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metabolic and electrolyte disturbances in acute canine babesiosis.arterial blood ph, pco2, bicarbonate, base excess/deficit, and lactate, as well as serum sodium, potassium, and chloride were measured in clinically normal dogs and in dogs with acute canine babesiosis. metabolic acidosis developed in dogs with fatal as well as nonfatal babesia canis infection. in the fatal group, the acidosis was uncompensated; among survivors, base deficit and blood lactate were significantly lower, and ph, pco2, and bicarbonate values were significantly higher. serum potassiu ...197940948
electron microscopical studies on the development of babesia canis (sporozoa) in the salivary glands of the vector tick dermacentor reticulatus.the formation of sporozoites of babesia canis was studied by light- and electron microscopy in the salivary gland cells of adult female ticks from the 2nd day after attachment until 1 day after detachment. it was found that this process was initiated by the binary division of kinetes that had already entered or entered during the period examined. during division the kinetes (15 x 2.5 microns) lost their typical organelles, reduced their three-layered pellicle to a single membrane and became sphe ...197943086
[experimental transmission of canine babesiosis (babesia canis) by native german ticks: 1. the brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) (author's transl)]. 1979374029
disseminated intravascular coagulation: a complication of babesia canis infection in the dog.disseminated intravascular coagulation is described as a complication of babesia canis infection in the dog. b. canis infection in the dog is characterized as a mild (uncomplicated) or severe (complicated) disease. the clinical, coagulation and haematological, pathological and histopathological findings of the severe disease are described. thrombocytopenia is reported as occurring in both the mild and severe forms of b. canis infection in the dog.1979553964
therapeutic implications of babesia canis infection in dogs.the therapeutic regime used in the treatment of dogs with babesia canis infection differed between dogs with mild (uncomplicated) and severe (complicated) disease. in addition to the treatment given to dogs with mild disease, the dogs with severe disease received intravenous fluids, heparin and blood transfusion together with other supportive measures. mortalities occurred only in the group with severe disease and were attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation.1979553976
[vegetation analysis and detection of periurban focus of canine piroplasmosis due to babesia canis in rhône-alpes area; ecological basis for map-making].dog piroplasmosis is actually expanding at the periphery of the big cities of the rhone-alpes area. the authors present the basis of an epidemiological study and insist upon the interest of vegetation analysis in the detection of the contamination sites.1976821654
babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia canis, babesia microti and babesia rodhaini: comparison of ribosomal rna gene organization.the three ribosomal dna (rdna) units have been cloned from an australian isolate of babesia bigemina. the organization of the units is very similar to that reported for a mexican isolate of b. bigemina. in babesia canis four rdna units have been identified. both babesia rodhaini and babesia microti contain two different rdna units. a small number of different rdna units appears to be a common feature of this group of protozoa. restriction enzyme analysis of the rdna units form these species and ...19921428519
the effect of endogenously produced carbon monoxide on the oxygen status of dogs infected with babesia canis.carboxyhaemoglobin fractions were found to be significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in dogs (n = 5) with severe babesiosis than in control subjects (n = 5). the enzymatic conversion of haem to biliverdin by haem oxygenase is the only known source of endogenous carbon monoxide. we propose that the increased production of endogenous carbon monoxide following the haemolysis associated with babesiosis, results in the carboxyhaemoglobinaemia observed in this study. the superimposition of carboxyhae ...19911770488
[babesiosis of dogs in germany: epidemiologic case analysis].between january 1987 and february 1990 babesia infections were detected in 320 dogs in germany by means of microscopical and/or serological methods. it was found, that 316 dogs were infected with babesia canis and 4 animals with babesia gibsoni. of the babesia-canis-positive dogs 184 were abroad up to 4 months before diagnosis, mainly in france, spain and italy, but also in hungary, greece, jugoslavia, portugal, morocco, togo, pakistan, sri lanka, malaysia, turkey, romania, austria and the nethe ...19912068714
characterization and purification of culture-derived soluble glycoproteins of babesia canis.the addition of [14c]-glucosamine to media of babesia canis cultures causes the appearance of labeled glycoproteins in the culture supernatants. these radioactive soluble glycoproteins were separated according to their molecular weight by gel filtration and according to their (acidic) pi by preparative electrofocusing. the labeled fractions were then analyzed by sds-page (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). the results showed three series of glycoproteic antigens. the mol ...19902217119
prevalence of antibodies against babesia canis in dogs in an endemic area.a survey of 287 dogs for antibodies against babesia canis in dogs in an endemic area, using elisa, produced a prevalence of 43 per cent. antibodies occurred in dogs of all age groups, the prevalence being significantly lower in dogs aged 1 to 6 months than in older dogs. there were no differences between indigenous nigerian dogs and exotic (foreign) dogs; and between the sexes in the prevalence of antibodies. antibodies were more prevalent in dogs with b. canis parasitaemia and in those with a h ...19892626574
