2 was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, and a recombinant virus expressing b. equi merozoite antigen-2 was isolated. two b. equi merozoite antigen-2-related recombinant baculovirus-expressed peptides of 25 and 30 kda were detected with a murine anti serum against b. equi merozoite antigen-2; these corresponded to the native b. equi merozoite antigen-2 and were secreted into the supernatants of insect cell cultures. recomb ...199910616926
procedurally similar competitive immunoassay systems for the serodiagnosis of babesia equi, babesia caballi, trypanosoma equiperdum, and burkholderia mallei infection in horses.procedurally similar competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (celisa) methods were developed for the serodiagnosis of babesia equi and babesia caballi (piroplasmosis), trypanosoma equiperdum (dourine), and burkholderia mallei (glanders) infections in horses. apparent test specificities for the b. equi, b. caballi, t. equiperdum, and b. mallei celisas were 99.2%, 99.5%, 98.9%, and 98.9%, respectively. concordances and kappa values between the complement fixation (cf) and the celisa procedures for t ...200010690775
detection of a new pathogenic babesia microti-like species in dogs.small babesiae in dogs are generally considered to belong to babesia gibsoni. here we describe the genotypic characterisation of small piroplasms found in the blood of a dog which suffered from clinical babesiosis. pairwise identities as well as distance, parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the 18s rdna clearly demonstrated that this isolate was only distantly related to the other canine piroplasms characterised genetically so far, including b. gibsoni. it was more closely related to b. ...200010760414
detection of babesia caballi infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant 48-kda merozoite rhoptry protein.the 48-kda babesia caballi merozoite rhoptry protein was expressed using a pgex4t expression vector in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase fusion protein (gst-bc48), and the expressed gst-bc48 was used in an elisa to detect specific antibodies in serum samples. no cross-reaction was observed with sera from horses experimentally infected with babesia equi. gst-bc48 elisa was a highly sensitive and specific test when compared with the cft. a total of 209 horse sera obtained from central ...200010779577
the beta-tubulin gene of babesia and theileria parasites is an informative marker for species discrimination.a fragment of the beta-tubulin gene was polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified from genomic dnas of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens, babesia major, babesia caballi, babesia equi, babesia microti, theileria annulata and theileria sergenti. single amplification products were obtained for each of these species, but the size of the amplicons varied from 310 to 460 bp. sequence analysis revealed that this variation is due to the presence of a single intron, which ranged from 20 ...200011027785
expression of babesia equi merozoite antigen 1 in insect cells by recombinant baculovirus and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the gene encoding the entire babesia equi merozoite antigen 1 (ema-1) was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, and a recombinant virus expressing ema-1 was isolated. the expressed ema-1 was transported to the surface of infected insect cells, as judged by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test (ifat). the expressed ema-1 was also secreted into the supernatant of a cell culture infected with recombinant baculovirus. both intracellular and extracellular ema-1 reacted with a specific antibod ...200111158131
detection of babesia caballi and babesia equi in dermacentor nuttalli adult ticks.ticks play an important role in human and veterinary medicine particularly due to their ability to transmit protozoan pathogens. in this study we have demonstrated that polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and nested pcr methods enabled detection of babesia caballi and babesia equi in field isolates of dermacentor nuttalli adult ticks from mongolia. primers specific for 218 bp fragment merozoite antigen 1 (ema-1) gene of b. equi successfully amplified products from all samples of d. nuttalli adult ti ...200111306116
detection of antibodies to babesia equi in horses by a latex agglutination test using recombinant ema-1.a latex agglutination test (lat) using recombinant equi merozoite antigen 1 (ema-1) for the detection of antibodies to babesia equi was developed. the lat was able to differentiate very clearly between sera from b. equi-infected horses and sera from babesia caballi-infected horses or from normal horses. the lat results were identical to those of a previously developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. these results indicate that lat using recombinant ema-1 might be very useful as a routine scre ...200111329474
the 18 kda antigen of theileria equi is a specific but less abundant protein also expressed by parasites cultured in vitro.a universally applicable test has not yet been developed for the reliable diagnosis of equine theileriosis, mainly because of the paucity of specific antigens and antigenic variation between different isolates. in this study, we used theileria equi parasites cultured in vitro to identify potential diagnostic antigens. using preparative isoelectric focusing to resolve the proteins in a lysate of infected erythrocytes, we identified an 18 kda component of the parasite as a specific but poorly expr ...200111334146
validation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosing babesia equi infections of moroccan origin and its use in determining the seroprevalence of b. equi in morocco.a highly specific and sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of specific antibody to babesia equi in serum from equids was validated for use in morocco. the assay is based on the specific inhibition of binding of a monoclonal antibody to a conserved epitope within a recombinant parasite peptide by serum from infected animals. the assay was compared to an established indirect immunofluorescence assay, with a concordance of 91%. the assay was used to determine seropr ...200111482604
detection of babesia equi (laveran, 1901) by nested polymerase chain reaction.we describe a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of babesia equi in equine infected erythrocytes using oligonucleotides designed on the published sequence of a b. equi merozoite antigen gene (ema-1). a 102bp dna fragment is specifically amplified from b. equi but not from babesia caballi, babesia bovis or babesia bigemina dna. in a mock infection we were able to detect down to six infected cells in 10(8) equine erythrocytes or to detect the parasite in blood with an equival ...200111587829
the role of international transport of equine semen on disease transmission.despite the numerous benefits of having the capability to transport semen internationally, there are serious potential ramifications if that semen is contaminated with a communicable disease. bacteria: many commensal bacteria colonize the exterior of the stallion penis and are not regarded as pathogenic. they may be cultured from an ejaculate. alterations of the normal bacterial flora on the exterior genitalia may cause the growth of opportunistic bacteria such as klebsiella pneumonia, pseudomon ...200111744267
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