western blot analysis of antibodies to leishmania infantum antigens: potential of the 14-kd and 16-kd antigens for diagnosis and epidemiologic purposes.when infected with leishmania species, patients develop specific antibodies that constitute the basis of serodiagnosis. using western blot analysis, we studied the specificity of anti-l. infantum antibodies in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [aids]) and in healthy subjects living in an endemic area. sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis recognized numerous antigens that had a molecular mass range of 12-120 kd. the 14-, 16- ...19921281966
the isolation and cultivation of leishmania infantum from apparently normal skin of visceral leishmaniasis patients in northern pakistan. 19921287916
dog-transmitted zoonoses: a serological survey in the province of bologna.eight hundred and two sera of owned dogs from four small towns north-west of bologna were examined for the presence of antibodies against coxiella burnetii and leishmania infantum. at the same time, 149 sera of 69 dog owners from the same area were tested for the presence of antibodies to q fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis/hydatidosis and toxocarosis. of the 802 dog sera, 7 (0.87%) were positive for q fever. of the 69 dog owners, 24 (35%) were positive for q fever, 4 (6%) for echinococcosis/ ...19921303042
decreased sensitivity to meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) of leishmania infantum isolated from dogs after several courses of drug treatment.although unresponsiveness to antimonial drugs in human leishmaniasis appears to be increasing, resistance to antimony in leishmania is not well documented. treatment of leishmaniasis in dogs, the domestic reservoir of l. infantum, with meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) is a common practice in many mediterranean countries. the dogs, however, remain highly infective to the phlebotomine vectors, even after several courses of treatment. a study was therefore carried out to test the comparative susc ...19921304703
multiple forms of chromosome i, ii and v in a restricted population of leishmania infantum contrasting with monomorphism in individual strains suggest haploidy or automixy.we have resolved the molecular karyotypes of 22 leishmania infantum strains isolated between 1980 and 1988 in a restricted geographic area and belonging to zymodemes mon-11, -29 and -33. three strains were isolated from sandflies and all the others from human cutaneous lesions. a high degree of karyotypic homology is observed among these strains, contrasting with the highly polymorphic mon-1 strains isolated in the same area. we have analysed the time-dependent evolution of size variants of chro ...19921311052
hexadecylphosphocholine: oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in mice.hexadecylphosphocholine (he-pc), a novel phospholipid derivative, was tested against leishmania donovani and leishmania infantum, the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis. in vitro, promastigotes were highly susceptible to he-pc; the 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 0.89 and 2.25 micrograms/ml for the different leishmanial strains. in vivo, a marked antileishmanial activity in infected balb/c mice could be demonstrated after oral administration of he-pc. whereas parasite suppress ...19921329624
a kinetoplast dna probe diagnostic for leishmania infantum.a 196 bp fragment of cloned kinetoplast (k) dna of leishmania infantum has been sequenced and shown to be diagnostic for this species. the dna from 10(4)-10(5) promastigotes was routinely and specifically detected in crude dot blots of whole cells lysed in situ, and there was no cross-hybridization with 10(6) cells of l. major, l. tropica, l. killicki, l. aethiopica, l. braziliensis and l. mexicana. a low degree of hybridization was found with l. donovani and l. chagasi. this probe will be of pa ...19921331940
visceral leishmaniasis involving a cutaneous kaposi's sarcoma lesion and free areas of skin. 19921341457
two syntopic zymodemes of leishmania infantum cause human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the naples area, italy. 19921356308
leishmania infantum mon-98 isolated from naturally infected phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae) in el agamy, egypt.leishmania infantum zymodeme mon-98 was isolated in el agamy, egypt. a total of 15 (1.07%) leishmania-like infections in the anterior midgut and in the head was found in 1,405 phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu); none of 1,785 phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) was found infected. four of the 15 cultures (26.7%) were indistinguishable from a reference l. infantum mon-98 strain using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. the isolation and identification of l. infantum mon-98 from naturally infected p. la ...19921404272
macrophage activation by polymeric nanoparticles of polyalkylcyanoacrylates: activity against intracellular leishmania donovani associated with hydrogen peroxide production.nanoparticles of polyalkylcyanoacrylates (paca) can be useful carrier for the targeting of antileishmanial drugs into macrophages and also possess significant antileishmanial activity by themselves. no significant difference in antileishmanial activity could be detected between nanoparticles of five pacas with differing alkyl side chains, suggesting that the main degradation products of paca are not involved in their antileishmanial action. the effect of polyisohexylcyanoacrylate (pihca) on the ...19921409361
the significance of serum soluble il-2 receptor as a marker for active visceral leishmaniasis in sicilian patients.sera from nine sicilian patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (leishmania donovani infantum; vl), at the moment of the diagnosis, during the course of the disease and after clinical recovery, were analysed for the concentration of soluble il-2 receptor (sil-2r). the results show that sil-2r is a marker of disease activity, since it is in high concentration at the beginning of infection and returns to the normal range following successful chemotherapy. at the same time of serum analysis ...19921424277
a multicopy, extrachromosomal dna in leishmania infantum contains two inverted repeats of the 27.5-kilobase ld1 sequence and encodes numerous transcripts.leishmania dna 1 (ld1) is a 27.5-kb sequence that occurs as an inverted repeat in a 55-kb multicopy, circular dna in leishmania infantum itmap263. the sequence is also found with a different genomic organization, possibly a tandem array, within a 1.5-mb chromosome in all leishmania isolates. about 26 stable transcripts of ld1 sequence, ranging from 0.6 to 15 kb, are found in itmap263. transcripts were detected from both strands of the entire ld1 sequence, but the inverted repeat nature of the ci ...19921435875
