phosphofructokinase of leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis and its role in was shown in an investigation of the phosphofructokinases of leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis that both enzymes are similar to that of crithidia fasciculata. although the enzymes are allosteric with respect to their substrates and require amp for activation, there is no influence by other heterotropic modifiers. the mg2+-atp chelate activates these enzymes in a first order process and they can be inhibited by free atp. the inhibition is reversed by the activator, amp, in a comp ...197718601
leishmania in phlebotomid sandflies. vii. on the taxonomic status of leishmania peruviana, causative agent of peruvian 'uta', as indicated by its development in the sandfly, lutzomyia longipalpis.the name leishmania peruviana was given by velez (1913) to the parasite responsible for a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis known as 'uta'; this disease occurs in the peruvian andes. clinical similarities between uta and 'oriental sore', which is caused by leishmania tropica of the eastern hemisphere, have, however, led to the suggestion that uta is simply due to l. tropica, which was introduced into latin america by african slaves or european immigrants. leishmania species are divisible into thre ...197943976
quantitative estimation of leishmanial antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the response to immunization against leishmania braziliensis in rabbits was followed by measurement of antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), passive hemagglutination, complement fixation, and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis. passive hemagglutination and complement-fixation titers were interpreted according to standard methods, whereas elisa exact titers were derived by the equation y = a-b log x, which describes the straight line that results when absorbances are plotted ag ...1979387886
the noguchi-adler phenomenon: an ultrastructural study of the effects of homologous antiserum on the growth of promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis and leishmania hertigi hertigi.a light and electron microscope study was made of the agglutinated bodies formed on growing promastigotes of a leishmania b braziliensis and a l. h. hertigi strain in their homologous antisera to determine the role of leishmanial excreted factor (ef) in the noguchi-adler phenomenon, since the l. b. braziliensis strain produced a demonstrable ef, whereas the l. h. hertigi strain did not. promastigotes of l. b. braziliensis, when grown in high concentrations of homologous antiserum, formed noguchi ...1979395912
the surface membrane of leishmania. ii. energy dependent agglutination of leishmania braziliensis by concanavalin a. 1977416634
leishmania braziliensis and leishmania mexicana: experimental cutaneous infections in golden hamsters. 1979437020
metabolism of pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidines in leishmania braziliensis and leishmania donovani. allopurinol, oxipurinol, and 4-aminopyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine.leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis grown in culture formed millimolar concentrations of allopurinol ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate from [6-14c]allopurinol. in addition, allopurinol 1-ribonucleoside, oxipurinol riboside 5'-monophosphate, and three new metabolites of allopurinol, namely, 4-aminopyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate and the corresponding di- and triphosphates (1-ribosyl 4-aminopyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine 5'-diphosphate and 1-ribosyl 4-aminopyrazolo(3 ...1979438170
the effect of peritoneal macrophages from mice injected with leishmania braziliensis on the in vitro growth of tumor cells.leishmania braziliensis reportedly is capable of producing a reduction in the growth of solid and ascites murine leukemia and lymphomas. the possibility that the inhibitory effect on the ascites tumor was produced by the activation of the macrophage peritoneal cell population was explored. it was observed that adherent cells from the peritoneal cavity of l. braziliensis injected mice caused a marked inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the 6c3hed lymphoma and el-4 leukemia cells. this eff ...1979489060
leishmania braziliensis: dissemination of panamanian strains in golden hamsters. 1979510440
in vitro infection of murine macrophage by leishmania brasiliensis. mechanism of penetration.the in vitro infection of peritoneal murine macrophages by a cultured pathogenic strain of leishmania brasiliensis was studied. by phase contrast and light microscopy it could be observed that l. brasiliensis is rapidly endocytosed by the macrophages and localized in the cytoplasm in a vacuole inside which it multiplies. by phase contrast and electron microscopy it was observed that l. brasiliensis enters the macrophage by the anterior end through which it first attaches to the cell membrane. th ...1977591111
observations on the in vitro cultivation of leishmania braziliensis. 1977592043
muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis: intradermal test with a promastigote suspension and a crude extract from leishmania braziliensis. 1977613434
purine metabolism in leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis.we have studied purine metabolism in the culture forms of leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis. these organisms are incapable of synthesizing purines de novo from glycine, serine, or formate and require an exogenous purine for growth. this requirement is better satisfied by adenosine or hypoxanthine than by guanosine. both adenine and inosine are converted to a common intermediate, hypoxanthine, before transformation to nucleotides. this is due to the activity of an adenine aminohydro ...1978719006
in vitro culture of leishmania brasiliensis in a semi-defined medium. 1978757727
epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama. iii. endemic persistence of the disease.endemic persistence of cutaneous leishmaniasis is described in el aguacate, a community established in the forest of central panama about 75 years ago. physiographic pecularities partially isolate el aguacate from other villages in the region. some of the original forest environment has been preserved and man-biting species of phlebotomine sandflies were abundant as was the two-toed sloth, choloepus hoffmanni, the principal reservoir host of leishmania braziliensis in panama. the inhabitants, as ...1976816214
