disaccharidase activity in the intestinal tissue of broilers infected with coccidia.maltase and sucrase activities were measured in the intestine of broilers inoculated with sporulated coccidial oocysts. infection with eimeria acervulina, e. maxima, e. necatrix, and e. brunetti decreased disaccharidase activity in the intestinal region in which maximum infection was found compared with the activity in uninoculated controls. the maximum reduction occurred on the first or second day of patency followed by a rapid recovery in activity. disaccharidase activity was inversely proport ...1978355614
changes in the generation cycle of duodenal crypt cells in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina.changes in the duration of the progenitor cycle and its four phases were determined for duodenal crypt cells in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina. metaphase curves were constructed using percent labelled metaphase nuclei in duodenal crypt cells at short intervals after the injection of [3h]thymidine. the duration of the progenitor cycle and its four phases were calculated using the synthetic index and data obtained from the metaphase curves. the cycle time was reduced from 14 h in contro ...1977906627
[ultrastructure of the sporozoite of eimeria acervulina (coccidiidae, eimeriidae)]. 1977865881
a reappraisal of the taxonomic status of eimeria mivati edgar and seibold 1964, by enzyme electrophoresis and cross-immunity examination of 2 strains of eimeria acervulina var. mivati (since 1973 e. mivati has been regarded as a variant of e. acervulina) showed that previous confusion over the taxonomic status of e. mivati arose because the investigations were done using laboratory cultures of e. mivati which were contaiminated with e. acervulina. electrophoretic analyses of enzymes, host specificity and cross-immunity tests have revealed that: (1) the 1971 houghton strain of e. acervulina var. mivati was a mixture ...1979471536
anticoccidial activity of salinomycin in battery raised broiler chickens.infections with single species of eimeria acervulina, e. mivati, e. maxima, e. tenella, e. necatrix, and e. brunetti, and the six species mixed, were utilized in three separate battery experiments to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of various levels of salinomycin (ahr-3096), a fermentation product of a strain of streptomyces albus. at the 60 to 100 p.p.m. treatment levels, this compound showed significant anticoccidial activity for all parameters studied (mortality, weight gain, feed conver ...1977605065
reproduction of the cycle of coccidia eimeria acervulina (tyzzer, 1929) in cell cultures of chicken kidneys.the cycle of eimeria acervulina was grown in primary culture of cells of three-week-old-chicken kidneys. eht medium (eagle, hydrolysate of lactalbumine, bacto-tryptose phosphate) allowed the development of this coccidium. 44 hours after infestation of the cells with sporozoites, the first schizonts appeared. the merozoites of first generation were released after 54 hours. they invaded the neighbouring cells and developed in them into schizonts of second generation mature after 68 hours. after 72 ...19761027365
eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, e. maxima, and e. necatrix: low doses of oocysts to immunize young chickens. 1976971728
the site of action of the anticoccidial salinomycin (coxistac).the anticoccidial salinomycin has a cidal effect against chicken coccidia. restricted and unrestricted medication studies and histopathological examinations of chicks infected with eimeria acervulina, e. maxima, or e. tenella showed that parasites were destroyed within host cells during asexual development. most sporozoites failed to become trophozoites and were destroyed 30--72 hr after ingestion of oocysts. the drug also affected schizonts during initial nuclear replication by either destroyin ...1979448588
studies on site finding and site specificity of eimeria praecox, eimeria maxima and eimeria acervulina in chickens.sporozoites of 3 species of eimeria were introduced into the caecum of young chickens. e. praecox and e. maxima failed to develop in this site, but light infections of e. acervulina were detected. infection of the small intestine with all 3 species occurred when sporozoites were introduced via the caecum. infections were produced when mucosal scrapings of small intestine from birds, inoculated via the caecum 1-4 h previously, were inoculated orally to susceptible chickens. experiments with 51cr- ...19761012749
speciation studies with eimeria acervulina and eimeria mivati.eimeria mivati was described as a new species of chicken coccidia in 1964 by edgar and seibold, but recently some british workers have relegated its status to that of a variety of eimeria acervulina. using strains supplied by dr. edgar, we have prepared lines of e. acervulina resistant to methyl benzoquate, sulfaquinoxaline and robenidine and a line of e. mivati resistant to methyl benzoquate. genetic transfer of resistance between the various lines of e. acervulina to produce doubly-resistant c ...1978281483
effect of eimeria acervulina infection on nutrient retention with special reference to fat malabsorption in chickens.nutritional balance studies were conducted to determine the effect of eimeria acervulina infection on the retention of nutrients and the efficiency of utilization of protein and energy in the diet during the course of intestinal coccidiosis in chickens. both light and electronmicroscopic studies were conducted to elucidate the pathogenesis of fat malabsorption in the infected chickens. the infection with e. acervulina during the acute phase of the disease (day 4 to day 8 postinfection) caused a ...1975164990
[resistance of eimeria acervulina to statil, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide and acylinidrazone]. 19751114676
studies on the growth, chemotherapy and enzyme variation of eimeria acervulina var. diminuta and e. acervulina var. mivati.eimeria acervulina var. diminuta was serially passaged 12 times in chicken embryos, but growth in cultured chick kidney cells was limited to 2 generations of schizonts. after 7 embryo passages the sensitivities of e. acervulina var. diminuta and an embryo-adapted strain of e. acervulina var. mivati to the anticoccidial drugs amprolium, methyl benzyquate, robenidine and sulphaquinoxaline were compared. both parasites were sensitive to all the anticoccidials but e. acervulina var. diminuta was mor ...1977927885
energy and nitrogen metabolism of chickens infected with either eimeria acervulina or eimeria tenella.1. the effects of sublethal infections of e. acervulina and e. tenella on the energy and nitrogen metabolism of groups of five broilers aged 16 d were studied for 16 d in respiration chambers. 2. the metabolisable energy content of the diet for chickens infected with e. acervulina was 0.689 of its gross energy content and n retention was 42.5 g/100 g n intake compared with 0.738 and 47.1 g respectively, in uninfected pair-fed controls. chickens infected with e. tenella were similarly affected. 3 ...1979466523