demonstration of leishmania specific cell mediated and humoral immunity in asymptomatic elisa and a lymphocyte proliferation assay were used for the detection of anti-leishmania antibodies and parasite specific cellular immunity respectively in a preliminary study of canine leishmaniasis in oporto, portugal. a high rate of infection was found considering the comparatively small group sampled. of 34 dogs examined two had anti-leishmanial antibodies but their lymphocytes did not proliferate in the presence of leishmania infantum. conversely two dogs demonstrated antigen specific l ...19921437241
leishmaniasis diagnosed from bronchoalveolar lavage.a 51-year-old renal transplant patient, whose spleen had been removed 11 years ago, was admitted to hospital for elective surgery, which was cancelled as she developed spiking fever and nonproductive cough and her general condition deteriorated. after 2 weeks, leishmaniasis was unexpectedly diagnosed from a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen, which had been subjected to parasitological examination under the suspicion of pneumocystosis. isoenzyme typing identified the parasite as leishmania infantum ...19921465589
changes in the plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoprotein fractions in dogs infected with leishmania infantum.a study was made of serum concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol bound to high-density lipoproteins (hdl), hdl1-cholesterol, hdl2-cholesterol and cholesterol bound to low-density lipoproteins (ldl) in 16 dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum (zmon-1) taken from an endemic focus. results were compared with those of a control group of ten healthy dogs. statistically significant increases in cholesterol, triglyceride and ldl-cholesterol levels were obser ...19921466128
serodiagnosis and screening of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area of corsica: applicability of a direct agglutination test and immunoblot analysis.for effective control of visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum in the mediterranean area, the detection of infected dogs is of utmost importance. to assess the suitability of a direct agglutination test (dat) and immunoblot analysis in serodiagnosis and screening of infected dogs under field conditions, a study was performed on 113 dogs in an endemic area of corsica. twenty one of 22 parasitologically confirmed cases were correctly diagnosed by both tests, and 100% specificity was ...19921471734
sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis in north tunisia: identification of the causative agent as leishmania infantum by the use of a diagnostic deoxyribonucleic acid probe.a diagnostic kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) probe has been used to identify as leishmania infantum amastigotes taken from the lesions (in dermal fluid or lesion triturates) of 7 of 8 patients suffering from sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis in north tunisia. all 8 isolates were very difficult to culture but, subsequently, sufficient parasites of one isolate have been grown for isoenzyme typing, and were identified as zymodeme mon 24 of l. infantum. the advantages of using recombinant dna ...19921475816
isolation of leishmania infantum from the blood of a patient with aids using sandflies. 19921475819
pathological changes in kidneys of dogs with natural leishmania infection.a study was made of the nephropathy in canine leishmaniasis produced in ten adult dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum. renal function analyses were performed (uraemia, creatinaemia, plasma proteins, biochemistry and urinary sediment), the humoral immune response (fluorescent antibodies and levels of serum igg, igm and iga) was assessed and histopathological studies were carried out. correlation of the results showed acute renal insufficiency which was reversible in two animals (endo ...19921485420
humoral responses following immunization with leishmania infantum (ex. oklahoma): a comparison of adjuvant efficacy in the antibody responses of balb-c mice.adjuvants are commonly used in immunization protocols for the purpose of augmenting immune responses to antigens. the antigenic profile of leishmania infantum (ex. oklahoma) is described and the efficacies of three adjuvants delivered coincidentally with killed promastigotes are compared, by measuring relative serologic responses of balb-c mice to specific antigenic determinants. western blotting techniques were employed to visualize humoral responses to isolated antigens; serologic profiles wer ...19921512073
canine leishmaniasis caused by leishmania leishmania infantum in two labrador retrievers.canine leishmaniasis, a generally fatal parasitic disease, was diagnosed in 2 dogs with a medical history of foreign travel, lymphadenopathy, emaciation, anorexia, intermittent fever, and cutaneous lesions. clinically, hyperproteinemia, proteinuria, azotemia, and glomerulopathy were evident. isolation of leishmania species was done using schneider's drosophila medium. syrian hamsters were used for infectivity studies. clear taxonomic identification was done biochemically by isoenzyme analysis an ...19921515492
molecular characterization of a leishmania donovani infantum antigen identified as histone h2a.a leishmania donovani infantum promastigote cdna expression library was screened with a serum obtained from a dog naturally infected with this parasite. one of the positive clones obtained revealed nucleotide sequence similarities with the histone h2a genes from various organisms. northern blot analyses and sequence data of three independently isolated cdna clones indicated that the leishmania h2a mrnas are polyadenylated, as are the basal histone mrnas of higher eukaryotes and the histone mrnas ...19921555581
effect of fibronectin and interferon-gamma on the uptake of leishmania major and leishmania infantum promastigotes by u937 cells.uptake of leishmania major and leishmania infantum promastigotes by u937 cells was determined by microscopic observation and by using radiolabelled parasites. with both species we observed an increase in uptake after parasite pretreatments with fibronectin, and a decrease in uptake after cell pretreatment with interferon-gamma (ifn gamma). when both pretreatments were performed, the uptake was significantly decreased only in l. infantum experiments. these findings may be of some importance in th ...19921556959
induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by leishmania infantum in murine macrophages from different inbred mice strains.the present study was undertaken to determine whether the viscerotropic species, leishmania infantum, endemic in italy, could induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf alpha) in murine macrophages. genetically susceptible (lshs) and resistant (lshr) mice were used in the attempt to correlate tnf alpha production with the ability to control parasite growth and replication. resident peritoneal macrophages of c3h/hen, dba/2, cba (lshr), c57bl/10 and balb/c (lshs) mice were infected in vitro with prom ...19921560756
[parasitological and immunological progress control during and after chemotherapy of canine leishmaniasis].promastigote leishmania-organisms were diagnostically cultivated in vitro from popliteal lymph node aspirates obtained from 32 of in total 36 dogs returning from endemic areas. isoenzyme analysis (glucosephosphate-isomerase (gpi), phosphoglucomutase (pgm) and glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase (got) resulted in the identification of leishmania infantum (syn. leishmania (l.) infantum) for all 18 isolates investigated. parasites were still able to be cultivated in vitro in 79% of 28 biopsies (fro ...19921566026
identification and isolation of the leishmania transferrin a previous report, we have presented several lines of evidence, derived from widely different methodologies, suggesting that leishmania has specific receptors for transferrin with a kd similar to the mammalian transferrin receptor. this paper describes the identification, purification, and biochemical characterization of leishmania transferrin receptor. the leishmania transferrin receptor, detected on intact parasites by immunoperoxidase staining, was first identified by sodium dodecyl sulfat ...19921577747
canine leishmaniasis in the gargano promontory (apulia, south italy).we examined 444 dogs by visiting farms and peripheral districts on the gargano promontory (province of foggia, apulia, south italy). clinical examination and immunofluorescence antibody test for leishmaniasis were performed. bone marrow and lymph node samples obtained from 25 dogs with positive serological test were cultured on tobie-evans medium. the results obtained show both a higher seropositivity rate for canine leishmaniasis (14.4%) and a higher percentage of asymptomatic dogs with positiv ...19921644148
the amino aldehydes produced by spermine and spermidine oxidation with maize polyamine oxidase have anti-leishmanial effect.purified maize polyamine oxidase bound to hydroxylapatite was utilized as an enzymatic reactor to produce oxidized spermidine and spermine. the oxidation products showed a consistent inhibitory activity on leishmania infantum in mice. 1,3-diaminopropane showed a much lower activity. moreover chemically prepared 4-aminobutyraldehyde had a similar ed50 to that of oxidized spermidine. it is concluded that among the compounds arising from polyamine oxidation those with the greatest anti-leishmanial ...19911654929
evaluation of in-vitro leishmanicidal activity of hydrazones of thiophene carboxaldehydes against promastigotes of leishmania infantum and leishmania tropica.the lack of leishmanicidal drugs has prompted the synthesis and testing of new hydrazones of thiophene carboxaldehydes against three leishmania strains. the compounds were obtained by condensation of appropriate hydrazines with thiophene 2-carboxaldehyde (series 1), thiophene 3-carboxaldehyde (series 2), and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (series 3). leishmanicidal activity was assessed against promastigotes of leishmania strains, grown in-vitro in nutrient broth medium complemented with fres ...19911676064
trypanosoma cruzi: differential expression and distribution of an 85-kda polypeptide epitope by in vitro developmental stages.the expression by trypanosoma cruzi developmental stages of an 85-kda polypeptide epitope defined by the 155d3 monoclonal antibody (mab) has been investigated. immunoprecipitation revealed the presence of an 85-kda antigen in the np-40 soluble extract of parasites freshly released from infected fibroblasts; this antigen was not found in epimastigote and leishmania infantum promastigote. indirect immunofluorescence revealed that the mab 155d3 failed to react with trypomastigotes, whereas extracel ...19901695578
evidence of transferrin binding sites on the surface of leishmania promastigotes.a glycoprotein of 78,000 molecular mass (78 kda), associated with the membrane of leishmania infantum promastigotes, was identified and immunopurified by monoclonal antibody (mab) ld9 produced against isolated membrane preparations. mab ld9 was subsequently found to bind to human transferrin, also of 78 kda. binding of ld9 to transferrin was completely abolished when the mab was preabsorbed by leishmania membranes, thereby indicating that the 78-kda leishmania membrane-associated glycoprotein an ...19901702420
cutaneous leishmaniasis and leishmania infantum. 19911755077
putrescine uptake regulation in response to alpha-difluoromethylornithine treatment in leishmania infantum promastigotes.the putrescine uptake/efflux regulation and their regulatory role on intracellular polyamine pools have been studied in the parasitic protozoa leishmania infantum. putrescine uptake was age-dependent with maximal values in logarithmic phase promastigotes and minimal in stationary phase. moreover, putrescine uptake was activated in response to depletion of intracellular polyamines by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (dfmo)--a well known irreversible enzyme-activated inhibitor of ornithine decarboxyl ...19911791826
leishmania infantum: polyamine biosynthesis and levels during the growth of promastigotes.1. decarboxylation of polyamine precursors: l-ornithine and l-methionine was determined along the growth curve of leishmania infantum promastigotes in vivo, reaching maximum values on day 2 post-inoculum (mid-logarithmic phase). 2. maximum values of l-ornithine and l-methionine decarboxylation were: 1.97 +/- 0.28 nmol co2/hr/10(7) promastigotes and 3.18 +/- 0.34 nmol co2/hr/10(7) promastigotes, respectively. 3. total (free + conjugated) polyamine content was closely related with the proliferativ ...19911794446
a case of lingual and palatine localization of a viscerotropic leishmania infantum zymodeme in sardinia, autochthonous case of leishmaniasis of tongue and palate is reported from sardinia, italy. the parasite isolated from the lingual lesion was typed through the electrophoretic analysis of 14 isoenzymes and it was identified as leishmania infantum zymodeme mon 27.19911801144
[visceral leishmaniasis caused by a dermotropic strain of leishmania infantum in an aids patient].a case of fatal visceral leishmaniasis due to a dermotropic strain of leishmania infantum (zymodeme mon-24) is related in an aids patient in spite of a specific treatment.19911807852
