amodiaquin accumulation by mouse erythrocytes infected with plasmodium berghei.14camodiaquin accumulation by washed erythrocyte preparations was characterized to permit comparisons with chloroquine accumulation. erythrocytes infected with plasmodium berghei cs (chloroquine-susceptible) accumulate amodiaquin by a saturable process that has an apparent dissociation constant for amodiaquin of 7.6 x 10(-8) m and is competitively inhibited by chloroquine, quinine and quinacrine, as is the process of chloroquine accumulation. within experimental error, the k1 of 8 x 10(-7) m est ...1975488
observations on the sporogony of plasmodium circumflexum kikuth and plasmodium polare manwell in new brunswick. 19763278
the ribosomes of the simian malaria plasmodium knowlesi--ii. a cell-free protein synthesizing system. 19764281
gametogenesis and fertilization in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: a transmission electron microscope study. 19764810
the reaction of chorion epitheliums of human placentae to beta-sympathocomimetics (author's transl).the enzyme histochemical response of chorionic epithelium after treatment with dilatel has been examined on 50 placentae of classified eutrophic premature and full-term births. in relation to the degree of damage to trophoblasts at the start of treatment and to dosage the response is mobilisation and further differentiation of langhans cells and their transformation into mature plasmodium. the relevance of these results for metabolic transport and hormonal synthesis in the feto- maternal metabol ...19764930
protein synthesis by a cell-free preparation from the bird malaria, plasmodium lophurae.cytoplasmic polyribosomes were isolated from the avian malaria parasite plasmodium lophurae by lysis with 0.15% triton x-100 followed by high speed centrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose gradient. polyribosomes were protected from nuclease degradation using 100 mug/ml heparin or 50 mug/ml dextran sulfate. cell-free incorporation of radioisotope-labeled amino acids required a ph 5 fraction (duck reticulocyte), mg2+, and an energy-generating system. the protein synthesizing system was stim ...19766795
the serine hydroxymethyltransferase of plasmodium lophurae.plasmodium lophurae serine hydroxymethyltransferase (ec was partially purified and characterized by (nh4)2so4 fractionation and chromatography on sephadex g-100. the enzyme, precipitated by m (nh4)2so4, had a molecular weight of 68,300 as estimated by exclusion chromatography on g-100. the ph optimum of the enzyme was 6.8-7.6 in sodium phosphate-citrate buffer. citrate stabilized the enzyme during storage in phosphate buffer at 4 c. the km was 4.3 x 10(-3) m for l-serine and 2.5 ...19766796
a review. innate resistance in malaria. 19767463
plasmodium berghei: protection against sporozoites by normal mosquito tissue vaccination of mice. 19769307
plasmodium berghei: sporozoite challenge, protection, and hypersensitivity in mice. 19769308
malaria of the orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) in borneo.the primary objective of this project was to study the life cycle and ecology of plasmodium pitheci, a malaria parasite of the orang-utan. the field work was based on the orang-utan rehabilitation centre in the sepilok forest reserve of eastern sabah. two visits were made to sepilok, the first in february and march, 1972, and the second (by w.p.) in january 1974. on the first visit two species of "surrogate host" were taken to sabah, i.e. chimpanzees and aotus monkeys for experimental work. the ...197610589
growth of physarum gyrosum on agar plates and in liquid culture.the physical and nutritional requirements of the antibiotic-producing slime mold physarum gyrosum were examined to develop a liquid medium for this myxomycete. liquid culture is desired to expedite a useful scale of production of antibiotic materials for ease of isolation and structure study. culture conditions were selected to favor antibiotic production rather than maximum growth. the medium devised consisted of 0.010 m potassium phosphate buffer (ph 6.0), 2% bakers' yeast, and 0.2% glucose an ...197610830
control of gamete formation (exflagellation) in malaria parasites.the only stages of malaria parasites capable of establishing an infection in a mosquito are the gametocytes that circulate in the blood of the veterbrate host. within minutes of ingestion by a mosquito the gametocytes transform into mature gametes in the process of "exflagellation." this process is controlled in vitro solely by the change in ph in the blood as it moves from the environment of the circulation to that of the atmosphere, the ph rise being mediated by the fall in carbon dioxide tens ...197712566
the leeuwenhoek lecture, 1976: protozoa and genetics. 197715271