three groups of babesia canis distinguished and a proposal for nomenclature.two stocks of large babesia from dogs originating in france, transmitted by dermacentor reticulatus, two from north africa, having rhipicephalus sanguineus as vector, and one from south africa, transmitted by haemaphysalis leachi, were compared in cross-immunity tests in dogs and in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). the french and north african stocks did not immunise against the south african one, while the north african stocks did not protect against a french one. the south africa ...19892655263
antibody titres in naturally occurring babesia canis infections in dogs. 19863589064
parasites of stray dogs in the rabat region, morocco.eighteen parasites were identified from 57 stray dogs from the urban and rural areas of rabat. the prevalence of the species of parasites was: ctenocephalides (c. canis, c. felis) 94.7%, rhipicephalus sanguineus 68.5%, linguatula serrata, babesia canis, isospora canis each 3.5%, toxocara canis 7%, dirofilaria immitis, taenia hydatigena, t. pisiformis each 12.3%, dipetalonema dracunculoides 10.5%, ancylostoma caninum 17.5% echinococcus granulosus 22.8%, toxascaris leonina 33.3%, dipylidium caninu ...19873675044
resistance and immunity of dogs against babesia canis in an endemic area.canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence in some areas in france and is now a major problem for dogs. sex and age do not have any influence on the animals' susceptibility to the disease. some breeds are more resistant (beagle, fox terrier, porcelain, teckel, mongrel dogs) and others are more susceptible (spaniel, cocker, griffon, yorkshire terrier, doberman, pekinese); however, none of them is completely resistant. dogs which live in endemic areas can synthesize antibodies aga ...19863705420
[autochthonous babesiosis in dogs in the netherlands?].for the first time cases of babesiosis have been diagnosed in dogs that had not been abroad. three cases were seen in the province of gelderland (bennekom, elspeet), two in north-holland (koog aan de zaan). a female dermacentor reticulatus tick, the main vector of the disease in europe, was found on one of the dogs at koog; previously specimens of this tick species had only occasionally been seen on dogs returning from abroad. serological evidence was obtained that in at least four of the cases ...19853975891
babesia canis: the life cycle and laboratory maintenance in its arthropod and mammalian hosts. 19734196317
phagocytosis of babesia canis by neutrophils in peripheral circulation. 19744364460
[immunity and serological reactions against babesia canis in dogs after infection with living parasites and after immunization with a soluble antigen]. 19664969377
[comparative studies on the fine structure of babesia gibsoni and babesia canis]. 19684976227
babesia canis and babesia gibsoni: soluble and corpuscular antigens isolated from blood of dogs. 19715003033
the isolation of haemobartonella canis in association with babesia canis in a splenectomised dog. 19715103867
evaluation of methods used to detect babesia canis infections in dogs. 19665959505
[the treatment of babesia canis infection with berenil]. 19665991052
[incidence of canine piroplasmosis (babesia canis) in new caledonia]. 19836665270
babesiosis in the greyhound.babesiosis was diagnosed in five 11- to 18-day old greyhound pups. in 3 pups, babesia canis organisms were identified by examination of a wright's-giemsa-stained smear of blood. in 2 pups, the diagnosis was established by examination of a splenic impression smear obtained at necropsy. findings in the 3 clinical cases included depression, weakness, anorexia, pallor, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. subcutaneous administration of diminazene aceturate resulted in rapid clinical recovery in these cases ...19836853321
fine structure of supposed gametes and syngamy of babesia canis (piroplasmea) after in-vitro development. 19817198358
[endoparasite infection in stray and abandoned dogs in southern switzerland].at their entry into the animal domicile, "la stampa", in lugano (canton tessin), 217 stray dogs and 154 unwanted dogs were examined for infections with intestinal parasites, filariae, babesia and leishmania. the following techniques were used for detection of intestinal parasites: combined sedimentation-flotation, mifc technique and scotch tape adherence test. prevalences of helminth egg excretion in stray dogs and in unwanted dogs, respectively, were as follows: 34% and 22% for trichuris, 17% a ...19957569839
cerebellar ataxia as a possible complication of babesiosis in two dogs.a 6-month-old miniature doberman pinscher was presented with inappetance and cerebellar signs. babesia canis organisms were found on a capillary bloodsmear. the cerebellar signs resolved rapidly following treatment with diminazene aceturate. a 7-month-old siberian husky developed cerebellar signs, blindness and quadriparesis 9 d after presentation with clinical signs typical of uncomplicated canine babesiosis. the dog responded favourably to treatment with prednisolone. both acute and delayed ce ...19947595921
the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis: new approaches to an old puzzle.the haemoprotozoan parasite, babesia canis, is the cause of an economically important and potentially life-threatening disease of dogs in south africa, the pathophysiology of which is incompletely understood. available literature is reviewed, with emphasis on the pathophysiology of the anaemia and complications of babesiosis. the remainder of the review explores the possibility that pathophysiological mechanisms currently being investigated in human malaria and bovine babesiosis (in which, as in ...19947595923
vaccine development from a commercial point of view.the development of a commercial vaccine comprises distinct stages. initiation of a research project is triggered by demands from the market. if commercial and technical requirements are met, a feasibility study is carried out. research is started, and aimed at formulating the product profile (what the product looks like). the product profile is subject to requirements set by the market (e.g. whether the product will fit into existing vaccination schedules) and very often technical aspects affect ...19957597789
an investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in the kruger national park.many factors have been cited as possible reasons for the decline in the number of wild dogs (lycaon pictus), but few studies have provided supportive data. between 1990 and 1993, the dynamics of 10 wild dog packs in the southern district of the kruger national park in south africa were monitored. casual observations of the causes of disease and mortality in the entire population were also recorded. during the same period, 46 wild dogs were immobilised, weighed, and subjected to physical examinat ...19957629782
a comparison of the efficacy of isometamidium, amicarbalide and diminazene against babesia canis in dogs and the effect on subsequent immunity.isometamidium, amicarbalide and diminazene were used to treat experimentally induced canine babesiosis. relapse parasitaemias developed after treatment in all groups of animals. the relapse interval, however, was shorter and more relapses occurred after treatment with amicarbalide than either of the other 2 drugs. only half of the dogs treated with either isometamidium or diminazene relapsed to infection. challenge with homologous parasites 62 days after initial infection resulted in severe babe ...19836631891
the mechanism of denucleation in circulating erythroblasts.erythroblast denucleation in the peripheral blood was studied by electron microscopy. blood was used from dogs anemic either by infection with babesia canis or from injections of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride. one of the earliest stages of denucleation was the migration of nuclei to the plasmalemma. mitochondria and coalesced vesicles, derived from the cell membrane of the erythroblast, congregated at the underside of the nuclear envelope unapposed by erythroblastic cell membrane. the coalesced ...19676061718
[babesia infections in horses, cattle and dogs in southern germany].babesia infections serologically diagnosed in horses, cattle and dogs in southern germany during the last few years are described. 321 sera of horses were examined for specific antibodies to babesia by means of cft and iif in 1984; 18 sera reacted to babesia equi and 4 to babesia caballi antigen. in a cattle breeding area in the western allgäu 13% of 1616 cattle reacted positive to babesia divergens antigen using iif and elisa; during the grazing season 1982 new latent infections were observed i ...19853892774
hypotensive shock syndrome associated with acute babesia canis infection in a dog.a doberman pinscher contracted babesiosis after receiving a fresh blood transfusion from a greyhound blood donor. hypotensive shock syndrome was suspected on the basis of arterial hypotension, weakness, and pyrexia in the absence of detectable hemolysis and within hours of detection of low numbers of circulating babesia canis organisms. treatment with imidocarb dipropionate appears to have been effective in eliminating circulating b canis organisms and clinical disease. the blood donor, recently ...19948125828
the effect of babesia canis induced haemolysis on the canine haemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve.samples of blood from normal healthy (n = 7) and babesia canis-infected dogs (n = 7) were subjected to varying oxygen tensions in a tonometer, after which the samples were subjected to blood gas analysis and haemoximetry. this data was used to plot haemoglobin oxygen dissociation curves (odc) for both groups of dogs. states of acidosis and hypercapnia were then simulated by modelling, and the response of the 2 haemoglobin oxygen dissociation curves compared. the odc of the b. canis-infected grou ...19938176690
infections with babesia canis and ehrlichia canis in dogs in zimbabwe.of 105 dogs examined at a veterinary hospital in harare, zimbabwe, 52 per cent had antibodies reactive with ehrlichia canis in indirect fluorescent antibody tests, 26 per cent had babesia canis parasites in peripheral blood smears and 17 per cent had both infections. none of the dogs with serological evidence of ehrlichiosis had typical e canis morulae detectable in blood smears. the infections were regarded as incidental findings not readily related to the reasons for examination in 46 per cent ...19938236678
permeability of membrane of babesia canis infected erythrocytes--influence of an external electric field.the erythrocytes infection by a parasite (babesia canis) induced a modification of the biological membrane which was studied using the effect of electric pulses of short duration. this process induces the formation of pores and during the opening hemoglobin and other cytoplasmic proteins diffuse out of the cells and are recovered in the external medium. the rate of molecular permeation across the electrically perforated membranes depends on several factors: electric-field strength, pulses number ...19863817275
babesia canis: evidence for genetic diversity among isolates revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.the genetic diversity of b. canis was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. for this purpose, we identified a babesia canis specific dna probe named ps8. this 1.2 kbp probe can detect as low as 20 pg of b. canis dna. results suggest that the ps8 probe is distributed in multiple copies throughout the genome though is probably not itself internally repetitious, i.e. not structured into blocks of tandem units. this probe reveals discrete hybridizing fragments in b. cani ...19958533020
antibody activity to babesia canis in dogs in north carolina.sera from 600 dogs from 6 geographic regions of north carolina were analyzed for antibody activity to babesia canis, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. overall, 3.8% of the dogs had an antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80, which was considered to be indicative of infection. dogs were more likely to be seropositive if they were housed at humane facilities and were located within areas of the state with a milder climate than were pet animals living within colder regions of north ...19873551697