[ecoepidemiology of leishmaniases in syria. 2--presence, in dogs, of leishmania infantum nicolle and leishmania tropica (wright) (kinetoplastida-trypanonomatidae)].in an ecoepidemiological study in the syrian foci of human visceral (vl) and cutaneous (cl) leishmaniasis, domestic dogs infected with leishmania infantum mon-1 and l. tropica mon-76 were found for the first time. in syria canine leishmaniasis caused by l. infantum, occurs in the humid and sub-humid western belt from the coastal zone to the nearby mountain ranges. sporadis cases of human vl occur in this area. canine cl, caused by l. tropica was found in the semi-arid zone in a village with a hi ...19911822655
[extension of the transmission area of kala-azar caused by leishmania infantum (nicolle 1908) to the center and south of tunisia].seventeen (17) parasitologically confirmed cases of infantile kala azar (ka) are reported from 1982 to 1991 in tunisia, in areas (gouvernorates of sidi bouzid, kasserine, sfax, gafsa and tozeur) where the disease has never (or exceptionally) been reported before. this tendency to the extension of the ka areas from northern tunisia to the central and southern parts could be explained by the ecological modifications that occurred in these zones following agriculture development programs that inclu ...19911824507
the development of leishmania infantum in phlebotomus langeroni nitzulescu (diptera: psychodidae).the extrinsic development of leishmania infantum was observed in phlebotomus langeroni the potential vector of visceral leishmaniasis in el-agamy, egypt. flies were infected with l. infantum isolated from the same area, using membrane feeding technique. flies were examined for infection at 1-10 days post-infection. the initial establishment of the parasites was in the posterior midgut region beginning at sixth day post-infection. parasites were first observed in the esophagus at day 8, and in th ...19911841208
experimental infections of a phlebotomus perniciosus colony using different procedures.flies of two colonies of phlebotomus perniciosus established in italy and spain respectively, were infected with a leishmania infantum isolate from spain. only p. perniciosus from spain was completely found susceptible to the infection. experimental infections of p. perniciosus from spain with the same l. infantum isolate were carried out using rpmi or pbs as infective feeding mediums. the results demonstrate that using pbs it is possible to re-feed a great quantity of infected flies.19911841239
the sandflies of algeria.twenty-two species of sandflies are known to be present in algeria: 12 phlebotomus and 10 sergentomyia. each species has its own ecological distribution except in the mountains of the central sahara where both mediterranean species and species of the ethiopian zoo-geographical area occur together. phlebotomus perniciosus and p. papatasi are the proven vectors of leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis and l. major cutaneous leishmaniasis respectively.19911841261
substrate-dependent ph optima of gp63 purified from seven strains of leishmania.the major surface glycoprotein of leishmania, gp63, is a membrane-bound metalloprotease. contradictory data supporting a neutral or acidic nature of this enzyme have been presented. seven strains of old and new world leishmania, including leishmania donovani complex (leishmania infantum and l. donovani), leishmania major, leishmania tropica and leishmania mexicana amazonensis were used for the purification and comparative study of gp63. the protein was extracted from promastigotes by phase separ ...19911857388
immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to leishmania donovani infantum polypeptides in human visceral leishmaniasis.using the immunoblot technique, we have compared the reactions of leishmania donovani infantum polypeptides with the immunoglobulin g of human sera from patients with parasitologically proven l. d. infantum infection, with suspected visceral leishmaniasis, and with other leishmaniases, protozoiases, helminthiases, and fungal or bacterial diseases. a 94-kda component reacted with all l. d. infantum-infected sera and with 75% of sera from patients with clinical and serological but no parasitologic ...19911885738
molecular probe for identification of trichomonas vaginalis dna.trichomoniasis is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases in the world. diagnosis can be achieved by several methods, such as direct microscopic observation of vaginal discharge, cell culture, and immunological techniques. a 2.3-kb trichomonas vaginalis dna fragment present in strains from diverse geographic areas was cloned and used as a probe to detect t. vaginalis dna in vaginal discharge by a dot blot hybridization technique. this probe was specific for t. vaginalis dna. it ...19911890171
saponins of the ivy plant, hedera helix, and their leishmanicidic activity.antileishmanial activity is reported for the first time for saponins of ivy, hedera helix l., in vitro on promastigote and amastigote forms of leishmania infantum and leishmania tropica. the compounds tested were an extract containing 60% of saponic complex (cs 60), the bidesmosides hederasaponin b, c, and d (saponin k10), their corresponding monodesmosides alpha-, beta-, and delta-hederin, and hederagenin. cs 60 and bidesmosides have shown no effect. monodesmosides were found to be as effective ...19911896525
a seroepidemiological survey on leishmania infantum infection.findings from a seroepidemiological survey of leishmania infantum (li) infection are presented. among residents in the province of rome, 2.7% (4.4% in the city of rome and 1% in the suburbs) of 374 adults were positive for specific li antibodies in indirect haemoagglutination studies. among 217 adult residents of caltanissetta province (sicily), 4.1% were positive for li antibodies (4.2% in caltanissetta city and 4% in the suburbs). serological tests for li antibodies were also carried out on st ...19911915791
long-range restriction maps of size-variable homologous chromosomes in leishmania order to clarify the interpretation of molecular karyotype polymorphisms in leishmania, the three smallest chromosomes from five cloned strains of leishmania infantum were identified by chromosome-specific anonymous dna probes. the presence in the same clone of homologous chromosomes of a different size was demonstrated. the chromosome size polymorphism appeared even more dramatic, with size variations affecting up to 20% of the chromosome, and the two smallest bands in one strain being equiv ...19911922200
a leishmania infantum enzymatic variant, causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in north tunisia. 19911949140