isolation of leishmania braziliensis from a wild rodent in costa rica.leishmania braziliensis panamensis has been isolated in culture from one spiny-pocket mouse (heteromys dermarestianus) out of 43 examined, proving that rodents of this genus can be reservoirs of leishmania of the braziliensis complex as well as of mexicana in latin america.1977907043
differences in biological characteristics of three leishmania isolates from patients with espundia.two recent leishmania isolates from nasal lesions involving the mucosa, one from an autochthonous case from texas and one from a case from eastern peru, were compared with a reference strain of leishmania braziliensis from brazil for the biological characteristics which distinguish the l. braziliensis complex from l. mexicana. the characteristics of in vitro growth, pathogenesis in the hamster, and position of the promastigotes in the gut of vector sandflies were determined and compared with the ...1977907046
cultivation of leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis in defined media: nutritional requirements.nutritional requirements of promastigotes of leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis were studied in modifications of a simple defined culture medium. "continuous growth," considered as propagation through 10 successive passages, was supported by inorganic salts, 14 l-amino acids (arginine, cysteine, glutamine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine), glucose, adenosine, and a mixture of 11 vitamins and related ...1977915847
antileishmanial effect of allopurinol. ii. relationship of adenine metabolism in leishmania species to the action of allopurinol.allopurinol was shown to be effective in vitro against leishmania mexicana and leishmania donovani as well as against leishmania braziliensis. the major metabolic derivative of allopurinol in humans, oxipurinol, also is antileishmanial for l. donovani. the antileishmanial effect of allopurinol and oxipurinol can be specifically reversed by adenine, and its metabolic precursors and derivatives, but by no other purines or their derivative. it is proposed that the adenylosuccinate synthetase or the ...1977925380
natural cutaneous leishmaniasis among dogs in panama.a search for cutaneous leishmaniasis among dogs was conducted in several forest settlements of central panama from 1968 to 1973. a total of 11 (3.3%) of 333 animals examined was found infected and, in 9 of these, parasites were isolated in culture and characterized as leishmania braziliensis. infected dogs occurred in three settlements, one of which was free of human leishmaniasis. in the latter case, infections were acquired in the nearby forest during hunting excursions. ulcerated skin lesions ...1976943961
an electron microscopic and cytochemical detection of concanavalin a receptors on the cell membrane of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis.promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis quyanensis cultivated in the nnn medium agglutinate with concanavalin a (con a). the protozoon was agglutinated at different concentrations of con a. maximal agglutination was obtained with 150 mug/ml. three types of agglutination were observed: flagellar-flagellar, flagellar-body and body-body. cell surface polysaccharides, glycoproteins or glycolipids were demonstrated using the periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate technic. a con a-horserad ...1976961000
[miconazole per os in tinea and deep mycosis].for the last 6 years we have been using miconazole cream in the treatment of tinea and vaginal candidiasis. we think that it is at least as good as the best drugs for this purpose, but consider it difficult to decide about its superiority. therefore we refrain from describing this part of our experience in detail. we have employed miconazole "per os" at the daily doses of 24-28 mg./kg. in treating 3 cases of tinea corporis or cruris by "trichophyton rubrum". symptoms ceased in 3 days; mycologic ...1976988459
influence of leishmania brasiliensis on transplantable murine leukemia. 19761071169
the isolation of leishmania braziliensis from sloths in costa rica.eight out of 47 bradypus griseus and 14 out of 18 choloepus hoffmanni yielded positive cultures for flagellates from blood, skin, liver or spleen. in some cases, more than one species of flagellate was isolated from one animal or site. although amastigotes were obtained in tissue cultures from several isolates containing different types of promastigotes, only four of these strains (two from each species of host) were infective for hamsters and considered as leishmania braziliensis. infection wit ...19751155705
[comparative electron microscope studies on the labelling leishmania donovani, leishmania tropica and leishmania braziliensis with ferritin (author's transl)].the labelling of negative charges on the cell surface of the developing promastigote forms in leishmania donovani, l. tropica and l. braziliensis was determined using cationized ferritin and electron microscopy. ferritin deposits were seen exclusively on the pellicle, since they cannot penetrate the cell membrane. the ferritin particles were distributed in regular rows covering the whole cell surface. the mean diameter of the particles was 8.76 nm and at a magnification of 104.000 an average of ...19751216327
the surface membrane of leishmania. i. the effects of lectins on different stages of leishmania braziliensis.the infective stages of leishmania braziliensis, amastigotes and promastigotes subcultured a limited number of times, were agglutinated by ricinus communis agglutinin and concanavalin a. these results suggest that terminal ligands similar or identical with alpha-d mannose, alpha-d glucose (specific receptors for con a), and alpha-d galactose (specific receptor for rca) are present in the surface membrane of l. braziliensis. noninfective promastigotes from the same stock, but subcultured approxim ...19751237556
letter: metastatic spread of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis to the extremities of hamsters. 19761265829
epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama. i. epidemics among small groups of settlers.epidemic of cutaneous leishmanniasis among a small group of people established in a panamanian forested area was studied. the first settlers arrived in june 1971, and by june 1973 there were 37 persons, 33 of whom had no previous history of the disease. epidemiological surveys were made in june 1973 and march 1974. the disease developed in 14 (42.4%) of the 33 susceptible persons by june 1973, with an exposure time ranging from one to 14 months. the last case occurred in april 1973, and no new c ...19761267510
epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama. ii. incidental occurrence of cases in non-endemic settlements.epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out in a settlement in the bayano region, republic of panama, during 1971-72. this settlement was established about 12 years earlier for the purpose of cattle raising by small groups of settlers. the primary forest was cut and cleared and the area planted with grass. the presence of active cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among humans and animals, both domestic and ferals, was investigated. in addition, phlebotomine sandflies were c ...19761267511
the action of oxamniquine on leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in hamsters. 19761273408
effect of natural naphthoquinones in balb/c mice infected with leishmania amazonensis and l. venezuelensis.plumbagin, 3,3'-biplumbagin and 8,8'-biplumbagin are naphthoquinones isolated by activity-directed fractionation from a bolivian plant, pera benensis, used in folk medicine as treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis. balb/c mice were infected with l. mexicana or l. venezuelensis and treated 24 h after the parasitic infection with plumbagin (5 or 2.5 mg/kg/day), 3,3'-biplumbagin, 8,8'-biplumbagin (25 mg/kg/d) or glucantime (200 mg/kg/d). lesion development was the c ...19921293723
ten years of occurrence of human leishmania viannia braziliensis (lvb) infections in farms around três braços, bahia-brazil. 19921308071
montenegro skin tests in dogs experimentally infected with leishmania (viannia) braziliensis. 19921308548
leishmania braziliensis spp. in the nasal mucosa of guinea pigs inoculated in the tarsi.two lots of 20 young male guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously in the tarsi with 10(4) amastigotes of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis or l. b. guyanensis to study the susceptibility of this neotropical hystricomorph rodent the autochthonous parasites. almost 50% of the animals showed lesions in the inoculation site and had parasitizations that were infective to hamsters, as shown by inoculating homogenates of the dermal lesion, of the spleen, of the liver, and of the nasal mucosa into ...19921308558
development of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis vianna, 1911 in lutzomyia intermedia (lutz & neiva, 1912) (diptera:psychodidae:phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.the development of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in experimentally infected lutzomyia intermedia, showed colonization of the hindgut from 48 h after the infective blood-meal, and the migration of flagellates to the foregut, with a massive infection of the cardia at the 5th day post infection. up to 10 days following the infective blood-meal, very few parasites were seen in the pharynx and cibarium. the role of l. intermedia as a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis is discussed according to the ...19921308569
placebo-controlled clinical trial of sodium stibogluconate (pentostam) versus ketoconazole for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in determine the relative efficacy and toxicity of stibogluconate and ketoconazole for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a comparative trial was conducted in which 120 guatemalan men with parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: sodium stibogluconate (20 mg of antimony per kilogram per day intravenously for 20 days), ketoconazole (600 mg per day orally for 28 days), and placebo. treatment outcome was influenced by species. among ...19921311351
sodium stibogluconate (pentostam) overdose during treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis.a 27-year-old woman who acquired cutaneous leishmaniasis in central america was inadvertently treated with 10 times the intended daily dose of the pentavalent antimonial compound sodium stibogluconate (pentostam): 8500 mg (143 mg/kg) instead of 850 mg. the patient felt "wiped out" during the 4-h infusion of the drug. after the mistake in dosing was discovered, she was vigorously hydrated and carefully monitored in an intensive care unit for greater than 48 h. her vital signs were stable, and no ...19921314873
drug resistance in leishmaniasis: its implication in systemic chemotherapy of cutaneous and mucocutaneous disease.we report that in vitro sensitivity to pentavalent antimony (sb5) of 35 leishmania isolates as determined by the semiautomated microdilution technique (samt) showed an 89% and 86% correlation with clinical outcome after pentostam and glucantime treatment, respectively. these results suggest that in over 85% of the cases, the clinical outcome of treatment (cure or failure) could have been predicted by using the samt technique. furthermore, the results clearly indicate that drug resistance is a pr ...19921322070
glucantime resistant leishmania promastigotes are sensitive to pentostam.growth inhibition in vitro tests were used to study the susceptibility to pentostam of different leishmania strains involved in cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis--one glucantime sensitive strain, three naturally glucantime resistant strains and one glucantime resistant line developed by in vitro drug exposure. contrasting with the high degree of glucantime resistance, all strains were sensitive to pentostam. these differences suggest that there is some relationship between chemical struc ...19921340539
immunopathology of american cutaneous leishmaniasis.american mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a granulomatous disease clinically characterized by ulcerated skin lesions that can regress spontaneously. a small percentage of the affected individuals can however develop a severe destruction of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal and/or laryngeal mucous membranes many years after the healing of the primary lesion. the human immune response to the infection and the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disease, determining either the self-heali ...19921342704
ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) in a focus of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in northeastern colombia.the phlebotomine sand fly fauna of two coffee plantations in a leishmania-endemic area of norte de santander, colombia was studied. regular insect collections using a variety of methods were made for three and a half years. information was obtained on diurnal resting sites, host range and seasonal abundance for 17 species, of which five (lutzomyia spinicrassa, lu. serrana, lu. shannoni, lu. ovallesi and lu. gomezi) were far more numerous than the others, anthropophilic and present throughout the ...19921343648
dispersal of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) in a colombian focus of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis.dispersal of five species of phlebotomine sand flies was studied in a coffee plantation near arboledas, colombia, by mark-release-recapture studies using fluorescent powders. the estimated recapture rate for males of lutzomyia shannoni marked and released during the day was 28.1%, significantly higher than that for all other species (p < 0.05). recapture rate of female lu. shannoni was 9.5%, and no females of the other four species were recovered. this suggests either that lu. shannoni is a more ...19921343649
further observations on lutzomyia ubiquitalis (psychodidae: phlebotominae), the sandfly vector of leishmania (viannia) lainsoni. 19921343653
disseminated american muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in a patient with aids: a case report.the authors report a case of culture-proven disseminated american muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in an hiv positive patient. lesions began in the oropharynx and nasal mucosa eventually spreading to much of the skin surface. the response to a short course of glucantime therapy was good.19921343662
immunoprophylaxis in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 19921357486
diagnosis of new world leishmaniasis: specific detection of species of the leishmania braziliensis complex by amplification of kinetoplast dna.we have sequenced single kinetoplast dna minicircles from three species and part of a minicircle from the fourth major species within the leishmania braziliensis complex. alignment of these sequences with each other and with those of other kinetoplastids allowed the selection of a pair of oligonucleotides suitable as primers in a polymerase chain reaction which is highly specific for the leishmania braziliensis complex. the reaction is capable of detecting less than one femtogramme of kinetoplas ...19921359760
identification of new world leishmania using ribosomal gene spacer probes.dna probes from the nontranscribed ribosomal spacer (nts), of leishmania garnhami and leishmania braziliensis were constructed and tested for sensitivity and specificity against different leishmania isolates. the l. garnhami probes were species-specific under hybridization conditions of high stringency, but displayed specificity for the mexicana complex under conditions of intermediate stringency. the l. braziliensis probes showed 'complex' specificity. rflp for the nontranscribed spacer within ...19921361963
montenegro skin tests for american cutaneous leishmaniasis carried out on school children in rio de janeiro, brazil: an indicator of transmission risk.montenegro skin tests were carried out in 1985 and 1987 on two groups of school children in the city of rio de janeiro. group a consisted of 449 children residing in the jacarepagua district, in areas where transmission of human and canine american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) has been high; this group was considered to be the one at greatest risk of acquiring the infection through l. braziliensis. group b consisted of 282 children from bonsucesso, a suburb of rio de janeiro that is at a consid ...19921363175
american leishmania spp. and trypanosoma cruzi: galactosyl alpha(1-3) galactose epitope localization by colloidal gold immunocytochemistry and lectin cytochemistry.patients with chagas' disease or different clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous or visceral) have elevated galactosyl alpha (1-3)galactose antibodies. using colloidal gold immunocytochemistry--monoclonal antibody gal-13 (specific for lipid-linked galactosyl alpha (1-3)galactose residues) and anti-nidogen antibodies and lectin cytochemistry (bandeiraea simplicifolia ib4), both techniques specific for demonstrating galactosyl alpha (1-3)galactose residues--we have found terminal disaccharide ...19921370418
cell populations in the lesion of human cutaneous leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterize the in situ cellular immune response in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (lcl), the authors studied frozen skin biopsies from 50 patients with lcl due to leishmania braziliensis guyanensis. a panel of 31 monoclonal antibodies was used, which defined the number and distribution of inflammatory cell subsets. skin inflammatory infiltrates were composed of t cells (with a local cd4/cd8 ratio of 1.05 +/- 0.7 vs 1.48 +/- 0.3 in peripheral blood), macrophages and a smaller number of b ...19921413489
biological and chemical studies of pera benensis, a bolivian plant used in folk medicine as a treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.the stem barks of pera benensis are employed by the chimane indians in the bolivian amazonia as treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan leishmania braziliensis. the chloroform extracts containing quinones were found active against the promastigote forms of leishmania and the epimastigote forms of trypanosoma cruzi at 10 micrograms ml-1. the activity guided fractionation of the extract by chromatography afforded active compounds. their structures were elucidated, by spectral ...19921434690
[cloning of kdna minicircles in different species of leishmania and its use as probes for diagnosis].the present study describes the cloning procedure for fragments of kinetoplast dna minicircles from different leishmania species and its use for detecting the presence of these parasites. our methodology was as follow: the dna of the kinetoplast from leishmania mexicana amazonensis and leishmania braziliensis panamensis was extracted, purified and digested with the enzyme dra i. these fragments were cloned in the site for hinc ii in the plasmid pks. e. coli was the bacterial strain used for tran ...19921439001