energy and nitrogen metabolism of chickens subjected to infection and reinfection with eimeria acervulina.1. the effects of e. acervulina on energy and nitrogen metabolism were studied in respiration chambers on four groups of four broilers aged 16 d: group c was infected with 1.1 x 10(6) oocysts/bird on day 1 and fed ad libitum, while groups a, b and d were pair-fed to group c to day 16 of the experiment. on day 17, groups a and c were given 5.0 x 10(6) oocysts/bird and fed ad libitum, while group b was pair-fed to group a and group d was pair-fed to group c to the end of experiment on day 32. 2. d ...1979466524
effect of eimeria species on the appearance of radioactivity in the blood of chicks fed radio-labeled glucose or 3-0-methyl-d-glucose.results of five trials with four species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina, e. necatrix, e. tenella, and e. brunetti) failed to demonstrate any interference with glucose absorption in the parasitized intestines of intact chick hosts. in addition, circulating blood radioactivity in severely parasitized chicks, as evidenced by weight gain data and intestinal lesion scores, was significantly higher than that in control chicks following oral administration of 14c-glucose or 3-0-methyl-d-14c-glucose at ...1979530906
efficacy of arprinocid against coccidiosis of broilers in battery and floor-pen trials.medication of broilers with arprinocid [9-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenylmethyl)-9h-purine-6-amine] gave protection against the effects of coccidiosis in both battery and floor-pen trials. in battery trials, efficacy was tested on single-species inoculations of eimeria acervulina, e. mivati, e. necatrix, e. maxima, e. brunetti, and e. tenella. two strains of each species recently recovered from the field, were tested separately. in floor-pen trials, all six species, both field and laboratory strains, w ...1978646762
structure and mode of function of the organelles associated with nutrition of the macrogametes of eimeria acervulina.the macrogamete of eimeria acervulina, lay and developed within the host cell in a parasitophorous vacuole. the cytoplasmic membrane of the host cell bordering the vacuole was not smooth, but it had numerous folds extending into the vacuole. these "intravacuolar folds" varied in depth and number in different sections. in some, the majority of the folds were disconnected from the host cell. once disconnected, they evidently disintegrated forming the amorphous, particulate material present in the ...19751114870
immune responses to infections with coccidia in chickens: gut hypersensitivity.sporulated oocysts or oocyst hulls of eimeria acervulina given via the crop, and oocyst juice or sporozoites inoculated directly into the intestinal lumen, were tested for their effects on the hypersensitivity of the intestines of immunized and susceptible birds. only viable sporozoites consistently caused an increase in the permeability of the immunized intestine to macromolecules, shown by the leakage of intravenously injected dye. repulsion of epithelium and disruption of the villi were seen ...19751202410
anticoccidial activity of narasin in battery raised broiler chickens.the anticoccidial activity of the ionophorus antibiotic narasin was tested against six species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina, eimeria mivati, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, eimeria brunetti, and eimeria tenella) in battery-raised broilers. feeding ration medicated with 60, 80, or 100 ppm narasin significantly improved weight gains during the periods of d 0 to d7 and d 0 to d 14 (d 0 = day of inoculation with sporulated oocysts), compared with the weight gains in corresponding inoculated gro ...1979530901
incidence of chicken coccidia from broiler houses in japan, 1973-1977.a survey was made on the incidence of coccidial oocysts in 11,365 fecal samples from japanese broiler houses during five years from 1973 to 1977. the eimerian species were identified by a combination of two methods, examination of oocyst morphology and chicken passage test. oocysts were detected from 7,526 (66.2%) of the samples tested during five years. annual variation was statistically significant at the 5% level. coccidial incidence during july to september (corresponding to summer season) w ...1979506554
[epizootiological and parasitological status of the flocks at a poultry combine].a comprehensive epizootiologic study has been carried out at one of the large poultry dressing combines in this country. results have shown that the part played by infections as against the remaining diseases established in the various technologic categories is as follows: 9 to 23.8 per cent in growing parents; 16.0 to 24.6 per cent in adult parents; and 4.8 to 13.4 per cent in broilers. so far as parasitic diseases are concerned the respective figures are 3.2 to 9.9 per cent, 3.0 to 3.3. per ce ...1976960544
effect of coccidiosis on the distribution of dietary lutein in the chick.a series of experiments was run to determine whether the distribution of dietary carotenoids in chick plasma and tissue was dependent upon a saturable carrier, and to observe how infection with eimeria acervulina affected this distribution. broiler (hubbard x hubbard) and sex sal (rhode island red x white rock) chicks were fed a white corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with varying levels of a commercial lutein concentrate. plasma, small intestine, and liver were analyzed for lutein. ...19921409229
eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, and e. maxima: pathogenic effects of single or mixed infections with low doses of oocysts in chickens. 19761269585
fine structure and development of schizonts, merozoites and macrogamonts of eimeria acervulina in the goblet cells of the duodenal epithelium of experimentally infected birds.the fine structure of trophozoites, schizonts, merozoites and macrogamonts of eimeria acervulina found in goblet cells of the duodenal epithelium of chicks is described and compared with the corresponding stages formed in other epithelial cells. complete schizogony, with the formation of mature merozoites, occurred freely in goblet cells. developing macrogamonts (but no microgamonts) were rarely found in goblet cells. the stages observed were confined to the cytoplasm of the host cell above t ...19751128924
the immunity arising from continuous low-level infection with eimeria maxima and eimeria acervulina.chicks were given daily inoculations of 1 or 5 oocysts of eimeria maxima or 5 or 20 oocysts of e. acervulina. the inoculations ceased after 20 days with e. maxima or 25 days with e. acervulina when oocyst production had stopped. the responses to subsequent heavy challenges showed that with both species the immunity arising from the serial inoculations was stronger and/or more enduring than that produced by single inoculations of comparable numbers of oocysts.19761256908