the immune reponse to type iii pneumococcal polysaccharide in mice with malaria.the immune response of balb/c mice to type iii pneumococcal polysaccharide (siii), as measured by splenic pfc, was abolished at the height of an acute self-limiting attack of malaria caused by the murine plasmodium p. yoelii, over a wide range of antigen doses. the response to antigen, given at various times after clinical recovery, gradually reappeared, but did not reach normal levels until 12 weeks after the injection of the parasite. a second injection of p. yoelii given 1 hr before siii caus ...197716712
the relation of cycling of intracellular ph to mitosis in the acellular slime mould physarum polycephalum.the relation between intracellular ph and the mitotic cycle of physarum polycephalum was studied by two-independent techniques. both techniques revealed a long term cycling of intracellular ph which has the same period as the mitotic cycle, qualitative detection of the changes in intracellular ph was made by measuring the changes in fluorescence of 4-methylesculetin which had been absorbed by the plasmodium. quantitative measurements of intracellular ph were made throughout the mitotic cycle wit ...197716937
mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, plasmodium hermani.culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in florida. the mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. the resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.197717017
current status of the immunology of blood and tissue protozoa. ii. plasmodium. 197718362
malaria in illinois. 197719393
influences of blood digestion on the development of plasmodium gallinaceum (brumpt) in the midgut of aedes aegypti (l.).blood digestion of aedes aegypti and development of plasmodium gallinaceum were shifted against each other by giving the mosquitoes two consecutive blood meals. in this way the parasites were exposed to an environment where blood digestion was more advanced than in single blood meals. this procedure had an inhibiting effect on oocyst production when the two blood meals overlapped; an enhancing effect when they were well separated. the results are explained by the action of trypsin-like proteases ...197719955
studies on plasmodium ookinetes: ii. in vitro formation of plasmodium berghei ookinetes. 197721234
malaria in the republic of the philippines. a review.malaria in the republic of the philippines is caused principally by p. falciparum and p. vivax, with the former as predominant species. p. malariae is occasionally reported, while p. ovale is very rare and has been reported only in the island of palawan. malaria is widespread in distribution with prevalence varying from one area to the other. in 1970, the malaria morbidity rate was reported to be 77.6 per 100,000 while the mortality rate was 1.8 per 100,000. case detection activities revealed th ...197721558
in vitro cultivation of the sporogonic stages of plasmodium: a review.complete and continuous in vitro development of the sporogonic stages of the malarial parasite has not yet been accomplished, although success with erythrocytic stages (falciparum malaria) and exoerythrocytic stages (avian malaria) has been achieved. this lag in progress appears to be due to several inherent differences between sporogony and these other sequences of development. the trager-jensen system for in vitro development of erythrocytic stages of plasmodium falciparum results in the forma ...197722406
culture of malaria parasites.a human malaria vaccine that will protect against the blood stages of plasmodium falciparum is dependent upon the continuous cultre of the parasite. scientists have demonstrated that it is now possible to achieve this on a small scale. present expertise needs to be expanded to produce larger quantities of material for antigenic studies and potential vaccine production.197722942
gamete development in malaria parasites: bicarbonate-dependent stimulation by ph in vitro.gametogenesis in plasmodium gallinaceum involves bicarbonate-dependent processes and requires a continuous supply of glucose (presumably as an energy source). emergence and exflagellation of gametocytes, in vitro, occur independently of the co2 tension but are rigidly correlated with the ph of the external medium. in bicarbonate-saline gametogenesis is initiated only if the ph exceeds 7.7. our results suggest that gamete development of malaria parasites is stimulated when infected blood is expos ...197823512
sporogony and transmission of plasmodium (novyella) vaughani novy and macneal 1904, in culicine mosquitoes of the tantramar marshes, new brunswick. 197824091
evolution of the malarias: the problems of origins. 197624202
plasmodium falciparum malaria: probable role of mosquitoes imported by aerial way. 197824831
plasmodium gallinaceum: induction of male gametocyte exflagellation by phosphodiesterase inhibitors. 197826586
gametocyte and gamete development in plasmodium falciparum. 197827809
introductory remarks on immunization with sporozoites. 197828302
development of effective antisporozoite immunity by natural bites of plasmodium-berghei-infected mosquitoes in rats under prophylactic treatment with various drug regimens. 197828303