evidence of subjects sensitized to leishmania infantum on the french mediterranean coast: differences in gamma interferon production between this population and visceral leishmaniasis patients.the marseilles region is an endemic area for visceral mediterranean leishmaniasis, but although the number of dog cases, the parasite's main host, is very high, only a few people develop the disease. we looked for sensitized healthy subjects among 25 healthy individuals living in this area by studying their in vitro lymphoproliferative response to leishmania infantum antigens and gamma interferon synthesis. we found that 65% of tested subjects were sensitized against l. infantum. we compared the ...19911956699
an experimental model for canine visceral mixed-breed dogs were challenged with either promastigotes or amastigotes of leishmania donovani infantum strains recently isolated from naturally infected dogs. different routes and numbers of parasites were utilized and each dog was monitored for at least 1 year post-infection. anti-parasite specific antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbence, immunofluorescence, crossed-immune electrophoresis and western blotting on crude antigen. western blotting on two pure parasite ...19911956700
interclonal variations in molecular karyotype in leishmania infantum imply a 'mosaic' strain structure.the molecular karyotypes of 36 clones derived from 8 strains of leishmania infantum were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. although there appeared to be a high degree of genetic relatedness between the clones and the parent strain, a limited degree of polymorphism was noted in 50% of the clones, expressed mainly as the presence of an additional chromosome or as a chromosome size modification. repeated subcloning in one strain showed that chromosomal rearrangements could occur during ...19901971914
experimental transmission of leishmania infantum by the bite of phlebotomus perniciosus from switzerland.the possible role of the sandfly phlebotomus perniciosus in the transmission of leishmania infantum in southern switzerland was investigated. it was found that the syrian golden hamster (mesocricetus auratus) could be infected by the bite of experimentally infected p. perniciosus females from canton ticino, in southern switzerland. this showed that this sandfly species could indeed be a vector for l. infantum in this area. however, as the population density of p. perniciosus is relatively low in ...19901973022
renal involvement in canine leishmaniasis. a light-microscopic, immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic a prospective survey in the isle of elba, 413 dogs affected by naturally acquired leishmania infantum infection were identified out of a controlled population of 1,500 resident mongrel dogs. in all the 34 randomly selected dogs of different breed, age, and duration of disease, the presence of glomerular lesions which defined mainly two categories of glomerulonephritis (gn) was observed. the first group was characterized by mesangial-cell proliferation either with focal features (11 dogs), or ...19912046828
promastigote infectivity in leishmania infantum.different clones and subpopulations of clones of leishmania infantum were analyzed for their infective potential in vitro. infectivity for macrophage-like cells (p388d1) and the response to a challenge with normal human serum enabled a clear differentiation between infective and non/low-infective populations. the results were confirmed by determination of parasite burdens in the spleens of infected golden hamsters. long-term cultivation assays in vitro were used to test the influence of differen ...19912047365
synthesis and antileishmanial activity of some 1- or 2-(dihydroxyalkyl) and 3-(dihydroxyalkoxy)pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidines.several new derivatives of 4-amino-, 4,6-diamino- and 4-hydrazino-[3,4-d]pyrimidine dihydroxyalkyl substituted in the 1 or 2 positions, or dihydroxyalkoxy substituted in the 3 position have been synthesized. some of these compounds were evaluated for their activity against leishmania infantum in mice. the highest degree of antileishmanial activity was displayed by the 4-amino-1-(dihydroxyalkyl) derivatives which yielded parasite inhibition values nearly comparable with that of glucantime in a st ...19912054043
[leishmania infantum mon-1 isolated from phlebotomus perniciosus, in kabylia (algeria)]. 19902080833
leishmania infantum as a cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis. 19902096532
[cell fusion in leishmania (kinetoplastida, trypanosomatidae)].cell fusion in leishmania infantum and l. tropica was recorded by means of a camera and a video system. promastigotes were obtained from cultures in both cases. fusion began with attachment of the posterior extremities of two ovoid flagellates. complete fusion, with disappearance of adjacent cell membranes took about five minutes. in parallel, the flagella appear larger and shorter. these observations support the hypothesis of genetic exchanges suggested by analysis of dna and enzymatic proteins ...19902111197
amyloidosis in adrenal glands of hamsters experimentally infected with leishmania infantum.thirty 10-week-old hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with leishmania infantum amastigotes and were serially killed after 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 89-90 days. the adrenal glands of each of them were examined by means of light and electron microscopy. the cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland showed a progressive deposition of amyloid, selectively identified by both optical and ultrastructural techniques. it has been suggested that adrenal amyloidosis during visceral leishmaniasis is dire ...19902134376
[an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum in geokchań≠ district, azerbaijan ssr].a more than 60-case outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis was documented in the geokchań≠ district of azerbaijan between 1987 and 1988. the disease was noted in the rural areas only. all age groups were involved. the clinical picture of the disease was significantly different from anthropogenic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by l. tropica but similar to cutaneous patterns caused by l. infantum which was a prevalent pattern in the southern france. isoenzyme assay of the strain isolated in the geokch ...19902142993
[the identification of leishmania isolates obtained from patients and dogs with visceral leishmaniasis in the turkmen ssr].using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, 11 isolates have been detected by 8 enzymes (pgi, pgm, 6-pgd, mdg, g-6-pgd, me, alat, asat) from patients with visceral leishmaniasis and dogs in the turkmen ssr. the isolates were obtained from different areas of the republic varying in landscape and climatic conditions. the isolates were maintained by passages on golden hamsters. no long-lasting leishmania culture has been obtained on the nutrition medium for any of the isolates. parasite biomass wa ...19902149740