sporozoites of eimeria acervulina within intestinal macrophages in normal experimental infections: an ultrastructural study.sporozoites of eimeria acervulina were observed in macrophages of the intestinal epithelium 5 and 6 days post-infection. these sporozoites lay within a well developed parasitophorous vacuole, were normal in structure and showed no signs of development. macrophages harbouring sporozoites showed considerable structural changes, most pronounced being an absence of lysosomes, an enlarged nucleolus and extensive proliferation of the golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum. possible mechanisms of surv ...19761266287
prevalence of eimeria acervulina, eimeria necatrix, eimeria brunetti and eimeria tenella in georgia (usa) as demonstrated by immunity challenge techniques.eimeria acervulina, e. necatrix, e. brunetti and e. tenella were found to be widely distributed in north-east georgia. 2. using immunity challenge techniques 17 flocks from 12 to 72 weeks of age showed significantly lower lesion scores for the first three species compared with susceptible control flocks similarly challenged. only one flock was found to be susceptible to e. tenella. no mortality occurred in the field flocks after challenge while 20 to 60% mortality occurred in the susceptible con ...1977890528
infections with eimeria maxima and eimeria acervulina in the fowl: effect of previous infection with the heterologous organism on oocyst production.judged by oocyst production, infections with eimeria acervulina in birds immunized with e. maxima were consistently higher than in birds which had not been immunized. oocyst production of e. maxima in birds previously infected with e. acervulina was greater, in three out of four experiments, than in control chickens, but some of the differences were slight. the findings are discussed but no satisfactory explanation can be offered. in general there was little or no difference between the oocys ...19751168890
colostrum from cows immunized with eimeria acervulina antigens reduces parasite development in vivo and in vitro.experiments were undertaken to determine whether passive immunization utilizing hyperimmune bovine colostrum (hbc) specific for eimeria acervulina (ea) antigens conferred protection against coccidiosis in chickens. the hbc was produced by immunizing three pregnant, nonmilking jersey cows with ea antigens administered via one intramuscular injection followed by three intramammary infusions at approximately 10, 8, 6, and 4 wk before parturition. one cow was immunized with sporozoites (sz), the sec ...19921454682
influence of coccidiosis on salmonella colonization in broiler chickens under floor-pen conditions.the influence of coccidiosis on colonization of salmonella typhimurium in broiler chickens under floor pen conditions was studied by semiquantitative methods. chickens of two groups, unmedicated and medicated with nicarbazin (125 ppm via the feed), were exposed to three species of eimeria (eimeria tenella, eimeria maxima, and eimeria acervulina) at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age and given s. typhimurium in the feed 2 days later. salmonella typhimurium was isolated most often (100%) from ceca of chickens ...19921539023
scanning electron microscopy of the duodenal mucosa of chickens infected with eimeria acervulina.the morphology of the duodenal mucosal surface of chickens infected with eimeria acervulina has been studied on days 5, 6, 8 and 11 post-infection and compared with that of the normal duodenal mucosa using the scanning electron microscope. the normal duodenum possessed tall, spatulate villi with horizontally-arranged surface clefts upon which a regular pattern of hexagonal absorptive cells and goblet cell mouths was superimposed. a maximum degree of villous atrophy was shown on day 5 post-infec ...19751187183
the effect of intestinal coccidiosis (eimeria acervulina) on blood and tissue ascorbic acid concentrations.1. two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of intestinal coccidiosis (eimeria acervulina) on blood plasma and tissue ascorbic acid (aa) concentrations in chicks, and a third experiment was carried out to examine the role of dietary aa in this infection. 2. experimental infection with intestinal coccidiosis (eimeria acervulina) brought about a depletion in the concentration of aa in blood plasma, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and the adrenal glands. generally, these changes wer ...1979486398
the formation and final structure of the oocyst wall of eimeria acervulina: a transmission and scanning electron microscope study.the formation and final structure of the oocyst wall of eimeria acervulina is described, based on a detailed electron microscope study of the maturing oocysts. after fertilization of the macrogametocyte the wall-forming bodies of type i progressively undergo disaggregation into smaller bodies and eventually move into spaces left by the pellicular membranes of the zygote, which simultaneously separate and elevate away from the zygote cytoplasm to form the outer layer of the oocyst wall. a newly f ...1978735306
eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, and e. maxima: immunity in chickens with low multiple doses of mixed oocysts. 19751204712
effect of coccidiosis on blood coagulation in broilers.severe infection with eimeria acervulina, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, and eimeria tenella increased the prothrombin times in broilers compared with the times in uninfected birds. recalcification time was not affected. the increase in prothrombin time was related to the severity of infection (as measured by lesion score), and was significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) only in the most severely infected birds. the increase was of short duration, lasting only 1 or 2 days, and first appear ...1978627969
influence of dietary aflatoxin on the severity of eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chickens.broiler chicks (hubbard x hubbard) receiving 2.5 microgram of aflatoxin/g of diet and inoculated with sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina gained significantly less weight than chicks receiving either aflatoxin or coccidia alone. aflatoxin alone affected body weight more in females than males. blood parameters, however, showed no sex-related differences to e. acervulina or aflatoxin. e. acervulina had no effect on packed cell volume, red cell number, or hemoglobin levels. gross lesions in th ...1978697658
anticoccidial activity of lasalocid in control of moderate and severe coccidiosis.the fermentation product lasalocid ("antibiotic x-537a," hoffmann-laroche) showed good anticoccidial activity when administered via feed at 50 or 75 ppm in a replicated floor-pen experiment. lasalocid was compared with monensin (121 ppm) ("positive control") and also with unmedicated ("negative") controls in pens heavily seeded or indirectly seeded with eight species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, e. hagani, e. maxima, e. mitati, e. necatrix, e. praecox, and e. tenella). under sev ...19751120028