hemolymph of anopheles stephensi from noninfected and plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. 1. collection procedure and physical characteristics.hemolymph was collected from adult female anopheles stephensi by centrifugation of incised mosquitoes. approximately 0.1 muliter was collected from each recently emerged mosquito, although smaller amounts were recovered with increasing age of the mosquito. determinations were made of the ph, osmotic pressure, and specific gravity of this hemolymph at various times during the life of the adult mosquito. the values obtained were within the ranges found for other insects. hemolymph collected from m ...197831425
sustained release of implantable system was developed which released sulphadiazine in mice over an extended period of time efficacious against infective challenges by plasmodium berghei. the most successful preparation was a copolymer of l(+)-lactic acid + (+/-)-lactic acid (90 and 10% by weight, respectively) with a molecular weight of 150 000, with which sulphadiazine was mixed at 33.3% of the total weight, in a formulation as beads of 1.5 mm diameter. this preparation released sulphadiazine at a nearly constan ...197831430
genetic control of susceptibility and resistance to parasitic infection. 197831771
plasmodium knowlesi in the marmoset (callithrix jacchus).common marmosets were shown to be susceptible to plasmodium knowlesi malaria. the morphology of the parasite was indistinguishable from the observed in the natural host (macaca fascicularis) and the common laboratory model (macaca mulatta). a differential susceptibility to p. knowlesi was observed in the 8 marmosets studied. multiplication rates of parasites were variable over 24 h periods. five animals died of a fulminating infection within 12--17 days after challenge. three animals recovered s ...197933359
plasmodium falciparum: physiological interactions with the human sickle cell. 197933821
immunity to malaria.malaria remains prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions and almost a third of the world's population is exposed to the risk of infection. there is currently a serious resurgence of the disease in asia and central america. the failure of global eradication measures based upon the use of insecticides and chemotherapy has resulted from difficulties of practical implementation compounded by the spread of insecticide and drug resistance. repeated natural infection does not produce detec ...197934157
dependence of plasmodial glutathione metabolism on the host cell. 197934799
complement activation by parasites. a review.activation of complement by parasites (living parasites or purified parasite antigens) is involved in several mechanisms of the host parasite relationship. in most of the experiments performed in vitro, complement activation was found to be lethal for the parasites, but sometimes it could be essential for the development of parasitemia. both classical and alternative complement pathways may be activated by parasites; the classical pathway nearly always requires the involvement of antibodies wher ...197935934
plasmodium falciparum: microaerophilic requirements in human red blood cells. 197936286
the interactions of intracellular protista and their host cells, with special reference to heterotrophic organisms.intracellular genera are found in all the major groups of protista, but are particularly common among the dinoflagellates, trypanosomatid zooflagellates and suctorian ciliates; the sporozoa are nearly all intracellular at some stage of their life, and the microspora entirely so. intracellular forms can dwell in the nucleus, within phagosomal or other vacuoles or may lie free in the hyaloplasm of their host cells. organisms tend to select their hosts from a restricted taxonomic range although the ...197936619
plasmodium gallinaceum: exflagellation stimulated by a mosquito factor. 197937101
rapid, large-scale isolation of plasmodium berghei sporozoites from infected mosquitoes.the discontinuous gradient technique for recovery of malarial sporozoites from mosquitoes (beaudoin et al., 1977) has been modified to speed up recovery and prevent sensitization of mice by components of the gradient which contaminate the sporozoites used as antigen. mouse serum was substituted for bsa in the gradient because the latter produced hypersensitivity. best results were obtained with gradients consisting of medium 199, renografin and mouse serum. heavy and light solution of gradient c ...197939127
in vitro damage of cultured ookinetes of plasmodium gallinaceum by digestive proteinases from susceptible aedes aegypti.after exposure to extracts from blood fed a. aegupti cultured ookinetes of p. gallinaceum were damaged to various, defined extents. immature ookinetes were found to be more sensitive to damage than mature ones. the damage was dependent on the digestion time after which the aedes extracts had been prepared and could be correlated with the proteolytic activity in the extracts. control experiments demonstrated that the factors responsible for damage were neither present in unfed mosquitoes nor in b ...197943087