introduction of an improved direct agglutination test for the detection of leishmania infantum infection in southern improved direct agglutination test (dat) is assessed for the detection of leishmania infantum antibodies in man and in the canine reservoir in southern france. the test performance in 32 human visceral leishmaniasis patients was in agreement with the parasitological diagnosis and the immunofluorescence (ifat) results. in six patients diagnosed earlier as kala-azar cases, both dat and ifat revealed negative results. the specificity of the dat was reproduced in this study by the absence of cros ...19902199962
leishmania infantum mon-98 isolated from dogs in el agamy, egypt. 19902202105
[study of cellular immunity in patients with mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis].cellular immunity against leishmania infantum antigens was studied in visceral leishmaniasis patients and healthy subjects living in a endemic area. only the healthy subjects were ttl positive with production of gamma interferon, whereas the visceral leishmaniasis patients presented a transitory inhibition of their specific cellular response mechanisms.19902222009
[determination of circulating antibodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis by immunofluorescence test].using a gradient purified leishmania donovani infantum antigen, the sensitivity and specificity of the iif test in detecting anti-leishmania antibodies are investigated. the "purified" antigen increases the specificity and sensitivity of the iif test, at the same time, eliminating false positiviness caused by connective diseases, tuberculosis, etc.19902228038
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (leishmania) infantum: biochemical characterization.a vegetative mass in the right nasal cavity of a 62-year-old man from palma de mallorca, spain, was found to be due to leishmania. the organism was isolated in culture and characterized by in situ hybridization, southern blot hybridization, and isoenzyme analysis; it was thus demonstrated to be the most common enzyme variant 1 (mon 1) of leishmania (leishmania) infantum.19902267965
erosive colitis in experimental canine leishmaniasis.six 4 month-old beagles were inoculated with leishmania infantum, three of them intraperitoneally (group a) and the other three intravenously (group b). the animals from group a were killed at 109, 433 and 592 days after inoculation and animals from group b 109, 171 and 334 days after inoculation. at 350 days (group a) and 275 days (group b) after inoculation, dogs started to develop a chronic large bowel diarrhoea. at necropsy a diffuse colonic and rectal wall thickening of gradually increasing ...19902396485
putrescine transport system in leishmania infantum promastigotes.a transport system for putrescine in leishmania infantum (= l. donovani infantum) promastigotes has been identified and characterized by measuring the uptake of radioactively labelled putrescine. putrescine uptake was time- and temperature-dependent without any accumulation taking place at 0 degrees c. uptake of putrescine was maximal at ph values near neutrality. putrescine uptake showed an apparent km = 1.08 +/- 0.12 microm and a vmax = 1.74 + 0.62 pmol min-1 (10(6) cells)-1. the effect of met ...19892503722
visceral leishmaniasis: a seroepidemiological study of 289 children from endemic foci in azad jammu and kashmir by indirect fluorescent antibody technique.between january '85 and august '87, 22 cases of vl were seen at national institute of health, islamabad. three (14.6%) came from the previously known endemic region of gilgit, 15 (68.1%) from different localities in azad jammu and kashmir (aj&k), and 4 (17.3%) from neighbouring foci in nwfp and punjab. mean age of the patients was 4.2 years, (range, 10 months to 57 years) median 2.5 years and mode 2 years. high levels of leishmania antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescent antibody ...19892511344
in vivo effect of eflornithine (dfmo) and some related compounds on leishmania infantum preliminary in vivo method was used to test the effect of eflornithine (dfmo) and five related compounds on leishmania infantum amastigotes. treatment with 100 mg/kg sc for 5 days of leishmania infected balb/c mice yielded a parasite inhibition ranging from 56% (compound 2, "reverse arginine") to 85% (eflornithine), these values being lower than that obtained with the reference compound glucantime (93%). in long-term treatment (40 days) the two selected compounds, eflornithine and 3 ("reverse homoarginin ...19892517472
[visceral leishmaniasis in ordubad district, nakhichevan assr].visceral leishmaniasis (vl) focus in the ordubad district of the nakhichevan assr has become active for the last years. complex study of the focus, performed in 1985-1987, allowed to establish the following: vl causative agent, circulating in the ordubad district belongs to the leishmania infantum species. it was identified by isoenzymatic analysis (for 12 enzymes) and the adler serological test. disease cases prevailed in the upper part of the town of ordubad and were confined to a small area ( ...19892528672
analysis of renal immune-deposits in canine leishmaniasis. preliminary results.previous studies carried out on 34 dogs spontaneously infected by leishmania infantum showed the presence of kidney lesions characterized by immunologically mediated glomerular and tubular damage. glomerular immune-deposits were studied in 13 of these dogs. immunoglobulins were isolated from kidney tissues by acid elution; igg fractions from eluates, obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation, were subjected to clonotypic analysis by autoradiography after isoelectrofocusing (ief) using 125i radi ...19892535031
[similarity of the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis from iraq and leishmania tropica based on the molecular parameters of kinetoplast dna].restriction analysis demonstrated that the cleavage pattern of kinetoplast dna of visceral leishmaniasis causative agent from iraq was similar to that of the anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis causative agent leishmania tropica, and differed from that of the kinetoplast dna of leishmania infantum and l. donovani, typical visceral leishmaniasis causative agents. similarity was established both for maxi- and minicycle molecules of the kinetoplast dna. evolutionary relation between l. tropica an ...19892550756