some mechanisms of reduction of carotenoid levels in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina or e. tenella.the levels of plasma carotenoids were markedly reduced in broiler cockerels infected with eimeria acervulina or e. tenella. the mechanisms of this depigmentation differed between the two species, being primarily associated with interference of absorption of xanthophyll (carotenoids) from the intestinal lumen with e. acervulina infection and with leakage through the damaged wall of the cecum with e. tenella infection. chicks reared on an essentially carotenoid-free diet and inoculated with e. ace ...1975476
research note: immunity to eimeria in broilers reared on nicarbazin and salinomycin.the incidence of oocysts was monitored in the litter at two broiler farms where birds were reared to 8 wk of age using a shuttle program involving nicarbazin (from 0 to 21 days of age) and salinomycin (from 21 to 44 days of age). some birds from these farms were challenged with three species of eimeria to see whether immunity had developed as a result of prior exposure to infection. oocysts of at least three species of eimeria were present in small numbers in the litter. birds from both farms we ...19921561226
comparison of resistance level and circulating igg response in chickens experimentally inoculated with a multiple or single immunizing doses of eimeria acervulina.two immunizing methods (trickle or single immunizing doses) against e. acervulina were tested in chickens. the effects of immunization and challenge upon growth, oocyst output and circulating antibodies response (igg) were compared. neither immunization method produced pathogenic effects, similar numbers of oocysts were produced, and the levels of igg in serum were similar and low in each case. after the challenge, immunized birds showed a high level of resistance but susceptible controls produc ...19911789677
enzyme variation of eimeria acervulina and e. tenella isolated from poultry farms in japan. 19911790225
potential of a recombinant antigen as a prophylactic vaccine for day-old broiler chickens against eimeria acervulina and eimeria tenella infections.a genetically engineered eimeria tenella antigen (gx3262), produced as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase and identified with a monoclonal antibody, induced partial but significant protection in young broiler chickens against experimental e. tenella and eimeria acervulina infections. the antigen appears to share a t-helper cell epitope with the parasite as evidenced by (a) booster inoculation with either the recombinant antigen or with a small number of live oocysts enhanced the protective ...19921589958
eimeria acervulina: cloning of a cdna encoding an immunogenic region of several related merozoite surface and rhoptry proteins.a cdna encoding a recombinant eimeria acervulina antigen, designated eamzp30-47, that contains an epitope shared among several surface and rhoptry proteins of merozoites was characterized. the respective parasite proteins are between 30 and 47 kda as revealed by immunostaining of nitrocellulose membrane containing extracts of 125i-labeled merozoites. as indicated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic staining, the reactive epitope was localized to both the surface membrane and the ...19901690144
oocysts of eimeria in the litter of broilers reared to eight weeks of age before and after withdrawal of lasalocid or salinomycin.forty-six broiler houses were examined for the presence of oocysts of eimeria in the litter before and after withdrawal of lasalocid or salinomycin from the feed. a decrease in number of small oocysts (eimeria acervulina or eimeria mitis) was observed following withdrawal of medication. numbers of medium-sized oocysts (probably eimeria tenella) remained the same, but an increase in large oocysts (eimeria maxima) was recorded. no lesions attributable to eimeria tenella were found in the ceca of b ...19921523182
eimeria acervulina and e. tenella:effect on methionine absorption by the avian intestine. 19761261649
studies on the stage of action of lasalocid against eimeria tenella and eimeria acervulina in the chicken.broiler chickens in battery pens were either fed a diet containing 100 ppm lasalocid or no drug for 24 h prior to inoculation with sporulated oocysts of eimeria tenella or eimeria acervulina. different groups of birds remained on medicated feed for 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 or 144 h after inoculation. conversely, other groups started on an unmedicated diet, were given medicated feed at different times after oocyst inoculation. starting lasalocid medication 24 h (e. tenella) or 48 h (e. acervulina) aft ...19902251751
effects of major histocompatibility genes and antigen delivery on induction of protective mucosal immunity to e. acervulina following immunization with a recombinant merozoite antigen.intramuscular immunization with the recombinant p250 surface antigen of eimeria acervulina merozoite (reamzp250) or oral inoculation with live recombinant escherichia coli expressing the reamzp250 protein resulted in antigen-specific t-cell and humoral responses and conferred a significant reduction in mucosal parasitism compared to immunization with the negative control antigen preparation. among the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) (b)-congenic chickens receiving intramuscular immunizati ...19901698712
intestinal absorption of glycylproline in chicks infected with eimeria acervulina.the absorption of glycine and proline through the mid-intestines of chicks infected with eimeria acervulina was impaired when the amino acids were presented to the mucosal surface as the dipeptide, glycylproline.19911785435
eimeria tenella, e. acervulina and e. maxima: studies on the development of resistance to diclazuril and other anticoccidial drugs in the chicken.resistance to diclazuril was induced by 10 passages of the houghton strains of eimeria acervulina and e. tenella in chickens given progressively greater concentrations of the drug. this resistance was, however, not complete since the drug retained some efficacy against the drug-passaged lines. attempts to passage the houghton strain of e. maxima in birds medicated with concentrations of diclazuril greater than 0.016 parts per million (ppm) were unsuccessful and after 10 passages at this concentr ...19892556680
increase of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes expressing cd8 antigen following challenge infection with eimeria acervulina.eimerian infection-induced changes in the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte (iel) subpopulations expressing cd8 antigen (cytotoxic/suppressor t cells) or antigen-specific t cell receptor (tcr) heterodimer alpha beta (tcr2) or gamma delta (tcr1) were investigated in f2 crosses of 15i5 b-congenic chickens differing for the major histocompatibility complex (mhc). duodenum tcr2+ iel were increased in b2 b2 and b5 b5 chickens 7 days following secondary infection. two-color immunofluorescence reve ...19911830202