characterization and comparison of merozoite antigens of different babesia canis isolates by serological and immunological investigations.merozoites of four babesia canis isolates from hungary, france, africa, and egypt were purified. antigens were compared in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and by immunoblotting. in the elisa, antigen from the highly pathogenic isolate from hungary showed the highest sensitivity for homologous and heterologous immune sera. this was confirmed by immunoblotting. protein bands of the hungarian isolate were strongly recognized by all b. canis immune sera, whereas the antigens from the ot ...19958570577
sterilisation of babesia canis infections by imidocarb alone or in combination with diminazene.babesia canis infections were apparently sterilised by a single dose of imidocarb at 7.5 mg kg-1, as well as by a single dose of diminazene at 3.5 mg kg-1, followed by a single dose of imidocarb at 6 mg kg-1 the following day. this was confirmed by subinoculation of blood from these dogs to splenectomised recipients. sterilisation of the infection is not recommended in endemic areas; a more rational approach would be to allow a state of premunity to develop in dogs at risk to repeated infections ...19958596187
ixodid ticks collected at the faculty of veterinary science, onderstepoort, from dogs diagnosed with babesia canis infection.in an attempt to identify the vectors of babesia canis, ticks were collected over a period of 3 years from a total of 395 dogs diagnosed as infected with this protozoan parasite at the veterinary faculty, onderstepoort. haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick species recovered from 164 of these dogs, and it occurred in mixed infestation on a further 140 of the dogs. rhipicephalus sanguineus was collected in pure infestation from 59 dogs with a further 87 harbouring mixed infestations. sixteen dog ...19958596189
leukaemoid response in two dogs with babesia canis infection.uncomplicated canine babesiosis was diagnosed in 2 dogs based on the presence of trophozoites of babesia canis in red blood cells on examination of a peripheral blood smear. the haemogram picture was that of a leukaemoid response with severe anaemia, high total white cell count and thrombocytopaenia. treatment with babesiacidal drugs, together with blood transfusion, was successful in eliminating the babesia parasites and reducing the leukaemoid response. the various leukograms of canine babesio ...19958596192
development of dot-enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of canine babesiosis.a reagent conservative dot-enzyme immunoassay (dot-eia) was developed primarily for canine babesiosis caused by babesia canis. the technique is simple, specific, and sensitive. all steps were carried out at room temperature. strong agreement was observed between dot-eia and the conventionally used indirect immunofluorescence test. the procedure is adaptable to other protozoal disease, e.g., bovine babesiosis and human malaria.19873544891
temperature and external electric field influence in membrane permeability of babesia infected erythrocytes.1. modification of erythrocyte membrane properties infected by babesia canis was studied using the effect of electric pulses of short duration. 2. this process induces the formation of pores in the membrane and the releasing of hemoglobin and other cytoplasmic proteins into the external medium. 3. the rate of molecular permeation across the electrically perforated membranes depends on several factors: electric-field strength, pulse number, pulse duration, temperature and cellular concentration. ...19873428479
changes in haematocrit after treatment of uncomplicated canine babesiosis: a comparison between diminazene and trypan blue, and an evaluation of the influence of parasitaemia.it has been suggested that the antibabesial drug diminazene causes a rapid decline in haematocrit after treatment of dogs with high babesia canis parasitaemias, compared with trypan blue. to test this, 19 dogs with clinically mild to moderate, uncomplicated babesiosis were placed in low, moderate or high parasitaemia groups, based on venous parasitaemias, and were allotted randomly to diminazene or trypan blue treatment groups. haematocrit and parasitaemia were determined before treatment, and a ...19968765067
met-haemoglobinuria in naturally occurring babesia canis infection.higher levels of urinary met-haemoglobin were found in dogs with naturally occurring babesia canis infection (n = 6) than in control subjects (n = 5). the urinary haemoglobin in the affected cases ranged from 1 to 4 g/l of which 28-95% was met-haemoglobin. this was a significant finding in that met-haemoglobin has been shown to be nephrotoxic in the dog, especially in the presence of aciduria. acidic urine was also demonstrated in those dogs with b. canis infection, which may aggravate the nephr ...19968765069
[the subspecies specificity of babesia canis].the large babesia species of dogs, babesia canis, is transmitted by different ticks. dermacentor reticulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi are the known main vectors. four b. canis isolates of different geographic origin were investigated for their transmission specificity and pathogenicity in infection trials. r. sanguineus ticks exclusively transmitted the babesia isolate from egypt. d. reticulatus was the vector for isolates from hungary and france. transmission of an sou ...19968765536
[dermacentor ticks in france and germany. molecular biological differences in species, ecology and epidemiological implications].dermacentor reticulatus and d. marginatus, two ixodid tick species occurring in france and germany, exhibit morphologically overlapping phenotypes. the results of sequence analyses of the hypervariable rdna gene region its 2 do not support conspecifidity. as in france, d. reticulatus has to be characterized as an epidemiologically effective vector of babesia canis in germany as well, with the endemic area being located at kehl/offenburg/lahr/emmendingen/freiburg in breisgau. ecological investiga ...19968767177