cutaneous leishmaniasis in western venezuela caused by infection with leishmania venezuelensis and l. braziliensis variants.between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western venezuela, especially in the state of lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were l. braziliensis. most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, wh ...19921440772
isoenzyme characterization of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis isolates obtained from bolivian and peruvian patients.thirty-four leishmania isolates obtained from bolivian and peruvian patients infected with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis using 10 enzymatic markers; all belonged to the subspecies l.b. braziliensis. three isolates showed marked variation compared with the reference strain with respect to 5 or 6 enzymes. these variant isolates originated from patients with forms of the disease which were unresponsive to treatment.19921440812
haemoculture of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis from two cases of mucosal leishmaniasis: re-examination of haematogenous dissemination.leishmania parasites were isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes of 2 patients with mucosal disease among a total of 23 parasitologically confirmed cases of leishmaniasis. one had had mucosal leishmaniasis for 4 years and active pulmonary tuberculosis was also diagnosed. the other patient presented a cutaneous lesion on his right leg of 3 months duration and asymptomatic mucosal involvement. he had received intravenous antimonials before isolation of parasites. both patients had positive indi ...19921440813
lymphadenopathy associated with leishmania braziliensis cutaneous infection.lymph node involvement by leishmania during human cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported more than 90 years ago, but the importance of certain leishmania strains in such dissemination remains largely speculative. we have examined 36 consecutively untreated cutaneous leishmaniasis patients early in their disease; 66.7% had enlarged lymph nodes. patients with enlarged lymph nodes had higher anti-leishmania immune responses than patients without such involvement, both at the igg antibody level (mean ...19921449199
cellular and humoral immune responses of a patient with american cutaneous leishmaniasis and aids.the lymphocyte responsiveness to leishmanial antigens and its influence on the course of cutaneous leishmaniasis was studied in a patient with aids-associated american cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis. the patient had cutaneous disseminated erythematous papules or nodules and mucosal lesions as well as moniliasis and weight loss. the patient had a poor delayed-type hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigens, showing 3 mm of induration. the cellular immune responses were st ...19921475817
parasitic oligosaccharide residues recognized by patients with mucocutaneous and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.humoral immune responses were studied in 118 venezuelan patients with either active mucocutaneous (mcl) or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (lcl). most patients had elevated antibody levels to the six promastigote oligosaccharide residues studied: galactosyl(alpha 1-2)galactose, galactosyl(alpha 1-3)galactose, galactosyl(alpha 1-6)galactose, galactosyl(alpha 1-3)mannose, galactofuranosyl(beta 1-3)mannose, and galactocerebroside. significantly higher antibody levels were found in patients with m ...19921524141
the natural history of cutaneous leishmaniasis in guatemala.the natural history of american cutaneous leishmaniasis was studied in guatemala by analyzing the characteristics of 355 untreated leishmanial lesions, observing the evolution of 57 lesions on persons who received a placebo in treatment trials, and analyzing data from a population-based survey concerning the duration of 82 untreated lesions. of 25 lesions caused by leishmania mexicana that were followed prospectively, 22 (88%) completely reepithelialized by a median lesion age of 14 weeks, and 1 ...19921538157
refractory barriers in the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) to infection with leishmania panamensis.the life cycle of leishmania panamensis in phlebotomus papatasi was studied to characterize barriers limiting parasite colonization, differentiation, migration, and attachment in an unnatural sand fly host. the insects were fed a suspension of l. panamensis-infected macrophages and human erythrocytes, and were examined up to 16 days post-infection by light and electron microscopy. histologic examination of 401 flies showed the peritrophic membrane to be the first important barrier to parasite es ...19921539756
loss of the gp46/m-2 surface membrane glycoprotein gene family in the leishmania braziliensis complex.immunization with the gp46/m-2 membrane glycoprotein of leishmania amazonensis has been shown to induce a protective immune response against infection. we have surveyed a variety of trypanosomatid species and genera for the presence and expression of this gene family, information that will be relevant to future vaccine studies against leishmaniasis. molecular karyotype analysis revealed the presence of gp46/m-2 genes in all members of the leishmania mexicana complex, leishmania major, leishmania ...19921542309
the 70-kda heat-shock protein is a major antigenic determinant in human trypanosoma cruzi/leishmania braziliensis braziliensis mixed infection.five sera from bolivian individuals chronically infected by trypanosoma cruzi, and suffering an active leishmania braziliensis braziliensis metastatic mucocutaneous lesion were characterized. they reacted with the t. cruzi recombinant antigens that are currently used as chagas diagnostic reagents, and with several l. b. braziliensis proteins as assessed by western blot. these sera showed an intense reaction with a t. cruzi and an l. b. braziliensis polypeptide of about 70 kda. expression cloning ...19921548032
failure to develop homologous immunity to a second challenge with leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in the black-plumed marmoset (callithrix penicillata). 19921566300