altered metabolism of carotenoids during pale-bird syndrome in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina.the progression of changes in carotenoid metabolism during pale-bird syndrome caused by a coccidial infection was investigated. male broiler chickens 15 days of age on a yellow corn and soybean meal-based diet were infected with eimeria acervulina oocysts and their serum, liver, and toe webs were sampled at 0, 4, 6, and 10 days postinfection for hplc analysis of carotenoids. at 4 days postinfection a drastic reduction (71%) in serum lutein, the main body carotenoid, and smaller reductions in liv ...19911956852
cross-protection against four species of chicken coccidia with a single recombinant antigen.a cdna clone, so7', from an eimeria tenella cdna library was inserted into the high-expression vector pjc264 and was expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein, chey-so7', with a molecular mass of approximately 36 kda. by using the purified recombinant antigen to immunize young chicks, it was demonstrated that a single dose, without adjuvant, not only protected against severe coccidiosis induced by infection with e. tenella but also protected chicks challenged with the heterologous specie ...19912004809
protective immunization against the intestinal parasite eimeria acervulina with recombinant coccidial antigen.the gene encoding an immunodominant eimeria acervulina merozoite surface antigen (eamz250) was expressed in bacteria as a fusion peptide with the galactose-binding protein (gbp) of escherichia coli. recombinant and control antigens were administered to 1-wk-old chickens by peroral inoculation with live nonpathogenic bacteria that were expressing gbp-eamz250 or gbp protein. the immunization elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses as measured by elisa and t-cell blastogenes ...19912047347
development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using x-irradiated eimeria acervulina oocysts.sporulated oocysts of the protozoan eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of x-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad x-irradiation. sporozoi ...19912015867
supplemental use of liquid amprolium in skip-a-day feeding of replacement pullets.the addition of liquid amprolium to the drinking water on days when medicated (amprolium) ration was not fed in a restricted feeding (skip-a-day) program improved protection against a primary exposure to eimeria acervulina and eimeria tenella, yet still allowed for the development of protective immunity to subsequent challenge. with e. tenella, the best protection, as measured by reduction of lesion score, was provided by amprolium given in the drinking water on alternate days to feed medication ...19912047345
eimeria spp. of the domestic fowl: resolution of chromosomes by field inversion gel electrophoresis.the molecular karyotypes of five species of chicken coccidia, viz., eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, e. maxima, e. necatrix, and e. tenella, were determined using field inversion gel electrophoresis (fige). each species has a distinctive set of resolvable chromosomes which range from about 1 to greater than 5.7 megabases. we were able to resolve at least 8 chromosomes for e. acervulina, 5 for e. brunetti, 10 for e. maxima, 6 for e. necatrix, and 9 for e. tenella. if the value of 67 megabases for ...19912015869
interactive effects of sodium zeolite a (ethacal) and monensin in uninfected and eimeria acervulina-infected experiment was conducted with 5- to 18-day-old arbor acres broiler chicks to evaluate the interaction of sodium zeolite a (nza) and monensin in uninfected and in coccidiosis-infected chicks. sodium zeolite a (0 and .75%) or monensin (0 and 121 ppm), or both, were fed to uninfected chicks or to chicks infected with 4 x 10(5) sporulated, eimeria acervulina oocysts, resulting in a 2-by-2-by-2 factorial arrangement of treatments. coccidial infection reduced (p less than .01) weight gain, feed int ...19902158650
immunization of chickens with live escherichia coli expressing eimeria acervulina merozoite recombinant antigen induces partial protection against coccidiosis.inoculation of chickens with live escherichia coli n6405 transformants containing a plasmid which encodes ampicillin resistance and an immunodominant p250 surface antigen of eimeria acervulina merozoites induced partial protection against challenge with live coccidia. the inoculation with e. coli transformants induced antigen-specific immunoglobulin and cell-mediated immune responses. challenge with infective oocysts of eimeria acervulina enhanced both immune parameters, indicating that administ ...19892663723
electrophoretic and immunologic characterization of proteins of merozoites of eimeria acervulina, e. maxima, e. necatrix, and e. tenella.merozoites of eimeria acervulina, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, and eimeria tenella were compared by gel electrophoresis, western-blotting with chicken antiserum, indirect fluorescent antibody reactions, and antiserum neutralization. merozoites from the 4 species had dissimilar patterns of proteins and antigens in soluble and membrane fractions. coomassie blue staining of sds-page gels revealed 16-22 protein bands depending on the species of merozoite but only 3 bands per species in the memb ...19921738074
benzylated 1,2,3-triazoles as anticoccidiostats.substituted 5-amino-4-carbamoyl-1,2,3-triazoles 3a-w were prepared by two synthetic schemes and evaluated in vivo for anticoccidial activity. both schemes proceeded by brominating appropriately substituted toluenes 4a-s,v to 5a-s,v. in scheme i, the brominated benzyl analogues 5 were converted to the corresponding benzyl azides 6, which were treated with cyanoacetamide to yield 1-substituted-5-amino-4-carbamoyl-1,2,3-triazoles 3. in scheme ii, the benzyl halides 5 were employed to alkylate the s ...19911895303
ultrastructural localization of antigenic sites on sporozoites, sporocysts, and oocysts of eimeria acervulina and eimeria tenella by monoclonal igg and igm antibodies.immunoelectron microscopy was used to study the localization of monoclonal igg (13.9 and 15.84) and igm (10.84) antibodies generated against eimeria tenella sporozoites on sporozoites, sporocysts, and oocysts of eimeria acervulina and e. tenella. a uniform layer of ferritin was present on sporozoites of e. tenella fixed chemically before the addition of 10.84, 13.90, or 15.84 (called prefixed), whereas postfixed (fixed chemically after exposure to monoclonal antibody) sporozoites lacked ferritin ...19892465400