the ultrastructure of cultured plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes: a comparison of intact stages with forms damaged by extracts from blood fed, susceptible aedes aegypti.the ultrastructure of intact, mature and immature ookinetes of plasmodium gallinaceum is compared with corresponding stages which have been damaged by aedes aegypti extracts prepared during blood digestion. the study reveals some new details of ookinete ultrastructure. in particular the composition, development and mode of formation of the pellicle of plasmodial ookinetes is shown to be similar to that of other sporozoans. the pellicle is composed of three membranes, develops in the growing prot ...197944096
variations in the virulence of plasmodium gallinaceum for avian embryos after repeated passages in mosquitos and chickens.inoculation of 1 x 10(6) parasites of plasmodium gallinaceum from chicks infected with sporozoites into 10-day chicken embryos produced infections with wide ranges of peak parasitaemia. it is thought that these variations reflect alterations in the genetic moiety of the parasites after recombinations occurring during the sexual cycle in different batches of mosquitos.197944488
comparative studies on dihydrofolate reductases from plasmodium falciparum and aotus trivirgatus.dihydrofolate reductase (e.c. from plasmodium falciparum and from its host, the owl monkey (aotus trivirgatus), were partially purified and characterized. the molecular weight of the parasite enzyme was estimated to be over 10 times as high as that of the host enzyme. the host enzyme had 2 ph optima whereas the parasite enzyme only one. the activity of the host enzyme was greatly stimulated by kcl and urea, while that of the parasite enzyme was inhibited at high concentrations of such c ...197944526
letter: adjuvant treatment of severe falciparum malaria, intravascular coagulation, and heparin. 197546084
letter: disseminated intravascular coagulation and severe falciparum malaria. 197546976
refeeding-malaria and hyperferraemia.during the central african (sahelian) drought, attacks of falciparum malaria were common in patients and their relatives shortly after their arrival in a hospital in eastern niger. a prospective study of 72 adult patients not admitted for malaria and 109 accompanying relatives was undertaken to investigate this observation. 23 attacks occurred in patients and 51 in relatives, with a peak frequency five days after arrival. on arrival, parasitaemia was low but reached a maximum by five days. s ...197547080
complement changes and disseminated intravascular coagulation in plasmodium falciparum malaria.complement activation as shown by increased clearance of radioactive c1q and reduction in serum-c3 level was found in fifteen (83%) of eighteen patients studied during plasmodium falciparum infection. six patients had haemostatic defects suggesting disseminated intravascular coagulation (d.i.c.), and five others had other clinical complications. a correlation was found between reduction of c3 and clinical complications as well as with the degree of anaemia and with thrombocytopenia. moreover, th ...197548001
quinacrine fluorescence for rapid dection of malarial parasite a preliminary communication. 197548506
relation between malaria serum gamma-globulin concentration and the d-xylose absorption test.d-xylose excretion after a 25 g. oral load was determined in 15 african subjects suffering from malaria. nine of them were re-investigated after the malaria had been or was being treated. malarial parasitaemia and pyrexia did not significantly influence results of the d-xylose test. however, in the untreated subjects, there was a significant inverse correlation between the weight of d-xylose excreted and the serum gamma-globulin concentrations. the observation may have a nutritional importance.197549959
caveola--vesicle complexes in the plasmalemma of erythrocytes infected by plasmodium vivax and p cynomolgi. unique structures related to schüffner's dots.erythrocytes infected with plasmodium vivax and p cynomolgi, characterized by schüffner's dots on giemsa-stained thin films, were studied by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. a caveola-vesicle complex, which consisted of a caveola surrounded by vesicles, in an alveolar fashion, formed along the erythrocyte plasmalemma. horseradish-peroxidase-labeled immunoglobulin from a monkey infected with p vivax bound to the vesicle membrane. cationized ferritin appeared within the vesicles after ...197550017
the indirect hemagglutination test for malaria. evaluation of antigens prepared from plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax.soluble antigens were prepared from plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax and were evaluated in the indirect hemagglutination test. these antigens, attached to aldehyde-fixed type "o" erythrocytes, detected antibodies in more than 91% of infections with the homologous plasmodium species. detection rates in infections caused by the heterologous species ranged from 72% to 76%. positive reactions occurred in less than 2% of sera from persons without malaria infection.197550747