isolation of leishmania braziliensis from lutzomyia ovallesi (diptera:psychodidae) in guatemala.leishmania braziliensis is endemic in guatemala and belize in central america. to help identify the vector(s) of this parasite in guatemala, phlebotomine sand flies that were aspirated from the clothing of collectors at tikal national park in the department of the peten were examined for flagellates. lutzomyia ovallesi was found infected with flagellates that were identified as l. braziliensis by isoenzyme electrophoresis. the isoenzyme profile of this isolate matched those from humans from the ...19921575293
[a case of leishmaniasis with isolated disease of the larynx].we report about a 63-year-old man with a mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. besides the rareness of the disease in middle europe the exceptional location in the larynx is remarkable.19921596316
[2 infectious granulomatous diseases (leprosy and cutaneous and mucous leishmaniasis) by scintigraphic methods].leprosy is a multiform chronic infectious granulomatous disease caused by mycobacterium leprae, that affects over 12 million people in the world. cutaneous and mucous leishmaniasis (cml) is also a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, caused by leishmania brasiliensis and transmitted to man by the mosquitoes of the phlebotominae family. it is a worldwide spread disease. we studied one case of borderline-wirchowian leprosy and 2 cases of cml with gallium-67 (ga-67) scintigraphy. ga-67 is a ra ...19921596960
transcribing and replicating particles in a double-stranded rna virus from leishmania.during the replicative cycle of many double-stranded rna viruses, transcription of particles with a double-stranded rna genome alternates with replication of particles containing a single-stranded genome. in virions infecting some strains of leishmania guyanensis the putative transcriptase and replicase activities of the rna-dependent rna polymerase were previously detected in vitro. northern hybridization to rna of known polarity demonstrates that the single-stranded rna products are of positiv ...19921620160
epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 puerto rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the panama canal area in july 1984. an epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in november and december 1984. fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. twelve cases yielded posi ...19921636883
efficacy and toxicity of pentostam against panamanian mucosal leishmaniasis.we tested the world health organization (who) recommended treatment for mucosal leishmaniasis in 16 panamanians with disease due to leishmania braziliensis panamensis. disease was mild in this population because it was limited to the nasal mucosa and only one patient had septal perforation. the patients were administered 20 mg antimony (in the form of pentostam) per kg intravenously each day for 28 days. ten patients completed therapy and were cured at 12 month follow-up. three patients complete ...19911645930
[results of montenegro's reaction in patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, from espírito santo state].the authors analysed the results of montenegro test in 402 patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis from espírito santo state, where the leishmania braziliensis braziliensis has been isolated from humans cases and dogs. the test was positive in 371 cases (92.2%) before treatment. the montenegro test given during or after treatment changed the results in 17 of 20 negative cases. the remaining 3 cases and 9 which changed the results had positives biopsies. it was demonstrated again the efficiency ...19911668537
characteristics of multidrug resistance in plasmodium and leishmania: detection of p-glycoprotein-like components.multidrug-resistance (mdr) in neoplastic cells is frequently characterized by the overexpression of p-glycoprotein (pgp), a 170 kda transmembrane glycoprotein that binds multiple cytotoxic drugs as well as calcium channel antagonists. chloroquine resistance in plasmodium falciparum appears to be analogous to mdr in neoplastic cells, where the induction of resistance with one drug confers resistance to other structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. to test the hypothesis that chloroquine re ...19911678253
a galactosyl(alpha 1-3)mannose epitope on phospholipids of leishmania mexicana and l. braziliensis is recognized by trypanosomatid-infected human immunoglobulin m antibody reactive with galactosyl(alpha 1-3)mannose [gal(alpha 1-3)man] residues present on phospholipids extracted from leishmania mexicana and l. braziliensis was found to be present in high titer in the serum of every normal individual studied. periodate oxidation, acid hydrolysis, or acetylation suppressed immunoreactivity, suggesting that an oligosaccharide chain was responsible for antibody binding. interaction occurs only with alpha-gal terminal residues, since treatme ...19901696285
modification of gp63 genes from diverse species of leishmania for expression of recombinant protein at high levels in escherichia coli.toward the future development of a defined subunit vaccine against leishmaniasis is, high levels of recombinant gp63 for diverse species of leishmania were produced in escherichia coli. several features of leishmania gp63 genes were simultaneously modified with the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using either cloned genes or total genomic dna from leishmania as template dna for the pcr amplification reactions. the pcr products included only the coding region for the predicted mature form of gp63 ...19911711153
immunocytochemical identification of leishmania and trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ with homologous and heterologous polyclonal antibodies.the unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was used to study the immunocytochemical properties of leishmania and trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ after tissues had been submitted to different fixation procedures. antisera were obtained from rabbits chronically infected with different strains of t. cruzi or immunized with l. mexicana amazonensis and l. braziliensis guyanensis, and were applied on 5 microns thick sections. t. cruzi antigens were well stained by the three anti-t. ...19911726128
determination of phagocytosis of leishmania spp. by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes using anti-leishmania monoclonal antibodies.phagocytosis of leishmania is an early event in the capacity of human polymorphonuclear cells to limit the spread of this infectious agent. we compared two methods to assess the phagocytosis of leishmania by pmn cells; the first using histochemical staining with wright or giemsa, and the second using the immunoperoxidase technique with anti-leishmania monoclonal antibodies. the quantitative results obtained with either of the cytochemical methods were comparable with the immunoperoxidase techniq ...19911727010