characterization and vaccine potential of a novel recombinant coccidial antigen.a cdna clone derived from sporulated oocysts of eimeria tenella and encoding the expression product gx3262 was identified using a monoclonal antibody raised against eimeria acervulina sporozoites. the cdna fragment containing the coccidial antigen gene was cloned in bacteriophage lambda gt11, transferred to a plasmid, and introduced into escherichia coli for analysis of the gene products. the strain carrying the plasmid produced gx3262 as part of a fusion protein consisting of the first 1,006 am ...19892659532
interaction of low-pathogenicity reoviruses and low levels of infection with several coccidial species.various combinations of reoviruses and coccidia were studied to see if interactions would occur. two reoviruses were used: virus 2035, a moderate to low pathogen, and virus 2177, a nonpathogen. coccidia used were eimeria acervulina, e. mitis, and e. maxima at dosages of 10(3) or 10(4) sporulated oocysts/chick and e. brunetti at 10(4) sporulated oocysts/chick. in hubbard-hubbard cockerels, a combination of virus 2035 and e. acervulina (10(4) oocysts/chick) or e. maxima (10(3) oocysts/chick) signi ...19853008695
concurrent infections with reoviruses and coccidia in broilers.these experiments investigated the interaction among two species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina and e. mitis) and three strains of reovirus (virus 2035, a weak to moderate pathogen; and viruses 2408 and 1733, severe pathogens). when reoviruses were not present, high inoculation dosages (10(6) sporulated oocysts/bird) of both e. acervulina and e. mitis depressed weight gain, plasma pigment, and plasma protein. low doses of coccidia (10(4) oocysts) in the absence of virus had no such effect on we ...19852992439
cdna encoding an immunogenic region of a 22 kilodalton surface protein of eimeria acervulina sporozoites.cdna encoding an immunogenic region of a 22 kda surface protein of eimeria acervulina sporozoites was cloned and expressed in the bacteriophage lambda gt11 vector. the recombinant beta-galactosidase fusion protein, designated ma1, has an apparent molecular size of 125 kda. immunofluorescence staining of intact e. acervulina sporozoites and merozoites and immunoblotting of 125i-surface labeled protein from both stages revealed exclusive expression of the cloned cdna in the sporozoite stage. the g ...19892927444
characterization of a recombinant eimeria acervulina antigen expressed in sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages.a cdna from eimeria acervulina encoding an immunogenic region of antigens shared between sporozoites and merozoites was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. immunofluorescence staining of sporozoites, merozoites, and coccidial-infected intestinal tissue with monoclonal antibody used to detect the recombinant clone indicated that the epitope was present on internal parasite proteins. immunostaining of nitrocellulose paper containing protein from both asexual stages revealed numerous sporozoi ...19911710269
selection for resistance to monensin, nicarbazin, and the monensin plus nicarbazin combination.two series of experiments were conducted to assess the relative ability of strains of eimeria acervulina and eimeria tenella to develop resistance to monensin (mon), nicarbazin (nic), and the monensin plus nicarbazin combination (mon plus nic). the studies were designed so that drug concentrations in the selection experiments were increased whenever possible. during selection, e. acervulina increased its reproductive index in the presence of nic or mon plus nic, equivalent selection in the prese ...19902247409
serum and liver zinc, copper, and iron in chicks infected with eimeria acervulina or eimeria tenella.two-wk-old broiler chicks were inoculated via crop intubation with eimeria acervulina at two doses: 10(5) or 10(6) sporulated oocysts/bird or with eimeria tenella at a dose of 10(5) sporulated oocysts/bird. serum and liver samples were collected on days 3 and 6 post-inoculation (pi). there were no significant changes in serum or liver zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in any of the infected groups by 3 d pi. however, on d 6, pi serum protein was significantly reduced in all of the infected g ...19882484359
multiple concurrent stressors in chicks. 2. effects on hematologic, body composition, and pathologic traits.effects of multiple concurrent stressors on hubbard x hubbard chicks (days 10 to 17 posthatch) were studied in a 2(6)-factorial experiment employing as treatments aerial ammonia (a, 0 or 125 ppm), beak trimming (b, sham handled or beak trimmed/cauterized), coccidiosis (x, gavage with 0 or 6 x 10(5) sporulated eimeria acervulina oocysts), intermittent electric shock (e, 0 or between 2.9 and 8.7 ma), heat stress (h, 30.4 or 34.8 c), and continuous noise (n, 80 or 95 db). packed-cell volume (pcv) w ...19892748499
multiple concurrent stressors in chicks. 3. effects on plasma corticosterone and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio.effects of multiple concurrent stressors on female hubbard x hubbard chicks were studied in a 2(6)-factorial experiment that employed as stressor treatments aerial ammonia (a, 0 or 125 ppm), beak trimming [b, sham handled or beak trimmed/cauterized on trial day 1 (posthatch day 10)], coccidiosis (x, gavage with 0 or 6 x 10(5) sporulated eimeria acervulina oocysts), intermittent electric shock (e, 0 or between 2.9 and 8.7 ma), environmental heat stress (h, air temperature 30.4 or 34.8 c), and con ...19892748500
multiple concurrent stressors in chicks. 1. effect on weight gain, feed intake, and behavior.effects of multiple concurrent stressors on hubbard x hubbard chicks (days 10 to 17 posthatch) were studied in a 2(6)-factorial experiment that employed as treatments aerial ammonia (a, 0 or 125 ppm), beak trimming (b, sham handled or beak trimmed/cauterized), coccidiosis (x, gavage with 0 or 6x10(5) sporulated eimeria acervulina oocysts), intermittent electric shock (e, 0 or between 2.9 and 8.7 ma), heat stress (h, 30.4 or 34.8 c) and continuous noise (n, 80 or 95 db). all stressors, except noi ...19892748498
anti-coccidial activity of 2-picoline, 6-amino-4-nitro-, investigational drug (2-picoline, 6-amino-4-nitro-, 1-oxide) was evaluated to characterize the anti-coccidial spectrum of the compound. two concentrations of the drug (125 and 250 ppm) were evaluated for bioactivity; weight gain, survival, dropping, and lesion scores were the response variables utilized to ascertain activity. the activities of the picoline derivative were compared with monensin, maduramicin, and a narasin/nicarbazin (1:1) combination. the investigational drug had significant ...19892795373
effect of dietary sodium zeolite a and excess calcium on growth and tibia calcium and phosphorus concentration in uninfected and eimeria acervulina-infected chicks.two identical trials were conducted with 5 to 14-day-old broiler chicks. sodium zeolite a (nza, 0 and .75%) and ca (1.0 and 1.5%) were fed to both uninfected and eimeria acervulina-infected chicks resulting in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. coccidial infection reduced weight gain and gain:feed (p less than .01), and tibia ash, ca, and ca:p ratio (p less than .05). excess dietary ca reduced (p less than .05) weight gain and tibia ash in uninfected chicks but had no effect (p gre ...19892554269