a kinetoplast dna probe diagnostic for leishmania major: sequence homologies between regions of leishmania minicircles.a restriction fragment from a cloned kinetoplast minicircle dna has been shown to be diagnostic for leishmania major. this 402-bp taqi fragment has been used routinely (as a radiolabelled probe) to detect 10(4) parasites in simple dot blots, both experimentally and in epidemiological surveys. it positively identified all stocks of l. major tested (including all six known zymodemes) and showed very low homology to kinetoplast dna (kdna) and chromosomal dna of leishmania infantum and leishmania tr ...19892558320
study on genetic polymorphism of leishmania infantum through the analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of kinetoplast dna.twenty-nine leishmania infantum strains characterized by different host source, tropism and belonging to 6 zymodemes, were examined by restriction enzyme analysis of kinetoplast dna (kdna) using 15 endonucleases. the enzymes which produced only one fragment revealed full identity between all the strains examined, while those producing many bands gave different electrophoretic patterns. they were interpreted with the aid of numerical analyses (cluster and multifactorial analysis). the results sho ...19892558337
successful in vitro isolation and cultivation of italian dermotropic strains of leishmania infantum sensu lato. 19892603211
[leishmania infantum mon-24 cutaneous leishmaniasis observed in grassa (alpes-maritimes) in a tunisian child]. 19892624379
[eco-epidemiology of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the yemen arab republic. i. presence, in sympatric condition, of leishmania infantum and leishmania donovani complexes].in complement to a previous survey, the authors proceed to the analysis of strains isolated from visceral human and canine leishmaniasis. finally, among eight human strains isolated and identified with an enzymatic method, seven belong to the leishmania donovani complex and one to the l. infantum complex. the l. donovani complex is represented by the mon-31 and mon-83 zymodem. the first one is also present in saudi arabia and ethiopia. the second one, corresponding to a small variant, pleads for ...19892633874
application of a direct agglutination test for detection of specific anti-leishmania antibodies in the canine reservoir.a direct agglutination test (dat) for detection of visceral leishmaniasis in humans has been developed. in this study, it was evaluated for applicability to detection of infections in dogs, a reservoir species. the reliability of the test was improved by treating the test sera with 0.2 m 2-mercaptoethanol and incubating them at 37 degrees c. sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 98.9% when the test was used on serum samples from 220 dogs, including 26 with parasitologically confirmed canine l ...19892685025
[leishmania infantum mon-98, a new zymodem isolated from human visceral leishmaniasis in egypt (el agamy)]. 19892735704
visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).in an 8-month period nine patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection were diagnosed as having visceral leishmaniasis; all diagnoses were based on cultures (eight from bone marrow and one from the skin). visceral leishmaniasis developed before full-blown acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) in seven patients and at the same time as or after aids in the other two patients. three patients had a history of leishmaniasis. clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were atypi ...19892742248
chromosome size and number polymorphisms in leishmania infantum suggest amplification/deletion and possible genetic exchange.we have studied the molecular karyotypes of 21 strains and 14 clones of leishmania infantum using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge). we detected a high degree of polymorphism within this species, with 'strain-specific' patterns for most isolates, even within a restricted endemic area. variations relate to both the size of chromosomes (270-2600 kb) and their number, which can vary from 24 to 31 between closely related isolates. this polymorphism does not correlate with isoenzyme analysis. s ...19892770788
vaccination trial against canine visceral leishmaniasis. phocean veterinary study group on visceral a double-blind study 393 seronegative dogs, residing in a holoendemic area for leishmania donovani infantum infection, were randomly assigned to an immunization with a partly purified l.d. infantum-derived preparation, or received adjuvant only. during the first year of the study period the rate of infection was significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the control one (p less than 0.05), but this difference disappeared during the second year (p = 0.44). since a similar immunizatio ...19892780090
[simultaneous presence in dogs of 2 zymodemes of the leishmania infantum complex].the concomitant presence of two zymodemes of the leishmania infantum complex. mon-1 and mon-77, is reported in a dog with diffuse leishmaniasis. the zymodemes were present in both the skin and lymph nodes. possible explanations for the presence of the two zymodemes are discussed.19892817695
the promastigote surface protease of leishmania donovani infantum in the midgut of phlebotomus perniciosus. 19872892377
honeydew of aphids as a source of sugar for phlebotomus ariasi.wild-caught phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, starved until their sugar meals had been digested, were caged for 24 h with plants or plants infested with aphids and then tested for fructose, a constituent of plant sap. no evidence was found that the flies took sap directly from nine types of plants present in their habitat. about two-thirds of flies caged with oak (quercus ilex l.) infested with an aphid [lachnus roboris (l.)] and about a fifth kept with leaves of the french bean (phaseolus vulgaris l. ...19872979545
leishmania infantum infection rates in phlebotomus perniciosus fed on naturally infected dogs under antimonial treatment.dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum nicolle were treated with three courses of meglumine antimoniate. changes were observed in the dogs' clinical signs, antibody titres and in infection rates of phlebotomus perniciosus newstead fed on the dogs. a large reduction in the sandfly infection rate was observed for 4-5 months after the first treatment. the use of antimonial drugs is advocated for the control of canine leishmaniasis and to reduce risks of l.infantum transmission.19872979550