heterologous reactions involving parasites, blood group antibodies and tissue components.the sera of many patients with malaria and filariasis, and also anti-a and b blood group sera, were found to react by immunofluorescence with the somatic musculature of nematodes, especially ascaris, and human and rat muscle, especially the skeletal type. these reactions were attributed to a polysaccharide related to ab substance in adult nematodes and to raised ab antibodies in malaria. similar heterologous reactions were found to involve the integument of schistosome adult worms and the microf ...197552213
editorial: immunity to haemoprotozoa. 197654746
[proteinuria in quartan malaria-infected aotus monkeys].this paper describes the characterization of proteinuria in aotus monkeys infected with quartan malaria (plasmodium brasilianum), using a micro-disc-electrophoresis system. in the post infection urine samples, increases in total proteinuria, albuminuria and gamma-globulinuria were noted a few weeks after peak parasitaemia. two new proteins also appeared in the urine of malaria infected animals. these findings are discussed with reference to the belief that the aotus-p. brasilianum system can be ...197556072
occurrence of s-antigens in serum in plasmodium falciparum infections in man.gambians with severe plasmodium falciparum infections frequently have malarial s-antigens in their serum or plasma. detection of these with the available antisera which are from immune adults is complicated because there are many different s-antigens and none of the antisera contains antibodies to them all. despite this we found s-antigens in about 60% of a large series of malarious children and demonstrated that this was a considerable underestimate of the true incidence. we also showed that th ...197559433
serum-soluble malarial antigens and immune complex nephritis in plasmodium berghei berghei infected albino mice infected with plasmodium berghei berghi showed the serum-soluble malarial antigen and antibody on day 10 of infection onward. immune complex nephritis in these mice developed on the seventh day after inoculation. the infected kidneys revealed the deposition of mouse gamma globulin, mouse beta1c globulin and malaria antigen along the capillary wall of the glomeruli. proteinuria was detected on seventh day of infection. serum-soluble malaria antigen in probably responsible for fo ...197659812
specificity of the circum-sporozoite precipitation antigen(s) of human and simian malarias. 197660482
continuous culture of human-malaria parasites. 197764661
fetal haemoglobin and malaria. 197764740
cyclophosphamide-induced specific suppression of the protective immune response to rodent malaria.nonspecific and specific chemosuppression of the immune response to plasmodium berghei protective antigens were investigated. specific immunosuppression was defined operationally as the selective suppression of the protective response to the parasite in mice injected with a combination of gamma-irradiated infected mouse erythrocytes (gammapb) and cyclophosphamide (cy) with continued responsiveness to sheep erythrocytes (srbc). after initial treatment (gammapb + cy), mice were injected with gamma ...197765425
current prospects and problems for a malaria vaccine. 197767160
[strain related differences in the immunodiagnosis of malaria (author's transl)].in infections with p. falciparum and p. vivax antibody titers were found to differ in relation to strains. various strains of both plasmodium species used as antigens showed differences in their sensitivity in reactions with one patient serum. in p. vivax infections it is supposed that some antibody titer differences are caused by antigen variations.197767686
immunosuppression in murine malaria. i. response to type iii pneumococcal polysaccharide.acute plasmodium yoelii yoelii and chronic plasmodium berghei malaria infections of cba mice were accompanied by a reduced capacity to give an antibody response to type iii pneumococcal polysaccharide (siii). the depression of response initiated by acute malaria persisted for several weeks after recovery from clinical infection. during chronic infection, and at the peak of acute parasitaemia, virtually no response to siii was detected. a substance which crossreacted serologically with siii was f ...197767996
merozoite vaccination of douroucouli monkeys against falciparum malaria.erythrocytic merozoites of plasmodium falciparum (gambia) were isolated from cultures of schizont-infected human red cells on cf 11 cellulose columns. douroucouli monkeys vaccinated with such preparations stored in liquid nitrogen and then emulsified in freund's complete adjuvant (f.c.a.), were resistant to successive challenges with west african (lagos) and east african (uganda palto-alto) strains of p. falciparum. the induced immunity is specific since vaccination with p. knowlesi merozoites i ...197769057