eimeria acervulina: dna cloning and characterization of recombinant sporozoite and merozoite antigens.genes encoding antigens of eimeria acervulina were cloned from cdna expression libraries prepared from the sporozoite and merozoite stages in order to examine humoral and cellular immune responses to this protozoan parasite. two clones expressing surface antigens were characterized by dna hybridization studies to identify homologous genomic dna fragments. the proteins they encode were identified by 125i-labeling, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and t-cell activation experiments. one, designa ...19882835259
etiology and pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis.sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina were administered orally to cage-housed broilers at a dose of 3.5 x 10(5) resulted in mild subclinical coccidiosis. clostridium perfringens incorporated in feed at a level of 2.5 x 10(8) organisms/g. produced lesions characteristic of necrotic enteritis. mortality of 8% (7/80) occurred in birds fed a ration inoculated with cl. perfringens alone. mortality of 35% (28/80) was observed in birds which received an oral dose of e. acervulina and which were fed ...19852869608
genetic recombination of markers for precocious development, arprinocid resistance, and isoenzymes of glucose phosphate isomerase in eimeria acervulina. 19863469391
[analysis of losses due to subclinical small intestinal coccidiosis caused by eimeria acervulina and eimeria maxima under field conditions].subclinical coccidiosis of broiler chickens caused by eimeria (e.) acervulina and e. maxima results in a negative effect on feed conversion and retardation of growth. in the present report investigations in 80 broiler flocks are described in which the relationship between age of infection and economic effects were analysed under field conditions. under these conditions, infections with e. acervulina and e. maxima were found to have a negative effect on growth and feed conversion, that this negat ...19883176009
lysine and sulfur amino acid utilization in eimeria acervulina-infected chicks as affected by narasin.the effects of supplemental narasin (80 mg/kg) on several dietary factors were investigated in chicks infected with eimeria acervulina. in trial 1, chicks were fed a lysine-deficient corn-corn gluten meal diet containing graded increments of crystalline l-lysine.hcl with or without narasin. supplemental narasin increased weight gain and feed efficiency at all lysine levels fed. based upon slope-ratio methodology, efficiency of l-lysine utilization was virtually the same in both narasin-fed and c ...19873124089
toxoplasma gondii and hammondia hammondi: dna comparison using cloned rrna gene probes.a mung bean nuclease genomic library of purified dna from tachyzoites of the rh strain of toxoplasma gondii was prepared in the bacteriophage lambda gtll and recombinants containing rrna gene fragments were detected by hybridization with radiolabeled total rna from the closely related coccidian eimeria acervulina. ten recombinants were chosen at random, and five of these were investigated further using probes for the genes of the large and small rrna of plasmodium berghei. an insert (called tg4) ...19873034655
characterization of the growth response obtained from eimeria acervulina infection in chicks fed lysine-deficient diets.five assays were conducted with crossbred chicks to define the gain and feed efficiency response elicited when chicks fed lysine-deficient diets are infected with eimeria acervulina. crystalline amino acid diets that were either severely deficient in lysine (.12 or 20%) or adequate (.91%) were fed in the presence or absence of e. acervulina infection in the first four assays. in assay 5, intact protein-based diets (corn-corn gluten meal) containing either .43 or 1.44% lysine were used to study t ...19883132705
eimeria acervulina and eimeria tenella in 15.b-congenic white leghorns.six ea-b-congenic lines of chickens were used to study the role of the b histocompatibility complex in susceptibility and immunity to eimeria tenella and e. acervulina. the b haplotypes were 2, 2, 5, 12, 13, or 19. parental line 15i5 with the b15 haplotype (15i5-15) and a commercial white leghorn (cwl) line were also used. the b-congenic lines were generally less susceptible to e. tenella than the cwl line based on weight gain, cecal lesion score, plasma pigment, and packed cell volume. within t ...19892704696
influence of coccidiosis on growth rate and feed conversion in broilers after experimental infections with eimeria acervulina and eimeria maxima.under experimental conditions, the effects of subclinical eimeria (e.) acervulina and e. maxima infections on growth and feed conversion in broilers of different ages were analysed. it was concluded that infection with e. acervulina and e. maxima led to a process which was independent of the age at which the birds were infected. the infection adversely affected growth and feed conversion for 2 to 3 weeks, followed by a recovery period of 2 to 3 weeks when compensatory growth took place. from thi ...19883218068
the effect of eimeria acervulina infection on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in young broiler young broiler chicks inoculated with 2 x 10(6) sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina per bird, total plasma lipids were significantly depressed compared with controls in the first week after inoculation. the lowest level observed was at 5 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.), at which time the chick host is known to experience malabsorption in the chick host (ruff and wilkins, 1980). analysis of plasma components of infected chicks at 4 and 7 d.p.i. showed that triglycerides, total cholesterol, ...19883212927
response of 21 canadian field isolates of chicken coccidia to commercial anticoccidial drugs.coccidia were isolated from 30 broiler farms in major poultry-producing provinces of canada; 21 mixed-species isolates were tested for sensitivity to anticoccidial drugs. eimeria acervulina was identified in 20 samples, e. maxima in 15, and e. tenella in 10 of the mixed-species isolates. on the basis of weight gain after infection, 3 isolates were judged sensitive to amprolium, 5 to monensin, 9 to salinomycin, 14 to lasalocid, 19 to halofuginone, and 20 to nicarbazin. similar trends in sensitivi ...19892751568
eimeria acervulina: evaluation of the cellular and antibody responses to the recombinant coccidial antigens in b-congenic chickens.the roles of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) and non-mhc-linked genes in the genetic control of disease susceptibility and the development of protective immunity to eimeria acervulina infection were investigated in six 15i5-b congenic and four different strains of chickens characterized for the mhc. when oocyst production was assessed, wide variations were noted following initial and challenge infections among the strains of chickens tested. in general, 15.n-21, 15.p-13, b21, b19, sc, and ...19883263928