the life expectancy of phlebotomine sandflies: first field estimates from southern france.1. a field study of phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, the vector of leishmania infantum nicolle in southern france, addressed the following questions: is it possible to estimate reliably the life expectancy of this sandfly; can spatial or temporal variation in the life expectancy be detected, and is such variation significant for disease transmission? 2. life expectancy was estimated by examining follicular relics in the ovaries of more than ten thousand females caught in light traps at seven sites in ...19872979558
structural and ultrastructural hepatic changes in experimental canine leishmaniasis.six 4 month-old beagles were inoculated with leishmania donovani infantum, three of them intraperitoneally (group a) and the other three intravenously (group b). the animals from group a were killed 109, 433 and 592 days after inoculation and animals from group b 109, 171 and 334 after inoculation. the liver of each of them was examined by means of light and electron microscopy. the lesions observed in both groups were very similar, but developed more rapidly in group b. a chronic hepatitis appe ...19882980240
evolution of the genus leishmania as revealed by comparisons of nuclear dna restriction fragment patterns.restriction endonuclease dna fragment patterns have been used to examine the relationships among 28 isolates of leishmania as well as crithidia, endotrypanum, and trypanosoma cruzi. fragments of nuclear dna were generated with six restriction enzymes, and blots were hybridized with probes from three loci. among the major lineages the fragment patterns are essentially completely different, while within the major lineages various degrees of divergence are found. molecular evolutionary trees were c ...19873025876
specific serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis by indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis.the increased prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs in mediterranean countries has necessitated use of a reliable specific method of immunodiagnosis. research was carried out on 88 dogs, among which were 26 with severe clinical leishmaniasis (group a), 15 with mild signs of disease (group b), and 11 without signs of disease (group c); in addition, 15 were healthy (group d) and 21 were affected with various other diseases (group e). dogs of groups d and e were used as controls. infection was confir ...19883052194
studies on canine leishmaniasis control. 1. evolution of infection of different clinical forms of canine leishmaniasis following antimonial treatment.81 dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum in the isle of elba, italy, were treated with meglumine antimoniate (glucantime). 36 of them (45.5%) were asymptomatic cases. 4-24 months after treatment the dogs were clinically and serologically examined; the recovery rates were 47.2% for asymptomatic cases, 33.3% for oligosymptomatic cases, and 11.1% for symptomatic cases. furthermore, treatment had prevented the development of patent disease in 90% of non-recovered asymptomatic cases, where ...19883076714
[humoral response in leishmania infantum clinical infections].we sought a specific humoral response in man in order to find an antigenic marker of leishmania infantum infection. this study was carried out by the western blot technique; 42 sera from human patients were analysed on a standard electrophoretic pattern (sds-page) of l. infantum antigens. patient sera reacted specifically with 4 (160-, 140-, 94- and 79-kd) antigens, and reactive antibodies were igg. we suggest that these antigens may be used for diagnosis of l. infantum visceral leishmaniasis.19883166748
ribosome-inactivating proteins from plants inhibit ribosome activity of trypanosoma and leishmania.ribosomes from trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and from leishmania infantum were isolated and optimal conditions for in vitro translation were established. the effect of ribosome-inactivating proteins extracted from several plants was then assessed in order to identify those suitable for the preparation of immunotoxins against these organisms. ribosomes from both species were inactivated by some ribosome-inactivating proteins (dianthins, saporins, pokeweed antiviral proteins, and the ribosome-ina ...19883183997
natural infections of phlebotomine sandflies with trypanosomatidae in central and south a survey of leishmania infections of phlebotomine sandflies caught in central and south italy in 1986, zymodeme mon-1 (montpellier 1) of leishmania infantum was isolated from phlebotomus perniciosus and l. tarentolae [= trypanosoma platydactyli?] was isolated from sergentomyia minuta, providing for mainland italy the first direct proof of these long-suspected parasite-vector associations. the roles of p. perfiliewi and p. perniciosus in the transmission of leishmania spp. in italy are discuss ...19883188148
vaccination and treatment trials against murine leishmaniasis with semi-purified leishmania antigens.antigens with molecular weight ranges of 94-67 kda (lif2), 30-20 kda (lif5), or below 20 kda (lif6), isolated from lysates of leishmania infantum promastigotes by electroelution from polyacrylamide gels were injected into mice which were genetically either partially resistant (c57bl/6) or susceptible (balb/c) to leishmania infection. one month after the completion of the intravenous (c57bl/6) or subcutaneous (balb/c) schedules, the mice were challenged with 1 x 10(3) l. major promastigotes. all ...19883232174
isolation and typing of leishmania infantum from phlebotomus neglectus on the island of corfu, greece. 19883232178
[clinico-epidemiologic forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in tunisia].from an analysis of 1,546 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis collected throughout tunisia three clinico-epidemiological forms could be determined. these forms are due to three different species of leishmania and are observed in different geographical areas. sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (scl), 63 cases. this form is found in northern tunisia, in known foci of kala-azar. 96% of the patients have a single, small, ulcerated and crusty lesion on the face surrounded by an important zone of infiltrat ...19883242407
identification of monomeric and oligomeric forms of a major leishmania infantum antigen by using monoclonal antibodies.ten monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against isolated leishmania infantum membranes were used as probes of l. infantum membrane antigens. western blots of l. infantum membranes, sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized and heated at 100 degrees c before analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, showed that all 10 mabs recognized a band at 58 kilodaltons (kda). however, when solubilized membranes were not heated, 2 of the 10 mabs recognized, in addition to the 58-kda b ...19883281902
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