the duffy blood group determinants: their role in the susceptibility of human and animal erythrocytes to plasmodium knowlesi malaria.duffy blood group negative erythrocytes from blacks are refractory to invasion by plasmodium knowlesi merozoites in vitro, and blacks with this genotype are resistant to infection by p. vivax in vivo. in order to evaluate in a direct manner the role of duffy blood group determinants in invasion by p. knowlesi merozoites, we studied erythrocytes from three rare non-black duffy negative individuals, fy(a-b-), in whom the duffy negative phenotype probably represents a mutation and not the introduct ...197770210
open heart surgery complicated by postoperative malaria. 197770631
invasion of erythrocytes and antigenic variation.consideration of information published on the immunology of malarial parasites has highlighted an unusual problem associated with the penetration of erythrocytes by merozoites, namely, how to reconcile strain and intrastrain antigenic variation in the parasite surface with recognition of specific receptors on red cells. this problem should now be susceptible to experimental investigation.197773428
malaria antigen-specific t-cell responsiveness during infection with plasmodium falciparum.protective immunity against plasmodium falciparum develops only after several years of repeated exposure to the malarial parasite. we therefore investigated the possibility that acute malaria was associated with malarial antigen-specific immunosuppression. peripheral lymphocytes of west africans with and without p. falciparum infections were tested for their in vitro proliferative responses to a preparation of p. falciparum antigen. there was no significant difference between the magnitude of th ...197773436
fetal haemoglobin and malaria.the distribution and growth of plasmodium falciparum was compared in red blood-cells containing either adult or fetal haemoglobins. in in-vitro cultures, cord blood-cells were invaded more readily, but there was a paucity of parasites in cells containing haemoglobin f in the blood of infected infants aged 3-6 months. these findings suggest that p. falciparum may preferentially invade young, metabolically active erythrocytes. there was a significant retardation of parasite growth in vitro in cell ...197673695
parasites which migrate to the brain. 197673713
looking back for a view of the future: observations on immunity to induced malaria. 197774211
antigenic variation in african trypanosomiasis: a memorandum.after reviewing the present knowledge on antigenic variation of the trypanosomes of the trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei species, this memorandum discusses the relevance of this phenomenon to the possible development of new tools for trypanosomiasis antigenic variation is related to protective immunity and immunopathology, it is of crucial importance for the feasibility of vaccine development and for treatment principles. it is also of interest as a model for understanding antigenic v ...197774295
fetal haemoglobin and malaria. 197674487
drug sensitivity of plasmodium falciparum. an in-vitro microtechnique. 197874500
persistence of drug-resistant malaria parasites.mixtures of drug-resistant and sensitive forms of plasmodium chabaudi were used to infect mice, and the resulting infections were maintained in the absence of drug. both chloroquine-resistant and pyrimethamine-resistant mutans were able to survive in such mixed infections. the results of experiments on chloroquine resistance indicated an apparent selective advantage of the resistant over the sensitive form.197874609
low erythrocyte pyridoxal-kinase activity in blacks: its possible relation to falciparum malaria.the red-cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g.-6-p.d.) activity and red-cell pyridoxal-kinase (p.l.k.) activity of 27 nigerian children with severe plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were compared with those of 26 healthy nigerian children and 6 white adults. the mean p.l.k. activity of the malaria patients was similar to that of the whites but significantly higher than that of the nigerian controls. correction for reduced mean red-cell age in patients was made by comparing the p.l.k.: g.-6- ...197876019
transient an-alpha-lipoproteinaemia in man during infection by plasmodium vivax. 197877973
impairment of the immune response to vaccination after acute malaria.children with acute malaria were vaccinated with salmonella typhi and meningococcal vaccines at varying times after the onset of their illness. the immune response to both vaccines was depressed when they were given on the day of presentation at hospital. immune responsiveness to s. typhi vaccine was rapidly regained after treatment, but a month after the attack the immune response to meningococcal vaccine was still impaired.197878096
does endotoxin cause both the disease and parasite death in acute malaria and babesiosis?when mice are infected with either of several species of plasmodium or babesia the amount of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (l.p.s.) required to kill them is decreased several hundred fold. the higher their parasitaemia the greater their susceptibility. there is indirect evidence that more l.p.s. than usual is present during infection with these parasites. in a very susceptible host this may be sufficient to produce endotoxin shock. non-antibody mediators able to kill rapidly dividing cells ...197878300