development and use of hybridoma antibodies directed against eimeria acervulina merozoites for cross-reactive and ferritin-labeling studies.hybridoma antibodies (hab) were produced against eimeria acervulina merozoites that had been separated from extraneous intestinal material by a fiber column technique before injection into mice. the hab demonstrated three different immunofluorescent-antibody (ifa) patterns of tip, surface, or surface-internal fluorescence in or on the merozoites. some hab reacted with round immature schizonts, which were also present in the fiber-cleaned merozoite material. variations in cross-reactivity were se ...19873555449
further investigation of the dietary protein and monensin level interrelationship in broiler chicks: influence of eimeria acervulina infection, increased dietary protein, and level of feed intake.three experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of several dietary factors on the monensin response in commercial broiler chicks fed corn-soybean meal diets varying in crude protein (cp). all experiments were conducted between 8 and 22 days posthatching. trial 1 had a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design wherein diets containing 16 or 24% cp and 0 or 121 mg/kg monensin were fed in the presence and absence of eimeria acervulina infection. the monensin-induced growth depression was greater at 16% ...19863797374
evaluation of interspecific hybrids of the chicken, guinea fowl, and japanese quail for innate resistance to coccidia.experimental chicken/guinea fowl hybrids, guinea fowl, and chickens were orally inoculated with eimeria acervulina or e. tenella, which are specific for chickens, or with e. grenieri, which is specific for guinea fowl. no intact oocysts were found in feces within 24 hr of inoculation, suggesting that excystation occurred in the normal and abnormal hosts. no oocysts were found in the feces of hybrids during a 9-day postinoculation period. the guinea fowl passed oocysts of guinea fowl coccidia (e. ...19873442527
cytochemical localization of acid mucosubstances within intestinal tissue stages of eimeria acervulina and e. necatrix. 19724111905
identification of immunodominant surface antigens of eimeria acervulina sporozoites and merozoites.immunodominant surface antigens of eimeria acervulina sporozoites and merozoites were identified by 125i-labeling and immunoblotting studies. using these methodologies 60% of the immunodominant sporozoite antigens and 90% of the immunodominant merozoite antigens were observed to be 125i-surface labeled. however, several major 125i-labeled sporozoite and merozoite proteins did not represent prominent antigens as measured by immunoblotting. immunodominant surface antigens were found over a wide si ...19873670346
ultrastructural studies of the effects of amprolium and dinitolmide on eimeria acervulina macrogametes.medication of chicks with 125 ppm amprolium or dinitolmide adversely affected oocyst sporulation of eimeria acervulina (weybridge strain). dinitolmide delayed oocyst production and no oocyst wall formation was seen up to 168 h post infection. both drugs caused large numbers of abnormally small wall-forming bodies to be produced in the macrogametes. in amprolium-fed chicks, abnormal oocyst wall formation was seen. it was concluded that the main drug action was against wall forming bodies of type ...19873615394
a cdna encoding a merozoite surface protein of the protozoan eimeria acervulina contains tandem-repeated sequences. 19883186453
evaluation of the efficacy of maduramacin ammonium in combination with roxarsone and avoparcin in caged broiler chickens.1. the anticoccidial activity of maduramicin ammonium (5 mg/kg food) administered alone or with roxarsone (50 mg/kg food) and/or avoparcin (10 mg/kg food) was evaluated in battery-reared broilers artificially challenged with recent field culture mixtures containing eimeria acervulina, e. maxima and e. tenella or e. mivati, e. necatrix and e. brunetti. 2. maduramicin ammonium exhibited a high degree of anticoccidial activity and the addition of roxarsone and/or avoparcin in food at recommended co ...19883409087
coccidial infections and gut microflora.oral inoculations of sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina, e. necatrix, e. brunetti, e. tenella, or none were given to five groups of 4-wk-old chicks. fecal samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, and 21 days postinoculation and total fecal aerobe, total fecal anaerobe, fecal lactobacilli, and fecal coliform concentrations were enumerated. fecal aerobe concentrations increased 10-fold during the period from 3 to 8 days postinoculation. fecal anaerobe concentrations had small increase ...19873684872
penetration of chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes by eimeria acervulina sporozoites. 19863632104
physiological responses of chicken gut tissue to coccidial infection: comparative effects of eimeria acervulina and eimeria mitis on mucosal mass, carotenoid content, and brush border enzyme activity.broiler chicks, 3 to 4 wk of age, were inoculated with either eimeria acervulina or e. mitis, and mucosal dry weights, brush border enzyme activities, and carotenoid contents as well as plasma carotenoid levels were measured at 3, 5, and 7 days postinoculation (pi). at 5 and 7 days pi mucosal dry weights, brush border enzyme activities, and carotenoid contents were significantly decreased at primary sites of infection (duodenum, e. acervulina; lower small intestine, e. mitis). in contrast, at si ...19873684853
does plasmodium gallinaceum induce relapse of eimeria acervulina infection in chickens?an experiment was carried out to test the hypothesis that chickens previously infected with eimeria acervulina, but having ceased producing oocysts, recommence e acervulina oocyst production when infected with plasmodium gallinaceum. no relapse of coccidiosis was caused by the malarial infection. subsequent treatment with the immunosuppressant betamethasone of the control chicks infected with e acervulina only did not reveal any occult coccidial infection. the results are critically compared wit ...19854070797
gut stasis in chickens infected with eimeria.the duration and locations of gut stasis were examined in chickens infected with either eimeria acervulina or e. maxima. gut passage time (gpt) was used to determine gut stasis. the location of feed retention was determined qualitatively and quantitatively. infections with both species were associated with increased gpt from days 5 to 13 postinoculation. feed appeared to be retained in the crop and gizzard of infected birds when judged visually. however, measurements of total dry matter retained ...19873588493
effects of eimeria acervulina on intestinal ph in conventional and gnotobiotic chickens. 19744205348
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