lrv1 viral particles in leishmania guyanensis contain double-stranded or single-stranded rna.the 32-nm-diameter spherical viral particles found in the cytoplasm of leishmania guyanensis cumc1-1a sediment at 130s and have a buoyant density of approximately 1.4 g/ml in cesium chloride gradients. these particles contain a 5.3-kb double-stranded rna, while single-stranded rna that corresponds to the viral positive strand is associated with less-dense particles. these results suggest a conservative and sequential mode of lrv1 viral rna replication that is exemplified by the scv l-a virus of ...19921738198
viruses of the protozoa. 19911741616
experimental american leishmaniasis and chagas' disease in the brazilian squirrel monkey: effect of dual infection on antibodies to parasite, laboratory-bred squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) were infected with either leishmania braziliensis braziliensis or l. b. panamensis and, 42 weeks later, they were challenge-infected with trypanosoma cruzi. another group of monkeys was infected with t. cruzi and challenged with l. b. braziliensis after 42 weeks. immunoblotting was used to examine parasite antigens bound by antibodies in plasma obtained from the monkeys during the course of primary and challenge infections. during primar ...19911743848
leishmaniasis vector potential of lutzomyia spp. in colombian coffee plantations.potential vectors of leishmania braziliensis vianna were assessed at four study sites in the mountainous valle del cauca, western colombia, from march to june 1989. in an active focus of transmission at 1450 m altitude, a coffee plantation at versalles, there were high densities of antropophilic phlebotomines: lutzomyia columbiana (ritorcelli & van ty) and lu.townsendi (ortiz), both in the verrucarum species group, and of lu.pia (fairchild & hertig). at a comparable altitude in a forest reserve ...19911768906
fluorimetric quantification of cell death in monolayer cultures and cell suspensions.a fluorimetric assay using ethidium bromide (eb) was employed to quantify cell death in monolayer cell cultures (ma-104 cells) in situ and isolated cell suspensions (isolated colonic cells and leishmania). fluorescence of eb stained cells was measured with a photometer coupled to an inverted microscope for cell monolayers or in a spectrofluorometer for cell suspensions. dead cells stained with trypan blue were fluorescent with eb in all preparations studied, but the latter gave an unequivocal si ...19911779095
molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding two major surface glycoproteins, gp63 and gp46/m2, hsp70, and beta-tubulin in cloned strains of several leishmania species.the molecular karyotypes of several leishmania isolates (leishmania amazonensis, leishmania braziliensis, leishmania guyanensis, leishmania panamensis, leishmania donovani, leishmania major, leishmania aethiopica, leishmania tropica, leishmania enriettii) have been analyzed by clamped homogeneous electric field (chef) gel electrophoresis. the chromosomal localization of genes encoding 2 major surface glycoproteins, gp63 and gp46/m2, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and beta-tubulin was determined ...19911779988
recovery of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis from hepatic aspirates of the black-plumed marmoset, callithrix penicillata. 19911780984
association of mucosal leishmaniasis with the search for genetic variability in individual susceptibility to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease caused mainly by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, hla typing was performed on 43 patients presenting mucosal lesions and 111 matched controls. antigen specificities of the hla-a, -b, -c, -dr, and -dq loci were determined and their frequencies in patients and controls were compared. there was a significant decrease in the frequency of hla-dr2 [1 out of 38 (2.6%) patients vs. 29 out of 10 ...19911783572
matrix remodelling and fibroblast phenotype in early lesions of human cutaneous leishmaniasis.the connective matrix participates directly in early pathological events observed in the cutaneous lesion of leishmaniasis, due to leishmania braziliensis guyanensis. a sample of 19 skin biopsies was examined by light and electron microscopy, in order to identify the matrix components (collagen isotypes i to iv, elastin and membrane associated proteins) of the dermal infiltrate, and the pattern of organization of the reparative connective matrix. an extensive remodelling process of apparently pa ...19911792187
human infection with trypanosoma cruzi and leishmania viannia braziliensis (lvb). a clinical perspective. 19911815292
cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, in pará state, brazil.leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, braga, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, 1989, was originally recorded from monkeys (cebus apella and chiropotes satanas), sloths (choloepus didactylus and bradypus tridactylus) and coatis (nasua nasua) and the sandfly, lutzomyia whitmani. with a panel of leishmania specific monoclonal antibodies, it was found that 30.5% of the leishmania strains from patients, who had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in pará state, were similar, but not identical to l. ...19911822654
conservation of cation-transporting atpase genes in leishmania.dna fragments isolated from leishmania donovani atpase genes were used to analyze the organization and expression of cation transporting atpase genes in l. donovani, leishmania tropica, leishmania mexicana, leishmania braziliensis, trypanosoma brucei and trypanosoma cruzi. the atpase loci in all leishmania species contained a tandem pair of atpase genes arranged in head-to-tail orientation and separated by approximately 2 kb. no restriction site polymorphisms were detected in the internal portio ...19911828863