romanowsky-malachowski stains the so-called romanowsky stain: malachowski's 1891 use of alkali polychromed methylene blue for malaria plasmodia. 197878544
immunity to plasmodium berghei yoelii in mice. ii. specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral responses during the course of infection.the kinetics of various specific and nonspecific immunologic responses were examined in balb/c mice infected with 17x nonlethal plasmodium berghei yoelii (a self-limiting infection). the sequence of events after infection was characterized by rapid sensitization of splenic t cells to malaria antigen and polyclonal b cell activation, followed by a period of depressed splenic proliferative responses in vitro to mitogens (pha and lps) and malaria (specific) antigen. at the same time, suppressed pri ...197879610
transient changes in serum lipoproteins during antimalarial therapy and malaria. 197880548
malarial ecology: a global perspective. 197881525
malaria and immunology. 197881994
cultured plasmodium falciparum used as antigen in a malaria indirect fluorescent antibody test.human sera obtained from persons infected with plasmodium falciparum were tested by a standard indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) technique using antigen obtained from long term in vitro cultures of two strains of p. falciparum, and antibody in high titer was reproducibly detected. sera from uninfected persons had undetectable or very low titers of antibody. the use of cultured parasites offers a convenient, stable source of antigens from different p. falciparum strains without requiring their ...197882407
borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 c. at 30 c polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. at 35 c, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. at 60 c polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. when the ph of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to ph 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated ...197883692
severe malaria and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency: a reappraisal of the malaria/g-6-p.d. hypothesis.nigerian children with convulsions and plasmodium falciparium parasitaemia above 100,000/microliter did not show a decreased frequency of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (g.-6-p.d.) deficiency. a re-evaluation of earlier studies has led to the conclusion that clinical evidence of protection against falciparum malaria in g.-6-p.d.-deficient individuals is lacking. evidence for the possible role of malaria in selecting for g.-6-p.d.-deficient genes consists solely of the geographical association ...197985108
cause of anaemia in malaria.51cr studies showed that after complete eradication of malarial parasites erythrocyte life-span is reduced for 4-5 weeks and that the reduction is associated with the presence of complement-containing immune complexes on the red-cell surface. the rate of erythrophagocytosis in the spleen is increased during this period. 59fe studies of erythropoiesis indicated a mild degree of marrow depression. a very important factor causing anaemia in malaria appears to be a complement-mediated immune process ...197986777
the malaria/g.-6-p.d. hypothesis. 197986896
plasmodium-infected blood cells analyzed and sorted by flow fluorimetry with the deoxyribonucleic acid binding dye 33258 cells from plasmodium berghei infected mouse blood can be sorted on the basis of their dna content with the bisbenzimidazole dye 33258 hoechst. the optimal conditions for dye uptake have been established and with these conditions uninfected cells are nonfluorescent and can be completely separated from infected cells which exhibit fluorescence in almost direct proportion to the number of parasite nuclei (i.e. dna) they contain. the number of fluorescent cells detected and their fluorescence i ...197987413
two plasmodium knowlesi-specific antigens on the surface of schizont-infected rhesus monkey erythrocytes induce antibody production in immune hosts.purified schizonts (6--10 nuclei) and membranes of schizont-infected erythrocytes from the malaysian and philippine strain of plasmodium knowlesi are analyzed immunochemically using immunoglobulin of rhesus monkey hyperimmune sera against schizonts and of sera from naturally immune monkeys. the anti-schizont ig identifies less than 20 immune components in triton x-100-solubilized schizonts and membranes of infected cells. of these antigens, 9 (component 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 18, and 20) are com ...197987490
increasing incidence of malaria in britain. 197987705
malaria--the phoenix with drug resistance. 197987784
recurrent anaphylaxis due to plasmodium vivax infection. 197987792
fansidar resistant falciparum malaria in indonesia. 197989577
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