evaluation of the effect of whole-blood transfusion on the oxygen status and acid-base balance of babesia canis infected dogs using the oxygen status algorithm.the usefulness of whole-blood transfusion in normalising the blood-gas, acid-base, and arterial oxygen status in severe babesiosis was demonstrated in 6 severely affected babesia canis infected dogs. these dogs all demonstrated a metabolic acidosis at admission and yet were not acidaemic. it is possible that this may reflect a mixed acid-base disorder (metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis). they all showed severe hypoxaemia at admission. a number of derived blood-gas and acid-base param ...19968786612
isolation of a south african vector-specific strain of babesia canis.a south african strain of babesia canis parasites was isolated and shown to be vector-specific to only one of the two vectors in the region, haemaphysalis leachi. this tick was found to transmit the parasite in its adult instar. when infected as larvae, the ticks would not transmit in the proceeding nymphal instar. the vector-specific strain was named the 'thomas strain' after one of the dogs involved in isolating it. a survey revealed a prevalence of > 50% of this strain in four widely separate ...19968792576
babesiosis in a litter of pups.babesia canis infection was diagnosed in a litter of seven 3-week-old mastiff pups kept in a north florida kennel. the pups were evaluated because of poor weight gain; the smallest pup also was markedly lethargic. six of the pups were anemic and thrombocytopenic. a positive linear correlation between pcv and absolute reticulocyte count suggested that the variation in pcv may have been related more to the ability of a pup to increase erythrocyte production than to a difference in magnitude of ery ...19883410795
erythrocytic rickettsia and protozoa of the dog and cat.this article summarizes the biologic and clinical features of the rickettsia and protozoa of canine and feline erythrocytes that are significant in north america: haemobartonella canis, haemobartonella felis, cytauxzoon felis, babesia canis, and babesia gibsoni.19873328397
duration of protective immunity in experimental canine babesiosis after homologous and heterologous challenge.three beagle dogs were monitored clinically and serologically for 55 weeks following an experimental primo-infection and two challenge infections with a heterologous strain of babesia canis. there was no cross-protection when dogs were challenged with the heterologous strain after 7 months, but there was complete protection when challenged a second time with this heterologous strain 5 months later. although the serological profile using indirect immunofluorescence showed the same trend whether h ...19979066051
concurrent babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in the dog: blood smear examination supplemented by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, using cowdria ruminantium as antigen.giemsa-stained, peripheral blood smears of 67 dogs, showing clinical signs typical of babesiosis or reminiscent of concurrent babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, were examined for the presence of babesia canis and ehrlichia canis. since cowdria ruminantium cross-reacts with ehrlichia, the sera of these dogs were also subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test in which c. ruminantium was used as antigen. fifty-five per cent of these dogs had mixed infections of b. canis and e. canis, as j ...19902234860
vaccination of dogs against babesia canis infection using parasite antigens from in vitro culture.groups of five dogs were vaccinated with different babesia canis vaccine formulations. it appeared that partial protection against challenge infection was obtained when using parasite antigens from in vitro culture in combination with saponin. protection was evident as a decrease in parasitaemia after challenge and was associated with the presence of serum antibodies against babesia parasites. in addition, parasite antigen derived from in vitro culture supernatant exhibited more protective activ ...19921625906
the comparative role of haemoglobinaemia and hypoxia in the development of canine babesial nephropathy.renal pathology associated with haemoglobinaemia resulting from babesia canis infection is ascribed to haemoglobinuria, with or without a contribution from anaemic hypoxia. this study was undertaken to investigate the relative roles of haemoglobinaemia and hypoxia in renal function and pathology in the dog. three groups of 6 dogs each were used over a 4-day period. the dogs in the 1st group were infused with homologous canine haemoglobin, anaemic hypoxia was induced in the 2nd group, and both tr ...19969284030
[hepatozoon canis infection of dogs in germany: case report and epidemiology].this paper reports on a case of hepatozoonosis of a dog imported from italy to germany being additionally infected with ehrlichia canis and babesia canis. furthermore, a survey of the epidemiology of the hepatozoon canis infection is presented.19979289886
preliminary report on the use of acridine orange o for the detection of babesia canis in the blood. 1977557369
the diagnosis and treatment of acid-base deranged dogs infected with babesia canis.a study was made of the acid-base status of babesia canis infected dogs judged unlikely to recover after specific babesicidal drug therapy despite the use of blood transfusion and other conventional supportive measures. such cases were invariably acidotic and responded well and often dramatically to supportive intravenous sodium bicarbonate administration. elevated blood urea nitrogen, also responded gratifyingly to this procedure. the rationale is discussed in some detail.19764617
vaccination of dogs against babesia canis infection.this paper describes the clinico-pathological parameters measured in dogs that were vaccinated against babesia canis using soluble parasite antigens (spa) and then challenged. the packed cell volume (pcv) and the plasma creatinine value decreased immediately after challenge. actual pcv values could be predicted in the first 5-6 days of the infection, assuming that creatinine values were modulated by increase of plasma volume. this association no longer existed after that time, and observations i ...19979477490
[imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].between january 1995 and december 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. listed in decreasing order, leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, rhipicephalus sanguineus, dirofilaria immitis and dermacentor reticulatus. the other species, namely babesia gibsoni, tr ...19989531673
a survey of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in naturally exposed dogs from israel.antibody reactivity against seven bacterial or protozoal pathogens was measured in sera derived from 40 dogs suspected of a tick-borne disease. sera from 73% (29/40) of the dogs reacted with three or more test antigens. seroreactivity was most prevalent to babesia canis antigen (90%) followed by babesia gibsoni (75%), ehrlichia canis (63%), rickettsia conorii--moroccan strain (58%), rickettsia conorii--israeli strain no. 2 (28%), borrelia burgdorferi (10%) or bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) (10 ...19989561701
antibody response to hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan hepatozoon canis. five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with h. canis, and all became infected with h. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. antibodies reactive with h. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa), with igm detected in ...19989561714
platelet concentration and hemoglobin function in greyhounds.hematologic characteristics of 36 greyhounds were studied and compared with characteristics of 22 non-greyhound controls. fourteen of the greyhounds were tested and found to be seronegative for ehrlichia canis and babesia canis. compared with the non-greyhounds, greyhounds had higher mean hemoglobin concentration, pcv, mean corpuscular volume, and mean cellular hemoglobin, and lower mean rbc count, hemoglobin p50 value, hill coefficient, platelet count, and total plasma protein concentration. th ...19947829376
detection of platelet-bound and serum platelet-bindable antibodies for diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in dogs.the sensitivity and specificity of 2 antibody tests for diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (itp) in dogs were investigated prospectively. an elisa to detect antibodies bound to the surface of platelets from affected dogs (direct test) was performed in 34 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of itp and in 21 dogs with thrombocytopenia attributable to other causes. an elisa to detect platelet-bindable antibodies in serum from affected dogs (indirect test) was performed in 32 dogs with itp ...19957744662
strain variation limits protective activity of vaccines based on soluble babesia canis antigens.groups of five dogs were immunized with vaccines containing soluble parasite antigens (spa) derived from in vitro culture of babesis canis parasites, either obtained commercially (pirodog) or produced at laboratory scale. both vaccines generated antibodies that reacted with parasitised erythrocytes (pe). upon challenge infection with homologous parasites, protection was evident from less severe decreases of haematocrit values, and reduced morbidity. vaccinated animals, however, were not protecte ...19957542765
light and electron microscopic study on developmental stages of babesia canis within the gut of the tick dermacentor reticulatus.the initial developmental stages of babesia canis within the gut of the vector tick, dermacentor reticulatus, were studied by means of light and electron microscopy. large quantities of varying "spiky-rayed" stages and few ovoid stages without any protrusions were observed after lysis of the engorged canine erythrocytes. the transformation of spherical erythrocytic stages into "spiky-rayed" forms was initiated inside the intact erythrocytes. the significance of all developmental stages in a hypo ...19807391862
coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a walker hound kennel in north carolina.both dogs and humans can be coinfected with various ehrlichia, bartonella, rickettsia, and babesia species. we investigated a kennel of sick walker hounds and their owners in southeastern north carolina for evidence of tick-borne infections and associated risk factors. a high degree of coinfection was documented in the dog population. of the 27 dogs, 26 were seroreactive to an ehrlichia sp., 16 to babesia canis, and 25 to bartonella vinsonii, and 22 seroconverted to rickettsia rickettsii antigen ...199910405413
imidocarb: a chemoprophylactic experiment with babesia canis.eight dogs, given imidocarb dipropionate subcutaneously at a dose of 6 mg/kg, were challenged with a sporozoite stabilate of a french strain of babesia canis, prepared from infected dermacentor reticulatus ticks, 2, 3, 4 or 5 weeks after treatment. three control dogs were similarly infected but not preventively treated. one of the controls and one of the dogs treated 5 weeks prior to challenge died of babesiosis. prepatent and incubation periods were similar in treated and control dogs, and all ...19817268745
bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and related members of the alpha subdivision of the proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis.cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis was identified in 12 dogs, of which 11 were seroreactive to bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii antigens. historical abnormalities were highly variable but frequently included substantial weight loss, syncope, collapse, or sudden death. fever was an infrequently detected abnormality. cardiac disease was diagnosed following an illness of short duration in most dogs, but a protracted illness of at least 6 months' duration was reported for fou ...199910523564
hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of rio de janeiro state, brazil.hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne protozoan that infects dogs and has been reported throughout the world. manifestation of h. canis infection varies from being sub-clinical in apparently healthy dogs to severe illness. the main vector of the infection is the dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus although other species may also transmit this agent. h. canis has been reported previously in brazil, but mostly as an occasional finding during laboratory exams and always associated with other diseases. th ...200111113545
ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in north west province, south africa.a total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in north west province, south africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. by doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14,724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1,028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14,226 of the ticks. pure infestations of h. leachi w ...200011205167
there are at least three genetically distinct small piroplasms from dogs.the 18s nuclear subunit ribosomal rna (18s rrna) gene of small piroplasms isolated from dogs from okinawa (japan), oklahoma, north carolina, indiana, missouri, and alabama, was isolated and sequenced. phylogenetic analysis of these sequences and comparisons with sequences from other babesia, cytauxzoon, and theileria species revealed that all canine small babesial isolates, with the exception of isolates from california and spain, were placed in a group containing the babesia spp. sensu stricto. ...200011428342
vaccination of dogs against heterologous babesia canis infection using antigens from culture supernatants.soluble parasite antigens (spa) from european babesia canis can be used to protect dogs against a homologous but not heterologous challenge infection. in this study it is shown that when dogs are vaccinated with a mixture of spa from both, a european b. canis isolate and a south african babesia rossi isolate, protective immunity against heterologous b. canis infection is induced. three groups of five beagle dogs each were vaccinated twice with graded doses of spa derived from in vitro cultures o ...200111522408
clinical observations on babesia gibsoni and babesia canis infections in dogs.thirty-five cases of babesia gibsoni infection and 11 cases of babesia canis infection were diagnosed and treated in dogs at kadena air base in okinawa, japan, between april 1979 and february 1980. diagnosis was made by demonstrating the organisms in blood smears and by serologic examination, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. serologic findings correlated well with the occurrence of infection in mature dogs, but poorly in young (1- to 3-month-old) dogs. although these 2 intraerythrocy ...19827061333
treatment and thrombocyte levels in experimentally induced canine ehrlichiosis and canine babesiosis.three dogs which were carriers of babesia canis were infected with ehrlichia canis. these animals developed clinical signs and haematological evidence of ehrlichiosis and made an uneventful recovery, despite the fact that they were subsequently treated with doxycycline only. three control dogs which were also carriers of b. canis were clinically normal, despite the fact that they showed a distinct drop in the thrombocyte levels associated with increases in the numbers of parasitized red cells.19836676688
serologic and molecular evidence of coinfection with multiple vector-borne pathogens in dogs from thailand.forty-nine dogs from thailand were evaluated for serologic evidence of exposure or polymerase chain reaction (pcr) evidence of infection with vectorborne pathogens, including ehrlichia sp. (ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia equi, and ehrlichia risticii), bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffi (bvb), spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae (rickettsia rickettsii), typhus group (tg) rickettsiae (rickettsia canada, rickettsia prowazekii, and rickettsia typhi), and babesia sp. (babesia c ...200111596732
vaccination of dogs against babesia canis infection using antigens from culture supernatants with emphasis on clinical babesiosis.groups of five dogs were vaccinated with babesia canis antigens from in vitro culture in combination with saponin as adjuvant. protection against challenge infection was evident as diminished clinical disease, decrease in parasitaemia, and a less marked fall in haematocrit values. recovery from infection occurred at the time a memory immune response became effective (from days 5 to 6 after challenge infection onwards). the effect was dose dependent, the highest antigen dose being most effective. ...19948073606
antigenic and immunogenic studies on cell culture-derived babesia canis.babesia canis antigens derived from cell culture reacted specifically with immune serum from dogs convalescing from babesiosis. the antigens were heterogenous as compared to antigens elaborated in vivo. the major antigenic moiety from cell culture eluted in the first peak of sephadex g-200 is indicative of a molecular weight around 900 000. in contrast, in vivo-derived antigen coeluted with albumin and hemoglobin suggesting a molecular weight of 67 000. the major antigenic mass is proteinacious ...19826179286
molecular characterisation of babesia canis canis and babesia canis vogeli from naturally infected european dogs.the morphologically small babesia species isolated from naturally infected dogs in europe, japan, and us are described as babesia gibsoni despite the fact that molecular techniques show that they should be assigned to two or three separate taxons. the morphologically large babesia isolated from dogs in europe, africa, and us were generally classified as b. canis until it was proposed to distinguish three related, albeit genetically distinct subspecies of this genus, namely b. canis canis, b. can ...200212079734
molecular variation and diversity in candidate vaccine antigens from babesia.recombinant vaccines are being developed against a number of species of protozoan parasites in the genus babesia. protozoan parasites are notorious for their diversity of strains and their ability to express families of equivalent, but antigenically distinct, surface proteins. in order to reduce the likelihood of evasion of the immune response induced by a recombinant vaccine, ideal components should be essential proteins encoded by single copy genes. the proteins should also have a limited abil ...19938100672