vectors of leishmaniases in venezuela.information on the vectors of leishmaniases in venezuela is reviewed and updated. lutzomyia longipalpis is considered the vector of visceral leishmaniasis. lutzomyia ovallesi of the northcentral area is the only human feeding species from which parasites have been isolated and typed as leishmania braziliensis. in the andean region there is strong evidence that lu. youngi is the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis but the parasites require further identification. lutzomyia spinicrassa may be respon ...19911841212
[metacyclics of leishmania mexicana in the hypopharynx of lutzomyia youngi experimentally infected].although it has been postulated that the natural transmission of leishmaniasis occurs by regurgitation of the parasites from contaminated proboscis of phlebotomine vector recent experimental results seems to oppose this thesis. wild-caught and laboratory-reared females of lutzomyia youngi, vector of leishmania mexicana in the venezuelan andes, were infected on tarsal lesion of hamsters, inoculated 6 weeks previously s.c. with 2 x 10(4) amastigotes of l. mexicana s.l., isolated from venezuelan ca ...19911841249
vectors of leishmania braziliensis in the petén, guatemala.during a 1-year study, 13 species of sand fly were collected in bite-landing collections on human attractants in tikal, guatemala. using isoenzyme analysis, leishmania braziliensis was identified among isolates from lutzomyia ovallesi, lu. panamensis, and lu. ylephiletor. lutzomyia ovallesi, lu. shannoni, and lu. cruciata were found with flagellates whose isoenzyme patterns matched unidentified flagellates isolated from a patient with mucosal lesions.19911841251
lutzomyia ovallesi (diptera: psychodidae) as a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the search for vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the barro negro forest, duaca, lara state, venezuela, 4,864 wild-caught lutzomyia females were dissected and examined for promastigotes. natural infection was found in 25 (0.5%) lu. ovallesi. by biological parameters and enzyme electrophoresis all isolates from lu. ovallesi were indistinguishable from those obtained from humans and dogs in the same region. the isoenzyme profile of these isolates appear to indicate that strains were a hybrid ...19911841263
cutaneous leishmaniasis in the amazon region: natural infection of the sandfly lutzomyia ubiquitalis (psychodidae: phlebotominae) by leishmania (viannia) lainsoni in pará state, brazil. 19911842393
dna probes for distinguishing psychodopygus wellcomei from psychodopygus complexus (diptera:psychodidae).genomic dna fragments from males of psychodopygus wellcomei were isolated and shown to be useful as sensitive diagnostic probes for positively separating individuals of this species from those of ps. complexus. these two members of the ps. squamiventris series are found sympatrically in foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the hill forests of southern pará state. of the two species, only ps. wellcomei is thought to be an important vector of leishmania braziliensis sensu stricto, but this is based ...19911842400
an outbreak of human leishmania (viannia) braziliensis infection.the occurrence of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis among inhabitants of 10 farms within 10 km of the hamlet of corte de pedra, bahia, brazil was studied prospectively from 1984-1989. a mean population of 1,056 inhabitants living in 146 houses were visited every 6 months and the number of skin ulcers recorded. a leishmanin skin test survey was done people with suggestive skin scars or active disease in 1984. the incidence of skin ulcers due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis (lvb) reached 83/1,000 ...19911842411
leishmaniasis due to leishmania braziliensis in espírito santo state, brazil. further evidence on the role of dogs as a reservoir of infection for humans. 19911842452
[cutaneous leishmaniasis in amazonia: isolation of leishmania (viannia) lainsoni from the rodent agouti paca (rodentia: dasyproctidae), in the state of pará, brazil].the isolation of leishmania (v.) lainsoni is recorded for the first time from a wild animal, the rodent agouti paca (rodentia: dasyproctidae), from pará state, north brazil. isolates of the parasite were made from apparently normal skin of 3 specimens of this rodent captured on the island of tocantins, in the municipality of tucuruí, an area subsequently flooded in the formation of the lake associated with the tucuruí hydroelectric dam. no isolations were made from the viscera. identification of ...19911843391
clonal variation within a mucosal isolate derived from a patient with leishmania (viannia) braziliensis infection.three isolates over 5 years from a patient with persistent relapsing mucosal leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and 7 clones from one of these isolates were studied by zymodemes and serodemes analysis. results showed evidences of clonal phenotypic variation. eight isoenzymes markers demonstrated clear differences on cellulose acetate (ca) and thin starch gel electrophoresis. also a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies showed such differences. our observations provide addit ...19911844960
comparison on the performance of leishmania major-like and leishmania braziliensis braziliensis as antigen for new world leishmaniasis igg-immunofluorescence test.the performance of an antigen of l. major-like promastigotes for the serological diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the igg-immunofluorescent test was compared to that of an antigen of l.braziliensis braziliensis. each antigen was used to test two hundred and twenty-four sera of etiologies such as mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, deep mycoses, toxoplasmosis, malaria. chagas' disease, visceral leishmaniasis, anti-nuclear factor, schistosomiasis, rheumatoid factor and normal controls. agreeme ...19911844982
parasitological diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania b. braziliensis in bolivia.parasitological diagnosis, using stained smears, culture and pathological examination of biopsy, was studied in 146 patients infected with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, in bolivia and peru. the most efficient parasite detecting technique appeared to be the smear examination in cutaneous lesions (33% positive) and the pathology in case of mucous lesions (28% positive). in both, cutaneous and mucous lesions, the parasites were found most frequently in old lesions.19911845007
first case report of leishmania braziliensis panamensis in an endemic area for leishmania major in egypt. 19911845162
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