systematic review of the distribution of the major vector-borne parasitic infections in dogs and cats in europe.on the basis of a systematic review of the literature, this paper provides the first evidence-based maps of the distribution of the major vector-borne parasitic infections of dogs and cats in europe. from an initial survey of 894 publications, data from 268 were analysed, summarised and collated. prevalence data were used to calculate the force of infection to provide distribution and incidence maps for canine infections with leishmania infantum, dirofilaria immitis, dirofilaria repens, babesia ...200312572938
[further studies on immunity and serological reactions in dogs after infection with babesia canis]. 19705428246
immunity of dogs against babesia canis, its vector tick dermacentor reticulatus, and ixodes ricinus in endemic area.previous epidemiological studies allowed us to accurately define endemic areas of canine babesiosis and tick distribution in southeastern france (martinod, 1983). using a micro-elisa test 100 dogs sera were tested with 3 antigens: babesia canis, dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus. antibodies against b. canis and its vector d. reticulatus were detected in an endemic area, sometimes with high levels (optical density 1.38 and 0.80 respectively). a correlation factor and regression lines wer ...19854009345
characterisation of a family of multi-copy genes encoding rhoptry protein homologues in babesia bovis, babesia ovis and babesia canis.a monoclonal antibody that had been raised against a protease-containing fraction of babesia bovis, and shown to bind to a protein located in the rhoptries, was used to screen a b. bovis cdna expression library. the sequence of the protein encoded by a positive clone was almost identical to the equivalent region of a previously described b. bovis 60-kda rhoptry protein (bv60). a tandem repeat of the gene encoding bv60 was identified in all australian isolates of b. bovis examined. genes encoding ...19938433711
molecular studies on babesia, theileria and hepatozoon in southern europe. part i. epizootiological aspects.molecular epizootiology of piroplasmids (babesia spp., theileria spp.) and hepatozoon canis was studied in mammals from southern europe (mainly from spain, but also from portugal and france). partial amplification and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene was used for molecular diagnosis. in some particular cases (b. ovis and b. bovis) the complete 18s rrna gene was sequenced. blood samples were taken from domestic animals showing clinical symptoms: 10 dogs, 10 horses, 10 cows, 9 sheep and 1 goat. in ...200312719133
two species of canine babesia in australia: detection and characterization by pcr.the haemoprotozoan babesia canis has been recognized in australia for many years, and a second, smaller species has recently been discovered. amplification and sequencing of a partial region of the 18s small subunit ribosomal rna (rrna) gene enabled detection and characterization of the large and small canine babesiae of australia for the first time. isolates from northern australia were genetically characterized to be 99% homologous to babesia canis vogeli, confirming previous speculation about ...200312760669
immune responses to south african babesia canis and the development of a preliminary vaccine.the immune responses of 2 beagles to live parasites of an isolated b. canis strain were tested. the dogs were infected with live parasites and were carefully treated to allow the parasites to remain in the dogs' bodies for long enough to evoke an immune response. once recovered from the initial infections, both dogs received 2 separate homologous challenges with live parasites. during the second challenge, neither dog showed clinical signs of disease. an experimental vaccine was developed agains ...19958544162
epidemiological survey of babesia species in japan performed with specimens from ticks collected from dogs and detection of new babesia dna closely related to babesia odocoilei and babesia divergens dna.detection and analysis of babesia species from ticks recovered from dogs in japan were attempted by pcr and nucleotide sequence analysis based on the 18s rrna gene, respectively. a total of 1136 ticks were examined for babesia dna by 18s rrna-based pcr and nucleotide sequencing. partial sequences of babesia canis vogeli dna were detected from six ticks in aomori, nara, hiroshima, oita, and okinawa prefectures; and babesia gibsoni asia-1 dna was also detected in four ticks in osaka, hiroshima, mi ...200312904344
canine babesiosis.canine babesiosis is a tickborne, protozoal, hemoparasitic disease that can cause varying degrees of hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, and fever. babesia organisms frequently are classified as large or small. large babesia infections are attributed to one of three subspecies of babesia canis. all small babesia infections previously were attributed to b gibsoni, but molecular analysis and dna sequencing have revealed that there are at least three small piroplasms infecting dogs. c ...200312910748
the immunologic response of dogs to bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii antigens: as assessed by western immunoblot analysis.bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii is a recently recognized zoonotic pathogen that causes endocarditis, granulomatous rhinitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis in dogs. isolation of b. vinsonii (berkhoffii) from blood or tissue samples is frequently unsuccessful; therefore, diagnosis is primarily dependent on serologic or molecular testing modalities. because previous canine serologic studies have used an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa), without western immunoblot (wi) confirmatio ...200312918816
the liver in babesia canis infection. 195313125274
pathological processes in babesia canis infections. 195713531539
[electronoptic studies on babesia canis]. 196113688105
[experimental transmission of babesia canis to baby mice]. 195913849580
observations on leukocytic inclusion bodies from dogs infected with babesia canis. 196314063234
the coyote, a potential host for babesia canis and ehrlichia sp. 196414215497
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